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The Khmer Rouge (Khmer: Ρ▲ ╩— “Khmer Krahom” in Khmer) was the name given to the followers Š► ╪Ĕ ˝ of the Communist Party of Kampuchea, who were the ruling party in Cambodia from 1975 to 1979, led by Pol Pot, Nuon Chea, Ieng Sary, Son Sen and Khieu Samphan. The regime led by the Khmer Rouge from 1975 to 1979 was known as the Democratic Kampuchea. This organization is remembered primarily for its policy of social engineering, which resulted in genocide. Its attempts at agricultural reform led to widespread famine, while its insistence on absolute self-sufficiency, even in the supply of medicine, led to the deaths of thousands from treatable diseases (such as malaria). Brutal and arbitrary executions and torture carried out by its cadres against perceived subversive elements, or during purges of its own ranks between 1976 and 1978, are considered to have constituted a genocide. The clandestine Communist Party of Kampuchea itself constituted the secret leadership of the Khmer Rouge, as its official name was known only to a few insiders: it called itself the Angkar (the organization) and only announced officially its existence in 1977, almost two years after the establishment of Democratic Kampuchea. After the fall of the Khmer Rouge regime, the organization's remaining guerrilla forces became known as the National Army of Democratic Kampuchea. In 1981 the party itself was dissolved, and substituted by the Party of Democratic Kampuchea.
■ 1 Historical legacy ■ 2 Name history ■ 3 Origins ■ 3.1 The Cambodian Left: the early history ■ 3.2 The Paris student group ■ 4 Path to power and reign ■ 4.1 KPRP Second Congress ■ 4.2 From enemy to ally: Sihanouk and the GRUNK ■ 5 The Khmer Rouge in power ■ 5.1 Crimes against humanity ■ 5.1.1 Number of deaths ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ 6 Fall of the Khmer Rouge 7 See also 8 Further reading 9 References 10 External links ■ 10.1 General ■ 10.2 Genocide ■ 10.3 Uncategorize
7. The Khmer Rouge subjected Cambodia to a radical social reform process that was aimed at creating a purely agrarian-based Communist society.Wikipedia.1 million people. In the early days.org/wiki/Khmer_Rouge 08-01-2011 . including future party leader Pol Pot. where they were combined with the local population and subjected to forced labor. torture. had been heavily influenced by the example of the French Communist Party (PCF). the free encyclopedia Page 2 of 17 Historical legacy After taking power. children were separated from parents and brainwashed to socialism as well as taught torture methods with animals. The Khmer Rouge leaders were also privately very resentful of the Vietnamese. Losing power following a Vietnamese military intervention in December 1978. it was the most lethal regime of the 20th century. as of 1975). Following their leader Pol Pot. aimed particularly at the educated and intellectual elite. Muslims. The students. the Khmer Rouge leadership renamed the country to Democratic Kampuchea. In terms of the number of people killed as a proportion of the population (est. and were determined to establish a form of communism very different from the Vietnamese model and also from other Communist countries. the Khmer Rouge maintained control in some regions and continued to fight on as guerillas. and starvation. Flag of Democratic Kampuchea After 1960. was: "To keep you is no benefit." The ideology of the Khmer Rouge evolved over time. It became more anti-intellectual when groups of students who had been studying in France returned to Cambodia. By the 1970s. This was evident in the persecution of ethnic Chinese. In 1998 their final stronghold. and people with connections to foreign governments. which its leaders had acquired during their education in French universities in the 1950s. etc. Suspected capitalists encompassed professionals and almost everyone with an education. One of their mottoes. They started to incorporate Khmer nationalism into their ideology. http://en. it was an orthodox communist party and looked to the Vietnamese Communists for guidance. The Khmer Rouge believed parents were tainted with capitalism. in reference to the New People. To destroy you is no loss. Contrary to Marxist doctrine. including China.wikipedia. as well as anti-intellectualism by this time. the Khmer Rouge considered the farmers in the countryside to be the proletariat and the true representatives of the working class. many urban dwellers. in Anlong Veng District. the Khmer Rouge developed its own unique political ideas. The city-dwellers were deported to the countryside. fell to the government. Children were a "dictatorial instrument of the party" and were given leadership in torture and executions. Consequently.Khmer Rouge . the Khmer Rouge imposed an extreme form of social engineering on Cambodian society — a radical form of agrarian communism where the whole population had to work in collective farms or forced labor projects. About 2 million Cambodians are estimated to have died in waves of murder. The Khmer Rouge wanted to eliminate anyone suspected of "involvement in free-market activities". Christians (most of them Catholics). the ideology of the Khmer Rouge combined its own ideas with the anti-colonialist ideas of the PCF. a form of Maoism which brought them onto the Chinese side of the Sino-Soviet Split. Thais.
the deaths during the rule of the Khmer Rouge are often considered a genocide as defined under the UN Convention of 1948. through execution. Name history The term "Khmer Rouge. the Kampuchean (or Khmer) People's Revolutionary Party (KPRP). pro-Vietnamese Communists. In 1930 Ho Chi Minh founded the Vietnamese Communist Party by unifying three smaller communist movements that had emerged in northern. ostensibly to include revolutionaries from Cambodia and Laos. Origins The Cambodian Left: the early history The history of the communist movement in Cambodia can be divided into six phases: the emergence of the Indochinese Communist Party (ICP). the first nationwide congress of the Khmer Issarak groups convened." French for "Red Khmer". Pol Pot died on 15 April 1998. central and southern Vietnam during the late 1920s. Almost without exception. The organization was also known as the Khmer Communist Party and the National Army of Democratic Kampuchea. torture. By the end of World War II. the Viet Minh encouraged the formation of armed. before World War II. http://en. was established under Vietnamese auspices. the Democratic Kampuchea regime. The Khmer Rouge is remembered mainly for the deaths of an estimated 1.000 to 2. starvation and forced labor. whose members were almost exclusively Vietnamese. having never been put on trial. their leader Pol Pot formally dissolved the organization. from April 1975 to January 1979. the 10-year struggle for independence from the French.org/wiki/Khmer_Rouge 08-01-2011 . the revolutionary struggle from the initiation of the Khmer Rouge insurgency in 1967–68 to the fall of the Lon Nol government in April 1975. The name was changed almost immediately to the Indochinese Communist Party (ICP).wikipedia.5 million people or 1/5 of the country's total population (estimates range from 850. and. It was used to refer to a succession of Communist parties in Cambodia which evolved into the Communist Party of Kampuchea (CPK) and later the Party of Democratic Kampuchea. the period following the Second Party Congress of the KPRP in 1960. and the United Issarak Front was established. left-wing Khmer Issarak bands.Khmer Rouge . was coined by Cambodian head of state Norodom Sihanouk and was later adopted by English speakers. Because of the large number of deaths. but their influence on the Indochinese communist movement and on developments within Cambodia was negligible.Wikipedia. following a peace agreement. when a separate Cambodian communist party. In 1996. when Hanoi effectively assumed control over Cambodia's government and communist party. 1950 (25 years to the day before the Khmer Rouge captured Phnom Penh). Viet Minh units occasionally made forays into Cambodian bases during their war against the French. all the earliest party members were Vietnamese. the Khmer Rouge regime was removed from power in 1979 as a result of an invasion by the Socialist Republic of Vietnam and was replaced by moderate. It survived into the 1990s as a resistance movement operating in western Cambodia from bases in Thailand.5 million) under its regime. a handful of Cambodians had joined its ranks. On April 17. and because ethnic groups and religious minorities were targeted. and the period following the Third Party Congress of the KPRP in January 1979. in conjunction with the leftist government that ruled Thailand until 1947. the free encyclopedia Page 3 of 17 After four years of rule. when Saloth Sar (Pol Pot after 1976) and other future Khmer Rouge leaders gained control of its apparatus.
