# ` AP Lab #1: Diffusion and Osmosis Objectives 1) To investigate the processes of diffusion and osmosis in a model membrane system, and

2) To investigate the effect of solute concentration on water potential as it relates to living plant tissues Prelab Questions 1) Why is the cell membrane said to be ³semipermeable´? A cell membrane is said to be semipermeable because it only allows certain substances such as small solute molecules and water molecules move freely across the membrane while other substances cannot. 2) Differentiate ³active transport´ and ³passive transport´. Active transport is the process of using energy from ATP to move substances across the cell membrane. It usually moves substances against the concentration gradient. Passive transport is the process of moving substances across the membrane without the use of energy. 3) Explain the concept of diffusion. Use an example in your explanation. Diffusion is the random, spontaneous motion of molecules moving from a region of higher concentration to a region lower concentration. This occurs so the molecules reach a dynamic equilibrium where concentration is equal throughout the whole area and there is no net movement of molecules from one area to another. For example, if you stand in the corner of a room and spray perfume a few times, your friend in the opposite corner will be able to smell it a few minutes after. This happens because when you spray the perfume, it is concentrated in your corner so it moves by itself to the less concentrated area (the rest of the room) and eventually is evenly distributed in the room. 4) Define osmosis. Use blood cells to explain the terms isotonic, hypertonic, and hypotonic, in terms of comparing solutions. Osmosis is a special type of diffusion. It is the diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane from an area of higher water potential to an area. When a blood cell is placed in a solution where the concentration of solutes inside and outside the cell is equal, it is said both solutions are isotonic to each other. If the solution outside the blood cell has a higher solute concentration than the solution inside the cell, it is said to be hypertonic while the lower concentrated solution in the cell is considered hypotonic. 5) Why is the concept of water potential used? The concept of water potential is used because we are studying the movement of water in plant cells. Water potential it is the measure of free energy of water in a solution. The term is used to predict the movement of water into or out of plant cells. Because water moves from an area of higher water potential to an area of lower water potential, water potential describes the tendency of water to move from one region to another. Water potential is denoted by ].

then ]= 0 + -9= -9. Assigning a value for solute potential as -9 bar. why. the amount of water diffused out will cause the cell to shrivel. 11) What formula is used for calculating solute potential? (identify i. so water will diffuse into the cell. Thus water will diffuse out the cell to equalize the water potential inside and outside the cell. The movement of water depends on solute concentration on both sides of the membrane. water potential also increases. Water movement is directly proportional to pressure on the system. water will leave the potato cell. Eventually. what two factors are important in determining the direction of water across the membrane? Why? The two important factors that determine the direction of water are solute potential on both sides of the membrane and pressure potential. The term for this is is plasmolysis. When pressure increases. and the term for this. this means the water is less likely to leave the cell and more likely to enter the cell. When more solute is added. When a potato cell is placed in water with solute in it. The water potential is lower outside the cell inside the cell since the concentration is higher outside. using the formula for water potential. 10) Situation: A potato cell is placed in a cup of water that has a solute dissolved (-15 bar). Therefore water potential and solute potential are inversely related. 9) Situation: A potato cell is placed in pure water. Since concentration increase. If potential pressure is 0 and solute potential is -9. ]p=pressure potential. R. 7) Why does the water potential decrease when a solute is dissolved in water? Water potential decreases when a solute is dissolved in water because the concentration increased. and ]s=solute potential. Because the water potential is negative (-9) for the potato cell. Water will move so the concentrations on both sides are equal. C. explain whether or not water will diffuse into the cell. T) ]s = -i x C x R x T -i = ionization constant C = molar concentration R = pressure constant (R= 0. Explain what will happen to the cell.` 6) In plant cells. the water in that solution less likely to leave the solution to go to another solution 8) What is a rule for the ³net movement of water´? The net movement of water will be from the hypotonic solution into the hypertonic solution. Pressure forces decided which way the water moves. The formula for water potential is ]= ]p + ]s where ]= water potential. water potential decreases.0831 liters bar/mole oK) T = temperature oK (273 + oC of solution) .

