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by

M.W.e. OOSURVELD and P. VAN OOSSANEN

""bhutlon No. 479 or dle N.S.M.B.

Reprinted rrom

**INTERNATtONAL SHIPBUILDING PROGRESS
**

SHI'BUllOINCi AND

I1A~IN[

ENCiINfU INCi 1'10NTHl Y

ROTTERDAM - HOLLAND

Vol. 22 • No. 151 • My ms

and the blade number Z. forP< 0 t. Table 1 gives the overall geometric properties of the original Wageningen B-series. t/c) 2. Geometry of B-series screws A systematic screw series is formed by a number of screw models of which only the pitch ratio P/D is varied. R n . wake and thrust deduction data and the propeller characteristics are of importance. These screw series now comprises models with blade numbers ranging from 2 to 7.4.FURTHER COMPUTER-ANALYZED DATA OF THE WAGENINGEN B-SCREW SERIES M. Finally. AE/AO.e. All other characteristic screw dimensions such as the diameter D. Z. the number of blades Z. These characteristics are obtained from open-water test results with the Wageningen B-screw series [1]**). Here.) max-tt. **) Numbers to brae keu refer to the list of reference* at the end of this paper. the blade-area ratio A E / A Q .W. A E / A 0 . Preliminary results of these investigations were given by Van Lammeren et al [3] and by Oosterveld and Van Oossanen [4]. the shape of blade sections. Introduction In preliminary ship design studies in which the ship size. For this Reynolds number effect additional polynomials are given. B-series propellers are frequently used in practice and possess satisfactory efficiency and adequate cavitation properties. At present about 120 screw models of the B-series have been tested. speed. analogous to the formulas given by Van Gent and Van Oossanen [5] and Van Oossanen 16]. The required coordinates of the profiles can be calculated by means of formulas.5 to 1. OOSTÉRVELO ind P. In this paper the characteristics of screw propellers are given in a form suitable for use in preliminary design problems. All test data was corrected for Reynolds effects by means of an'equivalent profile' method developed by Lerbs. . the Netherlands. These polynomials were obtained with the aid of a multiple regression analysis of the original open-water test data of the 120propeller models comprising the B-series. of Reynolds number and of the thickness of the blade profile at a characteristic radius is taken into account in the polynomials. The fairing of the B-screw series test results has now been completed. the blade outline. the blade thicknesses and the hub-diameter ratio d/D are the same. Z. As such the following relations have been determined: ^ .e.C.P/D. a number of new type of diagrams. the hydrodynamic aspects.05 and pitch ratios ranging from 0.are given with which the optimum diameter and optimum RPM can easily be determined. Some years ago the fairing of the B-screw series test results was started by means of a regression analysis. The thrust and torque coefficients K T and KQ of the screws are expressed as polynomials in the advance ratio J. the application of computers is rapidly increasing. the test results were corrected for Reynolds number effects by using a method developed by Lerbs [2]. Wigeningen.l (2) . the effect ") Netherlands Ship Model Basin.30 to 1. the pitch ratio P/D. In addition. principal dimensions and proportions are to be determined. R n .e. t/c) (1) = f 2 (J. In addition. Criteria are included to facilitate the choice of expanded blade area and blade thickness.) and + . VAN OQSSANEN') Summary In this paper the open-water characteristics of the Wageningen B-series propellers are given in polynomials for use in preliminary ship design studies by means of a computer. viz: h. the blade-area ratio A E / A Q . blade area ratios ranging from 0. including resistance data. 1.