In late 1954. the Viet Minh's failure to negotiate a political role for the KPRP at the 1954 Geneva Conference represented a betrayal of the Cambodian movement. and the Kampuchean (or Khmer) People's Revolutionary Party (KPRP). the Lao Itsala. Members of the Pracheachon were subject to constant harassment and to arrests because the party remained outside Sihanouk's political organization. the Vietnam Workers' Party would continue to "supervise" the smaller Laotian and Cambodian movements. was a genuine national leader whose neutralism and deep distrust of the United States made him a valuable asset in Hanoi's struggle to "liberate" South Vietnam. advocated an immediate struggle to overthrow the "feudalist" Sihanouk. and their associates. made a "Long March" into North Vietnam. According to Democratic Kampuchea's version of party history. and the "rural committee" (headed by Sieu Heng). including Son Ngoc Minh. The party's appeal to indigenous Khmers appears to have been minimal. only a few hundred communists remained active in the country by 1960. and. The other line. Following the conference. it won about four percent of the vote but did not secure a seat in the legislature. Khieu Samphan. According to the historian David P. Sangkum. In very general terms. Most KPRP leaders and rank-and-file seem to have been either Khmer Krom. Champions of this line hoped that the prince could be persuaded to distance himself from the right wing and to adopt leftist policies. the Pracheachon Party. In 1959 Sieu Heng defected to the government and provided the security forces with information that enabled them to destroy as much as 90% of the party's rural apparatus.wikipedia. about 1.Khmer Rouge . During the mid-1950s. on the eve of the Geneva Conference. occupied a sixth of Cambodia's territory by 1952. Ieng Sary. a term that later came to signify the party and the state headed by Pol Pot. http://en. According to a document issued after the reorganization.000 armed men. these groups espoused divergent revolutionary lines. recognized that Sihanouk. In 1951 the ICP was reorganized into three national units — the Vietnam Workers' Party. Government attacks prevented it from participating in the 1962 election and drove it underground. which participated in the 1955 and the 1958 National Assembly elections. The prevalent "urban" line. or ethnic Vietnamese living in Cambodia.Wikipedia. where they remained in exile. supported for the most part by rural cadres who were familiar with the harsh realities of the countryside.000 members of the KPRP. In the September 1955 election. the free encyclopedia Page 4 of 17 Its leader was Son Ngoc Minh. Although communist networks in Phnom Penh and in other towns under Tou Samouth's jurisdiction fared better. emerged.org/wiki/Khmer_Rouge 08-01-2011 . the "urban committee" (headed by Tou Samouth). aided by the Viet Minh. KPRP factions. the leftist Issarak groups. endorsed by North Vietnam. Chandler. which still controlled large areas of the countryside and which commanded at least 5. and a third of its leadership consisted of members of the ICP. Sihanouk habitually labeled local leftists the Khmer Rouge. those who stayed in Cambodia founded a legal political party. they controlled as much as one half of the country. by virtue of his success in winning independence from the French.
to which most of the 200 or so Khmer students in Paris belonged. Two of them. Father François Ponchaud. born in 1930. but. In talent he was rivaled by Hou Yuon. Hu Nim. born in 1930. These two well-educated women also played a central role in the regime of Democratic Kampuchea. Son Sen. according to the Jesuit priest. Pol Pot and Ieng Sary joined the French Communist Party. From their ranks came the men and women who returned home and took command of the party apparatus during the 1960s. a Chinese-Khmer born in 1925 in South Vietnam. studied law. Khmer students in Paris organized their own communist movement." and who studied economics and law. Pol Pot and Ieng Sary married Khieu Ponnary and Khieu Thirith (also known as Ieng Thirith)." he failed to obtain a degree.wikipedia. An older sister of Pol Pot had been a concubine at the court of King Monivong. In retrospect. Khieu Samphan. Another member of the Paris student group was Ieng Sary. In 1952 Pol Pot. the free encyclopedia Page 5 of 17 The Paris student group During the 1950s. Most came from landowner or civil servant families. connection to the hard-pressed party in their homeland. Three of the Paris group forged a bond that survived years of revolutionary struggle and intraparty strife. sent to France on government scholarships.org/wiki/Khmer_Rouge 08-01-2011 . studied education and literature. The intellectual ferment of Paris must have been a dizzying experience for young Khmers fresh from Phnom Penh or the provinces. He attended a technical high school in the capital and then went to Paris in 1949 to study radio electronics (other sources say he attended a school for printers and typesetters and also studied civil engineering). rather plodding organizer. into an organization for nationalist and leftist ideas. he acquired a taste for the classics of French literature as well as for the writings of Karl Marx. was born in 1928 (some sources say 1925) in Kampong Thum Province. it seems unlikely that these talented members of the elite. A number turned to orthodox Marxism-Leninism. Meeting with Khmers who were fighting with the Viet Minh (and whom they subsequently judged to be too subservient to the Vietnamese)." was born in 1931 and specialized in economics and politics during his time in Paris.Khmer Rouge . considered "one of the most brilliant intellects of his generation. In 1951 the two men went to East Berlin to participate in a youth festival. Pol Pot. Ieng Sary. At some time between 1949 and 1951. Hu Nim obtained his degree from the University of Phnom Penh in 1965. Inside the KSA and its successor organizations was a secret organization known as the Cercle Marxiste. purportedly relatives of Khieu Samphan. They transformed the Khmer Students' Association (KSA). if any. they became convinced that only a tightly disciplined party organization and a readiness for armed struggle could achieve revolution. the most tightly disciplined and orthodox Marxist-Leninist of Western Europe's communist movements. could launch the bloodiest and most radical revolution in modern Asian history. Khieu Samphan and Hou Yuon. who rose to the leadership of the communist movement in the 1960s. born in 1932. Hou Yuon. northeast of Phnom Penh. and established the regime of Democratic Kampuchea.Wikipedia. and other leftists http://en. The organization was composed of cells of three to six members with most members knowing nothing about the overall structure of the organization. who was described as being "of truly astounding physical and intellectual strength. Described by one source as a "determined. led an effective insurgency against Lon Nol from 1968 until 1975. Pol Pot and Hou Yuon may have been related to the royal family. He attended the elite Lycée Sisowath in Phnom Penh before beginning courses in commerce and politics at the Institut d'Etudes Politiques de Paris (more widely known as Sciences Po) in France. This experience is considered to have been a turning point in their ideological development. earned doctorates from the University of Paris. These men were perhaps the most educated leaders in the history of Asian communism. which had little.
