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PIG KEEPING FOR SMALL-SCALE FARMERS
STUDY CIRCLE MATERIAL BOOK 1
HOUSING & EQUIPMENT
PIG KEEPING FOR SMALL-SCALE FARMERS
REARING SYSTEMS HOUSING & EQUIPMENT FEEDING
STUDY CIRCLE MATERIAL BOOK 1
SWEDISH COOPERATIVE CENTRE AFRICA
AGROMISA, THE NETHERLANDS 2008
SWEDISH COOPERATIVE CENTRE
The Swedish Cooperative Centre (SCC) was founded in 1958 by the Swedish Cooperative Movement. SCC is an international non-governmental and non-profit making organisation that offers support to self-help development initiatives of cooperatives, farmers' organisations and informal groups. Its head office is in Stockholm, Sweden. SCC works in partnership with local organisations in various countries in Southern and East Africa, Latin America and Eastern Europe in the areas of sustainable rural development, habitat and rural finance. Through its Southern Africa offices, SCC has established the Regional Study Circle Centre to help with providing capacity to its partners and other stakeholders in all areas of rural development.
Agromisa was established in 1934, and is linked to Wageningen University and Research Centre. It aims at exchanging knowledge and information on small scale sustainable agriculture and related topics. Agromisa's target group is the underprivileged population in rural areas. Agromisa's role in this is a supportive one; it is not a donor organisation, nor does it finance projects directly. It is Agromisa's belief that the gap between formal (scientific) knowledge and informal (farmers') knowledge should be bridged. To achieve this, Agromisa wants to collaborate with intermediary organisations.
©Swedish Cooperative Centre, Regional Office for Southern Africa and Agromisa Foundation, Wageningen, 2008 All rights reserved. Excerpts of this book may only be reproduced if written permission has been received from the publishers. This book is an adaptation of Pig Keeping in the Tropics, Agrodok-series No .1, a co-publication between Agromisa and CTA, ISBN: 90-77073-53-1 (The Netherlands). Author of original title: Dick Muys and Geert Westenbrink Editor of original title: Rienke Nieuwenhuis Illustrator: Barbera Oranje Adapters and photos: Martha Namposya Musukwa and Kingsley Walubita, University of Zambia; Stephen Gikonyo and Lucy Malingu, Senior Livestock Production Officers, Ministry of Livestock, Kenya; Marie Widengård, Study Circle Adviser, SCC Africa and Martin Sekeleti, Study Circle Officer, SCC Africa. Translation: M. Verheij and R. Corner (Original title) Printed by: Mujalo Printers and Stationers Ltd., Zambia, Tel/Fax: +260 211 221190 ISBN: 9982-55-013-6 (Zambia)
This publication is the result of a joint effort by Agromisa, the Swedish Cooperative Centre, the reviewers and farmers involved in testing and improving the handbook for use in study circles around Southern and East Africa. This edition originates from an Agromisa publication on Pig Keeping in the Tropics. It has been developed in accordance with the study circle methodology, meaning that it includes objectives for each chapter and questions and assignments to stimulate sharing of experiences and learning by doing. Agromisa and SCC are grateful to CTA and Cordaid, who made it possible to publish the original Agrodok book. For this edition we wish to thank Buwaaya Youth Development Association and Nakalaokwe in Iganga, Kisoga Youth Group and Kigayaza Youth Group in Mukono, Uganda; and Voolelaolela Study Circle Movement, Old Kasenga, Chongwe District, Zambia, who provided us with valuable information on what kind of information farmers want and need. Gratitude is also expressed to Noy Mwanamakondo for editing and proofreading this work. We encourage readers to send us reactions on this booklet as this will enable us to improve future editions. Marie Widengård and Martin Sekeleti, SCC, Lusaka 2008
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Session 1: Session 2: Session 3: Session 4: Session 5: Session 6: Session 7: Session 8:
Expectations.................................................1 Free-Range Scavenging Pig Keeping.........4 Semi-Intensive Pig Keeping.........................8 Intensive Pig Keeping.................................12 Advantages of Housing..............................15 Requirements for Good Housing ..............19 Pens and Runs............................................25 Special Housing Requirements for Different Pigs...............................................27 Feeding and Water Troughs.......................30 Types of Feed and Nutritional Requirements..............................................33 Feeding in Practice.....................................39
Session 9: Session 10:
Session 12: Making a High Protein Ration....................41 Glossary: References: ......................................................................45 ......................................................................47
Session 1: Expectations
1.1 Objectives After this first session, all participants in the study circle should be familiar with each other and with this book Together you will decide your study plan for the learning objectives You will also agree on the rules and responsibilities for this study circle 1.2 What Do You Expect to Learn? Let everyone in the study circle group say what they expect to learn in your study on pigs. Write down your expectations. Break them down into detailed topics. If one expectation is to learn more about feeding, think about how much you will be able to cover in one session. Perhaps you can discuss rations in one session and feeding for piglets in another. Have one detailed topic for each session. This is your study plan! A good start could be to discuss the different Systems of Pig Keeping. In Sessions 2, 3 and 4, we consider the main characteristics of each, the purposes they serve, the methods they use, their requirements and ways of improving them. Read through these quickly to see which topics are relevant to you. Sessions 5 - 8 look at Housing and Equipment. Why is housing important? What makes a good pig house? What installations are required for feeding and farrowing? Also considered are the specific housing requirements for the sow, her piglets and fatteners. The last topics talk about Feeding, including nutritional requirements, how to meet them, practical aspects of feeding and the feeding of sows nursing a litter. We also recommend how to make feed rations. This book is one of three on Pig Keeping. Book 2 covers the Breeding aspects, Farrowing and care of piglets and the sow. Book 3 covers Management, Record Keeping and Marketing of pigs. You may read the books and topics in any order, as long as the study plan is clear for everyone. 1
To get started you may discuss the following Why do you want to keep pigs?
Some ideas: Pig meat is a good source of proteins. Pigs and their products bring in a good income for your family. Unlike cattle, sheep and goats , pigs need little space. Pigs can even be kept in the backyard.
What are the most critical aspects you need to improve to become a successful pig farmer? Anyone considering keeping pigs or wanting to improve their system must first know what is involved. What are your resources? What are your limitations? Intensive pig farming requires major investment, and without the necessary experience and technical knowledge, there are great risks. It is important for inexperienced farmers to progress step by step. It would be best to start up with a semi-intensive approach, concentrating on establishing good housing and proper feeding routines for a small group of healthy animals, using locally available resources.
Group Exercise 1: Requirements for Being a Successful Pig Farmer
Look at the requirements and think about which ones you already fulfil. Think individually for some minutes, and then share with the others. Discuss how you may improve the weaker sides in order to become successful.
