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Islamization of the Curriculum: The

Islamic input in the Medical


Curriculum (IIMC) at the Kulliyah of
Medicine

Introduction to the Islamic Input Curriculum

The main motive of IIMC is to resolve the crisis of duality or


dichotomy manifesting as teaching Islamic sciences separately
from medical disciplines by different teachers and in different
institutions. IIMC resolves the crisis of duality by insisting that
Islamic concepts should be taught by the same people who
teach medical disciplines. All lecturers in the Kulliyah of
Medicine go through a Diploma in Islamic Studies (DIS)
whose modules are exactly the same as the modules of IIMC.
This prepares them to be effective teachers of IIMC.
The teaching material of IIMC has been prepared and tested
over the past 7 years. Synopses of all lectures for years 1-5 are
available at http://omarkasule.tripod.com.
Since the start of the Kulliyah in 1997, we have worked
towards integrating Islamic values and concepts in the teaching
and examination of basic and clinical medical sciences. The
expectation is that our graduates will be able to integrate
Islamic moral and legal values in their practice of medicine
because they went through an integrated education system.
IIMC follows the Islamic paradigm of reading 2 books, the
book of revelation, kitaab al wahy, and the book of empirical

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science, kitaab al kawn. Both books contain signs of Allah,
ayaat al llaah, and must be read together. It is a mistake to read
one of the books and neglect the other. The solution to the
crisis of duality in the ummah starts from joint reading of the 2
books, al jam ‘u baina al qira atain. Thus medical scientists
who are involved in IIMC read the signs in both books.
The vision of IIC has two separate but closely related
components: Islamization and legal medicine. Islamisation
deals with putting medicine in an Islamic context in terms of
epistemology, values, and attitudes. Legal medicine deals with
issues of application of the Law (fiqh) from a medical
perspective.
IIMC has 5 main objectives: (a) introduction of Islamic
paradigms and concepts in general as they relate to medicine,
mafahiim Islamiyat fi al Tibb. (b) strengthening faith, iman,
through study of Allah’s sign in the human body (c)
appreciating and understanding the juridical, fiqh, aspects of
health and disease, al fiqh al tibbi. (d) understanding the social
issues in medical practice and research and (e) Professional
etiquette, adab al tabiib, from the Islamic perspective.
We feel that IIC helps the future physician prepare for the
heavy trust, the amanat of being professionally competent. He
must be highly motivated. He must have personal, professional,
intellectual, and spiritual development programs. He must
know the proper etiquette of dealing with patients and
colleagues. He also must know and avoid professional
malpractice. He needs to be equipped with leadership and

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managerial skills to be able to function properly as a head of a
medical team.
Derivation of Medical Ethics from the Maqasid Al Shari’at

In my view the most significant aspect of IIMC is the


derivation of medical ethics from Islamic sources as al
alternative to western sources. The full impact of this will be
appreciated in due course when these ideas become widely
adopted.
Secularized European law denied moral considerations
associated with ‘religion’ and therefore failed to solve issues in
modern medicine requiring moral considerations. This led to
the birth of the discipline of medical ethics that is neither law
enforceable by government nor morality enforceable by
conscience. On the other hand, Islamic Law is comprehensive
and encompasses moral principles directly applicable to
medicine.
The theory of medical ethics in Islam should be based on the 5
purposes of the Law, maqasid al shari’at, that are also
considered the 5 purposes of medicine, maqasid al tibb. The 5
purposes are preservation of religion and morality, hifdh al
ddiin; preservation of life and health, hifdh al nafs;
preservation of progeny, hifdh al nasl; preservation of intellect,
hifdh al ‘aql; and preservation of wealth, hifdh al maal. Any
medical action must fulfill one of the above purposes if it is to
be considered ethical. If any medical procedure violates any of
the 5 purposes it is deemed unethical.