taught as a member of the law faculty of the University of Phnom Penh. Khieu Samphan returned from Paris in 1959. Cambodia's Economy and Industrial Development. The central role of the peasants in national development was espoused by Hou Yuon in his 1955 thesis. and Hu Nim were forced to "work through the system" by joining the Sangkum and by accepting posts in the prince's government. he moved to Phnom Penh under Tou Samouth's "urban committee" where he became an important point of contact between above-ground parties of the left and the underground secret communist movement." Yet the experience did not prevent Khieu from advocating cooperation with Sihanouk in order to promote a united front against United States activities in South Vietnam. 1960. was that the country had to become self-reliant and end its economic dependency on the developed world. Pol Pot and Ieng Sary were named to the Political Bureau to occupy the third and the fifth highest positions in the renamed party's hierarchy. the Khmer Students' Union. The following year. As mentioned. Path to power and reign KPRP Second Congress After returning to Cambodia in 1953. and started a left-wing. The question of cooperation with. undressing and photographing him in public—as Shawcross notes. Khieu's work reflected the influence of a branch of the "dependency theory" school. and Sihanouk's police publicly humiliated Khieu by beating.Khmer Rouge . Hou Yuon and Khieu Samphan helped to establish a new group. which blamed lack of development in the Third World on the economic domination of the industrialized nations. By http://en. In 1956. the group was still run by the Cercle Marxiste. which challenged the conventional view that urbanization and industrialization are necessary precursors of development. became deputy general secretary. Hou Yuon. "not the sort of humiliation that men forgive or forget. After the end of the war. The name change is significant. In its general contours. The paper soon acquired a reputation in Phnom Penh's small academic circle. the Lycée Kambuboth. Tou Samouth. The doctoral dissertations written by Hou Yuon and Khieu Samphan express basic themes that were later to become the cornerstones of the policy adopted by Democratic Kampuchea. however. His ally. Inside. the French authorities closed down the KSA. His comrades.org/wiki/Khmer_Rouge 08-01-2011 . twenty-one leaders of the KPRP held a secret congress in a vacant room of the Phnom Penh railroad station. was elected general secretary of the KPRP that was renamed the Workers' Party of Kampuchea (WPK). Khieu Samphan. became teachers at a new private high school.wikipedia. L'Observateur. who advocated a policy of cooperation. or resistance to. the free encyclopedia Page 6 of 17 gained notoriety by sending an open letter to Sihanouk calling him the "strangler of infant democracy. The Cambodian Peasants and Their Prospects for Modernization. This pivotal event remains shrouded in mystery because its outcome has become an object of contention (and considerable historical rewriting) between pro-Vietnamese and anti -Vietnamese Khmer communist factions. Sihanouk was thoroughly discussed." A year later. Frenchlanguage publication. Nuon Chea (also known as Long Reth).Wikipedia. the government closed the paper. The major argument in Khieu Samphan's 1959 thesis. In late September. Pol Pot threw himself into party work. Ieng Sary and Hou Yuon. which Hou Yuon helped to establish. At first he went to join with forces allied to the Viet Minh operating in the rural areas of Kampong Cham Province (Kompong Cham). however.
Despite friendly relations between Norodom Sihanouk and the Chinese. edging out older veterans whom they considered excessively pro-Vietnamese. then led by Sihanouk. Tou Samouth was murdered by the Cambodian government. For the next two years the insurgency grew as Sihanouk did very little to stop it. Pol Pot and loyal comrades from his Paris student days controlled the party center. All the others agreed to cooperate with the government and were afterward under 24-hour watch by the police. the Cambodian movement claimed equal status with the Vietnam Workers' Party. Sihanouk. Many people in Cambodia who helped the Khmer Rouge against the Lon Nol government thought they were fighting for the restoration of Sihanouk. The change in the name of the party was a closely guarded secret. Lower ranking members of the party and even the Vietnamese were not told of it and neither was the membership until many years later. the Khmer Loeu. deposed Sihanouk. Pol Pot had shortly before been put on a list of 34 leftists who were summoned by Sihanouk to join the government and sign statements saying Sihanouk was the only possible leader for the country. Vietnamese support for the insurgency made it impossible for the Cambodian military to effectively counter it. In July 1963. with the support of the National Assembly. in exile in Beijing. at the WPK's second congress. which had enhanced his prestige when he returned to the WPK's liberated areas. On July 20. Though North Vietnam had not been informed of the decision.Wikipedia. its forces provided shelter and weapons to the Khmer Rouge after the insurgency started. GRUNK) backed by the People's Republic of China. the Khmer Rouge forces launched a national insurgency across Cambodia (see also Cambodian Civil War). From then on. The political appeal of the Khmer Rouge was increased as a result of the situation created by the removal of Sihanouk as head of state in 1970. the latter kept Pol Pot's visit a secret from Sihanouk. several small-scale attempts at insurgency were made by the CPK but they had little success. Pol Pot and Chou Chet were the only people on the list who escaped. Tou's allies. the party changed its name to the Communist Party of Kampuchea (CPK). made an alliance with the Khmer Rouge and became the nominal head of a Khmer Rouge-dominated government-in-exile (known by its French acronym. From enemy to ally: Sihanouk and the GRUNK The region Pol Pot and the others moved to was inhabited by tribal minorities. Nuon Chea and Keo Meas. In 1965. Premier Lon Nol. Sihanouk's popular support in rural Cambodia allowed the Khmer Rouge to extend its power and influence to the point that by 1973 it exercised de facto control over the majority of Cambodian territory. The party leadership endorsed armed struggle against the government. In February 1963. He received some training in China. As the insurgency grew stronger. In September 1966. the free encyclopedia Page 7 of 17 calling itself a workers' party. the party finally openly declared itself to be the Communist Party of Kampuchea (CPK). were removed from the Central Committee and replaced by Son Sen and Vorn Vet. whose rough treatment (including resettlement and forced assimilation) at the hands of the central government made them willing recruits for a guerrilla struggle. The pro-Vietnamese regime of the People's Republic of Kampuchea (PRK) implied in the 1980s that the September 1960 meeting was nothing more than the second congress of the KPRP.org/wiki/Khmer_Rouge 08-01-2011 .wikipedia. Pol Pot was chosen to succeed Tou Samouth as the party's general secretary. Pol Pot and most of the central committee left Phnom Penh to establish an insurgent base in Ratanakiri Province in the northeast. 1962. http://en. although only a minority of its population.Khmer Rouge . In 1968. Pol Pot made a visit of several months to North Vietnam and China. In 1967.
