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Otis Air National Guard Base, MA Historical Records Research Sources Contacted Report

MMRP Historical Records Research U.S. Air Force

HISTORICAL RECORDS RESEARCH SOURCES CONTACTED OTIS AIR NATIONAL GUARD BASE FALMOUTH, MA

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Historical Records Research (HRR) was conducted at off-site and non-local information repositories for Otis Air National Guard Base (ANGB) as part of the United States (U.S.) Air Force Military Munitions Response Program (MMRP) HRR at 137 Air Force Installations.

Searches at all sources listed in this report were also conducted for previous names identified for,

or associated with, Otis ANGB throughout the history of the installation. The HRR evaluated

historical documents associated with the historical boundaries of Otis ANGB including areas that may be outside of the current boundaries of the installation.

Background on the CSE/MMRP

At Otis ANGB and across the country, the U.S. Armed Forces have historically conducted live- firing, weapons testing, and munitions disposal to ensure military readiness. Decades of these munitions-related activities have resulted in the presence of unexploded ordnance (UXO), discarded military munitions (DMM), and Munitions Constituents (MC) on ranges and disposal areas throughout the country. UXO, DMM, and other materials potentially presenting an explosive hazard (MPPEH) are referred to as Munitions and Explosives of Concern (MEC). Due

to

changes in military structure and locations of installations, the military is currently using many

of

these ranges and disposal areas in ways that may be incompatible with the presence of MEC

or

MC contamination.

In 1986, Congress created the Defense Environmental Restoration Program to clean up sites owned or used by the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD). For nearly 20 years, this program has

focused on cleanup of hazardous chemicals (e.g., solvents, oils, pesticides) in environmental media. In September 2001, DoD established the MMRP to address hazards associated with MEC and MC within areas that are no longer used for operational range activities. These non- operational range areas are called Munitions Response Areas (MRAs) and may encompass one

or more discrete munitions response sites (MRSs). The goal of the Air Force MMRP is to make

MRAs safe for reuse while protecting human health and the environment. In December 2001, the Congress passed the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2002 that required DoD to develop and maintain an inventory of MRSs. This requirement is codified in Title 10, Section 2710 of the U.S. Code (10 USC 2710).

A critical component of the Air Force MMRP is the Comprehensive Site Evaluation (CSE),

which serves as the initial assessment of MRAs pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The Air Force is implementing the CSE in two phases. The CSE Phase I fulfills the requirements of the CERCLA Preliminary Assessment and Phase II fulfills the requirements of the CERCLA Site Investigation. This HRR-SC Report is an initial step to conducting the CSE Phases I and II. Research conducted for this HRR-SC Report

Otis Air National Guard Base, MA Historical Records Research Sources Contacted Report

MMRP Historical Records Research U.S. Air Force

was designed to identify information available from sources external to the installation and local information sources. If potential MRAs are identified as a result of this research, a full CSE Phase I investigation may be performed. The CSE Phase I includes a site inspection, which incorporates a review of on-site data repositories, field reconnaissance of potential MRAs, interviews with appropriate personnel, and a review of local information sources. The 137 Air Force installations included in this HRR search have no identified MRAs, and the purpose of the HRR for these installations is to systematically evaluate each installation to provide assurance that MRAs have not been missed or omitted from the MMRP. The information collected during the HRR will be utilized to make a recommendation that an installation should proceed to a CSE Phase I or that historical documentation indicates potential MMRP sites are not associated with the installation. If evidence of MMRP sites is found, the installation will go through the CSE Phase I/Site Inspection process, at a minimum.

Background on Otis ANGB

Otis ANGB is an Air National Guard installation located within the Massachusetts Military Reservation (MMR), a military training facility, located on the upper western portion of Cape Cod, in Falmouth, Barnstable County, MA. It was previously known as Otis Air Force Base (AFB) prior to its transfer from the active duty Air Force to the Air National Guard. In the community, it is also known as Otis Air Base or more commonly by its old name, Otis AFB. The Air National Guard Resource Book for 2008 listed six Air National Guard Units at the Otis ANGB: 102 nd Fighter Wing, 101 st Flight Squadron, 202 nd Weather Flight, 253 rd Combat Communications Group, 267 th Combat Communications Squadron, and 567 th Band.

The host unit on Otis ANGB is the 102 nd Intelligence Wing, an Air Combat Command (ACC)- gained unit of the Massachusetts Air National Guard. Part of the facility is also called Cape Cod Air Force Station (Cape Cod AFS), as well Coast Guard Air Station Cape Cod (CGAS Cape Cod), operating the HU-25 Guardian and HH-60J Jayhawk.

NOTE: The property known as Otis ANGB today has undergone changes to its boundary over time. At one time, it included a much larger portion of the area surrounding its current boundaries. Today Camp Edwards occupies those areas. The area that Camp Edwards occupies today has MMRP sites that were once inside the Otis AFB boundary. As a result, this HRR-SC Report focuses only on that property within the current day Otis ANGB boundary. The following history, taken from the Massachusetts National Guard web site, discusses Camp Edwards, the MMR, and Otis ANGB to assist in understanding the overlap of boundaries and activities.

History Pre World War II - The history of Massachusetts National Guard training on Upper Cape Cod extends back to 1908, when soldiers conducted weekend and annual training in the woods to the south and west of present-day MMR. In 1931, the Adjutant-General of Massachusetts appointed a board of six Army National Guard officers to find a new campsite, as Camp Devens was deemed too small for required training. In 1933, Cape Cod was initially identified as a viable area for the new camp, to mixed reaction from the local communities. Feasibility assessments, and letters for and against the proposed military reservation, continued to be presented to the Commonwealth and the War Department through April 1935, when then

Otis Air National Guard Base, MA Historical Records Research Sources Contacted Report

MMRP Historical Records Research U.S. Air Force

Governor James Curley signed a bill to appropriate funds for the purchase of a campsite and to establish a Military Reservation Commission. In September of that year, the War Department approved acquisition (purchase or lease) of up to 200,000 acres of land in Cape Cod for military training.

As early as the summer of 1936, Massachusetts National Guard units began formal training at the new camp, setting up large tent camps just north of the proposed cantonment area. These early troops were generally poorly equipped, often wearing World War I uniforms and using wooden guns or Enfield rifles for training exercises.

The Construction Years, 1935 to 1940 - Between 1935 and 1940, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts and the Federal Government, primarily using Works Project Administration (WPA) funds, constructed 63 buildings (all but Buildings 102 and the old Williams Hospital have since been demolished) and two 500-foot wide turf runways at Otis Field. In July 1938, then Governor Charles Hurley dedicated Camp Edwards, naming it in honor of Major General Clarence Edwards, former commander of the 26 th (Yankee) Division. Otis Field was named after 1LT Frank J. Otis, 26 th (Yankee) Division Aviation, killed while on a cross-country flight.

In 1940, the U.S. Army leased Camp Edwards and undertook a major World War II mobilization construction program. The project was completed in a mere 125 days (September 1940 to January 1941) and served as the national prototype for other camps built using the 700 series drawings.

Otis Field - In 1941, the 101 st Observation Squadron, Massachusetts National Guard, which had been at Jeffries Field, East Boston (now Logan International Airport), was inducted into Federal service and moved to Otis Field. It served the Ninth Air Force as a reconnaissance unit. Otis Field's first concrete runways were laid in 1942, and were lengthened and widened in 1943 in response to technological developments of U.S. aircraft.

As the primary reconnaissance efforts from MMR involved sea patrols for enemy vessels, the objective of the MMR mission was to provide offshore submarine patrols. The U.S. Army Air Corps 14 th Anti-Submarine Patrol Squadron operated from MMR between 1941 and 1943, and, during 1944, all reconnaissance missions from Otis Field became the responsibility of the U.S. Navy.

Deactivated in 1946 and moved to caretaker status by the Army, the MMR was used primarily for training activities by the Army National Guard and Air National Guard. Also in 1946, the runway was extended to 8,000 feet to support larger, heavier aircraft, and the 101 st Observation Squadron was reactivated as a National Guard unit. In 1947, after the Department of Defense created the U.S. Air Force as a separate military branch, the Air Defense Command (ADC) assumed primary responsibility for continental defense against air attack. The Strategic Air Command (SAC) was responsible for operation of the long-range bomber aircraft. The relationship of the U.S. Air Force to the National Guard was established at this time, when the Air National Guard agreed to take on localized air defense of industrialized regions of the U.S. In 1948, the U.S. Air Force obtained control of Otis Field (renamed Otis AFB) for an air-defense mission and assigned a fighter interceptor unit.