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In practical detailed situations, legal axioms called Principles
of the Law or qawa’id al shari’at need to be used to resolve
mostly situations of apparent conflict between maqasid or to
assist logical reasoning. Principles of the Law, qawa’id al
shari’at, when applied to the medical area can also be referred
to as Ethical Principles of Medicine, qawa’id al tibb. The basic
ethical principles of Islam relevant to medical practice be
derived from the 5 principles of the Law, qawa’id al shari’at,
that are: intention, qasd; certainty, yaqeen; injury, dharar;
hardship, mashaqqat; and custom or precedent, ‘aadat. The
maqasid and qawa’id are used in a synergistic way. The basic
purpose of qawa’id is to provide robust rules for resolving
situations of conflict between or among different maqasid.
The challenge before Muslim physicians is to liberate
themselves from confusing and inconsistent European ethical
theories and principles and instead to work hard to develop
specific regulations for various medical interventions,
dhawaabit al tibaabat, by a renewal of ijtihad. This ijtihad will
be based on primary sources of the Law (Qur’an and sunnat),
secondary sources of the Law based on transmission, masaadir
naqliyyat (ijma and qiyaas); secondary sources of the Law
based on reason, masaadir ‘aqliyyat (istishaab, istihsaan, &
istilaah); the purposes of the Law, maqasid al shari’at;
principles of the Law, qawa’id al fiqh; as well as regulations of
the Law, dhawaabit al fiqh.
In the early period of medical jurisprudence (0-1400 H) most
issues could be resolved by direct reference to the primary
sources. In the middle period (1401 – 1420 H) issues were

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resolved by using ijma, qiyaas, istishaab, istihsaan, & istilaah.
In the modern period (1420 - ) medical technology is creating
so many issues whose resolution will require a broad bird’s
eye- view approach that can only be found in the theory of
maqasid al shari’at.

Appendix #1: Topics of Iimc in 2004/2005

YEAR 1 YEAR 2 YEAR 3 YEAR 4 YEAR 5


BLK
BLK 1: BLK 1: BLK 1:
BLK 1: 1a:
LIFE & MED FORMATI
‘AQIIDAT ELEM
HEALTH TECHN ON
CLINIC

Assisted
Intro to Life, al History The study
Reproducti
Islamic Input hayaat, Taking circle
on

Physica
Islam, Iman, Death, al l Exam Contracept Self study
& Ihsan: mawt & ion of Qur’an,
Investi
Adab:
Patient
Health, al Reproducti Motivation
Tauhid &
sihhat ve cloning: in Islam
Familie
s

Risalat Disease, al Adab Abortion Medical

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maradh Health Education
Care
Team

Disease Adab: Artificial Personal


Akhirat treatment, with the Life Developme
al tibaabat Dying: Support nt

Skill
al tasawwur
Qadar Euthanasia Develop
al Islami
Program

BLK
1b:LA Organ Quality
‘Ubudiyyat
W/ Transplant Culture
ETHICS
Tazkiyat al BLK 2: Over- Stem cell
Nafs GROWTH view transplant

Intra- Sources BLK 2a:


Ithm & Cosmetic
uterine Life, of the LEADERS
Ghufran Surgery
: Law HI

Purpos
Basic
Infancy & es and Animal
Kufr & Shirk characterist
Childhood: Principl Research
ics:
es
Purpos
Attributes
Al Milal wa al es & Human
Youth and
adyaan Princip Research
functions
of Med

51
Medical
Concept of Research Diseases of
c Ubudiyyah:
Middle Age Proced
Practice leaders
ures:
Resear
BLK 2a:
ch Communic
Old Age TRANSAC
Proced ation
T
ures:

Physici
Medical
an
BLK 2: ‘ILM malpractic Negotiation
Conduc
e:
t:

Professi
Value-
Nature of onal
Marriage based
Knowledge Miscon
Leadership:
duct:
Crisis of BLK 3: BIO Divorce & BLK 2b:
Knowledge: MIRACLE annulment: LEADERS

Method of Perfection The


Inheritance
Knowledge in Anatomy Prophet

BLK
Classical Perfection The
2:FIQH
Islam in Sales righteous
‘IBADA
Sciences Physiology khulafa
T
History of Perfection Taharat Personal Political
Med in : Loans leaders