To become a successful pig farmer you need: A good breeding stock (boars, gilts or sows) Good pig husbandry practices Land for pig houses Good pig houses Good quality feed and water. Money or a loan to start the business A ready market or people who eat pig meat
Group Exercise 2: Agree On Your Study Plan
Before the end of today's session, agree on your study plan. To help you decide where to start your studies, you may read this summary of the most common Pig Keeping Systems. If you are already in the SemiIntensive System you may skip Topic 2 below.
1. Free-Range Scavenging Pig Keeping
This system does not require a lot of time and money. It is very typical for small-scale farmers engaged in mixed farming. The main purpose is to guarantee income in times of cash shortage, and supplying the family with meat from time to time.
2. Semi-Intensive Pig Keeping
Pigs have houses and more attention is paid to their health and feeding. With these extra inputs, its production is higher than in the free-range scavenging system.
3. Intensive Pig Keeping
This is a system that aims at producing meat for the market in an efficient and profitable way, usually with larger numbers of pigs. This system requires significant inputs of time and money, with careful calculation of the costs and profits. If possible, read through Sessions 2, 3, and 4 at home. When you meet next, discuss the different systems of Pig Keeping and their respective benefits.What system would suit you best? Why? What would be the challenges if you were to start keeping your pigs this way?
Session 2: Free-Range Scavenging Pig Keeping
2.1 Objectives To know how free-range pigs live To understand the feeding practices required under the Free-Range Scavenging Pig Keeping System To know the breeding practices required to improve production To understand the benefits of keeping free-range pigs To know how the keeping of free-range pigs can be improved
» What comes to your mind when you hear the words freerange and scavenging? » What would you call this way of keeping pigs in your language? 2.2 How Do Free-Range Pigs Live? Few or no arrangements are made to provide the pigs with shelter. They are left to move freely around the yard or village. Little time is spent looking after them. Although the different ages of pigs have different needs, the animals are not separated into different groups for them to be taken care of according to their needs and financial purposes. Little money is spent on improving their well-being.
.. .. . .
Figure 1: Free Range Pig Keeping (Holness, 1991)
2.3 What Do Free-Range Pigs Eat? The pigs are left to find their own food. Sometimes it is supplemented with kitchen refuse or waste agricultural produce. No money or time is spent in buying, growing or processing the feed to improve it's quality. While looking for food, the sows move around with the piglets. Many piglets die because of being exposed to cold, predators and disease causing organisms. Pigs kept in a free-range system will not grow quickly, because they use up a lot of energy in their scavenging activities. Sometimes the pigs are not provided with fresh drinking water. 2.4 What Breeding Practice is Used to Improve Production? Local breeds are usually used because they are more tolerant of low-quality feed and have higher resistance to diseases. In general, there is no effort made to improve production. In some cases the pigs are not bred on the farm but piglets are brought in and are fattened during a season when food is plentiful, and then sold later. 2.5 What Disease and Parasite Control Measures are Practiced? Money is not spent on medicines for the treatment of diseases. Parasites are also a serious problem, especially during the rainy season when conditions are conducive for the parasites to increase. 2.6 What are the Benefits of Keeping Free-Range Pigs? Keeping scavenging pigs requires a minimum amount of inputs. The risks involved in this system are minimal, with little money being invested and little time spent looking after the pigs. Pigs are often kept as a savings account, which means that they are only sold when extra money is needed. In this way, loans (with the associated problems of high interest rates and repayment) can be avoided. Pigs are also often owned or kept by women (or children), which means that money obtained from sales usually goes towards the needs of the household. This strengthens the economic position of women. Pigs also play a role in social life, when at weddings and other festivities they are presented as gifts or offered as food.
2.7 Why is it Difficult to Increase Production Under the Free-Range System?
High rates of piglet mortality. Slow growth rate due to the following reasons: Pigs use energy searching for feed and water instead of using it for growing. Selection of breeding animals is rarely done. Local pigs grow slower than improved breeds even if they are fed well. Worm infestation due to lack of health care. 2.8 How can the Keeping of Free-Range Pigs be Improved?
This is the first thing to do if you want to reduce piglet death rates, reduce on the energy lost in scavenging, and improve the health and growth rates of your pigs.
2.8.2 Shade and Shelter
Shade is essential. If there are no trees or other source of shade, a small shelter must be built. The animals can also shelter there when it rains heavily. The structure can be as simple as four solid pillars with a roof on top.
Figure 2: Improved backyard system
2.8.3 Separating the Pigs
Separate your animals into groups, according to their final purpose. Pigs for fattening should be kept enclosed, in a small pen if possible. For them, rapid growth is important. Most of the breeding stock can be left outside. Pregnant sows should be separated from the others just before farrowing. With proper housing, a greater number of piglets will thrive. 6
2.8.4 Feed and Water
Give the pigs extra feed. Pigs can eat root crops like cassava, potatoes and almost any village refuse. If pigs are fenced in, you can use part of the land to grow green fodder. Make sure that fresh drinking water is available.
2.8.5 Prevention of Worms
Parasites pose a serious problem when pigs are kept outside. Worms are the most common parasites. A pig infected with worms will have poor health and will grow very slowly. If the pigs are kept in an enclosure, measures can be taken to control worm infestation. This is explained in the next section.
Group Exercise 3: Visit a Neighbour with Free-Range Pigs
1. Is there anyone in your area who keeps free-range pigs? 2. Ask them how many piglets are usually born in a litter (group of piglets) and how many grow to be adults. 3. How long do the piglets take to grow to market size? 4. If the deaths in piglets are high, find out the cause or causes of death. 5. If the pigs take long to reach market size, find out the reasons. Compare the information you find on free-range scavenging pigs with that of Semi-Intensive and Intensive Pig Keeping.
Session 3: Semi-Intensive Pig Keeping
3.1 Objectives To know the characteristics of the Semi-Intensive Pig Keeping System To know the advantages and requirements of Semi-Intensive Pig Keeping To know how Semi-Intensive Pig Keeping can be improved To appreciate the challenges faced by women managing pigs under the Semi-Intensive System 3.2 Characteristics In semi-intensive systems, pigs are confined to a limited space. This means that they do not scavenge and are completely dependent upon their keeper. Once or twice a day, fresh water and fodder (usually kitchen refuse or agricultural waste) have to be brought to the pigs. 3.3 Advantages This system opens up possibilities for improved feed and disease control, which in turn can result in faster growing and healthier pigs and larger litters. Keeping animals tethered or enclosed prevents crops from being damaged. It also reduces the risk of the pigs being stolen. 3.4 Requirements Although this system demands only low financial inputs, it requires more time and effort. More technical knowledge is also required.
Figure 3: Semi-Intensive Pig Keeping with pigs kept in houses and a yard outside (Holness, 1991)
3.5 How can the Semi-Intensive Pig Keeping be Improved?
Make sure that the available feed is properly distributed. The best feed should be given to pregnant and nursing sows, and to piglets that have just been weaned. Raise the quality of the feed by adding to the basic ration (See Session 12 for rations). Only buy feed when the cost of buying, transporting and storing is affordable and does not decrease the profit from selling the pigs or the meat.