0005 0. six.351 0.0030 Bf 0.389 0..0154 0.0340 0.442 0.0035 0.9 1.0278 0.000 a r /c r 0. it is remarked that at the Netherlands Ship Model Basin modified B-series propellers are now used and designed.168 2.0092 0. which have a slightly wider blade contour near the blade tip.0402 0. y s r /D=A r -B f Z Cr r/R 0.7 0.633 1.599 0.0154 0.0 z D A E /A O 1.000 br/cr 0.0025 0. Dimensions of four-.0278 Br 0.526 0.5 0.355 0.0020 Figure 1.8 0.0464 0.970 1.3 0.561 0.7 0.4 0.0402 0.617 0.0000 for P > 0 (3) From Figure 1 it follows thai: face' yback = v e r t i c a l ordinale of a point on a blade section on the face and on the back with respect to the pitch line.0216 0.0526 0.832 2.8 0.0025 0.6 0.000 2. 0. s r /D=A r -B r Z c p±-1 IE TE HT OI POSITION OF GENERATOR LI» r-0 : LEADING EDGE S TRAILING EDGE : LOCATION OF h U X H U M T M C K H E U : LOCATION OF PHECTRIX r/R 0.611 0. In conjunction with the geometry of this propeller series. Dimensions of three-bladed B-screw series.350 0. The values of tj e and t t e are usually chosen in accordance with rules laid down by classification societies or in accordance with manufacturing requirements.616 0. Table 4 is included which gives the particulars of this series.Table 1 Dimensions of Wageningen B-propeller series.0092 0.524 0. 1. The performance characteristics of these BB-series propellers may be considered identical with the original B-series propellers.000 br/cr 0.144 1.0216 0.613 0. Values of V^ and V2 are given in Tables 2 and 3.0030 0. t = maximum thickness of blade section.0030 0. five-.443 0.and seven bladed B-screw series.0005 0.and BB-series propellers.0040 0.500 0.000 Ar 0. V.662 1.0030 0.481 0.0 r Z ar/cr 1. t.586 0.0526 0.582 0.0010 0.187 2.882 2.3 0.355 0.186 2.583 0.152 2. = extrapolated blade section thickness at the trailing and leading edges.350 0.6 0.2 0.9 1.4 0.0015 0.120 2.500 0.479 0.127 .657 0. Definitionof geometric blade section parameters of Wageningen B.0040 0.400 0. These propellers are denoted as ' B B ' propellers.0340 0.000 0.558 0.0020 0. P = non-dimensional coordinate along pitch line from position of maximum thickness to leading edge (where P = l ) .0015 0. For the sake of completeness.601 0.350 0. Vo = tabulated functions dependent on r/R and P.351 0. and from position of maximum thickness to trailing edge (where P = -1).2 0.350 0.463 0.050 2.0000 A B = constants in equation for S /D a = distance between leading edge and generator line at r b = distance between leading edge and location of maximum thickness c r = chord length of blade section at radius r s r = maximum blade section thickness at radius r .0035 0.0464 0.389 0.0010 0.5 0.350 0.478 0. t.000 Ar 0.