Otis Air National Guard Base, MA Historical Records Research Sources Contacted Report

MMRP Historical Records Research U.S. Air Force

Camp Edwards was reactivated in 1950 for troop training support during the Korean conflict, and numbers approached World War II levels. In 1954, Congress authorized the transfer of the post from the Department of the Army to the Department of the Air Force, for the purpose of operating a military airfield. The Air Force expanded its operations across most of the main post, but the Army continued to control the range and maneuver areas. (emphasis added)

Otis AFB in the Cold War - Between 1951 and about 1956, the Air Force constructed numerous new hangars and other buildings on the south side of the airfield at Otis. Otis, along with Hanscom Field at Bedford, Massachusetts, and Ethan Allen Field at Burlington, Vermont, were the three major fields of the Air Defense Command. Throughout the late 1940s and early 1950s, DoD continued its defensive build-up in response to Soviet atomic capability and long- range bombers, and the ADC built a series of alert fighter hangars at installations supporting the air defense interceptor mission. As one of these installations, Otis fulfilled its role through the crews and aircraft of the 33rd Fighter-Interceptor Wing, whose headquarters were established at Otis. The 564 th Air Defense Group (58 th and 437 th Fighter Squadrons) was also based at and conducted missions from Otis. The 564 th was later re-designated the 33 rd Air Defense Group.

In 1955, the ADC's 551 st Airborne Early Warning and Control Wing was assigned to Otis AFB to conduct reconnaissance missions and expand the U.S. defense perimeter. The 551 st operated large four engine Constellation Aircraft ("Connies") that were modified to conduct long-range flights over the Atlantic Ocean. Other ADC units conducting air defense missions from Otis AFB at this time included the 4707 th Defense Wing, the 33 rd Fighter Wing, and the 58 th and 60 th Fighter-Interceptor Squadrons.

During the late 1950s and early 1960s, Otis AFB played a role in the technologically advanced national defense Semi-Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE) system, which provided long- range search, height, and identification radar and ground-to-air radio communications for the North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD). NORAD's mission was to provide continuous long-range radar surveillance of the North American land mass using a pioneering air defense system that focused upon missile defense. The first SAGE Direction Center was operational in 1958. Full deployment in the 22 air defense sectors in the U.S. and one air defense sector in Canada was achieved by 1963. Otis AFB served as a node in gap-filler radar and flight support.

In 1959, the Air Force constructed a counterpart to the Army's Nike missiles, the Boeing Michigan Aeronautical Research Center (BOMARC) anti-aircraft missile facility, on a site northwest of the airfield as part of a nation-wide surface-to-air defense system. Otis was one of eight such facilities in the country.

In 1977, Otis AFB was officially redistributed with the establishment of boundary lines which divided the complex into several installations, all within the confines of the original base. Established was Otis ANGB, Camp Edwards, and the Coast Guard Air Station Cape Cod (which shares the base's runways). Together they form the Massachusetts Military Reservation, where 17 other state, federal and private entities operate within its boundaries.

Otis Air National Guard Base, MA Historical Records Research Sources Contacted Report

MMRP Historical Records Research U.S. Air Force

In 1978, the Air Force returned with the construction of the Precision Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased Array Warning System (PAVE PAWS) near the Cape Cod Canal. PAVE PAWS is designed to detect airborne ballistic missiles and monitor orbiting satellites.

In August of 1968, the 102 nd became a tenant unit at Otis Air Force Base (AFB). The return to Otis for the 102 nd was fitting indeed. The 101 st Observation Squadron, forerunner of the 102 nd Fighter Interceptor Wing, was the original occupant of the Otis Field and was instrumental in its construction on the Camp Edwards property. The original intent of Otis Field was for utilization by National Guard aircraft.

Historical Records Research Summary

The Historical Records Research included a review of documents at the following off-site repositories:

The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA)

NARA Archives I, Washington, DC – No documents were found relevant to this report.

NARA Archives II College Park, MD – The following information was obtained:

- Bombing Range (Off-Installation) – Correspondence from April through July 1943 discusses need for surface danger zone at the Bombing Range at Otis Army Airfield, Camp Edwards. The bombing range was reported as located between Coast Guard Stations Numbers 42 and 44, (41° 36’ North, 69° 59’ West; these coordinates are adjacent to Monomoy Island, Cape Cod, MA). Correspondence from 18-Dec-1943 discusses transferring jurisdiction of the Monomoy Point Pattern Bombing Range on Cape Cod from Otis Field to Westover Field.

- Chemical Warfare Training/Materiel – Correspondence from 18-Nov-42 requested the construction of gas instructional building for Army Air Base, Otis Field, Camp Edwards, MA. No information on the location of the proposed gas instructional building was included. The first Endorsement for the construction was issued 25- Nov-42. Correspondence from January and February 1943 cancelled requests for a toxic gas yard and chemical warfare storage for Otis Field.

- Ordnance Area – A 16-Jan-43 letter described the then current ordnance storage conditions at Otis Field. Bombs were stored in the open with no protection other than a twenty-four (24) hour guard. There was a fire brick warehouse which served as storage for pyrotechnics. Small Arms ammunition was stored in a tin shed approximately 15’ X 15’. The shed was located on the main road of the Base under high tension wires near barracks, a hangar, and a dispensary. By 23-Feb-43, the construction of new magazines to correct the storage problem was 45% complete and being expedited. The location of the new ordnance area was not included in the information. On 3-Jul-71, the Massachusetts Air National Guard Base Civil Engineer made a request to update the Air National Guard’s Real Property License at Otis AFB to add Building 120-Rocket Storage. The request noted that the “main storage of rockets is co-located with base ammunition storage area which is approximately six (6) miles from the ANG Flight Line.”

Otis Air National Guard Base, MA Historical Records Research Sources Contacted Report

MMRP Historical Records Research U.S. Air Force

NARA Northeast Region, Boston, MA – The information found relevant to this HRR- SC Report included the following:

- Target Butt On 5-Jun-62, an “Invitation for Bids, Bid and Acceptance; Sale and Removal of Buildings (or other Real Estate Improvements) located at - Otis AFB, Falmouth, MA” included Building No. 5001, a 909 square foot Range Control House. The information did not include the type of range or location of the range. [NOTE:

This site was identified as a target butt due to the references to a range house at a target butt at other sites investigated as part of the 137 CSE Phase I MMRP investigations.]

National Personnel Records Center, St. Louis, MO – No documents were found relevant to this report.

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE)

USACE Topographic Engineering Center and Image Office, Alexandria, VA – The USACE Topographic Engineering Center and Image Office was contacted about its capabilities to support the acquisition of historical aerial photographs for this project. Unfortunately, the office did not have a collection of historical aerial photographs for the installations under investigation; it was unable to query its database to determine an inventory of available aerial photographs; and its image inventory does not include historical aerial photographs maintained by NARA or other archives.

USACE Office of History, Alexandria, VA – No documents were found related to this HRR-SC Report at the USACE Office of History.

USACE St. Louis District, St. Louis, MO – The 1-Oct-57, “Otis Air Force Base, MA” map was collected that included:

- Ordnance Area – Located in the southeastern portion of the installation.

U.S. Army

U.S. Army Research, Development and Engineering Command, Aberdeen, MD – Two sources of historical information were researched at the U.S. Army Research, Development, and Engineering Command at Edgewood Arsenal, MD.

- Historical Research and Response Center – No documents were found relevant to this report.

- Edgewood Chemical Biological Center Technical Library – Based on the recommendation of the Edgewood Chemical Biological Center Technical Library staff, no research was conducted at this facility.

U.S. Army Center of Military History, Fort McNair, VA – No documents were found related to this HRR-SC Report.

U.S. Army Institute of Military History, Carlisle Barracks, PA – The reference historian at the U.S. Army Institute of Military History, Carlisle Barracks, PA reported that nothing was found in the facility’s collection for this installation.

U.S. Air Force

Air Force Historical Research Agency – The following information was obtained:

- Bombing Range (Off-Installation) – Correspondence from 19-Jun-43 discusses the need of a surface danger zone at the Bombing Range. No location for the bombing

Otis Air National Guard Base, MA Historical Records Research Sources Contacted Report

MMRP Historical Records Research U.S. Air Force

range was included in any of the documents; however, it is likely the Monomoy Bombing Range found in documents from NARA’s Archive II in College park, MD.

Air Force History Support Office – No research was conducted at the Air Force History Support Office since it was determined that the documents would be duplicative of the documents with AFHRA at Maxwell AFB, AL.

Air Force Safety Center – The Air Force Safety Center, located at Kirtland AFB, Albuquerque, NM, formerly maintained the Information Preservation System. The Information Preservation System contained scanned Air Force historical documents obtained from both the Air Force Safety Center and non-Air Force archives. Unfortunately, due to a lack of funding, the Information Preservation System is no longer available for research.

Air Force Civil Engineer Support Agency – The Air Force Civil Engineer Support Agency maintains historic records for Explosive Ordnance Disposal. The files were searched and various Explosive Ordnance Reports were found. However, no information relevant to this HRR-SC Report was contained in these reports.

Department of Defense

Defense Technical Information Center – The DoD’s DTIC Online Database was accessed at www.dtic.mil and no documents relevant to this report were found.

Defense Environmental Programs Annual Report to Congress – The following sites, related to Otis ANGB, were found in the DEP ARC web site.

- Camp Edwards – Federal Facility Identification Number (FFID) MA19799F177300, FUDS Property No. D01MA000900. The accompanying map with the DEP ARC file for Camp Edwards included: a mortar range. [NOTE: This mortar range is off- installation.]

- Camp Edwards – FFID MA121182517500, no FUDS Property Number. There was no accompanying map for this FFID, but the DEP ARC report lists seven ranges. [NOTE: It is assumed these ranges are off-installation.]