0 M sucrose Remove most of the air by drawing bag between 2 fingers and tying off the other end. Method B: The influence of solute concentration on the net movement of water molecules through a semipermeable membrane will be investigated. 6) Test the solution in the beaker and bag for presence of glucose. A graph will be constructed to determine the molarity of the potato cores.4 M. 1) Pour 100mL of the solution into a labeled beaker. Test the solution for glucose and record results. 2) Use a core borer to cut 4 potato cylinders per beaker.2 M. Add about 4mL of Lugol¶s solution to the water and record the color. 4) Fill a beak two-thirds full of distilled water. 3) Place 15mL of 15% glucose/1% starch solution in the dialysis bag. 0. The % change in mass of bags will be determined. 0.6 M. Method C: The concept of water potential will be investigated by immersing potato cores in varying sucrose solutions and determining % changed in mass of the cores. 25mL of the following sucrose solutions will be placed in dialysis bags: 0. The dialysis bags will be submerged in distilled water for 30 minutes. 1. 3) Remove any sucrose spilled onto bag by rinsing bags gently with distilled water.8 M. Tie off the other end but leaving enough space for expansion of contents. Distilled water b. 0. Record results. 1. Record the color of solution in bag and beaker after 30 minutes. Slice a potato into discs about 3 cm thick.2 M sucrose c. 0. 0. Open the other end of the bag. 5) Immerse bag into beaker. .6 M sucrose e.` Procedures: A: A simulated cell made of dialysis tubing containing a glucose/starch solution will be placed in water containing IKI (iodine) solution 1) Tie off one end of a pre-soaked 30 cm piece of 2. 0. 2) Test the 15% glucose/1% starch solution for presence of glucose. 0. The solution should fill only 1/3 to ½ of the tubing so there is enough space to allow expansion. 2) Tie a knot at one end of each piece dialysis tubing to make 6 bags. A value for solute potential will be calculated using the molarity of the potato cores from the graph.5 cm dialysis tubing.4 M sucrose d. 0. Record color of the solution.0 M. 4) Weight and record initial mass of each bag in grams. Add about 15-25 mL of each into separate bags: a. 1) Obtain six 30-cm strips of pre-soaked dialysis tubing.8 M sucrose f. Let stand for 30 minutes. Carefully blot outside of bag.0 M (distilled water). Record results.

Data: Activity A: Diffusion Solution-Color Initial Contents 15% glucose & 1% starch H2O & IKI Initial Final Presence of Glucose Initial Final Bag Beaker Activity B: Osmosis Contents in Dialysis Bag a) 0. graph your results. Record your results. Draw the salt solution across the slide by touching with a paper towel. Observe it under 100X magnification. 2) Add 2 or 3 drops of 15% NaCl to the edge of the cover slip. 4) Cover the beaker(s) with plastic wrap. Describe and explained what took place.6 M Sucrose Initial Mass Final Mass Mass Difference Percent Change in Mass Percent Change in Mass-Class Average . blot them gently. place them in into the beaker(s) containing the sucrose solution.2 M Sucrose c) 0. Method D: Plasmolysis will be observed in onion cells after a salt solution is applied to a wet mount of onion cells. 1) Prepare a wet mount of a small piece of an onion epidermis. Sketch and describe the appearance of the onion cells. 5) Remove the potatoes from the beaker. After you determine and record the mass of the four potato cylinders together. Let stand overnight. Observe the onion using 100X magnification.` 3) Keep potatoes in a covered beaker until you can weigh them. 3) Take off the cover slip and wash the onion with water.4 M Sucrose d) 0. and find their mass. Sketch and describe the cells and explain what has occurred.0 M Distilled Water b) 0.

8 M Sucrose f) 1. 2) Explain the results you obtained. Include the concentration differences and membrane pore size in your discussion.4 M Sucrose d) 0.` e) 0.0 M Sucrose Activity C: Water Potential and Potato Cells Contents in Beaker a) 0. .6 M Sucrose e) 0.2 M Sucrose c) 0.0 M Distilled Water b) 0.0 M Sucrose Activity D Before Salt Water added After Salt Water added Initial Mass Final Mass Mass Difference Percent Change in Mass Percent Change in Mass-Class Average Post Lab: Analysis of Results Part A: 1) Which substance(s) are entering the bag and which are leaving the bag? What experimental evidence supports your answer? Glucose is leaving the dialysis bag into the beaker as supported by using glucose strips to indicate the presence of glucose in the beaker after letting apparatus stand 30 minutes.8 M Sucrose f) 1.