confiscating all private property and relocating people from urban areas to collective farms where forced labor was widespread. "Brother number 13". in terms of recruitment and popular support. "Brother number 2". On April 17. work exhaustion." Conversely. Deputy Prime Minister. some historians have cited the U. 2006). Kiernan argued that foreign intervention "was probably the most significant factor in Pol Pot's rise. the free encyclopedia Page 8 of 17 The relation between the massive carpet bombing of Cambodia by the United States and the growth of the Khmer Rouge. and peasant testimony. effectively the leader of the movement ■ Nuon Chea (Long Bunruot). "Brother number 5". The leaders were mostly from middle-class families and had been educated at French universities. intervention and bombing campaign (spanning 1965– 1973) as a significant factor leading to increased support of the Khmer Rouge among the Cambodian peasantry. died in custody awaiting trial for genocide ■ Khieu Samphan. In his 1996 study of Pol Pot's rise to power. arrested in 2007 In power. arrested in 2007 ■ Ta Mok (Chhit Chhoeun) (died July 21. hospitals and factories. intervention and that while the bombing did help Khmer Rouge recruitment. 1975 the Khmer Rouge captured Phnom Penh. arrested in 2007 ■ Son Sen (died 1997). they "would have won anyway. "Brother number 1". finance and currency. with the Lon Nol government running out of ammunition.S. it was clear that it was only a matter of time before the government would collapse. Defense Minister. These actions resulted in massive deaths through executions.S.org/wiki/Khmer_Rouge 08-01-2011 . The purpose of this policy was to turn Cambodians into "Old People" through agricultural labor. "Brother number 3". Superior of Kang Kek Iew ■ Yun Yat (died 1997) ■ Ke Pauk (died 2002).Khmer Rouge . Prime Minister. http://en.wikipedia. Southwest Regional Secretary. bombing and recruitment of peasants by the Khmer Rouge." By 1975.Wikipedia. General Secretary from 1963 until his death. arrested in 2007) ■ Ieng Sary (Pol Pot's brother-in-law). final Khmer Rouge leader. outlawing all religions. abolishing banking. The Khmer Rouge in power Main articles: Democratic Kampuchea and Khmer Rouge rule of Cambodia The leadership of the Khmer Rouge remained largely unchanged from the 1960s to the mid-1990s. to argue that there was a correlation between villages targeted by U. President of Democatric Kampuchea. In 1984 Craig Etcheson of the Documentation Center of Cambodia argued that it is "untenable" to assert that the Khmer Rouge would not have won but for U. former secretary of the Northern zone ■ Ieng Thirith. Historian Ben Kiernan and Taylor Owen have used a combination of sophisticated satellite mapping.S. the Khmer Rouge carried out a radical program that included isolating the country from foreign influence. closing schools. has been a matter of interest to historians. "Brother number 4". and starvation. illness. The Standing Committee of the Khmer Rouge's Central Committee during its period of power consisted of: ■ Pol Pot (Saloth Sar) (died 1998). recently unclassified data about the extent of bombing activities.
the average was only one ton per hectare. Language was also transformed in other ways. ί˝.org/wiki/Khmer_Rouge 08-01-2011 . The Khmer language has a complex system of usages to define speakers' rank and social status. known as samphea. These were not the first evacuations of civilian populations by the Khmer Rouge. Canada. as Pol Pot envisioned it. rural terms like Mae (� mother) replaced urban terms like Mak (╬ θ mother). Rural dwellers were often unsympathetic or too frightened to assist them. In any case. without adequate rest or food. many died as a result. teachers." Some witnesses say they were told that the evacuation was because of the "threat of American bombing" and that they did not have to lock their houses since the Khmer Rouge would "take care of everything" until they returned. People were told �� . Family relationships not sanctioned by the state were also banned. mitt). The Khmer Rouge invented new terms. a reality. the Khmer Rouge overworked and starved the population. these usages were abolished. they were transported to refugee camps such as Sa Kaeo or Khao-I-Dang. or "memory sickness") could result in execution. The total lack of agricultural knowledge by the former city dwellers made famine inevitable. During their four years in power. From there. that they were the "instruments" (�� � pokar) of ₣ð . Cambodians were expected to produce three tons of rice per hectare. http://en.Khmer Rouge . and that nostalgia for pre-revolutionary � . the Khmer Rouge told residents that they would be moved only about "two or three kilometers" outside the city and would return in "two or three days. and industrial and service companies. and almost the entire intellectual elite of the country were murdered. Such acts as picking wild fruit or berries was seen as "private enterprise" and punished by death. to make the agricultural communism. France. They did not believe in western medicine but instead favoured traditional peasant medicine. Similar evacuations of populations without possessions had been occurring on a smaller scale since the early 1970s. at the same time executing selected groups who had the potential to undermine the new state (including intellectuals or even those that had stereotypical signs of learning. the free encyclopedia Page 9 of 17 In Phnom Penh and other cities.Wikipedia. The entire population was forced to become farmers in labor camps. Also. and to avoid traditional signs of deference such as bowing or folding the Ỳ ↑→ hands in salutation. The Khmer Rouge attempted to turn Cambodia into a classless society by depopulating cities and forcing the urban population ("New People") into agricultural communes. merchants. o � to "forge" (lot dam) a new revolutionary character. During the rule of the Khmer Rouge. The Khmer Rouge forced people to work for 12 hours non-stop. before the Khmer Rouge era. as well as banks. Phnom Chat or Ta Prik the Khmer Rouge cadre controlled food distribution and restricted the activities of international aid agencies. People were encouraged to call each other "friend" or "comrade" (╩. such as glasses) and killing many others for even breaching minor rules. " the ruling body known as "Angkar" (ĤŁ▲ The Organization"). In some refugee camps such as Site 8. Money was abolished. books were burned. The planned relocation to the countryside resulted in the complete halt of almost all economic activity: even schools and hospitals were closed. Many Cambodians crossed the border into Thailand to seek asylum. � times (chheu satek arom. and Australia.wikipedia. the only camp allowing resettlement in countries such as the United States. and family members could be put to death for communicating with each other. family members were often relocated to different parts of the country with all postal and telephone services abolished.