- Monomoy Island Gun Range – FFID MA19799F187600, FUDS Property No. D01MA024501. Two Sites were identified: Bombing Range and Air-to-Ground Gunnery Range.

Library of Congress

Three documents were found at the Library of Congress. The first document, Spiegel, Camp Edwards, Mass., was in German and contained articles by German Prisoners of War detained at Camp Edwards. The second and third documents were two maps dated 1949 and 1977. Both showed the location of Camp Edwards in connection to Otis Air Force Base. The following information was obtained from the maps:

- Ordnance Area – The map from 1977 shows an ordnance area south of the runways in the southeast corner of the installation.

- Target Butt – The map from 1949 shows a target butt running southeast from the taxiway between the NW-SE and NE-SW runways.

Otis Air National Guard Base, MA Historical Records Research Sources Contacted Report

MMRP Historical Records Research U.S. Air Force

Aerial Photographs

Aerial photographs from the 1940s, 1950s, 1960s, and present day were obtained and reviewed for this HRR-SC Report. The aerial photographs reviewed for this report show the following information:

- Ordnance Area 1 – An ordnance area is visible southwest of the southern end of the northwest-southeast runway on the October 1951 aerial photograph. On the 1951 photograph, the northeast-southwest runway is encroaching on the ordnance area indicating that it is no longer in use.

- Ordnance Area (Post World War II Era) – On the 1966 photographs, the ordnance area seen on the 1951 aerial photograph is gone and a newer ordnance area is visible to the east. This new ordnance area remains visible on the later aerial photographs and today on proprietary sources such as Google Earth®. It appears to be an active ordnance storage area.

- Ordnance Area 2 – An ordnance area is visible in the 1947 aerial photographs south of the X formed by the intersection of northeast-southwest runways (5-23) and the northwest-southeast runways (14-32). It is not seen in later aerial photographs. The area is now paved over by aircraft aprons.

- Skeet Range – A skeet range is visible east of Ordnance Area 2 and northeast of the target butt in the 1947 aerial photographs. The skeet range is not seen in later aerial photographs.

- Target Butt – A target butt is visible southwest of the southern end of the northwest- southeast runway on the October 1951, 1966, 2006, and current aerial proprietary sources such as Google Earth®. It appears that it is no longer in use as of the 1966 aerial photograph. Currently, it is no longer in use. The concrete apron used for the firing point is still intact and portions of the target berm may still be in place. The entire target butt appears to lie within the safety area of the active ordnance area described above.

Results of the Historical Records Research

The HRR identified potential MMRP Sites based on the review of off-site repositories. Several MRAs were identified as historically-related to Otis ANGB, but were at off-installation locations or are being addressed under the FUDS Program:

MMRP Site

FUDS Property

Comments

Numbers

Bombing Range

D01MA024501

Monomoy Island, Cape Cod, MA. A Bombing Range and Air to Ground Gunnery Range were identified for Monomoy Island.

Ranges and Maneuver Areas; Chemical Warfare Training/Materiel

D01MA000900

The property known as Otis ANGB today has undergone changes to its boundary over time. At one time, it included a much larger portion of the area surrounding its current boundaries. Today Camp Edwards occupies those areas. The area that Camp Edwards occupies today has MMRP sites that were once inside the Otis AFB boundary. As a result, this HRR-SC Report focuses only on that property within the current day Otis ANGB boundary. All the Ranges and Maneuver Areas and the Chemical Warfare Training/Materiel are attributed to Camp Edwards.

Otis Air National Guard Base, MA Historical Records Research Sources Contacted Report

MMRP Historical Records Research U.S. Air Force

The HRR identified potential MRAs that are not associated with the FUDS Program. As a result, a CSE Phase I should be completed to determine if additional MRAs are present at Otis ANGB. The following table summarizes the MMRP areas for Otis ANGB based on a review of the documents collected for this HRR-SC Report:

Potential MMRP Site

Estimated Acreage

Comments

Ordnance Area 1 (World War II Era)

To be determined (TBD)

Two ordnance areas were found on the southeastern portion of Otis ANGB. The WW II era ordnance area was replaced by expansion of runways, parking aprons and other construction. No DEP ARC MMRP information was found for either ordnance area. No reports of fire of or explosion were found for either ordnance area.

Ordnance Area (Post World War II Era)

TBD

Two ordnance areas were found on the southeastern portion of Otis ANGB. The post WW II era ordnance area is still in place and appears to be an active ordnance storage area. No DEP ARC MMRP information was found for either ordnance area. No reports of fire of or explosion were found for either ordnance area.

Ordnance Area 2 (World War II Era)

TBD

Ordnance area 2, separate from the ordnance areas described above, was found in the 1947 aerial photograph south of the X formed by the intersection of northeast-southwest runways (5-23) and the northwest- southeast runways (14-32). Currently, its location is paved over by aircraft parking aprons.

Skeet Range

30

A

skeet range was visible east of Ordnance Area 2 and northeast of

the target butt in the 1947 aerial photographs. The skeet range is not seen in later aerial photographs and has been replaced by new

construction. Acreage from Army Range Inventory, Appendix E of Data Collector Instructions, September 2001.

Target Butt

1,043

A

target butt was found on the southeastern portion of Otis ANGB.

The firing point and target berm appear to lie within the safety zone of the current ordnance area. Acreage from Army Range Inventory,

Appendix E of Data Collector Instructions, September 2001.

TOTAL ACRES

1,073

 

Otis Air National Guard Base, MA Historical Records Research Sources Contacted Report

MMRP Historical Records Research U.S. Air Force

HISTORICAL RECORDS RESEARCH SOURCES CONTACTED OTIS AIR NATIONAL GUARD BASE FALMOUTH, MA

Table of Contents

Section

 

Page

1.0

INTRODUCTION

 

1

1.1 Background

1

1.2 Purpose of this HRR-SC Report

4

1.3 Otis ANGB

4

1.4 Document Numbering System

7

1.5 Report Organization

8

2.0

NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION

10

2.1 Introduction to NARA

 

10

2.1.1 NARA Research Methodology

11

2.1.2 NARA Record Groups Selected for Review

11

2.2 NARA Washington, DC

 

13

2.2.1 NARA Archives I, Washington, DC

13

 

2.2.1.1 Archives I On-Line Research

13

2.2.1.2 Archives I On-Site Research

13

2.2.1.3 Results of the Records Research at Archives I

13

 

2.2.2 NARA Archives II, College Park, MD

13

 

2.2.2.1 Archives II On-Line Research

14

2.2.2.2 Archives II On-Site Research

14

2.2.2.3 Results of the Records Research at Archives II

19

 

2.3 NARA Northeast Region, Boston, MA

 

19

2.3.1

NARA Northeast Region On-Line Research

20

 

2.3.1.1 Record Group 18:

Records of the Army Air Forces

21

2.3.1.2 Record Group 26: Records of the U.S. Coast Guard

21

2.3.1.3 Record Group 30: Records of the Bureau of Public Roads

24

2.3.1.4 Record Group 38: Records of the Office of the Chief of Naval

Operations

24

2.3.1.5 Record Group 48: Records of the Office of the Secretary of the

Interior

25

2.3.1.6 Record Group 52: Records of the Bureau of Medicine and Surgery

25

2.3.1.7 Record Group 57: Records of the U.S. Geological Survey

26

2.3.1.8 Record Group 71: Records of the Bureau of Yards and Docks27

2.3.1.9 Record Group 77: Records of the Office of the Chief of Engineers

27

2.3.1.10 Record Group 92: Records of the Office of the Quartermaster General

29

2.3.1.11 Record Group 96: Records of the Farmers Home

Administration

30

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2.3.1.12 Record Group 111: Records of the Office of the Chief Signal Officer

31

2.3.1.13 Record Group 112: Records of the Office of the Surgeon General (Army)

31

2.3.1.14 Record Group 121: Records of the Public Buildings Service

32

2.3.1.15 Record Group 127: Records of the U.S. Marine Corps

33

2.3.1.16 Record Group 145: Records of the Farms Service Agency

34

2.3.1.17 Record Group 156: Records of the Office of the Chief of Ordnance

34

2.1.3.18 Record Group 165: Records of the War Department General and Special Staffs

35

2.3.1.19 Record Group 181: Records of Naval Districts and Shore Establishments

36

2.3.1.20 Record Group 234: Records of the Reconstruction Finance Corporation, 1928-1968

37

2.3.1.21 Record Group 237: Records of the Federal Aviation Administration

38

2.3.1.22 Record Group 269: Records of the General Services Administration

38

2.3.1.23 Record Group 270: Records of the War Assets Administration

39

2.3.1.24 Record Group 291: Records of the Federal Property Resources

 

Service

39

2.3.1.25 Record Group 319: Records of the Army Staff

40

2.3.1.26 Record Group 336: Records of the Office of the Chief of Transportation, 1917-1966

40

2.3.1.27 Record Group 338: Records of the U.S. Army Commands

41

2.3.1.28 Record Group 407: Records of the Adjutant General’s Office, 1917- [NOTE: No end date provided.]

42

2.3.1 NARA Northeast Region On-Site Research

43

2.3.2 Results of the Records Research at NARA Northeast Region

43

 

2.4

National Personnel Records Center, St. Louis, MO

43

 