1870 .2513 .7478 .1560 .1467 .1885 .4280 .6400 .0224 .8 0 0 -.3197 .25 .7 0 0 -.6505 .1900 . r/R \ P -1.5995 + .0006 .0500 .4885 .0027 .5039 .0189 .51 .3569 .2 .2824 .36 .6770 .85 .0067 .19 .5 .0725 .0800 .1747 .5265 .4335 .1200 .51 .0955 0 .8055 +.9360 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 +.6195 .19 .8265 .0008 . 0012 .0211 .2400 .2 .0975 .3765 .4740 .0096 Table 3 Values of V2 for use in equations 2 and 3.4 0 0 0 +.0637 .6 0 0 -.4108 .2230 .4 . 1 5 .3665 + .7550 .2000 .8450 .6 .1008 .6840 .2028 .0084 .8880 .1278 .19 .0905 .3228 .2630 .5130 .1246 .5140 .1465 .9519 .95 .0330 .4982 + .36 .7277 .7850 .5220 .1207 .4520 .5160 .4265 .25 .0579 .0031 . 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 .8426 .6 .3600 .6590 .1950 .5 .64 .3860 .5110 .7335 .75 .36 .0592 .2186 .0365 0 0 0 0 r/ R \ .2 0 .19 .8090 .4 + .5 .4535 .9675 .0382 .0116 .3 .7 .85 .5 .51 .0214 .2775 .0880 .8933 .96 .0950 .0202 .2 .7580 .2600 Am .25 .8 .0972 .3775 .84 .0522 .9750 .9615 .85 .6 -.3060 .1758 .5 -.1240 .15 .2830 .1567 . 1651 .8415 .9710 .95 0 +.0975 .2840 .1088 .8 0 +.8275 .7593 .2925 .64 .0420 .3042 .75 .0022 .6545 .6 0 0 + .9 -.96 .7200 .9760 .1890 .4 -.6625 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 .2870 .0 0 + .3 .2115 .0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -1.6430 .85 0 +.0615 .0328 .0975 .84 .75 .1050 .0965 .9-1.Table 2 Values of Vj for use in equations 2 and 3.3660 .8315 .0040 .1570 .1865 .8899 .8456 .0669 .6455 .0630 .0172 .3256 .1325 .4 -.2598 .8 .0540 +.8920 .0395 .7 0 0 + .0033 .0790 .0943 .8 -.2337 .1950 .2 .1967 .1191 .7 .4 .64 .9725 .7635 .6060 .3560 .8520 .6 .0975 .1935 .0 .2068 .0090 .8660 .51 .95 0 0 -.9639 .1670 .7184 .2306 .5842 .6 +1.25 .2826 .0033 .7 .3905 .1467 .84 .6439 .1300 -.51 .75 .2720 .2181 .5 0 0 -.0376 .9751 .1445 .0085 . 6S75 .6400 .9635 .0034 .0520 .5585 .0357 .36 .1750 .2300 .1790 .2642 .1685 .0920 .0190 .9690 .1320 .3360 .0384 0 0 0 0 0 .3000 .9613 .0304 .4135 .2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 . r/ R \ .3 .8259 .96 . 0 .7 -.4620 .7415 .8345 .5 0 0 + .9 0 0 -.9583 .0100 .8 .3056 .3500 .1280 0 .2372 .7805 .7525 .7-1 .4140 .8139 .1333 .6190 .0300 .1485 .0975 .0899 .4 .7530 .3300 .1180 .84 .0503 .7984 .64 .1760 .8790 .2821 .75 .3235 .7105 + .0778 .6995 .96 .3150 .2353 .5615 .9 +.6415 .2923 .0804 .7520 .15 +1.6 0 0 .3 .3585 .9 + .0417 .1610 .0833 .95 .0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -.9600 .9-1.1810 .0148 .6050 .0640 .2040 .0 .0049 .9750 .4 .0 .0 0 0 -.0623 .5 .15 r/ R \ .1000 .2 .7-1.5040 .0169 .9645 .0350 .2650 .0044 .6353 .9446 .8170 .1455 .6359 .

389 0.486 0.132 2.300 0.581 0.75R and v the kinematical viscosity. '0. expressed as a function of J and the pitch ratio P/D.200 0.227 Vcr 0. When this minimum value of the drag coefficient .247 2.351 0.832 2.350 0.and KQ -values from the open-water test.318 0.480 0. 9 and 10.75R -2]' Pn 2 D4 (4) Q ). At a specific value of the advance coefficient J. D = propeller diameter.798 1.570 0. C J K T (7) r/R r Z a r /c r D AE/AO 1. The open-water efficiency is defined as: bulent flow and the term 1 +2represents c 0.434 1:122 0.75ttnD) (10) (5) R Cf is the drag coefficient of a flat plate in a turJ= nD (6) in which T = propeller thrust. the minimum drag coefficient of a profile is: C D .498 0.584 0. Q = propeller torque.850 0.600 0. 8.355 0.900 0.Table 4 Particulars of BB-series propellers. P = fluid density.402 0. In the Lerbs equivalent profile method the blade section at 0.75R is assumed to be equivalent for the whole blade.443 0. On setting out the minimum value of the drag coefficient as obtained from the polar curve for each propeller on a base of Reynolds number. a large scatter is apparent as shown in Figure 2. equal to the change in the minimum value of the drag coefficient. =2C f (l+2) u min. the lift and drag coefficient CT andCrj and the corresponding angle of attack a. C. According to Hoerner [11].500 0. i " c0>75R in which. This method has been followed also in References 7.75R theeffectof the pressure gradient. 0.552 0.from the characteristics of equivalent blade sections.975 a = distance between leading edge and generator line at r b = distance between leading edge and location of maximum thickness at r c = chord length at r Theeffectof a Reynolds number variation on the test results has been taken into account by using the method developed by Lerbs [2] . where: lirp * — (9) 10. the effect of the pressure gradient being small.».075 (6) 3.600 1.400 0. Analysis of model test data The open-water test results of B-series propellers are given in the conventional way in the form of the thrust and torque coefficients K and K Q . for the blade section.448 0.R is the chord length at 0.800 0.350 0. Reynolds number effects are only considered to influence the drag coefficient of the equivalent profile.43429 where.500 0.243 2. This minimum value is for thin profiles composed of mainly frictional resistance.163 2.500 0. It is furthermore assumed that this influence is in accordance with a vertical shift of the C D -curve.023 2.75R n 0.524 0.580 0.005 1. V^ = velocity of advance.500 0. n = revolutions of propeller per second. are deduced from the K j .700 0.950 0.