The resultant purges reached a crest in 1977 and 1978 when thousands. There were even armed attempts to topple Pol Pot. Pol Skulls of Khmer Rouge victims. as is the cause of death among those who died. Through the 1970s. Pot himself was a university-educated man (albeit a dropout) with a taste for French literature and was also a fluent French speaker. The museum occupies the former grounds of a high school turned prison camp that was operated by Kang Kek Iew. Today. Of the thousands who entered the Tuol Sleng Centre (also known as S-21). the Vietnamese-installed regime that succeeded the Khmer Rouge conducted a national household survey.000 people passed through this centre before they were taken to sites (also known as The Killing Fields). ethnic Thai and other minorities in Eastern Highland. Kiry Seila Hills.8 million had died. but most modern historians do not consider that number to be reliable. including some important KCP leaders. Access to the country during Khmer Rouge rule and during Vietnamese rule was very limited. outside Phnom Penh such as Choeung Ek where most were executed (mainly by pickaxes to save bullets) and buried in mass graves. Comrade Duch. meant that they were literate). and the Catholic Church in general).Khmer Rouge . Ironically and hypocritically. Many artists. In the early 1980s. converted to evangelical Christianity in the years after the regime fell. Pan Ron and Sinn Sisamouth gained posthumous fame for their talents and are still popular with Khmers today. only twelve are known to have survived.org/wiki/Khmer_Rouge 08-01-2011 . tortured and eventually executed anyone suspected of belonging to several categories of supposed "enemies": ■ Anyone with connections to the former government or with foreign governments. Interestingly. ■ Ethnic Vietnamese. the party was also shaken by factional struggles. Some like Ros Sereysothea.wikipedia. were executed. one former Khmer Rouge Commander.Wikipedia. examples of the torture methods used by the Khmer Rouge can be seen at the Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum. which concluded that over 4. Rung Tik (Water Cave) or Rung Khmao (Dead Cave). Some 17. including musicians. Muslims and the Buddhist monks. the free encyclopedia Page 10 of 17 Crimes against humanity The Khmer Rouge government arrested. ethnic Chinese. ■ "Economic saboteurs": many of the former urban dwellers (who had not starved to death in the first place) were deemed to be guilty by virtue of their lack of agricultural ability. according to the regime. http://en. writers and filmmakers were executed. or even people wearing glasses (which. and especially after mid-1975. ■ Professionals and intellectuals — in practice this included almost everyone with an education. Number of deaths The exact number of people who died as a result of the Khmer Rouge's policies is debated. Remains of victims of the Khmer Rouge in the Kampong Trach Cave. more commonly known as "Comrade Duch". Cambodian Christians (most of whom were Catholic.
with perhaps half of those deaths being due to executions.N. capturing Phnom Penh on January 7.Wikipedia. most commonly between 1.000.S. the Khmer Rouge retained its UN seat. containing an estimated 1.2 million. ordered a pre-emptive invasion of Vietnam. but only a minority part. an analyst of historical political killings.wikipedia. These Khmer Rouge bases were not self-sufficient and were funded by diamond and timber smuggling. the mountain areas near Pailin in the Cardamom Mountains and Anlong Veng in the Dângrêk Mountains. Khieu Samphan. Various studies have estimated the death toll at between 740. Sweden on the contrary changed its vote in the U. I share your utter horror that these terrible things went on in Kampuchea. Despite a traditional Cambodian fear of Vietnamese domination. fearing a Vietnamese attack. Amnesty International estimates the total death toll as 1. you'll find that the more reasonable ones of the Khmer Rouge will have to play some part in the future government.7 million. 1979. defecting Khmer Rouge activists assisted the Vietnamese.4 million. and it continued to control certain areas near the Thai border for the next decade. R.4 million and 2. Rummel.000. became the core of the new People's Republic of Kampuchea. the Vietnamese armed forces then invaded Cambodia. These included Phnom Malai.org/wiki/Khmer_Rouge 08-01-2011 .000 and 3. Despite its deposal.  Former Khmer Rouge leader Pol Pot gave a figure of 800.S. said 1 million had been killed. an old compatriot of Pol Pot and Ieng Sary from their student days in Paris. the U.39 million bodies. and his deputy. These Cambodian forces were repelled by the Vietnamese. and the rest from starvation and disease. and one of the 21 attendees at the 1960 KPRP Second Congress. relations between Cambodia and Vietnam collapsed. and voted in favour of retaining the Cambodia's seat in the organization. Margaret Thatcher stated that "So. China. and. Western governments repeatedly backed the Khmer Rouge in the U. State Department-funded Yale Cambodian Genocide Project gives estimates of the total death toll between 1. gives a figure of 2 million. the Khmer Rouge retreated west. The U. military assistance from China channeled by means of the Thai military. At the same time.000. the free encyclopedia Page 11 of 17 Modern research has located thousands of mass graves from the Khmer Rouge era all over Cambodia.".2 million and 1. Fall of the Khmer Rouge Main article: Cambodian–Vietnamese War By December 1978. and food from markets across the border in Thailand. and the ASEAN countries sponsored the creation and the http://en.N. and withdrew support for the Khmer Rouge after a large number of Swedish citizens wrote letters to their elected representatives demanding a policy change towards Pol Pot's regime. quickly dismissed by the Khmer Rouge and China as a "puppet government". Along with the Kampuchean United Front for National Salvation. an organization that included many dissatisfied former Khmer Rouge members. and then "Coalition Government of Democratic Kampuchea" (see below) until 1993. Pol Pot. because of several years of border conflict and the flood of refugees fleeing Cambodia. The seat was retained under the name "Democratic Kampuchea" until 1982. had significant ramifications for the region. which was occupied by Thiounn Prasith. supported by the Soviet Union.Khmer Rouge . His Cambodian forces crossed the border and looted nearby villages. the People's Republic of China launched a punitive invasion of northern Vietnam and retreated (with both sides claiming victory). with Vietnam's approval. J. Vietnam's victory.