The quality of pigs born is continuously improved by choosing the best breeding animals. Keep the nursing sows and their piglets separate. This makes it easier to select the stronger and bigger piglets for breeding. The remaining piglets can be fattened for sale or for slaughter. Once you have started selecting the best sows and giving them good housing and proper attention, you have taken the essential step towards improved breeding practice. It may be the best time to invest in a good boar. Buying a boar is a serious investment. It involves travelling in search of a good animal, buying and transportation. You may therefore want to put resources together with other farmers to buy a boar. It is also useful to exchange boars between neighbouring villages, in order to avoid the problems of inbreeding. ( Read more about breeding in BOOK 2). 9
3.5.3 Prevention of Worms
Change the grazing area regularly to prevent worm build-up in the field. To change the area every two weeks requires that you divide the land into at least four different fields. If there is a shortage of land, a simple pigsty can be used during wet season. If possible, the animals should change about every 14 days. In dry periods, the animals can stay longer in a field because the worms do not develop quickly. After a period of grazing, leave the field empty for a while for the larvae to die. In the wet season, it is better to leave a field for about 3 months before re-using it. In the dry season 2 months is sufficient. Some infestation in older animals is not serious, as they usually have resistance. Piglets however are very vulnerable. To prevent piglets from being infected directly after birth, deworm the breeding sows about 1 week before delivery. This treatment drives out all the worms. After deworming, wash the sows to ensure that there are no worm eggs clinging to them. They should then be kept inside for delivery. To prevent re-contamination, the pen should be properly cleaned every day.
3.5.4 Use of Pig Manure
It is a good idea to use pig fields for crops as the soil has been fertilised by the manure. After a year's cropping, the soil should also be clear of parasites.
3.6 What are the Challenges for Women to Manage Pigs under the Semi-Intensive System? If traditionally women are involved in Pig Keeping, men often get involved when the pigs become commercially interesting. It can also be more difficult for women to borrow money or use a piece of land. Many women often turn to men for construction work or farm-related book-keeping. This leaves women less able to decide what will be done with the animals and the income earned and therefore reduces their independence.
» From your experience, what is the difference between » »
men and women keeping pigs? Are there differences in management? Do women and men keep pigs for different reasons?
Session 4: Intensive Pig Keeping
4.1 Objectives To know the characteristics of the Intensive Pig Keeping System To understand the requirements of Intensive Pig Keeping To know how an Intensive System can be improved
Figure 4: Intensive Pig Keeping (Holness, 1991)
4.2 Characteristics In an intensive system, the pigs are completely confined. Buildings are provided to keep fatteners, boars, sows, and sows with litters separate. In this system, more attention is paid to housing rather than just providing a simple shelter. A larger number of pigs are kept and they are usually well managed. More time and money is spent on the well-being of the pigs. In return, the intensive system gives good money. 4.3 Requirements Detailed records High investments in terms of time, money and housing materials Feeds are bought Veterinary services should be available when required Technical know-how is required to make the right decisions at the right time
Access to improved breeds Knowledge on how to select animals A local extension service is important as a source of support and technical advice Regular access to the market is needed, which might imply dependence on a middleman
» Looking at the requirements above, do you think you are » »
able to manage an intensive system? What are the challenges ? How can you meet them ?
Successive chapters in this book provide a lot of management know-how for a small-scale Intensive Pig Keeping System. 4.4 How can an Intensive System be Improved?
The animals have to be brought to the market when conditions are right. A strategy for optimum buying and selling has to be developed, considering the importance of regular transport and dependable sales outlets.
4.4.2 Back Up
If there are problems of diseases or accidents, contingency money will have to be available to keep the business going.
4.4.3 Technical Knowledge
A study circle group and extension service is important for support and technical advice. Veterinary services should also be available when required.
4.4.4 Disease Control
When too many pigs are kept together in a restricted space, there is a high risk of infection spreading quickly among the animals.
Preventive measures aim at increasing the animals' resistance and reducing the sources of infection. This can be done by improving the quality of feed, keeping a smaller number of animals in an area and improving hygiene. With large numbers of pigs kept together, medicines are sometimes necessary to prevent disease outbreaks. The most essential and powerful tool to combat disease however remains good hygiene. By ensuring that the pen is always clean, you reduce the chances of infection.
Group Exercise 4: Visit Someone who Keeps Pigs Intensively.
1. Is there anyone in your area who keeps pigs under some kind of intensive management? 2. Ask them how many piglets are usually born in a litter and how many grow to adulthood. 3. How long do the piglets take to grow to market size? 4. If the deaths in piglets are high, find out the cause or causes of death. 5. If the pigs take long to reach market size, find out the reasons.
Session 5: Advantages of Housing
5.1 Objectives To understand the need for and importance of pig housing To understand how various environmental factors (rain, wind, sunlight and temperature) affect pigs
» Before you start reading, discuss your experiences of
» Give examples of good housing and explain why you think
they are good. » Have you had any problems because of poor housing? »List the advantages of keeping pigs inside a house and yard, and check the list in Section 5.2. In this chapter, the need for and ways of building proper pig housing are explained.
Figure 5: Pig house (B.Oranje).
5.2 Advantages of Houses There are many advantages of keeping pigs inside a house and yard: The animals spend their energy on gaining body weight rather than on looking for food and shelter. The number of piglets surviving increases if they are born in secure and healthy surroundings. Controlling the health of the pigs is easier, since it is easier to maintain good hygiene.
Feeding routines can be more carefully controlled. Manure can easily be collected and used for fertilizing land. 5.3 How do Heavy Rain, Strong Wind and Sunlight Affect Pigs? Pigs cannot stand heavy rain or strong winds. Strong sunlight is also bad for them. It causes their skin to dry out. Albino pigs, especially, cannot endure the sun because they have no pigment in the skin and they easily burn. Pigs should therefore be protected from these elements. How can you protect your pigs from them?
Figure 6: Protection against climatic influences
5.4 How Does Temperature Affect Pigs? The normal temperature of a pig's body is about 38.5°C. All its body processes are geared to work at this temperature. So a healthy animal will automatically try to keep this temperature. Any great change may kill the animal. This happens if the animal fails to lose the extra heat or it loses too much heat.
Here are some good questions to discuss before you go on reading.
1. How can you help your pigs keep their normal temperature when the weather is hot? How about when it is cold? 2. How do pigs regulate their temperature? What does a hot pig do to lower its temperature? Do they sweat? 3. How do you know that a pig is feeling hot, or cold? 4. What makes the temperature of a pig rise? 5. Do pigs of different ages require different temperatures? If you had problems answering a question, the answers are in the text below. It could be a good idea to read through to make sure you know all the signs for when pigs are hot or cold. If you observe them suffering due to temperature, you should provide them with good housing. If a pig is housed, the climate can be somewhat controlled. Remember that pigs are very sensitive to sudden temperature changes.