By applying this process in reverse. AE/A0 is set out against— for each pitch-diameter ratio.«9 a ^ • TO • 7 • «5 • n 0.SS • TO . before correc ting for Reynolds number according to the given equations.40 . For 1^ = 2x106 the polynomials obtained in this way are given in Table 5.TS 10S » 0 . The choice of a Reynolds number value of 2x1 O* for the characteristics on the model * scale followed from the fact that the corresponding Crj • values is an average of all model C Dmin. this is shown in Figure 3. The resulting values formed the input for the development of a thrust coefficient and a torque coefficient polynomial. The thrust and torque coefficients were then expressed as polynomials in the advance coefficient J.0. blade area ratio A E / A Q and blade number Z and with the aid of a multiple regression analysis method the significant terms of the polynomials and the values of the corresponding coefficients were determined. These poly- . 2xlO 8 and 2x10 9 for a selected grid of J. P/D. a and R . Three-dimensional effect on minimum drag coefficient of equivalent profile of B-series propellers.• o • • • 1 • eo • > •«s • 1 • so • 1 . An estimation of this effect was obtained by applying regression analysis of which the results are given by Van Oossanen [6]. P/D.IS . The thus obtained lift and drag coefficients were each expressed as a function of blade number. pitch-diameter ratio and angle of attack in polynomials by means of a multiple regression analysis method. Figure 2. it is possible to calculate thrust and torque values valid for full-scale by correcting this Cjj-value. ao •9 9O 19 ntt "t as to IS 109 90 «5 \ < 1 • [) 0 0*0 r as »t »i * t [1 • T •1 • 7 1 so <s •0 SS TO Co*»» 001* • o a • \'A * • as a a a ' a 1 ti ao Si TO 1 ( as • • ai • i * n 100 i . It is necessary. Uncorrected value of minimum drag coefficient of equivalent profile of B-series propellers.«5 • 100 • i1 • s • *) • 1 . blade area ratio. it is seen that below a specific value of the blade area-blade number ratio an increase in the CTJ .011 •|ÊL • |_ T M Ï F • OIUCKtOHAL «FFtCT OH C & m | r t O coot O OOI Figure 3. value occurs. IC F0# AU . The existence of such a correlation of the Cpj . therefore. This was performed for Reynolds numbers equal to 2xlO7.(D • s . vaiues " 4. to subtract this three-dimensional effect from the C Q . Together with the values for 1^ = 2xlO6. these K T and KQ values formed the input for the determination of a Ky and KQ polynomial for the additional Reynolds number effect above 2x10 . Reynolds number effect on propeller chararacterigtics In formulating the minimum value of the drag coefficient as a function of the Reynolds number (see equation 8). value withpropellergeometry points to the fact that the scatter in Figure 2 is not entirely due to Reynolds number effects and experimental e r r o r s . value. A £ / A Q and Z-values. It is obvious that the drag coefficient is influenced by a three-dimensional effect. A T / A Q . The basis for this reverse process was formed by calculating C. For a pitch-diameter ratio equalio 1. pitch ratio P/D. and C D coefficients from the C^ and C J-J polynom- ialsfor specific combinations of Z. thrust and torque coefficient values were then calculated. ao .