Journalists such as Nate Thayer who spent some time with the Khmer Rouge during that period commented that.000) left.  This resulted in bloody factional fighting among the Khmer Rouge leaders. the Khmer Rouge resumed fighting. ultimately leading to Pol Pot's trial and imprisonment by the Khmer Rouge. boycotted the election and. Eastern and central Cambodia were firmly under the control of Vietnam and its Cambodian allies by 1980. China and the US insisted that such a condition was unacceptable. It now fought the new Cambodian coalition government which included the former Vietnamese-backed Communists (headed by Hun Sen) as well as the Khmer Rouge's former non-Communist and monarchist allies (notably Prince Rannaridh). in 1985 Vietnam declared that it would complete the withdrawal of its forces from Cambodia by 1990 and did so in 1989. republican KPNLF and royalist ANS. he continued to be the driving force of Khmer Rouge insurgency. having allowed the government that it had instated there to consolidate and gain sufficient military strength.Khmer Rouge . however. On December 29. After a decade of inconclusive conflict. Britain and the United States and intelligence from the Thai military. In 1992.Wikipedia. because. By 1999. a conflict between the two main participants in the ruling coalition caused Prince Rannaridh to seek support from some of the Khmer Rouge leaders. and received extensive military aid from China. while refusing to have any dealings with Pol Pot. giving speeches to his followers. was the strongest of the three rebel groups in the Coalition Government of Democratic Kampuchea. the remaining leaders of the Khmer Rouge apologized for the 1970s genocide. 1998. Ta Mok and the remaining leaders surrendered. the Khmer Rouge formed the Patriotic and Democratic Front of the Great National Union of Kampuchea in 1979. while the western part of the country continued to be a battlefield throughout the 1980s. Although Pol Pot relinquished the Khmer Rouge leadership to Khieu Samphan in 1985. and the Khmer Rouge effectively ceased to exist.wikipedia. However. There was a mass defection in 1996. In an attempt to broaden its support base. Nevertheless. In 1997. the pro-Vietnamese Cambodian government and the rebel coalition signed a treaty in 1991 calling for elections and disarmament. Pol Pot died in April 1998. some analysts argue that this change meant little in practice. Khieu Samphan surrendered in December. The Khmer Rouge. While Vietnam proposed to withdraw in return for a political settlement excluding the Khmer Rouge from power. besides the Khmer Rouge. as historian Kelvin Rowley puts it.org/wiki/Khmer_Rouge 08-01-2011 . when around half the remaining soldiers (about 4. despite the international community's near-universal condemnation of the Khmer Rouge's brutal rule. rejected its results. most members had surrendered or been captured. a considerable number of Cambodians in Khmer Rouge-controlled areas seemed genuinely to support Pol Pot. the Khmer Rouge went as far as to officially renounce Communism and somewhat moved their ideological emphasis to nationalism and anti-Vietnamese rhetoric instead. In December 1999. Most of the surviving Khmer Rouge leaders live in the Pailin area or are hidden in Phnom Penh. still led by Pol Pot. the free encyclopedia Page 12 of 17 military operations of a Cambodian government-in-exile known as the Coalition Government of Democratic Kampuchea which included. and millions of landmines were sown across the countryside. the rebel coalition government as well as ASEAN. In 1981. http://en. in the following year. "CPK propaganda had always relied on nationalist rather than revolutionary appeals".
had normal and friendly relations with previous Cambodian governments. but if you can kill 14. Kar Savuth. women and children were sent to their deaths.Khmer Rouge . Kaing Guek Eav. head of a torture center from which 16.. the free encyclopedia Page 13 of 17 Since 1990 Cambodia has gradually recovered. In part. Many condemned the sentence as too lenient. Cambodia's Education Ministry started to teach Khmer Rouge history in high schools beginning in 2009. "For a long time China has . including that of Democratic Kampuchea". His Cambodian lawyer.000 men. even after his French lawyer denied seeking such a verdict. Members of this younger generation may know of the Khmer Rouge only through word of mouth from parents and elders. However.Wikipedia. It is noteworthy that Cambodia has a very young population and by 2003 three-quarters of Cambodians were too young to remember the Khmer Rouge era.' 'It has taken a lot of faith out of the system and raised concerns of political interference. this is because the government does not require that educators teach children about Khmer Rouge atrocities in the schools. China has defended its ties with the Khmer Rouge. Theary Seng responded indignantly: 'We hoped this tribunal would strike hard at impunity.' See also ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Alive In The Killing Fields (book) Cambodian Civil War The Killing Fields Cambodia Tribunal Choeung Ek Cold War Command responsibility Crimes against humanity Dap Prampi Mesa Chokchey Democratic Kampuchea Dith Pran Genocides in history Operation Menu Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum Cham people http://en.wikipedia. he was convicted and sentenced to thirty years. After claiming to feel great remorse for his part in Khmer Rouge atrocities.000 people and serve only 19 years – 11 hours per life taken – what is that? It's a joke.org/wiki/Khmer_Rouge 08-01-2011 .. although the psychological scars affect many Cambodian families and émigré communities. Chinese Foreign Ministry spokeswoman Jiang Yu said. demographically and economically. with the charges accusing the Khmer Rouge regime of genocide and crimes against humanity. surprised the court in his genocide trial on 27 November 2009 with a plea for his freedom. Right now.' 'My gut feeling is this has made the situation far worse for Cambodia. stunned the tribunal further by issuing the trial's first call for an acquittal of his client. the Khmer Rouge Case trials are taking place.  On the 26 July. from the Khmer Rouge regime.