5.4.1 Eating Produces Heat
Every animal produces heat when food is broken down in the stomach and intestines. Also when the food is used for growth and for keeping the body alive. The more an animal eats, the faster it grows and the more heat it produces. Heat is also produced when an animal is moving. Warm blooded animals (birds and mammals) can make use of some of this heat to keep their temperature normal. In hot weather, animals generally produce more heat than they need to maintain their normal body temperature. To avoid overheating, they have to lose the extra heat somehow; otherwise they might die.
5.4.2 Pigs Don't Sweat
One way by which some animals lose heat is by sweating. Pigs however do not have the openings in the skin for losing water as sweat.
5.4.3 Water Helps Pigs Cool Down
Pigs may lose water from the skin by lying and rolling in puddles and pools of water. It is good to provide pigs with a pool of water, as long as the water is clean and not a health hazard. Pools are very important for improved breeds. Good ventilation is necessary. When a pig is hot, it breathes rapidly so that it can lose some of the body water into the air through the mouth and nose. If no pools of water are provided, water should be sprinkled or poured on it's skin. If the animal is not able to lose the extra heat, it will try to reduce its body temperature by producing less heat. It will eat less, and that causes slow growth.
5.4.4 Protection against the Cold
The hide (or fur) of an animal protects it against cold. A pig does not have much fur but it can form a layer of fat underneath its skin. Piglets do not have such a layer to protect them. So in the first few days after birth, the body temperature is not well controlled. It is important to ensure that the surroundings are sufficiently warm for newly born piglets. Chilled piglets are very susceptible to diseases and death. If they are cold, they may not be able to move around in search of the sow's udder. They will also grow more slowly than normal.
5.4.5 Controlling Coldness
If an animal feels cold, it will try to produce more heat, for example by exercising its muscles (shivering). This means that the pig will use energy for heat instead of growing. A good house should keep the pigs warmer. To keep the house warmer, you can cover openings or windows with empty grain sacks.
Figure 7: Piglets huddled together to stay warm (Musukwa, 2005)
Session 6: Requirements For Good Housing
6.1 Objectives To know how to site a pig house at a suitable place To understand how to build a good pig house To know which type of roofing, floors, walls and ventilation to choose for pig houses 6.2 Site
Group Exercise 5: Choosing the Site
What is important to think about when choosing the place for building a pig house? Go to a good site and discuss whether: The area is big enough for the buildings and yard you want to build and for expansion in future. Does the site get flooded in the rainy season? If a place that floods up is found, can anything be done to make the water flow, such as digging a drainage furrow? Does the place just need filling up with soil and stones to level it up? Is there a source of clean water nearby or how easy is it for water to be brought to the site? Are there trees to provide shade or will a shed have to be constructed in the yard? 6.3 Construction The most suitable housing for tropical areas consists of a walled and roofed pen with a yard or run. The buildings should be as open and airy as possible. The walls of the pens should be made so that the wind can pass through freely and gently for good ventilation. It should not let in strong winds, sun or rains. Try to keep a good and constant temperature inside the pen. Animals should be protected from very cold weather by ensuring that any heat is kept inside. Cover the windows. The pen should be easy to clean. There should be a place where manure and used litter can be stored. Provide furrows for water used to wash pens to run-off into the storage place for later use.
The figure below gives you an example of a pig house these recommendations.
Figure 8: A standard pig unit
6.4 Size of House The size of pig house will depend on the number of pigs kept. The number of pigs also determine the number of pens required. 6.5 Roof The roof can be made of various materials. The best material is probably the material you use for houses in your area. A roof of leaves is a good insulator against heat and cold, but it rots quickly. Corrugated iron or aluminium sheets covered with leaves last longer but are more expensive. Other materials can be used, provided that they protect against rain, sun, heat and cold. If possible, the roof should be constructed with its longest slope against the wind and rain. If an opening has been left between the walls and the roof, there should be sufficient outside overhang to prevent the rain from entering.
Group Exercise 6: To Plan a Roof
Discuss the materials that can be used to construct a roof. i. Make a list of building materials available in your village or your area that can be used. ii. Where are these materials found and what time of year are they found? iii. Are there materials that need to be bought or brought in from other areas? iv. What means can be used to easily bring in these materials? v. Where is the money to buy materials going to come from or how can it be raised? 6.6 What are the Requirements of a Good Floor? The floor of the pen should be slightly raised above its surroundings to avoid puddling or flooding in wet weather. It is also advisable to slope the floor slightly, so that the pen is situated at a higher level than the yard or run. This will allow the liquid manure to run off. The manure can be collected into a pit. Pig manure is a good fertilizer so it is important to collect it. (See BOOK 3 on usefulness of pig manure).
6.6.1 What Materials can be Used to Make the Floor?
The floor can be of compacted soil. It should be kept hard and smooth so that it can be easily swept clean. The problem with this type of floor is that pigs may dig into it because they have the habit of rooting into the soil. Wooden floors are not advisable because the small openings and cracks make it difficult to keep them clean, and the pigs bite into them. Wood rots when damp or wet. If cement is available, a concrete floor can be made. The concrete should not be so rough that the animals can scratch and hurt themselves on it. A floor that is too smooth is also dangerous. The animals may slip and injure themselves seriously. To improve a floor that is either too rough or too smooth, a few shovels of soil can be thrown into the pen every day after cleaning. This is not only a precaution against accidents, but it is also healthy, as the animals can take up valuable minerals from the soil (iron for example).The disadvantage of concrete is that it is a bad insulator.
In hot weather, the animals can lie on the cold concrete to cool themselves down, but in cold weather, too much body heat will be lost. In young animals, getting too cold increases the risk of diseases like pneumonia.
Group Exercise 7: Planning a Floor
What are the good materials for the construction of a floor that will not make the pigs feel cold? i. Make a list of building materials available in your village or area that can be used for constructing the floor. ii. Where are these materials found and what time of year are they found? iii. Are there materials that need to be bought or brought in from other areas? iv. What means can be used to easily bring them in? v. Do you have the money to buy these materials, or how can it be raised?
6.6.2 What Materials can be used to Protect Piglets from the Coldness of a Concrete Floor?
The coldness of the concrete can be reduced by providing the animals with bedding material in the pen. For piglets, put a cloth on the floor.
Figure 9: Brooding piglets
For older pigs, various materials can be used, such as rice straw, sawdust, dry leaves etc. As a precaution, it is better not to use plants or seeds as these may be poisonous. The leaves of the Wonder Oil plant (Ricinus communis) for example should not be used. Its seeds are poisonous and could get amongst the leaves. Pigs have a habit of finely chewing their bedding litter and swallowing part of it.
This is harmless as long as the plants are harmless. Bedding material should be changed regularly to keep the pen clean and to avoid any parasite build-up. The mixture of bedding with dung and urine makes an excellent fertiliser for the fields, and is especially valuable if stored into compost. The SCC/KATC study circle manual on sustainable agriculture provides good guidance on how to make compost out of manure.