000328787 + O. The actual value to be substituted into these polynomials is the common logarithm of the actual Reynolds number.0000554194 3 0 3 3 3 0 0 0 1 2 3 6 0 3 6 0 6 '0 2 3 6 | 2 6 : 2 2 2 2 D 1 l o ) <) i 2 0./Ao> U ) •i 0. .(z 1 ) 1 .O0I8349I + 0.. =.75) propeller with a pitch-diameter ratio of 1.00421749 + O.015896 0.0504475 40.0013:718 + 0.l> 10* 0 3 3 6 6 .OO026955I + O. .0025983 -O.000112451 -O.O0438388 -0.0161886 O.0004659 * 0. diagrams have been prepared each of which gives the effect of one of these parameters on Kj and KQ with increasing Reynolds number.00880496 -0. Thus if Rn = 2x10 7 .00513696 J 0.I080O9 -O.00146564 ' 0 1 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 I 0 2 0 1 2 .OOOS3265 + O.0317791 + 0.000302683 -O..0.(A E /A 0 ) u .. Figure 6 gives the effect of the pitchdiameter ratio and Figure 7 shows the effect of the advance coefficient J.0471729 0 3 3 0 1 -. 0 3 0 6 0 3 6 3 1 ] 2 I 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 0 0 ) (} 3 3 0 3 0 1 0 2 0 1 3 3 2 0 0 0 0 3 0 1 0 0 0 1 | 2 2 2 2 o 0 0 1 i i 1 2 2 2 2 .(jr.00474319 0 2 1 0 0 1 2 0 1 0 1 2 2 1 0 3 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 2 0 1 1 1 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 3 0 •2 3 1 2 0 1 3 0 1 0 0 1 2 3 1 0 2 0 0 0 0 2 6 I 0 0 0 1 2 2 2 2 2 0 0 0 1 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 -0.0558082 -. . Table 5 Coefficients and terms of the Ky and KQ polynomials for the Wageningen B-screw Series for R n =2xl0 6 .00163652 -O.OOO0297228 + O.0049819 + 0..(P/D) 1 .OO379368 + O.0606826 -0.133698 + 0. 0.O0383637 + 0.00102296 -0.OO03139I2 + 0.0209449 + 0.O0318086 0.. 2 2 2 : : 2 : 2 2 2 0 0 2 6 R.0126803 -0.3010.. the value to be substituted is 7.158114 -0.OO00869243 -0.())'WD '.0144043 -0.00344778 -O. + + 0.0125894 + O.00334 J6B -O.0196283 -0.. To demonstrate how the Reynolds number effect is dependent on the number of propeller blades. The effect of the number of blades is shown in Figure 4 while the effect of the expanded blade area ratio is shown in Figure 5. working at an advance coefficient equal to 0.O0I42I2I -O.00638407 -0.0035985 -O.204554 + O.0168424 -0.0143481 + 0.0507214 + 0.8 nomials are given in Table 6..O40S8II -0..0269403 + 0. .000606848 -0. .03224! + 0. The results shown are for the propellers grouped around the B5-75 <Z~ 5_ A /AQ = 0.00723408 + O.0417122 -O.415437 -. l I u i U) (P/D) (At/Ao > (u O) (P/D) (A.010465 -0.0106854 -r O-OOI 10903 -O..O8S538I + 0.168496 -0.481497 + 0.0O4I079! -0..O08B6523 -0. the blade area ratio.5.188561 -0.018604 -O.OIO96!9 -0.O00II65O2 + 0.030055 + 0.O397722 -0.(A t/Arjl".00O6909O4 + 0.O00IS43 -0.O0O56O52! -0.0 0 I 1 0 0 3 6 6 0 0 0 0 é 6 3 3 3 3 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4-O. -. Kr" £ [C„„ KO .0004:53» ~ O.0530054 + 0.0854559 -0.1663SI •0.0.0502782 -0. . the pitch-diameter ratio and the advance coefficient.00648272 -0.O0OO565229 -0.. KT: C .147581 -0.00350024 -0.:. .00841728 + 0.00370871 + 0. i c.(i') J i 1 u V Ko: C.00318278 + 0.OOI55334 + 0.