2.4.1 NPRC On-Line Research

43

2.4.2 NPRC On-Site Research

43

2.4.3 Results of the Records Research at the NPRC

44

3.0

U.S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS

45

3.1

USACE Topographic Engineering Center Alexandria, VA

45

 

3.1.1 Background on the USACE TEC and TIO

45

3.1.2 Results of the Records Research at the USACE TEC and TIO

46

 

3.2

USACE Office of History, Alexandria, VA

46

 

3.2.1 Background on the USACE Office of History

46

3.2.2 Results of the Records Research at the USACE Office of History

47

 

3.3

USACE St. Louis District, St. Louis, MO

47

4.0

U.S. ARMY

48

4.1

U.S. Army Research, Development and Engineering Command, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD

48

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4.1.1 Historical Research and Response Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD

48

4.1.1.1 Results of the Records Research at the Historical Research and

 

Response Center Research

48

4.1.2 Edgewood Chemical Biological Center Technical Library, Edgewood Arsenal, MD

48

4.1.2.1

Results of the Records Research at the Edgewood Chemical Biological Center Technical Library

48

4.2 U.S. Army Center of Military History, Ft. McNair, VA

49

4.2.1 Results of the Records Research at U.S. Army Center of Military History

 

49

 

4.3 U.S. Army Institute of Military History, Carlisle Barracks, PA

49

 

4.3.1

Results of the Records Research at the U.S. Army Institute of Military History

49

5.0

U.S. AIR FORCE

50

5.1 Air Force Historical Research Agency

50

 

5.1.1 Air Force Historical Research Agency Research Methodology

51

 

5.1.1.1 Card Catalog and IRIS

51

5.1.1.2 Finding Aid – U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Site Listing

51

 

5.1.2 Results of the Records Research at the Air Force Historical Research Agency

51

 

5.2 Air Force History Support Office, Bolling AFB, Washington, DC

52

 

5.2.1

Results of the Records Research at the Air Force History Support Office52

 

5.3 Air Force Safety Center, Kirtland AFB, NM

52

 

5.3.1

Results of the Records Research at the Air Force Safety Center

53

 

5.4 Air Force Civil Engineer Support Agency, Tyndall AFB, FL

53

 

5.4.1

Results of the Records Research at the Air Force Civil Engineer Support

 

Agency

54

6.0

DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE

55

6.1 Defense Technical Information Center

55

 

6.1.1 On-Line Research

55

6.1.2 Results of the Records Research Using DTIC Online

55

6.1.3 On-Site Research

56

 

6.2 Defense Environmental Restoration Programs Report to Congress

57

 

6.2.1 DEP ARC On-Line Research

57

6.2.2 Results of the Records Research Using DEP ARC On-Line

57

7.0

LIBRARY OF CONGRESS

58

7.1 Background

 

58

7.2 Library of Congress On-Line Research

58

7.3 Library of Congress On-Site Research

58

7.4 Results of the Records Research at the Library of Congress

58

8.0

AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHS

60

8.1 Background on Aerial Photograph Research

60

8.2 Results of the Aerial Photograph Research

60

9.0

SUMMARY OF THE RECORDS RESEARCH

62

9.1

Records Research

62

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9.2 Results of the Records Research

62

9.3 Summary and Recommendation

66

Figure 1: Installation Location

2

Figure 2: Installation Boundary

3

Figure 3: Potential MRAs

68

Appendix A – Document Index

Attachment – Supporting Documents

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ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

AAATC

Anti-aircraft Artillery Training Center

AAF

Army Air Field

ACC

Air Combat Command

ADC

Air Defense Command

AFB

Air Force Base

AFCESA

Air Force Civil Engineer Support Agency

AFHRA

Air Force Historical Research Agency

AFHSO

Air Force History Support Office

AFSC

Air Force Safety Center

AGS

Air Guard Station

ANGB

Air National Guard Base

ANG

Air National Guard

APSRS

Aerial Photography Summary Record System

ARC

Annual Report to Congress

BOMARC

Boeing Michigan Aeronautical Research Center

CERCLA

Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act

CMA

Chemical Materials Agency

CMH

Center of Military History

CSE

Comprehensive Site Evaluation

CSIL

Commercial Satellite Imagery Library

DDR&E

Director, Defense Research & Engineering

DEP

Defense Environmental Programs

DMM

Discarded Military Munitions

DoD

Department of Defense

DTIC

Defense Technical Information Center

ECBC

Edgewood Chemical Biological Center

EOD

Explosive Ordnance Disposal

EROS

Earth Resources Observation Systems

ESIC

Earth Science Information Service

FAA

Federal Aviation Agency

FHA

Farmers Home Administration

FSA

Farm Security Administration

FUDS

Formerly Used Defense Site

GSA

General Services Administration

HRR

Historical Records Research

HRRC

Historical Research and Response Center

HRR-SC

HRR Sources Contacted

IFSAR

Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar

IKONOS

from the Greek word for “Image”

IPS

Information Preservation System

IRIS

Inferential Retrieval Indexing System

IRS

Indian Remote Sensing

ITRC

Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council

ITSI

Innovative Technical Solutions, Inc.

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LIDAR

Light Detection and Ranging

MARC

Machine-Readable Cataloging

MC

Munitions Constituents

MEC

Munitions and Explosives of Concern

MMR

Massachusetts Military Reservation

MMRP

Military Munitions Response Program

MPPEH

Materials Potentially Presenting an Explosive Hazard

MRA

Munitions Response Area

MRS

Munitions Response Site

MS

Mulitspectral

NARA

National Archives and Records Administration

NCP

National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan

NENYIAC

New England New York Inter-Agency Committee

NGA

National Geospatial Agency

NORAD

North American Aerospace Defense Command

NPRC

National Personnel Records Center

OCE

Office of the Chief of Engineers

OCE/P

Office of the Assistant Chief of Engineers

PAN

Panchromatic

PATCO

Professional Air Traffic Controllers Organization

PMDS

Property Management and Disposal Service

PM NBC

PM Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Defense

POW

Prisoner-of-War

RADARSAT

RADAR Satellite

RDECOM

Research, Development and Engineering Command

RFC

Reconstruction Finance Corporation

RG

Record Group

SAC

Strategic Air Command

SAGE

Semi-Automatic Ground Environment

SAR

Synthetic Aperture Radar

SBCCOM

Soldier and Biological Chemical Command

SPOT

Systems Probatoire d’Observation de La Terre

SOS

Service of Supply

SSC

Soldiers Systems Center

STINET

Scientific & Technical Information Network

TEC

Topographic Engineering Center

TIO

TEC Imagery Office

TLI

TLI Solutions, Inc.

U.S.

United States

USACE

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

USAMHI

U.S. Army Institute of Military History

USDA

U.S. Department of Agriculture

USGS

U.S. Geological Survey

UXO

Unexploded Ordnance

WAA

War Assets Administration

WPA

Works Project Administration

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1.0

INTRODUCTION

TLI Solutions, Inc. (TLI) is a subcontractor to Innovative Technical Solutions, Inc. (ITSI) who is, in turn, under contract with the United States (U.S.) Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Omaha District, to conduct U.S. Air Force Military Munitions Response Program (MMRP) Historical Records Research (HRR) at 137 Air Force installations. TLI has been tasked with conducting the HRR for off-site and non-local information repositories for the 137 Air Force facilities. This HRR Sources Contacted (HRR-SC) Report summarizes research that was conducted for Otis Air National Guard Base (ANGB) near Falmouth, Massachusetts (see Figures 1 and 2). Searches at all sources listed in this report were also conducted for previous names identified for Otis ANGB at one time throughout the history of the installation. The HRR evaluated historical documents associated with the historical boundaries of Otis ANGB including areas that may be outside of the current boundaries of the installation.

1.1 Background

In 1986, Congress created the Defense Environmental Restoration Program to clean up sites owned or used by the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD). For nearly 20 years, this program has focused on cleanup of hazardous chemicals (e.g., solvents, oils, pesticides) in environmental media. In September 2001, DoD established the MMRP to address hazards associated with Munitions and Explosives of Concern (MEC) and Munitions Constituents (MC) within areas that are no longer used for operational range activities. These non-operational range areas are called Munitions Response Areas (MRAs) and may encompass one or more discrete munitions response sites (MRSs). The goal of the Air Force MMRP is to make MRAs safe for reuse while protecting human health and the environment. In December 2001, the Congress passed the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2002 that required DoD to develop and maintain an inventory of MRSs. This requirement is codified in Title 10, Section 2710 of the U.S. Code (10 USC 2710).

A critical component of the Air Force MMRP is the Comprehensive Site Evaluation (CSE),

which serves as the initial assessment of MRAs pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The Air Force is implementing the CSE in two phases. The CSE Phase I fulfills the requirements of the CERCLA Preliminary Assessment and Phase II fulfills the requirements of the CERCLA Site Investigation. This HRR-SC Report is an initial step to conducting the CSE Phases I and II. Research conducted for this report was designed to identify information available from sources external to the installation and local information sources. If potential MRAs are identified as a result of this research, a full CSE Phase I investigation may be performed. The CSE Phase I includes a site inspection, which incorporates a review of on-site data repositories, field reconnaissance of potential MRAs, interviews with appropriate personnel, and a review of local information sources. The installations included in this HRR search have no identified MRAs, and the purpose of the HRR

for these installations is to systematically evaluate each installation to provide assurance that MRAs have not been missed or omitted. The information collected during the HRR will be utilized to make a recommendation that an installation should proceed to a CSE Phase I or that historical documentation indicates potential MMRP sites are not associated with the installation.