Group Exercise 8: To Plan Bedding
i. What materials in your area or village can be used as litter or bedding for piglets? ii. Where are these materials found? iii. How can they be collected? iv. What time of year can they be found? v. What would be available for use as bedding when these materials are not available? 6.7 Walls
The walls should be left as open as possible for good ventilation. A good
option is a low wall approximately 1 metre high, with an opening between the wall and the roof. In windy areas the roof (or ceiling) should not be too high; otherwise the pen will cool down too quickly. Completely open walls, made of wire netting for example, are not recommended, as pigs always like to shelter from wind and rain. In higher and colder areas, the walls should be constructed in such a way that it is possible to close the walls of the pen completely. In daytime, when temperatures are higher, the top section of the walls can be opened, and closed again towards evening to keep the warmth in. It should be possible to completely close the side exposed to the rain.
6.7.1 What Materials can be Used for Constructing the Wall?
The walls can be made using any available materials. The strength of the walls will depend on the materials used. The walls can be made of boards or bamboo poles although these may be attacked by termites and not last very long. A row of small tree trunks will provide a simple wall, although this will let in wind more freely. A part of the wall should be closed up with woodwork to block the wind and allow a space for the pig or pigs to shelter.
If the walls are made using traditional mud and wood techniques, a protective row of hard, wooden poles should line the inside. This will prevent the pigs from digging into the mud wall. Burnt bricks will make a strong wall. Walls made of cement bricks are the most expensive but they are stronger and last longer. If the supply of cement is limited, it should be used for the floor.
Group Exercise 9: To Plan Walls What are the ideal materials for the construction of walls?
i. Make a list of building materials available in your village or area that can be used for constructing the wall. ii. Where are these materials found and what time of year are they found? iii. Are there materials that need to be bought or brought in from other areas? iv. What means can be used to easily bring them in? v. Where is the money to buy materials going to come from or how can it be raised?
Session 7: Pens and Runs
To know how to construct the interior of a pig house To understand the uses of pens, runs and fencing
7.2 What is a Good Size for a Pen and a Run?
A pen measuring 10ft x 10ft (3 x 3 metres) is adequate for a sow with a litter of piglets. A run should be 4ft x 10ft (1.2 x 3 metres) in size. It should be larger if a water bath is installed and it must be well fenced to ensure that the piglets do not escape. These dimensions are also suitable for: A lactating sow, with the pen fitted with guard rails as shown in Figure 10 below; or 8 - 10 weaned piglets; or 8 fattening pigs; or 6 dry sows. A boar pen should be 7ft x 10ft (2.5 x 3 metres). Usually, one boar would occupy one of the standard pens.
Figure 10: Layout plan for standard unit
If there is a run, the animals will get into the habit of going outside to excrete. This can be encouraged by ensuring that the covered pen is not too big. Provided that the doorway is wide enough, the inside area of the pen need not be very large. 7.3 Reasons for Runs and Fencing The breeding sows and boar can be allowed out on a fenced piece of land. This is very good for their general condition. Their leg muscles will also benefit from the exercise. When breeding sows are kept too long on concrete floors, their feet tend to wear down and develop sores. When they dig around for roots, the pigs find some of the essential minerals that are sometimes lacking in feed. This is more important for the breeding animals than for the fatteners. A fattener will be slaughtered before it gets old but a good breeding pig will be used for a long time and needs to be in good condition. Beware of parasites, sun and rain! 7.4 What Materials can be Used for Fencing? Strong wire netting is ideal, but you can also use local materials like bamboo, thorny shrubs and tree trunks. The fence must be sufficiently dense to prevent piglets from escaping.
Group Exercise 10: Plan a Fence
i. Make a list of materials in your area that are used for making fences. ii. Do you have any plant types that can grow into a fence? How long does it take for them to grow and make a fence? Do you have other recommendations on constructions that you wish to share with the group?
Session 8 : Special Housing Requirements For Different Pigs
8.1 Objectives To know the special housing requirements for different pigs To know how to provide an ideal house for different pigs Do you think it is necessary to provide different housing for different types of pigs? 8.2 Sow and Her Piglets Piglets should be protected from cold directly after birth. Provide plenty of good, dry bedding. Sows on the other hand need a cooler place. If the pen is too hot for the sow, she may lose her appetite, lose weight and reduce milk production for the piglets. If possible, piglets should be given a secure place of their own in the sow's pen. There is always the risk that the sow accidentally kills her piglets by lying on them. You can limit this risk by selecting breeding females from a family where piglets are weaned with few or none dying. The following measures can be used to protect the piglets from being crushed and to keep them warm:
Option 1: Install a rail inside the pen
To make it impossible for the sow to crush her piglets against the walls, a horizontal rail may be installed inside the pen parallel to each wall, 15 to 20cm away from the walls and at a height of 15 to 20 cm from the floor.
Figure 11: Floor plan showing guard rails
Option 2: Construct a creep for the piglets
In the sow's pen, you may provide a special safe place called a creep area for the piglets. They can creep in there for warmth and safety. The sow's pen can be divided into two, the bigger area for the sow and the smaller one for the piglets.The creep area for the piglets can be 50 cm wide and 2m long. The walls of the creep area can be made in the same way and using the same materials as the walls of the rest of the building. It's opening should be small enough to only allow piglets inside. A heating lamp or charcoal burner placed on a raised, firm block should be put in the creep area to provide extra warmth. In very cold weather, the creep area can also be covered with empty grain bags in order to trap in heat. The piglets will need the extra heat until they are 2 - 3 weeks old in the hot months of October and November or until they are 4 weeks old in the cold months of June and July. Before then, the piglets will tend to get chilled when the temperatures get too low. When the piglets are cold, they bundle together. The piglets nearly always prefer the protective 'creep' rather than lying against the sow.
Figure 12: Piglets sleeping on bedding or litter made using chopped grass
The creep area can be used for introduction of a little feed to piglets as early as the 7th day of age. This helps them get used to eating other feed in readiness for weaning. When they reach a weight of 8 - 12 kg, they can be weaned, i.e, separated from the sow.
Option 3: A farrowing/rearing pen with the sow confined
Using a combination of a farrowing and rearing pen, the sow is confined in the sow area (0.7 x 2.5 metres) leaving two creep areas on either side (0.8 x 2.5 metres). A run of 1.5 metres is provided at the back.
Figure 13: Farrowing/rearing pen with sow confined (S. Gikonyo)
What safe means do you know for providing warmth to piglets without burning the pen or the litter? 8.3 Fattening Pigs A simple pen with a run is a good option for fattening pigs. There should be no more than 8 fattening pigs in one pen. 8.4 Breeding Sows Breeding sows which are not nursing piglets can be kept in simple pens. You may keep up to 6 of them in a pen. 8.5 Boars The boar should be kept in a pen by itself to avoid uncontrolled mating with females and unnecessary fighting with other males. If they are kept with non-pregnant sows, it becomes impossible to tell when the sows become pregnant and when they will give birth.