Uwe (7 December 2006). 272.co. ISBN 0813335108 ■ David P.uk/books? id=4oEix673qakC&pg=PA268&dq=The+Khmer+Rouge&hl=en&ei=qwVDTJ3dIpCC4Qa23ZW7DQ&sa=X&oi=book_re 20Khmer%20Rouge&f=false. ■ David P. ■ Ben Kiernan: How Pol Pot Came to Power: Colonialism. ISBN 978-0802082251. 1971–1994 (Silkworm Books 1996).uk/books? id=NMm024458s4C&pg=PA137&dq=Khmer+Rouge+social+engineering&hl=en&ei=VzRCTIyXKJWI4Qb5ubCXBw&s 20Rouge%20social%20engineering&f=false. and Communism in Cambodia. 1930–1975 (Yale University Press. Many Petals of the Lotus: Five Asian Buddhist Communities in Toronto (1st ed. "5" (http://books.org/wiki/Khmer_Rouge 08-01-2011 . Large-scale Victimisation as a Potential Source of Terrorist Activities (http://books. Nationalism. 2. Abrams. Second Edition 2004).google. University of Toronto Press. Brother Enemy: The War After the War (Collier. Jason S. 3. ■ Elizabeth Becker: When the War Was over: Cambodia and the Khmer Rouge Revolution ■ Francois Bizot: The Gate ■ Nayan Chanda.google. Chandler. ISBN 0-300-09649-6. ISBN 0-300-10262-3. ISBN 0-06093138-8 ■ Michael Vickery: Cambodia 1975–1982 References 1. Chandler: Facing the Cambodian past: Selected essays.: Revolution and Its Aftermath in Kampuchea: Eight Essays (Yale University Press 1983). ■ Loung Ung: First They Killed My Father: A Daughter of Cambodia Remembers. ed. Nayan Chanda.).uk/books? id=4oEix673qakC&pg=PA268&dq=The+Khmer+Rouge&hl=en&ei=qwVDTJ3dIpCC4Qa23ZW7DQ&sa=X&oi=book_re 20Khmer%20Rouge&f=false) (2nd ed. David P.. ■ David P. the free encyclopedia Page 14 of 17 Further reading Among the very few western scholars who know the Khmer language and have published works about Cambodia are Ben Kiernan. Turkovic.co. and the Destruction of Cambodia ■ Jon Swain: River of Time. Ben Kiernan etc. p.). ^ Ratner. http://books. Janet (1 April 1999). New York. OUP Oxford. ISBN 0-8133-3511-6. Chandler and Michael Vickery.uk/books? id=NMm024458s4C&pg=PA137&dq=Khmer+Rouge+social+engineering&hl=en&ei=VzRCTIyXKJWI4Qb5ubCXBw&s 20Rouge%20social%20engineering&f=false) . http://books.Khmer Rouge . ^ Ewald.co. Steven R. 1975–79. ISBN 978-0198298717. the Indochina correspondent of the Far Eastern Economic Review. K. including many interviews with principals). Accountability for Human Rights Atrocities in International Law: Beyond the Nuremberg Legacy (http://books. Chandler: A History of Cambodia (Westview Press 2000). ISBN 9780963220516 ■ Chanrithy Him: When Broken Glass Floats ■ Ben Kiernan: The Pol Pot Regime: Race.google. ISBN 974-7047-74-8. is also very familiar with this period (through personal reporting.Wikipedia. ISBN 0-938692-05-4. ISBN 0-425-16805-0.co. Chandler: Brother Number One: A Political Biography (Westview Press 1999).google. ^ a b McLellan.uk/books? http://en.google. and Genocide in Cambodia under the Khmer Rouge. ■ JoAn D. p. Criddle: To Destroy You Is No Loss: The Odyssey of a Cambodian Family.wikipedia. (5 April 2001). ■ Haing Ngor: A Cambodian Odyssey ■ Dith Pran (compiled by): Children of Cambodia's Killing Fields: Memoirs by Survivors ■ William Shawcross: Sideshow: Kissinger. 1986) (very comprehensively footnoted) ■ David P. 137. Nixon. Power.co.
hawaii. 1975–1978: Rendezvous with Death. 29. "Cambodian Khmer Rouge Killers Sentenced" (http://www. 19. 28 June 2007. 20. Retrieved 2006-07-05. ^ Picq L.com/breaking_news/breakingnews.yale.htm. Washington Post.CHAP4.stm) . "Textbook sheds light on Khmer Rouge era" (http://news. 12.Khmer Rouge . ISBN 978-1586036942. 2004.pdf. Jonathan Cape Ltd ^ a b CONTINUING UNREST. http://esa.html.com/article/idUSTRE51G33W20090217 http://en.edu/cgp/.pdf) (PDF).un. ^ Sharp.00. 1st ed.html? hpid=topnews) . RJ. ^ Vickery. 22. Paris 1997.bbc. http://www.CHAP4. 8 May 2007. http://books. 1984.net/cambodia/deaths. ^ a b c "Kelvin Rowley.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/8350313.google.php/200805151854/Post-Life/Schools-face-up-to-KR-history. http://www.uk/Page12166) .uk/Page12166.edu.html ^ De Launey.bangkokpost. New York: St. Genocide.number10. 180–181 ^ Etcheson. 8.HTM.php?id=121821) .hawaii. Retrieved 2010-07-27. Hawaii. The Rise and Demise of Democratic Kampuchea. ISBN 0868409049 ^ "Margaret Thatcher – Transcript for the interview with Blue Peter in 1988" (http://www.html) . 2007-07-18. Yale University Press. Westview Press. ISBN 2-86537-722-9 ^ How the mighty are falling (http://www. a Comprehensive Introcution.gov.hawaii. 16 ^ "Bangkok Post.phnompenhpost. "Former Khmer Rouge leader arrested".yale. 5.edu/workpaper/pdfs/GS24.time. the free encyclopedia Page 15 of 17 4.edu/cgp/Walrus_CambodiaBombing_OCT06. 1989.bangkokpost. Karthala. CNN. Le Cambodge. Esa. http://www.com/time/world/article/0.HTM.edu/cgp/) .html) . "Counting Hell: The Death Toll of the Khmer Rouge Regime in Cambodia" (http://www.1849959.pbs.bbc. 2006 ^ Chandler. 208.un.edu.Wikipedia. 18 June 1997 TRANSCRIPT ^ Kinetz. IOS Press. 30. ^ "Key events regarding Pol Pot and Khmer Rouge" (http://www.co.edu/workpaper/pdfs/GS24. Retrieved 2010-07-27.yale. p.macmillan. http://www.edu/powerkills/SOD. 10. ^ "Cambodian Genocide Program | Yale University" (http://www. http://opus.HTM) .washingtonpost.com. Kevin (14 October 2008). http://www. 21. 7. p.1996. Retrieved 25 January 2010. 