If evidence of MMRP sites is found, the installation will go through the CSE Phase I/Site

Inspection process, at a minimum.

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Research Sources Contacted Report MMRP Historical Records Research U.S. Air Force TLI Solutions, Inc. 2 August

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Research Sources Contacted Report MMRP Historical Records Research U.S. Air Force TLI Solutions, Inc. 3 August

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1.2 Purpose of this HRR-SC Report

The purpose of this HRR-SC Report is to support the development of the CSE Phase I for Otis ANGB. At Otis ANGB and across the country, the U.S. Armed Forces have historically conducted live-firing, weapons testing, and munitions disposal to ensure military readiness, decades of these munitions-related activities have resulted in the presence of unexploded ordnance (UXO), discarded military munitions (DMM), and MC on ranges and disposal areas throughout the country. UXO, DMM, and other materials potentially presenting an explosive hazard (MPPEH) are referred to as MEC. Due to changes in military structure and locations of installations, the military is currently using many of these ranges and disposal areas in ways that may be incompatible with the presence of MEC or MC contamination.

1.3 Otis ANGB

Location:

Otis Air ANGB is located on the southern part of the Massachusetts Military Reservation.

Date Established:

1938.

Construction Began:

Unknown.

Date of Beneficial Occupancy: 1938.

1977.

Date of Current Name:

Name:

Otis Air National Guard Base is named after Lt. Frank "Jesse" Otis, a member of the 101 st Observation Squadron who was killed on Jan. 11, 1937. Otis Field, Otis Army Airfield, Otis Air Force Base (AFB), Camp Edwards, Naval Auxiliary Air Facility Otis.

Previous Names:

Otis ANGB is an Air National Guard installation located within the Massachusetts Military Reservation (MMR), a military training facility, located on the upper western portion of Cape Cod, in Falmouth, Barnstable County, MA. It was previously known as Otis Air Force Base (AFB) prior to its transfer from the active duty Air Force to the Air National Guard. In the community, it is also known as Otis Air Base or more commonly by its old name, Otis AFB. The Air National Guard Resource Book for 2008 listed six Air National Guard Units at the Otis ANGB: 102 nd Fighter Wing, 101 st Flight Squadron, 202 nd Weather Flight, 253 rd Combat Communications Group, 267 th Combat Communications Squadron, and 567 th Band.

The host unit on Otis ANGB is the 102 nd Intelligence Wing, an Air Combat Command (ACC)- gained unit of the Massachusetts Air National Guard. Part of the facility is also called Cape Cod Air Force Station (Cape Cod AFS), as well Coast Guard Air Station Cape Cod (CGAS Cape Cod), operating the HU-25 Guardian and HH-60J Jayhawk.

NOTE: The property known as Otis ANGB today has undergone changes to its boundary over time. At one time, it included a much larger portion of the area surrounding its current boundaries. Today Camp Edwards occupies those areas. The area that Camp Edwards occupies today has MMRP sites that were once inside the Otis AFB boundary. As a result, this HRR-SC Report focuses only on that property within the current day Otis ANGB boundary. The following history, taken from the Massachusetts National Guard web site, discusses Camp

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Edwards, the MMR, and Otis ANGB to assist in understanding the overlap of boundaries and activities.

History Pre World War II - The history of Massachusetts National Guard training on Upper Cape Cod extends back to 1908, when soldiers conducted weekend and annual training in the woods to the south and west of present-day MMR. In 1931, the Adjutant-General of Massachusetts appointed a board of six Army National Guard officers to find a new campsite, as Camp Devens was deemed too small for required training. In 1933, Cape Cod was initially identified as a viable area for the new camp, to mixed reaction from the local communities. Feasibility assessments, and letters for and against the proposed military reservation, continued to be presented to the Commonwealth and the War Department through April 1935, when then Governor James Curley signed a bill to appropriate funds for the purchase of a campsite and to establish a Military Reservation Commission. In September of that year, the War Department approved acquisition (purchase or lease) of up to 200,000 acres of land in Cape Cod for military training.

As early as the summer of 1936, Massachusetts National Guard units began formal training at the new camp, setting up large tent camps just north of the proposed cantonment area. These early troops were generally poorly equipped, often wearing World War I uniforms and using wooden guns or Enfield rifles for training exercises.

The Construction Years, 1935 to 1940 - Between 1935 and 1940, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts and the Federal Government, primarily using Works Project Administration (WPA) funds, constructed 63 buildings (all but Buildings 102 and the old Williams Hospital have since been demolished) and two 500-foot wide turf runways at Otis Field. In July 1938, then Governor Charles Hurley dedicated Camp Edwards, naming it in honor of Major General Clarence Edwards, former commander of the 26 th (Yankee) Division. Otis Field was named after 1LT Frank J. Otis, 26 th (Yankee) Division Aviation, killed while on a cross-country flight.

In 1940, the U.S. Army leased Camp Edwards and undertook a major World War II mobilization construction program. The project was completed in a mere 125 days (September 1940 to January 1941) and served as the national prototype for other camps built using the 700 series drawings.

Otis Field - In 1941, the 101 st Observation Squadron, Massachusetts National Guard, which had been at Jeffries Field, East Boston (now Logan International Airport), was inducted into Federal service and moved to Otis Field. It served the Ninth Air Force as a reconnaissance unit. Otis Field's first concrete runways were laid in 1942, and were lengthened and widened in 1943 in response to technological developments of U.S. aircraft.

As the primary reconnaissance efforts from MMR involved sea patrols for enemy vessels, the objective of the MMR mission was to provide offshore submarine patrols. The U.S. Army Air Corps 14 th Anti-Submarine Patrol Squadron operated from MMR between 1941 and 1943, and, during 1944, all reconnaissance missions from Otis Field became the responsibility of the U.S. Navy.

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Deactivated in 1946 and moved to caretaker status by the Army, the MMR was used primarily for training activities by the Army National Guard and Air National Guard. Also in 1946, the runway was extended to 8,000 feet to support larger, heavier aircraft, and the 101 st Observation Squadron was reactivated as a National Guard unit. In 1947, after the Department of Defense created the U.S. Air Force as a separate military branch, the Air Defense Command (ADC) assumed primary responsibility for continental defense against air attack. The Strategic Air Command (SAC) was responsible for operation of the long-range bomber aircraft. The relationship of the U.S. Air Force to the National Guard was established at this time, when the Air National Guard agreed to take on localized air defense of industrialized regions of the U.S. In 1948, the U.S. Air Force obtained control of Otis Field (renamed Otis AFB) for an air-defense mission and assigned a fighter interceptor unit.

Camp Edwards was reactivated in 1950 for troop training support during the Korean conflict, and numbers approached World War II levels. In 1954, Congress authorized the transfer of the post from the Department of the Army to the Department of the Air Force, for the purpose of operating a military airfield. The Air Force expanded its operations across most of the main post, but the Army continued to control the range and maneuver areas. (emphasis added)

Otis AFB in the Cold War - Between 1951 and about 1956, the Air Force constructed numerous new hangars and other buildings on the south side of the airfield at Otis. Otis, along with Hanscom Field at Bedford, Massachusetts, and Ethan Allen Field at Burlington, Vermont, were the three major fields of the Air Defense Command. Throughout the late 1940s and early 1950s, DoD continued its defensive build-up in response to Soviet atomic capability and long- range bombers, and the ADC built a series of alert fighter hangars at installations supporting the air defense interceptor mission. As one of these installations, Otis fulfilled its role through the crews and aircraft of the 33rd Fighter-Interceptor Wing, whose headquarters were established at Otis. The 564 th Air Defense Group (58 th and 437 th Fighter Squadrons) was also based at and conducted missions from Otis. The 564 th was later re-designated the 33 rd Air Defense Group.

In 1955, the ADC's 551 st Airborne Early Warning and Control Wing was assigned to Otis AFB to conduct reconnaissance missions and expand the U.S. defense perimeter. The 551 st operated large four engine Constellation Aircraft ("Connies") that were modified to conduct long-range flights over the Atlantic Ocean. Other ADC units conducting air defense missions from Otis AFB at this time included the 4707 th Defense Wing, the 33 rd Fighter Wing, and the 58 th and 60 th Fighter-Interceptor Squadrons.

During the late 1950s and early 1960s, Otis AFB played a role in the technologically advanced national defense Semi-Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE) system, which provided long- range search, height, and identification radar and ground-to-air radio communications for the North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD). NORAD's mission was to provide continuous long-range radar surveillance of the North American land mass using a pioneering air defense system that focused upon missile defense. The first SAGE Direction Center was operational in 1958. Full deployment in the 22 air defense sectors in the U.S. and one air defense sector in Canada was achieved by 1963. Otis AFB served as a node in gap-filler radar and flight support.