» What types of houses should be provided to fatteners and
breeding pigs? » Why should they be different? » Why should breeding pigs be put in yards?
Session 9: Feeding and Water Troughs
9.1 Objectives To know how to build feeding troughs for different pigs To know how to build drinking troughs To know how to build water baths for pigs to cool down in
Figure 14: A Feeding Pig (Udo, 1985).
9.2 Feeding Troughs Troughs can be made of cement, iron, or hardwood. Troughs should be made with a smooth, rounded bottom which is easy to clean. Avoid sharp corners. Fill cracks or holes to prevent the growth of micro-organisms which could be harmful to health if taken with the feed. The trough should be long enough for all the animals in the pen to feed from it at the same time.
9.2.1 Can Pigs of Different Ages be Fed in the Same Trough?
Animals of different sizes should not be kept in the same enclosure. The stronger animals will fatten at the expense of the others.
If animals of different sizes have to be kept together, give each animal or group of animals a separate feeding space by enclosing them in railed-off sections (See Figure 15). These sections will have to be closed from behind.
Figure 15:Separate feeding for pigs (Udo, 1985)
9.2.2 Do Feeding Troughs Used By Pigs Need Cleaning?
Feeding troughs must be emptied of left over food and be regularly disinfected, since mouldy or rotting food will lead to diarrhoea which can be fatal to piglets. 9.3 Drinking Troughs A drinking trough should be made so that the water is always kept clean. Pigs should not get inside to sit or lie in the drinking trough. One way to prevent this is to make a concrete trough in the corner of a cement brick wall. One or more iron bars can be built over to allow the pigs to drink but not get inside. 9.4 Water Bath In very hot areas, a water bath should be provided in the run for the animals to cool down in. The bath should not be too deep (for older sows about 20cm deep; for younger animals even shallower). Care should be taken to prevent the piglets from drowning.
Figure 16: Water bath in a run (Eusebio, 1987)
The bath should be cleaned regularly to prevent the development of parasites and diseases. Cement is the most suitable construction material. A pit dug in the soil will quickly develop into an unmanageable mud bath. Why is it important to build different sizes of feed and water troughs?
Session 10: Types of Feed and Nutritional Requirements
10.1 Objectives To know the nutritional requirements of pigs To understand the importance and sources of fibre for pig feed To understand the role and sources of energy for pigs body functions To know the sources of protein for pigs To understand the functions and sources of vitamins and minerals 10.2 What Do Pigs Eat?
» Share your experiences on good feed for pigs. » Make a list of all the feeds you know are eaten by pigs.
Pigs are generally not particular about food. They can eat food of both animal and plant origin. Although they accept most foods, the quality of their food is important. Pigs won't thrive on grazing and fibrous feed alone.
» What are the problems associated with pigs having to eat
the same food as human beings? They come in direct competition for important parts of our production: the cereals, roots and tubers, milk and milk products. This means that pigs end up eating waste products. These include food processing by-products (bran, molasses), household leftovers and garden or agricultural waste.
» How could this be a problem? » Discuss the nutrients the pigs might miss out on when
eating only waste products. 10.3 Nutritional Requirements There are a number of essentials that must be provided through the feed to the pigs. These include fibre, energy, protein, minerals and vitamins.
Fibre is mainly bulky plant material. Like all animals, pigs need to fill their stomach and intestine with a certain amount of bulk. Pigs are not able to digest all fibres but it helps the stomach and intestines to function normally. Pigs prefer cereal grains and other seeds, meat products and tender plant material. The amount of crude fibre in a growing plant increases as it gets older. Stalky fibrous plants are therefore poorly digested by pigs. Mature dry grass can keep older animals alive, but is not good for physical development, growth and reproduction. The composition of pig feed should have less than 7% crude fibre. For younger pigs, the percentage is even lower.
A pig needs energy in its food because all body functions need energy.
What happens if a pig does not have enough energy?
A shortfall in energy results in slow or stunted growth, loss of weight, lowered reproduction and production of meat.
What sources of energy in pig feeds can be found easily?
Starchy foods like root and cereal crops are the cheapest. Except in years when there is a drought, cereals like maize, barley, wheat, sorghum and tubers like cassava are usually found locally. Oils and fats contain a lot of energy but are more expensive. Oil from sunflower can be made using a ram press. Mix in a little oil into the cereal meal to increase the energy content of the cereal. When there is a shortage of cereals and tubers, proteins can be used as an energy source but they are very expensive.
What other energy-feed can be given to pigs?
You can also feed your pigs with by-products from food processing. These may be from processing flour, oils and fats. Young green fodder, household leftover food and kitchen waste can also provide plenty of energy. Sugar is a very good source of energy. It is richer and can be obtained and fed in its non-purified form as molasses. Molasses should be used with care however, as it moulds and ferments very quickly. If given in large quantities, it can cause diarrhoea. Molasses is a useful additive to make unpalatable food more appetizing as it consists of over 45% sugar.
Energy in the form of fat
The fat in the feed affects the quality of the pork produced. Products with an oily fat, such as maize and rice, will give tender pork. Those whose fat stays firm even at high temperatures, such as dried coconut kernels, will give a compact bacon quality. For preservation purposes, this is important. The firmer the pork is, the longer it can be kept.
Group Exercise 11: Identify Energy Feeds in Your Area
i. What are the common feedstuffs used as sources of energy in pig feeds? ii. Make a list of all energy-feed found in your area or village and enter them in a table as below: Name of energy feed (put XXX if the feed is found in Availability large quantities, XX if found in moderate amounts, and X if found in small quantities)
Does this help you to decide which energy feed you can afford for the pigs?
Proteins make up the tissues of the body such as the muscles, bones, skin, hair, hooves, and the organs. Proteins are also involved in defending the body against diseases.
Why should protein be provided in the feed for pigs?
Protein is necessary for growth, breeding and milk production. The protein content of the feed is very important because pigs have no other source of protein.
What type of protein source makes high quality pig feed?
Protein of animal origin such as milk, meat and fish is normally of high quality. Animal waste and kitchen leftovers are therefore good sources of protein. Plant protein is less rich but the quality varies between plants. Soya is the best plant protein fed to pigs. Other legumes (pulses) such as cowpeas, pigeon peas, velvet beans and jack beans are also good sources of protein. Freshly ground groundnuts are a good source of protein but if stored, they become mouldy and poisonous. Lupin seeds (sweet lupin) are good, but cotton seeds, safflower seeds, and cabbage seeds are dangerous for pigs and should not be fed to them.
Group Exercise 12: Identify Protein Sources in Your Area
i. What are the locally available sources of protein that may be used as pig feedstuffs? ii. Make a list of all plant protein feeds found in your area or village and write them in a table as below: Name of plant protein feed (put XXX if plant is found in Availability large quantities, XX if found in moderate amounts, and X if found in small quantities. Also note if there is a difference between seasons)
Does this help you to decide which plants you can afford for the pigs?