Figure 6. 00000184341(logRn-0.301)z 2 (A E /A o )(P/D) 3 J = -0. 00478125(A E /A o ) (P/D)J +0.0000008852S(logR n -0. = 2x106) on K T and KQ.S -OOO! 4. 301) <A E /A O ) 2 +0. AKT = 0.301)2 • (Ar/A 0 )J 2 +0. 0000052199(logRn-0. 301) (P/D) . 301)2 (P/D) 2 +0. OOO3 -0. 301)2 (A E /A 0 ) 2 PSD i i .301)2 z(P/D) 6 -0.o .0. JIO.0160818(A E /A o ) 2 -0. 000220915(logRn-0.0 .000257792{logRn-0.00696898(P/D) .00333758(A E /A o )J 2 -0.0.0000643l92(logR n -301)(P/D)^ J 2 . ooosgsgsfiogR^-o.000353485 -0. 0000954(logRn-0.0 .301) 2 z(AE/Ao)(P/D)J +0. 0 0 0 0 7 8 2 0 9 9 ( ^ ^ . o : 1:5 .000591412 +0. 30i) (P/D) 2 +0.001 S -OOOÏ »«1O7 B„ ï«io" I» 10 Figure 4. gQ +0.Table 6 Polynomials for Reynolds number effect (above R. 0000666654 z(P/D) 6 +0. 00400252(logRn-0.301)z(P/D) 6 -0. OOOgSBOgiflogR^O. 0000276305(10^-0. 301) z(A £ /A o )J 2 -0.10° Figure 5.301) 2 (P/D) 6 J 2 -0.0000230171(logR n -0.0000032049(logR n -0. Influence of pitch-diameter ratio on Reynolds number effect on thrust and torque coefficients..0000110636(logRj!. 301)2 z(A E /A Q )J 2 +0. . Influence of blade area ratio on Reynolds number effect on thrust and torque coefficients. Influence of number of blades on Reynolds number effect on thrust and torque coefficients.

This is due to the difficulty in multiple regression analysis methods to prescribe that the resulting relation musthave a specific value for a particular combination of values for the independent variables. (AK-) and the increment in K~ (AKQ) presented in Figures 4 to 7 are relative to a Reynolds number value of 2x10*\ The value of the Reynolds number is determined by equation 10. .00125Z)Z 2. the drag coefficient of the equivalent blade section as a function of angle of attack (or advance ratio) is shifted vertically upwards or downwards in accordance with the change in the value of the minimum drag coefficient C D .073AE/Ao (ID amo' Figure 7.0185-O.75R (Q. 75R can be represented by a specific change in Reynolds number. 9 and 10 a change in this value of t/c can be shown to correspond to a new value of the Reynolds number given by: 75R = new t/c value at 0.10 It should be noticed that the increment in K-. therefore. The polynomials given in Tables 5 and 6 are for a blade thickness-chord length ratio equal to: t/c 0. This situation. Strictly.75R-4-6052> (12) Thus. as was the case in analysing the effect of Reynolds number. when it is assumed that an increase or decrease in blade section thickness (relative to equation 11) does not influence the effective camber and pitch. 5. where R^ and <t/c) 0 = effective Reynolds number for a change in ( t / c ) 0 7 5 R 75R By rearranging equation 8. the AKT and AKQ values for a Reynolds number equal to 2x10^ should equal zero.6052 + y l+2(t/c) 1 0 75R •(lnRn0. therefore. leads to the idea öiat the effect of a specific change in the t/c-value at 0. . As shown in Figures 4 to 7. Thus. A change in the t/c-value of the equivalent propeller blade section at 0.75R. this is not the case. Influence of advance ratio on Reynolds number effect on thrust and torque coefficients. by means of the polynomials presented in Table 5 and Table 6. Effect of variation in blade thickness on propeller characteristics The effect of blade thickness on the thrust and torque coefficients can be determined in an analogous manner as used to determine the effect of Reynolds number as described in section 4. the effect on thrust and torque can be ascertained by calculating an effective newvalue for the Reynolds number according to equation 12 and then determining. 4. the associated values of Kj and KQ.75R is again only considered to influence the value of the minimum drag coefficient.