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Sciences: Biochemistr
y
Islamization Control &
Rulings Investment Social role
of Med Homeostasi
on Salat s models
Science s

Islamization: Interaction Physica Scholars


Endowmen
Other with the l Acts of and
ts
Disciplin Environ Salat reformers

YEAR 1 YEAR 2 YEAR 3 YEAR 4 YEAR 5


Epidemiolo Special
Islamic Educ BLK 2b: Multicultura
gy & Types
in SE Asia CRIMES l society
Statistics: of Salat:

Salat in
Modernizati BLK 3a:
Difficulti Crimes
on: MGMT
es

Legal Principles
Saum competenc and
e: concepts
BLK 4:
BLK 3: Pleas, &
STRU & Zakat Strategy
TARIKH evidence
FUNC

Planning &
Creation of Alimentary Judgment,
Hajj implementa
the Universe I System conviction,
t

Creation of Locomotor BLK 3: Control and

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the Universe System SOC evaluation
II: INSTITU
BLK 3:
Creation of Protective NORM Family 1: Decisions &
the Human I: Systems CONDI Gender Problems
T

Genito- BLK 3b:


Creation of Menstru Family 2:
urinary RES
the Human II: ation Marital Rel
System MGMT

Cardio- Human Family Time


Khilafat I: respiratory Sexualit 3:rels & Manageme
System y Child nt
Pregna
Financial
Sensory ncy and
Khilafat II: The Masjid manageme
System Delivery
nt
:

Information
Nervous Breast
Taskhiir Takaful Manageme
System feeding
nt

Orgn
Imarat al Globalizatio
Hygiene Shuura manageme
Ardh n
nt
Foods Personnel
Era of
& Maal manageme
Risaalat:
Drinks nt

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Activity,
Era of BLK 4a:
Rest,
Khilafat COM
and
Raashidat, PROB
Sleep:
Islam in the
Lifestyle
Malay World:

BLK 4:
Sexual
PATH
perversion
CONDI
s
TI

BLK 4: Uro-
CIVILIZATIO genital Addictions
N system
Cardio-
Concepts of respirat
Poverty
Civilization: ory
system:

Connec
Ancient tive
Violence
Civilizations tissue
system:

Aliment
BLK 4b:
Cycle of ary
SOC
Civilization system:
ACTS
Dr

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Sensory
Umayyad
systems Dawa:
Era:
:
Gen
systemi
Amr &
Abassid Era: c
Nahy
conditio
ns:

Psychia
tric Social
Osmanli Era:
conditio Change
ns

Neurolo
Other Muslim gical Profession
Civilizations: conditio al orgs
ns:
Age-
Achiev of Welfare
related
Islamic and
conditio
Civilizatio Disaster
ns:

Tajdid & Islah

A Common
Civilizatizatio
n
NB: Teaching material can be accessed at http://omarkasule.tripod.com

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Appendix # 2
Curriculum for Year 1

Theme i: ‘Aqiidat

Module 1.0: Usuul Al Ddiin

1.1 Islam, Iman, & Ihsan

1.2 Tauhid

1.3 Risaalat

1.4 Aakhirat

1.5 Qadar

Module 2.0: As pects of ‘Aqiidat

2.1 ‘Ubuudiyyat

2.2 Tazkiyat al nafs

2.3 Ithm & Ghufran

2.4 Kufr & Shirk

2.5 Milal

Theme ii: ‘Il m & Ma’arifat (Knowledge)

Module 3.0: Theory of Knowledge, Nadhariyyat Al Ma’arifat

3.1 Nature of Knowledge, tabi’at al ma’arifa’at

3.2 Crisis of Knowledge, azmat al ma’arifat

3.3 Methodology of Knowledge, manhajiyat al ma’arifat

3.4 Classical Islamic Sciences, al ‘uluum al islamiyyat al taqliidiyyat

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3.5 Problem-based Learning in the Qur’an, asbaab al nuzuul fi al qur’an