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In 1959, the Air Force constructed a counterpart to the Army's Nike missiles, the Boeing Michigan Aeronautical Research Center (BOMARC) anti-aircraft missile facility, on a site northwest of the airfield as part of a nation-wide surface-to-air defense system. Otis was one of eight such facilities in the country.

In 1977, Otis AFB was officially redistributed with the establishment of boundary lines which divided the complex into several installations, all within the confines of the original base. Established was Otis ANGB, Camp Edwards, and the Coast Guard Air Station Cape Cod (which shares the base's runways). Together they form the Massachusetts Military Reservation, where 17 other state, federal and private entities operate within its boundaries.

In 1978, the Air Force returned with the construction of the Precision Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased Array Warning System (PAVE PAWS) near the Cape Cod Canal. PAVE PAWS is designed to detect airborne ballistic missiles and monitor orbiting satellites.

In August of 1968, the 102 nd became a tenant unit at Otis Air Force Base (AFB). The return to Otis for the 102 nd was fitting indeed. The 101 st Observation Squadron, forerunner of the 102 nd Fighter Interceptor Wing, was the original occupant of the Otis Field and was instrumental in its construction on the Camp Edwards property. The original intent of Otis Field was for utilization by National Guard aircraft.

(Source: http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/facility/mmr.htm, http://www.maotis.ang.af.mil/, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Otis_Air_National_Guard_Base; and http://www.mass.gov/guard/Camp_Edwards/history.htm )

1.4 Document Numbering System

TLI utilized a document numbering system to identify the source of all documents that were collected during the historic records research activities. Each page of every document that was collected was numbered for document control purposes.

Each page of every document was labeled in the lower right corner with a unique alpha-numeric designation. The first four-letter prefix to each document number serves as a code that identifies the Air Force site. The four digit number that follows the second letter group represents the document page number. “OTIS-0001” is an example document number. This number identifies the first page of the document collection for the Otis ANGB.

Documents were logged into a Supporting Document Index (Index) as they were received from the field research teams in order to record the document sources. The Index is designed to serve as a document control tool to track documents that were collected at each Historical Records Research source. The Index is not designed to serve as an inventory of all individual documents, although it can be helpful as a general reference.

An entry in the Index that consists of a document number range represents either a single multi- page document or several documents that pertain to a single subject. The information in the comment field will indicate if more that one document is represented by a number range. Where

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more than one document is represented by a document number range, only the date and author from the first document in the group is provided in the index.

1.5 Report Organization

The HRR-SC Report is organized into the following sections:

Section 2.0: National Archives and Records Administration – This section provides information on the activities related to the review and collection of documents from the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). It discusses the research efforts at the NARA offices in Washington, DC; the Regional Archives; and the National Personnel Records Center.

Section 3.0: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers – This section provides information on the activities related to the review and collection of documents from the USACE. It discusses the research efforts at the USACE Topographic Engineering Center in Alexandria, VA, the USACE Office of History also in Alexandria, VA, and the USACE St. Louis District.

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Section 4.0: U.S. Army – This section provides information on the activities related to the review and collection of documents from the U.S. Army. It discusses the research efforts at the U.S. Army Research, Development and Engineering Command, the U.S. Army Center of Military History, and the U.S. Army Institute of Military History.

Section 5.0: U.S. Air Force – This section provides information on the activities related to the review and collection of documents from the U.S. Air Force. It discusses the research efforts at: the Air Force Historical Research Agency at Maxwell AFB, AL; the Air Force History Support Office at Bolling AFB, Washington, DC; the Air Force Safety Center, Kirtland AFB, NM; and the Air Force Civil Engineer Support Agency, Tyndall AFB, FL.

Section 6.0: Department of Defense – This section provides information on the activities related to the review and collection of documents from the sources within the DoD not covered by other sections. This section includes information from the Defense Technical Information Center and the Defense Environmental Programs Annual Report to Congress.

Section 7.0: Library of Congress – This section provides information on the activities related to the review and collection of documents from the Library of Congress.

Section 8.0: Aerial Photographs – This section provides information on the activities related to the review and collection of aerial photographs.

Section 9.0: Summary of the Records Research – This section summarizes the results of the historical records research.

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2.0 NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION

This section provides information on the activities related to the review and collection of documents from the NARA.

2.1 Introduction to NARA

NARA is an independent agency of the U.S. Federal Government charged with preserving and documenting government and historical records. It is also charged with allowing public access to those documents.

NARA administers a nationwide network of facilities that serves both the public and federal agencies. NARA facilities in the Washington DC area hold records from facilities throughout the world. In addition, eleven Regional Archives cover different territories that include specific states. NARA facilities are located in 14 major cities throughout the continental U.S.

Record Groups – NARA's holdings are classified into "Record Groups" (RGs) reflecting the governmental department or agency from which they originated. The records include paper records, microfilmed records, still pictures, motion pictures, and electronic media. NARA arranges its holdings according to the archival principle of provenance. This principle provides that records be:

Attributed to the agency that created or maintained them and

Arranged there under as they were filed when in active use.

In the NARA, application of the principle of provenance takes the form of numbered Record Groups, with each Record Group comprising the records of a major government entity, usually a bureau or an independent agency. For example, National Archives Record Group 4 is Records of the U.S. Food Administration. The number assigned to a Record Group reflects the order in which it was established by the NARA.

Some record sets may be further designated by Subgroups which are a set of series that are related by their common origin, function or activity. Subgroups may be formed on the basis of date or geography.

Series – Within a Record Group, the records of a government agency are organized into series. Each series is a set of documents arranged according to the creating office's filing system or otherwise kept together by the creating office because they:

relate to a particular subject or function,

result from the same activity,

document a specific kind of transaction,

take a particular physical form, or

have some other relationship arising out of their creation, receipt, or use.

Records are typically designated by a file unit. For example, for paper records, the file unit may be a folder or bound volume; for microfilm, it is the roll. [NOTE: The National Personnel

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Records Center does not maintain on-line finding aids, nor does it organize its records in the same manner as other NARA facilities.]

2.1.1 NARA Research Methodology

Research at NARA consisted of three main steps. First, researchers reviewed NARA’s on-line resources to identify the Record Groups that are available at NARA locations and to select Record Groups that may contain records related to the site. After reviewing the on-line sources, the researchers conducted telephone interviews with NARA archivists to further refine the list of RGs that should be reviewed, and to obtain any additional research suggestions based on the archivists’ corporate knowledge. Finally, trips were made to the archives in order to meet with archivists and review finding aids. Documents were then reviewed and photocopies of selected documents were made.

2.1.2 NARA Record Groups Selected for Review

The RGs reviewed from NARA for this HRR-SC Report included RGs listed in guidance provided by both the USACE (Environmental Cleanup at Former and Current Military Sites: A Guide to Military Research Harper, Michael W.; Reunhardt, Thomas R.; Sude, Barry R., Office of History and Environmental Division, Headquarters, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Alexandria, Virginia; EP 870-1-64) and the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council (ITRC) (Munitions Response: Historical Records Review, Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council, Unexploded Ordnance Team, November 2003). The list of RGs reviewed includes the following. Please note that not all RGs are available at all NARA Regional Offices or at the National Personnel Record Center.

No.

RG

Title

Source

No.

1.

16

Records of the Office of the Secretary of Agriculture

ITRC, USACE

2.

18

Records of the Army Air Forces

ITRC, USACE

3.

26

Records of the U.S. Coast Guard

ITRC, USACE

4.

30

Records of the Bureau of Public Roads

ITRC, USACE

5.

35

Records of the Civilian Conservation Corps

USACE

6.

38

Records of the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations

ITRC, USACE

7.

48

Records of the Office of the Secretary of the Interior

ITRC, USACE

8.

49

Records of the Bureau of Land Management

ITRC, USACE

9.

52

Records of the Bureau of Medicine and Surgery

ITRC

10.

57

Records of the U.S. Geological Survey

ITRC

11.

69

Records of the Work Projects Administration

ITRC, USACE

12.

71

Records of the Bureau of Yards and Docks

ITRC, USACE

13.

72

Records of the Bureau of Aeronautics

ITRC, USACE

14.

74

Records of the Bureau of Ordnance (Navy)

ITRC, USACE

15.

77

Records of the Office of the Chief of Engineers

ITRC, USACE

16.

80

General Records of the Department of the Navy, 1798-1947

ITRC, USACE

17.

92

Records of the Office of the Quartermaster General

ITRC, USACE

18.

94

Records of the Adjutant General’s Office, 1780-1917

ITRC, USACE

19.

96

Records of the Farmers Home Administration

USACE

20.

98

Records of the U.S. Army Commands, 1784-1821

USACE

21.

107

Records of the Office of the Secretary of War

ITRC, USACE

22.

111

Records of the Office of the Chief Signal Officer

ITRC, USACE

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No.

RG

Title

Source

No.

23.

112

Records of the Office of the Surgeon General (Army)

ITRC, USACE

24.

121

Records of the Public Buildings Service

ITRC

25.

127

Records of the U.S. Marine Corps

ITRC, USACE

26.

135

Records of the Public Works Administration

USACE

27.

143

Records of the Bureau of Supplies and Accounts (Navy)

ITRC, USACE

28.

145

Records of the Farm Service Agency

ITRC

29.

153

Records of the Office of the Judge Advocate General (Army)

ITRC, USACE

30.