6. Cambodia : 1975–1982. ^ http://www. BBC News.HTM) .mekong. Martin's Press. ^ http://www. 16. Beyond the horizon: five years with the Khmer Rouge.pot. ^ a b c d e Pilger.co.pdf ^ Kiernan.edu.org. Guy (2009-11-10). September 2007" (http://www. Calculations.uk/2/hi/asiapacific/8350313.edu/powerkills/SOD.The Economist ^ Doyle. In Tell me no lies". 11. http://www.gov.uk/books?id=iG_DEIY8QroC&pg=PA208&dq=Khmer+Rouge++agrarianbased&hl=en&ei=LTZCTLCjMcv44Ab_1JzDDg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CDIQ6AEwAA# 20Rouge%20%20agrarian-based&f=false.8599. ^ "Statistics Of Cambodian Democide" (http://www.macmillan. Ben.number10.org/wiki/Khmer_Rouge 08-01-2011 .00. ^ Tom Fawthrop & Helen Jarvis. 28.cfm? story_id=9441341) .mekong.edu/powerkills/SOD. p.org/unpp/) .net/cambodia/deaths. http://www. Craig. 18.un. Boston: South End Press. 24.com/world/international/displaystory. "Statistics of Cambodian Democide: Estimates. John. Retrieved 22 February 2009.com ^ "United Nations Population Division" (http://esa. 27.edu/powerkills/SOD. 17.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/05/07/AR2007050701870.8599.wikipedia.reuters. Second Death: The Khmer Rouge After 1978''" (http://opus.In Cambodia.1849959.org/unpp/.economist. Getting away with genocide?. ^ Adam Jones. ''Second Life. Erika.cnn.time. ^ Soizick Crochet. London.). 14. Princeton University Press. Karl D. id=iG_DEIY8QroC&pg=PA208&dq=Khmer+Rouge++agrarianbased&hl=en&ei=LTZCTLCjMcv44Ab_1JzDDg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CDIQ6AEwAA# 20Rouge%20%20agrarian-based&f=false) (Illustrated ed. 26. TIME.CHAP4. And Sources. The Pol Pot Regime. a Clash Over History of the Khmer Rouge" (http://www. ^ "Rummel."" (http://www.timeline/index.com/time/world/article/0.org/newshour/bb/asia/june97/cambodia_6-18. Michael (1984). Bruce (2005-04-01). ISBN 069102541X. Retrieved 2010-07-27. 9. Retrieved 2010-07-27.stm. Retrieved 2010-07-27.hawaii. 23.com/WORLD/asiapcf/9804/16/pol. 25.com/index.php?id=121821.co.html) PBS.CHAP4.yale. 97 ^ http://www. http://news. Hawaii. 15. Bangkokpost.htm) . (1992). Cambodia. 2009-03-11. (http://www. Retrieved 2010-07-27. ^ Jackson. 13. Retrieved 2010-05-07. ISBN 0896081893.yale.com/breaking_news/breakingnews. Yale.
docsonline.uk/news/worldnews/article-1297651/Khmer-Rouge-chief-jailer-gets19-years-Cambodia-murders.com/dachs/) ■ PBS Frontline/World: Pol Pot's Shadow (http://www. the free encyclopedia Page 16 of 17 31.org/sideshow/) – A history of the rise and fall of the Khmer Rouge.kh/krt/english/introduction_eng/index.Wikipedia.pbs. Retrieved 2010-07-27.cityjournal.genocidewatch.yale.ohchr. London: Dailymail. "Daily Mail Report on Comrade Duch's sentencing" (http://www.html) ■ Survivor of the killing fields describes her experience (http://www.pdf format] ■ Digital Archive of Cambodian Holocaust Survivors (http://www.com/~andy.HTM) ■ Cambodia Tales: Khmer Rouge torture and killing paintings (http://www. ^ Richard Shears (2010-07-27). from the Deacon of death ■ Calculations for Cambodian genocide figures (http://www.eccc.cambodia.gov.htm) http://en.cambodiangenocide.gov. City Journal online.org/) ■ Selected Documents of the Khmer Rouge (http://www.dailymail.btinternet.wikipedia.org/hopes_fears_genocide_bp.htm) – a Maoist critique of the Khmer Rouge from A World to Win magazine Genocide ■ From Sideshow to Genocide (http://www.Khmer Rouge .cybercambodia.krtrial. 33.php?doc=185) .org/wiki/Khmer_Rouge 08-01-2011 .co.org/back_issues/1999-25/PolPot_eng25.edu/cgp/) ■ "The Demography of Genocide: Cambodia and East Timor" (http://www.dailymail.kh/) ■ The Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights in Cambodia (http://cambodia. via The Raleigh News & Observer.org/details/SelectedDocumentsOfTheKhmerRouge) ■ Cambodia Tribunal Monitor (http://www. 2009).edu/powerkills/SOD.org/frontlineworld/stories/cambodia/index.htm#Will%20the%20trials%20use% 20Cambodian%20law%20or%20international%20law.yale.edwebproject.kh/krt/english/introduction_eng/index.org/2010/eon0926gs. 32.uk.htm#Will%20the%20trials%20use% 20Cambodian%20law%20or%20international%20law) .html) ■ Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (ECCC) (http://www. Associated Press.brouwer/vannnath. External links General ■ Khmer Rouge Trial Web Portal (http://www.org/news/CAMBODIA. "Surprise plea in Khmer Rouge trial". 35:4.org/) ■ Condescending Saviours: What Went Wrong with the Pol Pot Regime (http://www.html) .cambodiatribunal.aworldtowin.co.gov. including survivor stories.html.gov.cambodia. ^ "An Introduction to The Khmer Rouge Trial" (http://www. http://www.htm) ■ Khmer Rouge Tribunal Updates (http://www.CHAP4. 9-26-2010 (http://www.tv/Archives/description.edu/gsp/publications/KiernanRevised1.htm) from Genocide Watch ■ Genocide of Cham Muslims (http://www.cambodia.pdf) (Critical Asian Studies.uk/news/worldnews/article-1297651/Khmer-Rouge-chief-jailer-gets-19-yearsCambodia-murders. ^ Sopheng Cheang and Luke Hunt (November 28. 2003) [in .org/) ■ The Khmer Rouge Trial Task Force (http://www.kh/krt/english/) ■ Communism's Nuremberg.co.archive.hawaii. http://www. ■ Yale University: Cambodian Genocide Program (http://www.
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