5]. However. The resulting thickness-chord length ratio of the equivalent blade section at 0. T = propeller thrust in kg. it is quite sufficient to use a very simple formula to ensure that the chosen t / c . A handy formula for the value of the cavitation number of the blade s e c tion at 0. K = constant which can be put equal to 0 for fast twin-screw ships. For propeller blade sections with an elliptic type of thickness distribution the optimum t / c value. In this regard it should be noticed that for normal merchant ships equation 14 always leads to l a r g e r t / c .s e r i e s according to equation 11.3+0. Relation 14 is only valid for small blade s e c tion c a m b e r s and values of the cavitation number . there is only one optimum t / c value for a specific value of the cavitation numb e r . 7.6. g . The additional formula for the chord length for deD2N2 12. In this formula the bending moment due to the centrifugal force effect is neglected.75R can be derived from Saunders [14].20 for single-screw ships. For every type of thickness and camber d i s tribution used. S c = maximum allowable s t r e s s in pounds per square inch (psi). in this p r e liminary design stage. giving the l a r g e s t cavitation-free lift c o efficient range.75R 0. it is shown that the minimum allowable blade section thickness based on strength c r i t e r i a does not give the largest margin against cavitation when operating in a non-uniform velocity field. e . (2375-1125P/D)Pg where o = cavitation number of the blade section in the vertical upright blade position.21 4.3Z)T +K (13) ° where A E • — = expanded blade a r e a r a t i o . can be approximately given by: (t/c)opt = -0.1 and 0 . the t/c-value for the B .123ND 3 (S r + (16) where tmin = minimum blade thickness at 0. In a propeller design the proper compromise between the conflicting c h a r a c t e r s of thick blade sections (having a large cavitation-free angle of attack range) and thin blade sections (being free of cavitation at low cavitation numbers at shock-free entry of the flow) must be made. A O Z = number of blades. N = revolutions per minute.v a l u e is not too s m a l l . viz: A between 0. . viz: 3/ 0.v a l u e s than. N = revolutions per minute. P y = vapour p r e s s u r e in kg/m^. 6 . in which the only interest of the naval architect is focussed on a p a r a m e t r i c study to determine overall propeller p a r a m e t e r s . K = 0. which is c o r r e c t only for propellers with zero r a k e . Choice of characteristic thickness chord length ratio based on cavitation criteria and strength In a number of previous studies [13. P = static p r e s s u r e at centre line of propeller shaft in kg/m . K = 0.10 for other twin-screw ships. D = propeller diameter in m e t e r .75R _ in feet. V . D = propeller diameter in feet.75R must also possess satisfactory strength p r o p e r t i e s . . = velocity of advance of propeller in m / s e c .75R in the vertical upright blade position is: 200+20(h-0.375D) a =(15) E (1.012 (14) in which h = distance in meter of propeller shaft to effective water surface. Choice of blade area ratio based on cavilalion criteria A reasonable indication as to the required blade area ratio of fixed pitch propellers can be obtained by means of a formula given by Keller [12]. Many methods have been devised to determine the minimum acceptable value of the blade thickness at various propeller r a d i i . P s = shaft horsepower per blade. A simple formula for the minimum blade thickness at 0.002S+0.

J diagram of the B5-75 propeller for a Reynolds number of 2xlO 6 ..7 18 20 2.. it is appropriate to replace these variable bv the non-dimensional 4 5 4 and J" 1 respectively. • süi» iPEtr * «NOTS Figure 9. 0. therefore. N .PROPELLER B P M • SHAFT MOftSEPOWEB (BBITrSH) r V. Figure 8.1739 and 0. . use is generally made of the variables BD . For the case that the optimum propeller diameter is to be calculated when the power. = advance velocity of propeller in knots.J diagram of B5-75 propeller according to polynomials given in Table 5 (Rn = 2 x 106).K Q .K Q . Figure 8 gives the K ^ . variables such that: 0.12 termining the minimum value of t/c at 0.1/2 .3 04 OS 06 Q7 08 OS 10 11 1. . K Q 1 ' 4 . Since the value of B p and 6 are dependent on the system of units used.0098756 = J~l 1/4 . ut". it is still useful to have at one's disposal diagrams giving the characteristics of open-water tests. -5/2 Pi 5 = N D V A "1 V. decided to make a new set of diagrams for the Bseries based on the K T and K„ polynomials given in Tables 5 and 6.1 . Diagrammatical representation of polynomials: determination of optimum diameter and optimum propeller revolutions For many purposes.J 5^4-J'1 diagram of B5-75 propeller according to polynomials given in Table 5 (Rn =2 x 106) for determination of optimum diameter. .shaft horsepower in british units (1HP = 76kgm/sec.). P .75R is: C 2. the rotative propeller speed and the advance velocity is specified.D O. and 5 defined as: .75R (17) 8. It was.-5/4 (19) H i>>] > - (18) in which N = number of propeller revolutions per minute.073A E /A o . D = propeller diameter in feet. K J .