156

Records of the Office of the Chief of Ordnance

ITRC, USACE

31.

159

Records of the Office of the Inspector General (Army)

ITRC, USACE

32.

160

Records of the U.S. Army Service Forces (World War II)

ITRC, USACE

33.

162

General Records of the Federal Works Agency

ITRC, USACE

34.

165

Records of the War Department General and Special Staffs

ITRC, USACE

35.

168

Records of the National Guard Bureau

ITRC, USACE

36.

175

Records of the Chemical Warfare Service

ITRC, USACE

37.

177

Records of the Chiefs of Arms

ITRC

38.

179

Records of the War Production Board

USACE

39.

181

Records of Naval Districts and Shore Establishments

ITRC, USACE

40.

197

Records of the Civil Aeronautics Board

ITRC

41.

207

General Records of the Department of Housing and Human Development

ITRC

42.

218

Records of the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff

ITRC

43.

225

Records of the Joint Army and Navy Boards and Committees

ITRC, USACE

44.

234

Records of the Reconstruction Finance Corporation, 1928-1968

USACE

45.

237

Records of the Federal Aviation Administration

ITRC

46.

240

Records of Smaller War Plants Corporation

USACE

47.

250

Records of the Office of War Mobilization and Reconversion

ITRC

48.

269

Records of the General Services Administration

ITRC, USACE

49.

270

Records of the War Assets Administration

ITRC, USACE

50.

287

Publications of the U.S. Government

USACE

51.

291

Records of the Federal Property Resources Service

ITRC, USACE

52.

319

Records of the Army Staff

ITRC, USACE

53.

330

Records of the Office of the Secretary of Defense

ITRC

54.

334

Records of Interservice Agencies

ITRC, USACE

55.

335

Records of the Office of the Secretary of the Army

USACE

56.

336

Records of the Office of the Chief of Transportation, 1917-1966

USACE

57.

337

Records of Headquarters Army Ground Forces

ITRC, USACE

58.

338

Records of the U.S. Army Commands

ITRC, USACE

59.

340

Records of the Office of the Secretary of the Air Force

USACE

60.

341

Records of Headquarters U.S. Air Force (Air Staff)

ITRC, USACE

61.

342

Records of the U.S. Air Force Commands, Activities, and Organizations

ITRC, USACE

62.

373

Records of the Defense Intelligence Agency

ITRC

63.

391

Records of the U.S. Army Mobile Units, 1821-1942

USACE

64.

393

Records of the U.S. Army Continental Commands, 1821-1920

ITRC, USACE

65.

394

Records of the U.S. Army Continental Commands, 1920-1942

ITRC, USACE

66.

395

Records of the U.S. Army Overseas Operations & Commands, 1898-1942

ITRC

67.

407

Records of the Adjutant General’s Office, 1917-

ITRC, USACE

68.

428

Records of the General Records of the Department of Navy, 1947-

ITRC, USACE

69.

429

Records of the Organizations in the Executive Office of the President

USACE

The results of the research process for each NARA facility are described below.

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2.2 NARA Washington, DC

Two NARA archives are found in the Washington, DC area: Archives I in Washington, DC and Archives II in College Park, MD.

2.2.1 NARA Archives I, Washington, DC

The first NARA archive investigated was the facility in Washington, DC, Archives I:

National Archives and Records Administration, Archives I 700 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20408-0001

Archives I houses textual and microfilm records relating to: genealogy; American Indians; the District of Columbia; Federal courts from the District of Columbia; Congress; maritime matters; pre-World War I Army; and pre-World War II Navy.

2.2.1.1 Archives I On-Line Research

The records maintained by NARA’s Archives I were searched and no records were found relevant to this HRR-SC Report.

2.2.1.2 Archives I On-Site Research

Research was conducted at Archives I using the finding aids and no records were found relevant to this HRR-SC Report.

2.2.1.3 Results of the Records Research at Archives I

No records were found for this HRR-SC Report at NARA Archives I.

2.2.2 NARA Archives II, College Park, MD

The second NARA archive investigated was the facility in College Park, MD, Archives II:

National Archives at College Park, Archives II 8601 Adelphi Road College Park, MD 20740-6001

Records at Archives II include: textual records from most civilian agencies; Army records dating from World War I; Naval records dating from World War II; still pictures; electronic records; cartographic and architectural holdings; Nixon Presidential Materials; motion picture, sound, and video records; John F. Kennedy Assassination Records Collection; and the Berlin Documents Center microfilm.

The following subsections describe the research conducted and summarize the results of the research.

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MMRP Historical Records Research U.S. Air Force

2.2.2.1 Archives II On-Line Research

Archives II maintains all of the USACE/ITRC referenced RGs, except RG 98: Records of the U.S. Army Commands, 1784-1821 (http://www.archives.gov /research/guide-fed-records/index- numeric/). The on-line references for each RG were accessed and reviewed for records that may be related to this installation. The summary of information on the RGs at Archives II in hard copy exceeded 500 pages and as a result is not included in the HRR-SC Report. The following RGs were selected for further research based on the on-line review.

No.

RG

Title

1.

18

Records of the Army Air Forces

2.

35

Records of the Civilian Conservation Corps

3.

49

Records of the Bureau of Land Management

4.

57

Records of the U.S. Geological Survey

5.

71

Records of the Bureau of Yards and Docks

6.

72

Records of the Bureau of Aeronautics

7.

77

Records of the Office of the Chief of Engineers

8.

92

Records of the Office of the Quartermaster General

9.

121

Records of the Public Buildings Service

10.

168

Records of the National Guard Bureau

11.

234

Records of the Reconstruction Finance Corporation, 1928-1968

12.

269

Records of the General Services Administration

13.

270

Records of the War Assets Administration

14.

291

Records of the Federal Property Resources Service

15.

341

Records of Headquarters U.S. Air Force (Air Staff)

16.

342

Records of the U.S. Air Force Commands, Activities, and Organizations

17.

394

Records of the U.S. Army Continental Commands, 1920-1942

18.

407

Records of the Adjutant General’s Office, 1917- [NOTE: No end date

provided.]

The results of the on-site records review are discussed in the following subsection.

2.2.2.2 Archives II On-Site Research

After reviewing the research approach with Archivists at Archives II, the following additional RGs were identified for on-site research:

Record Group 51: Records of the Office of Management and Budget;

Record Group 107: Records of the Office of the Secretary of War;

Record Group 156: Records of the Office of the Chief of Ordnance;

Record Group 429: Records of the Organizations in the Executive Office of the President

(1963-1985)

The on-site findings aids maintained at NARA’s Archives II for each RG, identified above in subsections 2.2.2.1 and 2.2.2.2, were reviewed. The RG was eliminated if it was determined from a review of the finding aids that the RG contained no records relevant to this HRR-SC

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Report. The following list provides the entries identified and reviewed for this HRR-SC Report and those entries eliminated from further research.

Record Group 18: Records of the Army Air Forces

Entry 1A, 1945-1948.

Entry 2, Unclassified Records Section Decimal File 1947.

Entry 2 (NM-6), Air Adjutant General Decimal File, 1944-1946.

Entry 2A.

Entry 2B, Bulky Decimal Files, June 1944-1946.

Entry 2B (NM-6), Air Adjutant General Bulky Decimal File, 1944-1946.

Entry 2C (NM-6), Air Adjutant General Unclassified Decimal Files.

Entry 2D (NM-6), Air Adjutant General Bulky Decimal Files 1947.

Entry 2F (NM-6), Air Adjutant General Bulky Decimal Files 1947.

Entry 46 (NM-1), Air Inspector Central Decimal File, 1945-1947.

Entry 292, Air Adjutant General Central Decimal Files, Decimal 600 Construction, Oct. 1942-May 1944.

Entry 294, Formerly Classified Bulky Files, Army Air Bases & Aviation Fields, Site Surveys & Site Board Reports, 1942-1944.

Entry 295, Project Files: Air Fields, 1939-1942.

Entry 296, Correspondence regarding Camps & Forts, 1939-1942.

Entry 298, Correspondence regarding Territorial Departments, 1939-1942.

Entry 299, Correspondence regarding Foreign Bases, Air Forces, Misc. Commands, Districts, Government-Owned Plants, National Guard & Schools, 1939-1942.

Entry 686, Bulky Files; Army Air Bases and Aviation Fields, Site Surveys and Site Board Reports, October 1924-1944.

Record Group 35: Records of the Civilian Conservation Corps

No entries of interest were found for this HRR-SC Report.

Record Group 49: Records of the Bureau of Land Management

No entries of interest were found for this HRR-SC Report.

Record Group 51: Records of the Office of Management and Budget

Entry 149B War Projects Unit, Inspection Reports, 1940-45.

Record Group 57: Records of the U.S. Geological Survey

No entries of interest were found for this HRR-SC Report.

Record Group 71: Records of the Bureau of Yards and Docks

Entry 1001, Naval Property Case Files, 1941-1958.

Entry 1001 (A1), Naval Property Case Files, 1941-1958.

Record Group 72: Records of the Bureau of Aeronautics

Entry 62B, General Correspondence, 1925-1947.

Entry 67, Confidential Correspondence, 1922-1947.