What should be done to legumes or pulses to make them suitable for pigs to eat?
Legumes such as soybeans, cowpeas, beans, pigeon peas and velvet beans should be soaked in water overnight and then kept boiling for half a morning or half an afternoon. All legumes contain substances which interfere with the digestion of protein. These substances are destroyed by boiling. Velvet beans should be boiled in double the amount of water as the soaked beans. Then leave them soaking in the hot water used for boiling until the next day. After removing the water, the properly cooked and soaked velvet beans can be fed straight to the pigs.
» What do you know about growing legumes in rotation
with maize (or together with maize in the same field)? » Can this way of farming lead to increased maize and legume production for pig feed?
10.3.4 Vitamins and Minerals What are the functions of vitamins in the body?
Vitamins are necessary in small amounts for the health, growth, reproduction and maintenance of life of birds and animals. Each vitamin performs a specific function in the body and so one vitamin cannot replace the other. The fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K are absorbed together with fats in the feed and are stored in the body wherever fat is stored. The water-soluble vitamins C and B complex are not stored in the body. They have to be supplied to the animals on a daily basis.
What are minerals?
When an animal or plant is burnt, the ash contains the minerals that made up the material. Calcium and phosphorous are very important minerals as they give rigidity and strength to the skeleton. Iron is necessary for the formation and function of red blood cells.
How can vitamins and minerals be provided to pigs?
In a diet which contains different types of feeds, the vitamin supply will normally be enough. If no animal protein is fed, Vitamin B 12 levels may, however, not be enough to meet the needs of the pigs. Where vitamin compounds (with calcium and phosphorous) are available, a dose of 50 - 100 gm per day is advisable for pigs above 15kg. Boiling tubers and kitchen waste in seawater can also satisfy mineral requirements (with the exception of phosphorous). Bones and egg shells can be boiled in water and crushed to provide calcium and phosphorus. The bones should be boiled until the flesh on them comes off.
Why do pigs eat their own faeces?
In difficult circumstances, pigs will eat their own faeces. This behaviour is a way of increasing their nutrient intake. In dung, they find protein in the form of bacteria and a lot of vitamins, especially vitamin B 12 .
» Think about what you feed your pigs on. » Are they getting enough vitamins and minerals? » What other feedstuffs can be used as sources of
vitamins and minerals in pig feeds?
Why is drinking water important for pigs?
If a pig does not get enough water, its eating will reduce. The intake of nutrients will also reduce and the growth or reproduction will suffer. It is important for piglets to take a lot of milk because milk also supplies water.
Session 11: Feeding in Practice
11.1 Objectives To know how to feed breeding gilts and sows To know how to feed piglets To know how to feed weaners 11.2 Feeding Breeding Gilts and Sows During the weeks before mating, gilts and sows should be well fed with a protein-rich feed. With good feeding, the chances of producing a large litter increase. After mating, the ration can be reduced to the normal protein requirement of 13 %. In the final 5 weeks of pregnancy, the sow will need protein-rich food again. The piglets will be developing fast inside her. During lactation, sows should be given extra feed of approximately ½ kg meal per piglet per day, in addition to a ration of 1 kg meal (with 20% protein). A sow feeding or nursing a litter should continue to be fed a proteinrich feed until she has been serviced again.
8 7 6 5 kg feed 4 3 2 1
Figure 17: Sow feeding schedule (commercial feeds)
11.3 Piglets If sows are fed and given water properly they will be able to suckle their litter for 6 - 8 weeks. A longer period is not advisable. They will lose too much weight. At 3 - 4 weeks, piglets pass through a difficult stage. They need more milk than their mother can produce. The supply of iron with which they were born is almost used up. To supplement the iron deficiency, a shovel of soil should be put into the pen every day. In intensive systems, they use ironinjections. Wood ash provides other minerals. Piglets should be given easily digestible food (watery cereal porridge) until they start eating from the trough with the sow. The sow should be kept away from the piglets' feed. The piglets should get a little animal protein (18%). Young green fodder is very healthy for piglets. 11.4 Feeding Pigs from Weaning and Onwards Piglets that have just been weaned need protein-rich feed (20%protein) At about 3 months of age, this can be reduced to 13%. A young breeding boar will not need extra nutrition. To build up his strength correctly, it is important that his development is not forced.
Which ages of pigs should be given feed with the highest protein quality?
If milk or milk products, animal or fish meals are available, they should be fed in priority to the lactating sows and their piglets. Piglets recently weaned can also be given some for the first weeks after weaning. Can you buy good quality pig feeds in your area? Manufactured feeds usually have the right quantities of nutrients but they are expensive. What do you have to think about when making your own feed?
Session 12: Making a High Protein Ration
12.1 Objectives To understand the meaning of a ration To know how to mix different feedstuffs to meet the protein requirements of pigs To know how to make a farmer's ration To understand the commercial formulation of feeds 12.2 What is a Ration? A ration is a combination of different feedstuffs (ingredients). It should indicate how much of each feedstuff has been used and its nutritive value. A complete ration contains all the nutrients needed in proper proportions. In any ration, every feedstuff makes up a certain percentage of the mixture. The total mixture will add up to 100%. What determines the contribution of nutrients by a certain feedstuff in a ration? Answer: Percentage included Concentration of the nutrients. 1 2.2.1 What different protein sources can be mixed or combined to make a
feed with the right amount of protein for pigs?
Pigs in general need a daily ration with a minimum protein content of 13%. Protein sources common in Southern and Eastern Africa: Plant origin: Soya bean (meal) - 44% CP Coconut expeller - 21% CP Groundnut cake - 39% CP Sunflower cake - 29% CP Palm kernel cake - 15% CP
Animal origin Fish meal
- up to 65% CP Blood meal - up to 88% CP Meat & bone meal - 48 % CP Milk powder - 29 % CP Dried whey - 13% CP
Cereals and cereal waste will not provide more than 10% protein. Tuber and root crops are usually very poor in protein and must be supplemented with protein rich feed (soya, animal or fish meal or milk products). Synthetic amino acids - these are imported and available on the market. Methionine and lysine are the most critical for supplementation but with restrictions in terms of inclusion rates (0.1% to 0.35%). 1 2.2.2
How to mix different sources of proteins to make a feed with the right amount of proteins Example
We want to mix maize with CP of 9% and coconut expeller with CP of 21%. Find out how much of each should be mixed in order to obtain a feed with a CP of 13%. Using the dairymen's square
8 parts maize
13 Coconut expeller (21) 4 parts coconut expeller 12 parts mixture
Mix 8 parts of maize with 4 parts coconut expeller and the mixture will contain 13 % CP. The quantities expressed in percentages are: Maize 8 x 100 12 Coconut expeller 4 12 = 66.6% = 33.3%
12.3 Making Rations
12.3.1 Farmer Ration
Making your own rations can help keep your costs down considerably. Feed mixing must be done thoroughly. You might need to analyse samples from time to time. 20% Mix 1 Dried Comfrey fodder Preconditioned Velvet beans 20% Cereals 60% How to make preconditioned velvet beans: Soak the beans in cold water and leave it overnight Wash the beans in clean water the following day Boil the beans for 1 hour Rinse in cold water Dry in the sun Pound in mortar or grinding mill Mix 25% velvet bean powder with 75% cereal. Mix 2 Commercial pig feed 20% Grown fodder/ swill 80% This reduces feed costs up to 20%.