K * / 4 • J'3'4 . A \ 14 • \ _ »5 gï «9 SO 75 JO ii V \ - 11 10 'V • \ na oa - Oi O' Figure 11. .J" 5 / 4 ) Figure 12.1 3 PHOPELLER DIAMETER IN FEET SHAFT HOnSCrOWE» (BRITISH) Figure 10. Values of pitch-diameter ratio and J" 1 cor responding to optimum diameter (based on K Q 1 / 4 .J~l diagram of B5-75 propeller according to polynomials given in Table 5 (Rn = 2xl0 6 ) for determination of optimum diameter. Values of pitch-diameter ratio and J" 1 corresponding to optimum RPM (based on K Q 1 / 4 • J'3^4).

defined as: (20) 9. Lammeren.. 1973. IS. 1972. 1971. 5. Doctor's thesis. W . Figure 9 shows the result for the B5-75 propeller for a Reynolds number of 2x10 6 . 1938. A . International ShipbuildingProgress. 1969. D and V^ are defined as in equations 18. H. W. Oosterveld. ' A method for minimizing the occurrence of cavitation on propellers in a wake'. SSPA. published by the'Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers. 'Open-water tests with modern propeller forms'. F. Journal ASME. "Fluid dynamic drag'.. E . E . Trans. J. 1971. . May 1973! International Shipbuilding Progress. the propeller diameter and the advance velocity is specified. R. and Oossanen. Trans. 'Hydrodynamics in ship design . Paper presented at 2nd Lips Propeller Symposium. S. C. P . Keller. van. 2. P . References 1. No. use can be made of the power constant B . D. 10. SSPA. 'Enige aspecten bij het ontwerpen van scheepsschroeven'. Publication No. Publication No..C. 'Einfluss der Reynoldzahl und der Rauhigkeitauf die propeller-characteristik. L . . P. .W. Newton. 47.. 6.W. Vol. 1951. berechnetnach der Methode des equivalenten Profils'. and Bjarne. 24. 1974: Netherlands Ship Model Basin.14 The square root of B is adopted since then a linear scale can be used in the resulting diagrams for this variable. Lerbs. At the Netherlands Ship Model Basin. Lindgren. van. The Wageningen B-screw series'. Saunders. based on K Q ' • J ' . 205. 3. 60. page 620. 9. Published by the author. 1961. 1940 and 1951. van and Oosterveld. Trans. the open-water efficiency n 0 and J . corresponding to the value of the optimumdiameter. In the case that the optimum propeller speed is to be determined when the power. H. Vol. Manen. . 'Performance data of propellers for high-speed craft'. Both diagrams are for the 5-bladed B-series propellers. D . M. J . van. 1972. and Rader. . van and Oossanen. Publication No. Oossanen. Gent. H . 7. 2. auf'm. . Lindgren. P . Hoerner. Schiffbauforschung 11. 4. H. A diagram giving the values of the pitch-diameter ratio P/D. 'Recent developments in marine propeller hydrodynamics'. RINA. 14. Schip en Werf. 1974. P.. 457. 'influence of wake on propeller loading and cavitation'. 13. in which the variables P. Troost. Figure 12 gives the analogous diagram for the value of the optimum number of r e volutions . SNAME. No. van. 11. 12. M.W. 1961. van. 1966. This power constant can be replaced by the non-dimensional expression as follows: (21) Here also the square root of B p is adopted since then a linear scale on the horizontal axis can be used in the resulting diagram. Schmidt. H . 8. diagrams of the type shown in Figures 9 and 10 have been prepared for all B-series propellers for a Reynolds number value of 2x10^. Figure 10 shows the result for the B5-75 propeller for a Reynolds number of 2xlO 6 .N. Delft University of Technology. P . 1957. NECI. Oossanen. 'The SSPA standard propeller family open-water characteristics'. is given in Figure 11. 'Model tests with a family of three and five bladed propellers'. 'Calculation of performance and cavitation characteristics of propellers including effects of non-uniform flow and viscosity . 'On the effect of scale and roughness on free running propellers'. Jubilee Meeting of NSMB. 1967.

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