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Entry 67, General Correspondence, 1943-1945.

Entry 75, Secret Correspondence, 1939-1947.

Entry 218, Records Relating to Inactive Air Stations (Real Estate Files), 1943-1959.

Entry 1001A, Unclassified General Correspondence, 1948-1949.

Entry 1001B, Unclassified General Correspondence, 1950.

Entry 1001C, Unclassified General Correspondence, 1951.

Entry 1001E, Unclassified General Correspondence, 1953.

Entry 1001F, Unclassified General Correspondence, 1954.

Entry 1001G, Unclassified General Correspondence, 1955.

Entry 1001H, Unclassified General Correspondence, 1956.

Entry 1001I, Unclassified General Correspondence, 1957.

Entry 1001J, Unclassified General Correspondence, 1958.

Entry 1001K, Unclassified General Correspondence, 1959.

Record Group 77: Records of the Office of the Chief of Engineers

Entry 106B, General Correspondence, 1918-1945.

Entry 262, Real Property Files 1944-1955.

Entry 276, Project and Geographic Files, (Acc A57-374(S5)).

Entry 391, Construction Completion Reports, 1917-1943.

Entry 393, Historical Record of Buildings and Record of Equipment and Condition of Buildings at Active Army Posts, 1905-1942.

Entry 398, Annual Report on Construction, Maintenance and Repair of Buildings on Posts; 1924-1938.

Entry 415, Real Estate Branch Surplus Disposal Unit, 1917-1944.

Entry 416, Real Estate Surplus Disposal Files 1917-1944.

Entry 435, Project Geographical Files 1949-1950.

Entry 436, Project and Geographic Files 1940-1952.

Entry 1011, Formerly Security Classified Subject Files 1941-1945 (Geographic File).

Entry 1023 (UD), General Correspondence RE: Airfields & Related Facilities, 1940-

1945.

Record Group 92: Records of the Office of the Quartermaster General

No entries of interest were found for this HRR-SC Report.

Record Group 107: Records of the Office of the Secretary of War

Entry 211, Formerly Classified Correspondence regarding Establishment of Airfields & Air Bases, 1940-1945.

Entry 213, Records of the Office of the Assistant Secretary of War for Air.

Record Group 121: Records of the Public Buildings Service

Entry 1, Real Property Case Files (121-76-0003).

Entry 1 (UDWW), Real Property Disposal Files.

Entry 3 (UDWW), Ex Property Survey Files, 1970-1974.

Entry N/A, Records Relating to Surplus Real Property, 1946-1950.

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MMRP Historical Records Research U.S. Air Force

Entry 81 (A-1), Real Property Review Board, Surplus 1946-1950.

Record Group 156: Records of the Office of the Chief of Ordnance

No entries of interest were found for this HRR-SC Report.

Record Group 168: Records of the National Guard Bureau

Entry 3, Central Subject Files, 1964-1974.

Entry 344, State Decimal File, 1946-1950.

Entry 344A, Army - NGB State Decimal Files, 1922-1945.

Entry 344B, Army - NGB State Decimal Files, 1922-1945.

Entry 344C, Army NGB, Decimal Files, 1946-1948.

Entry 344D, Army State Decimal File 1946-1948.

Entry 344E, Decimal Files, 1949-1950.

Entry 344F, Army NGB State Decimal Files 1949-1950.

Entry 344G, Army NGB State Decimal Files 1951-1952.

Entry 344I, Army NGB State Decimal Files 1951-1952.

Entry 344J, Army NGB State Decimal Files 1953.

Entry 344K (NM-3), State Decimal File, 1953.

Entry 348, Central Subject Files, 1964-1974.

Record Group 234: Records of the Reconstruction Finance Corporation, 1928-1968

No entries of interest were found for this HRR-SC Report.

Record Group 269: Records of the General Services Administration

Entry 62 UD, Real Property Disposal Case Files Transferred from the Farm Credit Administration, 1945-1953.

Record Group 270: Records of the War Assets Administration

Entry 3, Office Information Subject File, 1946-1949.

Entry 9, Subject File of the Central Office of Real Property, 1946-1949

Record Group 291: Records of the Federal Property Resources Service

Entry 1 UDWW, Property Management & Disposal Service, Real Property Disposal Files.

Entry 2 UDWW, Property Management & Disposal Service, Real Property Disposal Files.

Entry 3 UDWW, Property Management & Disposal Service, Real Property Disposal Files.

Entry 4 UDWW, Property Management & Disposal Service, Real Property Disposal Files.

Entry 5 UDWW, Property Management & Disposal Service, Real Property Disposal Files.

Entry 6 UDWW, Property Management & Disposal Service, Real Property Disposal Files.

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Entry 7 UDWW, Property Management & Disposal Service, Real Property Disposal Files.

Record Group 341: Records of Headquarters U.S. Air Force (Air Staff)

Entry 18, Deputy Directory Facility Air Force Bases, U.S. Air Force (Air Staff).

Entry 18 UDUP, Records of Headquarter U.S. Air Force.

Entry 19, Directory of Installations.

Entry 19 UDUP, Installations Decimal Files.

Entry 126, Real Estate Documents, January 1941 through April 1967.

Entry 269, Base Construction Case, 1958.

Entry 271, Project Central, 1962.

Entry 275, Missouri River Division Region Civil Engineer.

Entry 277, Base Construction 1959.

Entry 278, Mil Construction Program Missouri Basin, 1951-1955.

Entry 279, Base Construction File 1961.

Entry 280, Construction Project Control Files.

Entry 494, Assistant Chief of Staff, Installations, Executive Office, Administrative Services Branch, Correspondence regarding Air Force Real Estate Facilities, 1948-1955.

Entry 495, Policy on Construction Matters 1950-1951.

Entry N/A, Military Construction Program, Missouri Basin 1951-1955.

Record Group 342: Records of the U.S. Air Force Commands, Activities, and Organizations

Series 1025, Records of the 15th Air Force, 1948-1962.

Series 1028, Records of the 3rd Air Division, 1949-1952.

Series 1029, Records of the 3904th Composite Wing, 1951-1954.

Series 1030, Records of the Continental Air Defense Command, 1949-1965.

Series 1034, Records of the 36th Air Division, 1947-1959.

Series 1035, Records of the 8th Air Force, 1950-1951.

Series 1149, Records of the 7th Air Force, 1966-1968.

Record Group 394: Records of the U.S. Army Continental Commands, 1920-1942

Entry 473, Title not available.

Record Group 407: Records of the Adjutant General’s Office, 1917- [NOTE: No end date provided.]

Entry 363A, Project Decimal Files, 1940-1945, Flying Fields.

Record Group 429: Records of the Organizations in the Executive Office of the President

(1963-1985)

Entry 12, Federal Property Council; Central Real Property Surveys.

Entry 17, Records Relating to Property and Installation Surveys, 1978-1984.

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MMRP Historical Records Research U.S. Air Force

2.2.2.3 Results of the Records Research at Archives II

Information collected at Archives II included the following:

Bombing Range (Off-Installation) – Correspondence from April through July 1943 discusses need for surface danger zone at the Bombing Range at Otis Army Airfield, Camp Edwards. The bombing range was reported as located between Coast Guard Stations Numbers 42 and 44, (41° 36’ North, 69° 59’ West; these coordinates are adjacent to Monomoy Island, Cape Cod, MA). Correspondence from 18-Dec-1943 discusses transferring jurisdiction of the Monomoy Point Pattern Bombing Range on Cape Cod from Otis Field to Westover Field.

Chemical Warfare Training/Materiel – Correspondence from 18-Nov-42 requested the construction of gas instructional building for Army Air Base, Otis Field, Camp Edwards, MA. No information on the location of the proposed gas instructional building was included. The first Endorsement for the construction was issued 25-Nov-42. Correspondence from January and February 1943 cancelled requests for a toxic gas yard and chemical warfare storage for Otis Field.

Ordnance Area – A 16-Jan-43 letter described the then current ordnance storage conditions at Otis Field. Bombs were stored in the open with no protection other than a twenty-four (24) hour guard. There was a fire brick warehouse which served as storage for pyrotechnics. Small Arms ammunition was stored in a tin shed approximately 15’ X 15’. The shed was located on the main road of the Base under high tension wires near barracks, hangar and a dispensary. By 23-Feb-43, the construction of new magazines to correct the storage problem was 45% complete and being expedited. The location of the new ordnance area was not included in the information. On 3-Jul-71, the Massachusetts Air National Guard Base Civil Engineer made a request to update the Air National Guard’s Real Property License at Otis AFB to add Building 120-Rocket Storage. The request noted that the “main storage of rockets is co-located with base ammunition storage area which is approximately six (6) miles from the ANG Flight Line.”

2.3 NARA Northeast Region, Boston, MA

The NARA Northeast Region, Boston, MA holdings consist of records from the geographic areas of Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont. Otis ANGB is located in Massachusetts, one of the states for which the NARA Northeast Region, Boston maintains records.

The office for NARA’s Northeast Region, Boston is located at:

Frederick C. Murphy Federal Center 380 Trapelo Road Waltham, Massachusetts 02452-6399 Phone: (781) 663-0130 Fax: (781) 663-0154 E-mail: waltham.archives@nara.gov