Module 4.0: Islamization of Knowledge, islamiyyat al ma’arifat

4.1 Concept of Islamization, ma fhuum islamiyyat al ma’arifat

4.2 Islamizat ion of Medical Sciences, islamiyat al ‘uluum al tibiyyat

Theme iii: Khalq (Creati on) [0.85 Mb, 126pp]

Module 5.0: Creation of the Uni verse, Khalq Al Kawn

5.1 Nature, tabi’at al kaun

5.2 The Ult imate Questions, al as ilat al nihaa iyyat

5.3 Signs of Allah In The Universe, aayaat al llaah fi al kawn

5.4 Allah’s Will, iraadat al allah

5.5 Order, Change and Permanence

Module 6.0: Creation of the Human, k halq al insan

6.1 Creat ion of the Hu man Being, Khalq Al Insan

6.2 Nature of the Hu man, Tabi'at Al Insaan

6.3 Superiority of Hu mans, Afdhaliyyat Al Insaan

6.4 M ission of Humans on Earth, Risalat Al Insan Fi Al Ardh

6.5 Diversity of Hu mans, Tafaawut Al Bashar

Theme i v & v: Taariikh

Module 7.0: Khilafa, Taskhiir, ‘Imarat al ardh

Module 8.0: Cycle of Ci vilizati ons, dawrat al hadhaaraat

Module 9.0: the Gol den Era, ‘ahad al risaalat & ‘ahad al khilafat

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Module 10.0: Era of Dynasties, ‘ahad al muluuk

10.5 Achievements of Muslim Civilizat ion, injaazaat al hadharat al


islamiyyat

Curriculum for Year 2

Theme vi: Hayat, Sihhat, & Numuw (Life, Health, & Growth)

Module 11.0: Life and Health, al hayat wa al sihhat

11.1 Life, hayaat

11.2 Death, mamaat

11.3 Health, sihhat & ‘aafiyat

11.4 Disease, maradh

11.5 Treat ment of Disease, tatbiib

Module 12.0: Growth and Senescence, numuw wa al shaykhuukhat

12.1 Intrauterine period, fi al rahim

12.2 Infancy and Ch ildhood, tufuulat

12.3 Youth, shabaab

12.4 Middle Age,

12.5 Old Age, shaykhuukhat

Theme vii: Jism Al Insa n (The Org anism: Structure & Function)

Module 13.0: the Bi ological Miracle, mu’ujizat al jism al insani

13.1 Perfection, Optimality, Inco mparability, kamaaa al khalq

13.2 Control and commun ication,

13.3 Ho meostasis, ‘I’itidal

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13.4 Interaction with the Environ ment

13.5 Pathological Processes: Repair & Restoration of Equilibriu m

Module 14.0: Human Organ Systems

14.1 Alimentary system, ma idat

14.2 Loco motor Systems and Protective Systems, harakat al jism wa


himayatuhu

14.3 Gen ito-urinary and card io-respiratory systems, al qalb & tanaffus

14.4 Sensory system, al hawaas

14.5 Nervous Systems, al jihaaz al ‘asabi

Curriculum for Year 3

Theme viii: Usuul al Shari’at (Foundations Of The Law)

Module 15.0: Sources, Purposes, Principles of the Law

15.1 Over-view

15.2 Sources of the Law, masadir al shari’at

15.3 Purposes of the Law, maqasid al shari’at

15.4 Principles of the Law, qawa’id al shari’at

15.5 Regulations of the Law, dhawaabit al shari’at

Module 16.0: the Othmani Law Gazette, majallat al ahkaam al adliyyat

Theme ix: Akhlaaq Al Tibb (Ethics of Medicine)

Module 17.0: Purposes, Principles, and Regulations of Medicine

17.1 Purposes and Principles of Medicine

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17.2 Regulations of Medical Procedures, dhawaabit al tatbiib