The greater the molarity of sucrose in the dialysis bag. showing your calculations here. Explain your response. is the cell hypertonic (in terms of solute concentration) or hypotonic to its environment? Will the cell gain water or lose water? Explain your response. . The concentration of glucose inside the dialysis bag was greater so the movement of glucose followed its concentration gradient by moving to the solution outside the bag to equalize the concentration on both sides of the dialysis bag. 5) The sucrose solution in the beaker would have been hypertonic to the distilled water in the bag. Part B: 1) Explain the relationship between the change in mass and the molarity of sucrose within the dialysis bags.` The membrane pores were large enough to be permeable to glucose and water molecules. Dehydration thus increases the tendency of water to enter the potato if the dehydrated potato was placed in water. Part C: 1) If a potato core is allowed to dehydrate by sitting in the open air.4 M will decrease in mass because water inside will diffuse out of the bag to match the concentration outside. The mass of the dialysis bag with . 3) Why did you calculate the percent change in mass rather than simply using the change in mass? Groups had different initial masses.4 M will decrease in mass because water will diffuse into the bag to equalize the concentrations inside and outside the bag. so comparison of change is easier by looking at percent change instead of just the change. would the water potential of the potato cells decrease or increase? Why? The water potential would decrease because water is leaving the potato core since it is dehydrating. the greater the positive percent change in mass was since more water moved into the bag. How could this experiment be modified so that quantitative data could be collected to show that water diffused into the dialysis bag? This experiment can be modified by weighing the dialysis bag filled with glucose solution before and after to show that water diffused into the dialysis bag. 3) Quantitative data uses numbers to measure observed changes. Calculate the percent change of mass. Any change in mass shows movement of water. Any bags with solutions of over 0. The bag¶s initial mass is 20 g and its final mass is 18 g.4 M sucrose solution will not change mass because the concentrations on both sides of the bag are same. 4) A dialysis bag is filled with distilled water and then placed in a sucrose solution.4 M sucrose solution instead of distilled water. The mass of the dialysis bag with solution of a molarity less than . 2) Predict what would happen to the mass of each bag in this experiment if all the bags were placed in a 0. 2) If a plant cell has a lower water potential than its surrounding environment and if pressure is equal to zero.

4) Where is the greatest water potential? Water potential is greatest in the bag. 3) In the figure. What is the pressure potential (]p) of the system? The pressure potential of the system is 0 because it is at atmospheric pressure.0 M 1) Graph the results of the data above. the beaker is open to the atmosphere. 6) Zucchini core placed in sucrose solutions at 27oC resulted in the following percent changes after 24 hours: % Change in Mass Sucrose Molarity 20% Distilled Water 10% 0. 5) Water will diffuse ____the bag.6 M -25% 0.2 M -3% 0.8 M -30% 1. Why? Water will diffuse out of the bag because water moves from high water potential to lower potential or low concentration to high concentration. .` The cell is hypertonic to its environment so the cell is gain water because low water potential indicates high concentration therefore high potential for water to enter the cell and lower the concentration inside the cell to match concentration outside the cell.4 M -17% 0.

. Show work. b.` 2) What is the molar concentration within the zucchini cells? 8) a. Calculate solute potential (]s) of the sucrose solution in which the mass of zucchini cores does not change. Calculate the water potential of the solutes within the zucchini cores. Show work.

The cell shrank due to loss of water. Which would have the higher water potential? Distilled water had a higher water potential. 2) Why did the onion cells plasmolyze? The salt solution the onion cells were put into created a hypertonic environment for the cell and the water diffused out the cell with its concentration gradient to try to match the concentration inside and outside of the cell. grass often dies near roads that have been salted to remove ice. b. Which would have the higher concentration of water molecules? Distilled water had a higher concentration of water molecules. . Part D: 1) What is plasmolysis? Plasmolysis is the contraction of the cell contents due to loss of water out of cell into a hypertonic environment. the less it is able to receive.` 9) What effect does adding solute have on the solute potential component (]s) of that solution? Why? Solute potential is always negative and adding more solute will lower the solute potential. 10) Consider what would happen to a red blood cell (RBC) placed in distilled water: a. Solute potential is a measure of how much solute particles a solution can take and the more solute particles it has. c. What causes this to happen? The salt causes the environment to be hypertonic to the solution inside cells so water diffuses out the cell. What would happen to the red blood cell? Why? The red blood cell will burst or lyse because water goes into the cell as it follows is concentration from higher water concentration to lower water concentration. 3) In the winter. thus the cell plasmolyze and die due to lack of water.

` Graph Part B Change in Mass of Dialysis Bag in Various Solutions Percent Cahnge in mass (%) Molarity of Sucrose Solution (M) Independent: Molarity of Sucrose Solution Dependent: Percent Change in Mass (grams) Theme Correlation How has this lab illustrated the theme of structure and function? This lab shows the theme of structure in Experiment D with the potato cores. .

` How has this lab illustrated the theme of inquiry in science? Conclusion Topics 1) Diffusion: explain it and use your data to show out demonstrated it. How was inquiry used to show concepts in parts B. 3) Water potential: explain it and use your data to show out demonstrated it. How was inquiry used to find solute potential and water potential of potato cells at equilibrium? . 2) Osmosis: explain it and use your data to show out demonstrated it.