12.3.2 Commercial Formulation of Pig Feeds
How to formulate a commercial pig feed ration: Make a list of the ingredients available. Indicate the nutritive value of each: DE in Kca/kg feed, % DCP, % essential Amino acids (Methionine, lysine), % Crude fibre, Ca (Calcium) & P (Phosphorous) Compute the price per 100kg of the ingredient Determine safe maximum percentage and absolute minimum percentages (if any) Consider: Any toxic matter, influence on palatability and pork quality, availability of the ingredient, effect on the digestive tract. Use available methods to calculate the formulation for the required ration.
Table 1: A Formulation of a Commercial Lactating Sow Feed (Gikonyo, 2005)
GLOSSARY Colostrum: The milk produced by the sow after the birth of the piglets. It is rich in nutrients and anti-bodies against diseases, and is essential for new-born piglets. Complete mixtures: Feed purchased and sufficiently balanced to be fed without any other feed (except water) CP: Crude Protein, is the proportion of protein in feed material, expressed as a percentage DCP: Digestible Crude Protein, is the proportion of protein in a feed material, which can be digested pig, expressed as a percentage DE: Digestible Energy, is the amount of energy in feed material, which can be digested by the pig, expressed in Kilo calories per kilogram of feed. CF: Crude Fibre is the Proportion in a feed, of the hard and coarse plant material which is difficult to digest, expressed as a percentage. Dry Matter: The non-water content of feed: cereals for example consist of 20 - 30% water and 70 - 80% dry matter. Fatteners: Pigs destined for meat rather than for breeding. Foetus: The piglet in the womb of the sow before it is born; all parts of its body are recognisable. Gilt: A young female pig that has never had piglets. Heat: The period of about 3 days in which a sow is fertile and ready for mating (service). In-breeding: Excessive breeding of males with females that are closely related, resulting in deteriorating quality of offspring. In-pig: Pregnant. Kca/kg: Kilo Calories per kilogramme Lactation: Milk production, suckling offspring Litter: Either 1 - Bedding material, straw etc. or 2 - The group of piglets produced by a sow. Molasses: Dark syrup drained from sugar during refining, of great nutritive value. Nucleus feed: A concentrated feed purchased to add to local feedstuff to raise the quality of the ration. first
Oestrus: Period of excitement in female animals, the period the sow is prepared to meet the boar and able to become pregnant, also heat. Oestrus show: The signs of a sow's period of fertility, or heat. Placenta: The mass of tissue within the uterus by which the unborn animal is fed and which is expelled after the birth. Ruminants: Animals (cows, goats, sheep...) with a complex stomach enabling them to digest grasses and other vegetal foodstuff. To Service: The act of mating or coupling. Sow: Female pig. Still-born: Born dead, lifeless. Sucklings: The piglets when they are still dependent on the mother's milk. Umbilical cord: The string that joins the piglet to the placenta while in the uterus. Uterus: Organ in the female in which the unborn pig develops (also called womb). Vulva: The opening of the female organs of reproduction. To Wean: To end piglets' access to the mother's milk, whilst simultaneously accustoming them to solid food.
References 1. Devendra, C., Thomas D., Jabbar M. A. and Kudo H.; Improvement of Livestock Production in Crop-Animal System in Rainfed Agroecological Zones of South-East Asia; 1997, 116 pp., ILRI (International Livestock Research Institute), Nairobi, Kenya. ISBN: 92-9146-031-1. 2. Harris D. L.; Multi-Site Pig Production ; 2000, 280 pp., Iowa state University Press, Iowa,USA. ISBN: 813826993. 3. Holness, D. H; Pigs; Vol. 132, 1991, 150 pp., Macmillan Press Ltd., Basingstoke, UK. ISBN: 0333523083. 4 . Livestock Extension Book, 2003 : Livestock Production Department - Kenya 5. Malcolmson, R. W., Mastoris, S.; The English Pig : A History , 1998, 192 pp., Hambledon, London, UK. ISBN: 1852851740. 6. Musukwa, M.N.; Feeding Pigs 2005. ISBN 9982-56-011-5, Zambia 7. Musukwa, M.N.; Pig Housing and Equipment. ISBN 9982-56-012-3, Zambia 8. Musukwa, M. N.; Basics in Quality Pig Feed Mixing . ISBN 9982-56014-X, Zambia 9. Perez, R.; Feeding Pigs in the Tropics, 1997, 185 pp., FAO, Rome. ISBN: 92-5-103924-0. 10. Research Institute for Pig Husbandry; Applied Research in Pig Husbandry in the Netherlands , 1991, 28 pp., Rosmalen: Research Institute for Pig Husbandry. 11. Serres, H.; Manual of Pig Production in the Tropics 1992, 262 pp., , CAB International, Wallingford, UK. ISBN: 851987842. 12. Straw, B.E., D'Allaire S., Mengeling, W. L.; Diseases of Swine , 1999, 1256 pp., Blackwell Sciences, Oxford, UK. ISBN: 63205256. 13. Whittemore, C.T; The Science and Practice of Pig Production , 1998, 704 pp., Blackwell Sciences, Oxford, UK. ISBN: 0632 0500861.
PIG KEEPING FOR SMALL-SCALE FARMERS
STUDY CIRCLE MATERIAL
BOOK 1 REARING SYSTEMS, HOUSING & EQUIPMENT, FEEDING BOOK 2 BREEDS & BREEDING, FARROWING & CARE BOOK 3 MANAGEMENT, RECORD KEEPING, MARKETING © SCC AFRICA www.sccportal.org SCC Regional Office for Southern Africa Verona Gardens, 70 Livingstone Avenue, Harare, Zimbabwe Tel: +263 4 707494 Fax: +263 4 700136 email@example.com SCC, Zambia 93 Kudu Road, Kabulonga, P.O. Box 32012, Lusaka Tel: +260 211 260577 Fax: +260 211 261611 SCC & Vi Agroforestry Regional Office for Eastern Africa Lower Kabete, Ngecha Road, P.O. Box 45767, Nairobi, Kenya Tel: +254 20 4180201 firstname.lastname@example.org AGROMISA www.agromisa.org Postbus 41, 6700 Wageningen, The Netherlands Tel: +31 319 412217 Fax: +31 317 419178 email@example.com ISBN: 9982-55-013-6
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