17.3 Regulations of Research Procedures, dhawaabit al bahath

17.4 Regulations of Physician Conduct, dhawaabit al tabiib

17.5 Regulations about Professional Misconduct, dhawaabit al inhiraaf al


mihani

Module 18.0: Eti quette of the Physician, adab al tabiib

18.1 Etiquette with Patients and Families , adab al tabiib ma’a al mariidh

18.2 Etiquette with the Dying, adab al tabiib inda al ikhtidhaar

18.3 Etiquette with the Health Care Team, al adab fi al fariiq al tibbi

18.4 Etiquette of Research on Animals , adab al bahth ‘ala alhayawaan

18.5 Etiquette of Research on Humans , adab al bahath ‘ala al bashar

Theme X: Fiqh Al ‘Ibaadaat (Physical Acts of Worshi p)

Module 19.0: Taharat & Salat

19.1 Taharat

19.2 Rulings of salat, ahkaam al salat

19.3 Physical Acts of salat

19.4 Special Types of salat

19.5 Salat in difficult circumstances, salaat ahl al a’adhaar

Module 20.0: Physical ‘Ibadat

20.1 Saum

20.2 Zakat

20.3 Ha jj

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20.4 Tilaawat al Qur’an

20.5 Jihad

Theme Xi Fiqh Al M u’amalaat (transactions)

Module 21.0: Ci vil Transactions , mu’amalaat madaniyyat

21.1 Marriage, fiqh al munakahaat

21.2 Divorce & annulment, fiqh al talaaq & fasakh

21.3 Inheritance, fiqh al mawariith

21.4 Agency, wakalah

21.5 Co mpetitions, sibaaq

Module 22.0: Financial Transactions , mu’amalaat maaliyyat

22.1 Sales, buyuu’u

22.1 Personal Loans, Quruudh

22.2 Investments

22.4 Endowments & gifts, awqaaf & hibat

22.5 Other t ransactions

Theme Xii Fiqh Al ‘Aadaat (Physiological Condi tions)

Module 23.0 Reproduction, izdiyaad

23.1 Menstruation, al haidh

23.2 Hu man Sexuality, shahwat al jins

23.3 Pregnancy, al haml

23.4 Delivery, wadhau al haml

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23.5 Breast-Feeding, ridha’a

Module 24.0 Acti vities of Normal Li ving, ‘aadaat al ma’ishat

24.1 Hygiene, al nadhaafat

24.2 Foods, at 'Imat

24.3 Drin ks, ashribat

24.4 Activity, nashaat

24.5 Sleep and Rest, nawm & raahat

Theme Xiii Fiqh Al Amraadh (Pathological Conditi ons)

Module 25.0 Conditions of Organ Systems

25.1 Uro-Gen ital System, jihaaz bawli & jihaaz tanaasuli

25.2 Cardio-Respiratory System, qalb & jihaaz al tanaffus

25.3 Connective Tissue System,

25.4 Alimentary System, jihaaz al ma idat

25.5 Sensory Systems, al hawaas

Module 26.0 Other Disease Conditions

26.1 Patho-physiological Disturbances

26.2 General Systemic Condit ions

26.3 Psychiatric conditions, amraadh nafsiyyat

26.4 Neuro logical conditions, amraadh al a’asaab

26.5 Age-Related Conditions, amraadh al ‘umr

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Curriculum for Year 4

Theme Xi v: Fiqh M ustajiddaat al Tibb (Modern Medicine)

Module 27: Reproducti ve & Genetic Technol ogy

27.1 Assisted Reproduction, taqniyat al injaab

27.2 Contraception, mani’u al haml

27.3 Reproductive Clon ing, al istinsaakh

27.4 Abortion, isqaat al haml

27.5 Other Technologies

Module 28.0: Medical and Surgical Technol ogies

28.1 Artificial Life Support, ajhizat al in’aash

28.2 Euthanasia, qatl al rahmat

28.3 Solid Organ Transplantation, naql al a’adha

28.4 Stem Cell Transplantation, naql al khalaayat

28.5 Change of Fitra, taghyiir al fitrat

Theme Xv: Fiqh al Muhaakamaat (Judgments)

Module 29.0: Ci vil and Crimi nal Cases

29.1 Crimes Jinaayaat

29.2 Legal Co mpetence, ahliyyat

29.3 Etiquette of the Judge, adab al qadhi

29.4 Pleas & Evidence, da'wa & shahadat

29.5 Judgment, Conviction, and Punishment, qadha & ‘uquubat

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Module 30.0: Leg al Medicine, tibb shara’e

30.1 Forensic Evidence in Transactions

30.2 Forensic Evidence in Ho micide

30.2 Forensic Evidence in Body Injury

30.4 Forensic Evidence in Sexual Crimes

30.5 Medical Malpract ice

Theme Xvi Arkaan al Jama’at (Pillars of the Community)

Module 31.0: the Family Institution, al bayt

31.1 Gender

31.2 Family as a Natural Social Un it

31.3 Marriage

31.4 Parents and Relat ives

31.5 Children

Module 32.0: Community Institutions, muassasaat al jama’at

32.1 Masjid

32.2 Ukhuwwat

32.3 Takaful

32.4 Shuura

32.5 Maal

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Theme Xvii Humuum al Jama’at (Community Concerns) [0.91 MB, 139
pp]

Module 33.0: Community Problems , mashaakil al jama’at

33.1 Life-Style. namt al hayaat

33.2 Sexual Perversions , inhiraaf jinsi

33.3 Addiction, idmaan

33.4 Poverty, faqr

33.5 Violence, ‘unf

Module 34.0: Community Action, al ‘amal al ijtima’e

34.1 Dawa

34.2 Enjo ining the good and forbidding the bad, amr & nahy

34.3 Social change, taghyiir ijtima’e

34.4 Professional and Occupational Organizations , munadhamaat mihniyyat

34.5 Social Welfare and Disaster Relief Organizat ions , ‘awn ijtima’e &
ighaathat

Curriculum for Year 5

Theme Xviii Takwiin al Tabiib (Formation of the Physician)

Module 35.0: B asic Islamic Education

35.1 The Study Circle

35.2 Qur’an Study

35.3 Had ith Study

35.4 Ma’athuurat Study

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35.5 Fiqh Study

Module 36.0: Moti vati on, Education, and Development

36.1 Concept and methods of mot ivation in Islam, al tahfiiz fi al islam

36.2 Medical education, al ta’aliim al tibbi

36.3 Personal Develop ment, al tanmiyat al shakhsiyyat

36.4 Skill Develop ment, tanmiyat al mahaaraat7

Theme Xi x: Qiyadat (Leadershi p)

Module 37.0: Leadershi p Skills , mahaaraat al qiyadat

37.1 Leadership: Basic Characteristics, sifaat al qiyadat

37.2 Attributes and functions of leaders, sifaat wa masuliyaat al qaid

37.3 Disease of Leaders and Followers, amraadh al qiyaadat

37.4 Co mmunication in leadership, fan al ittisaal fi al qiyaadat

37.5 Negotiation in leadership, fan al hiwaar fi al qiyadat

Module 38: Model Leaders

38.1 The Prophet, al rasuul

38.2 Righteous Khulafa, khulafa raashiduun

38.3 Polit ical and M ilitary Leaders , qiyadaat siyasiyyat wa ‘askariyyat

38.4 Social Ro le Models , qiyadaat ijtima’iyyat

38.5 Scholars and Reformers , ‘ulama wa muslihiin

Theme Xx: Idaarat (Management)

Module 39.0: Management Skills , mahaaraat al qiyaadat

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39.1 Principles and Concepts of Management,

39.2 Strategy, al istratiijiyat

39.3 Planning and imp lementation, takhtiit wa tanfiidh al masharii’e

39.4 Control and Evaluation, al muraaqabat wa al taqwiim

39.5 Decision-making and problem-solving, al qaraaraat wa al mashaakil

Module 40.0: Resource Management

40.1 Time Management, idaarat al waqt

40.2 Financial Management, idaaral maal

40.3 Information Management, idaarat al ma’alumat

40.4 Organizational Management, idaarat al munadhamat

40.5 Personnel Management, idaarat al bashar

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