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com/search/strategic-management-lecture-notesZ BUSINESS RESEARCH Unit-1
Why Study Research
Today in this dynamic world dramatic changes have been occurred in all areas of business. Previously business organizations focused on the production pr their product and don’t care for customers. But with the evolution in industrials sector and with the invention of new technology business needs and organization response has been changed. Now customers, suppliers, stakeholders, employees are all more informed and more sensitive about their interest. Information technology, globalization, and means of communication have impact on society and make drastic changes in society. All these changes required that a manager working in an organization must equip himself with more knowledge and information which can help him in decision making. A valued and judged decision depends on the available alternative and capability to make choices of best one. So in this complex environment organization needs to research new ways of doing business, solving problems, designing tools for measurement. All these things required that managers must have knowledge of research so that new techniques and tool can be used for quantitative and qualitative methods which can be successful for business. WHAT IS A RESEARCH Research is a simple process of finding solution to a problem after a thorough study and analysis of the situational factors. BUSINESS RESEARCH An organized, systematic, data-based, critical, objective, scientific inquiry or investigation into a specific problem undertaken with the purpose of finding answer or solution to it. Explanation: Business research comprises a series of steps designed and executed, with the goal of finding answers to the issues that are of concern to manager in the work environment. This means that for research following steps are To know where the problem area exist in organization To identify as clearly and specifically as possible the problems that needs to be studied and resolve When problem has been identified then gather information, analyze the data, and determine the factors that are associated with problems and solve it by taking the necessary corrective measure So research involves a series of well -thought-out and carefully executed activities that will enable the manager to know how organizational problems can be solved or at least considerable minimized.
Need and Importance of Research
There are four situations in which you can gain advantages having knowledge of research.
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1. Decision making require more information for sound decision. If you have knowledge of research you can gather more information and have multiple choices and alternative for decision making. When you have not knowledge of research you have limited choice. So research provides you skill and makes you superior in decision making and your decision will be valued and judged decision. 2. When higher executive in an organization requires some research work and if you have such knowledge then there is an opportunity for career building in this organization by taking this research tasks and make impressing to high executive. So research knowledge provides you impressing personality. 3. When being a manager you need some research work and you hire some researcher from outside, you can understand, evaluate the research design and communicate to other very easily. So research work provides you understanding and evaluating of other’s research work. 4. when you have research knowledge especially as marketing and finance analyst you have career opportunities in the market There are other reasons 1. research sharpen the sensitivity of manager to the numerous variables operating in a situation and remind then frequently of the multicausality and multifinality of phenomena , thus avoiding the inappropriate, simplistic notions of one variable causing other 2. when manager understand research report about their organizations handed to them by professionals, they will be equipped to take intelligent, educated, calculated risk with known probabilities attached to the success or failure of their decisions 3. because manager become knowledgeable about scientific investigation, vested interest inside or outside the organization will not prevail 4. Manager knowing about research shared important information with consultant or researcher hired.
What Is The Purpose Of Study?
Based on objectives research study can be classified into four types 1. Reporting: A type of study in which researcher only report to high executive on the problem. In these types of research usually data are available and researchers only gather information and analyze data fro reporting. This type of research is useful in qualitative and clinical research. 2. Descriptive: These types of research are carried out to discover answer of those questions which are not on surface and management wants to surface them. In these studies researcher develop a profile of group under investigation and define subject. There are involved one or more than one variable effecting the problem. Descriptive studies are carried out in planning, monitoring and evaluating the policies. In descriptive study researcher observe the phenomenon and does not describe the reason. 3. Explanation: This type of study is based on theory and explain the reason for the phenomenon
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For example production in an organization continuously declining and manager wants to know the reasons behind this decline. The study carried out will be explanation 4. Prediction: These types of study are also based on theory and male recommendation for future implementation of recommendation. This type of study is carried out in business in some specific course of action or for future value or prediction
Is Research Is Always Problem Based?
One prominent author define research as a “systematic, controlled, empirical, and critical investigation of natural phenomena guided by theory and hypothesis about the presumed relations among such phenomena” According to this definition all researches either applied which is carried out to solve current problems and or basic or fundamental which is carried out to enhance knowledge or understanding for future problems are based on problems. We know that different types of studies that is reporting, descriptive, explanation and prediction are carried out to solve or predict future values or forecast. So we can say that research is always based some types of problems.
How Scientific Is Business Research?
Development of scientific methods in business research lags behind the physical science. Physical scientists are more rigorous (stick with their hypothesis) in their concept and research procedure. They have resources and strong theory development. Government also support them Business researchers have limited resources and are not so strict in following the procedure and rules. Business research are business secret and to disclose these secret means to loose business so they are kept secret and not shared with outside world where as physical research has no such restriction. Physical investigations are conducted under controlled environment in a laboratory where as business environment are not favorable under controlled environment. Business research is done to measure attitude, values, behavior of people in organizations and all these characteristics are continuously with the change of environment. Even with these obstacles business research has make great contribution in scientific field. New techniques are being developed and rigorous research procedures are advancing rapidly. New techniques and tools that a manager can used in business for decision making are available which make a manager successful having knowledge of it otherwise failure of his business
What is good research?
A good research use scientific method Characteristics of a scientific method are 1. Purposeful: researcher must know the purpose of his research and problems should be defined clearly. There should be no ambiguity in defining problems. The limitation and scope of research be clearly defined 2. Research procedure clearly defined: researcher should defined the procedure which he adapted during data gathering and interpreting so that when ever in future researcher or
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sampling units. Which types of study is. Validity and reliability of data should be checked Objectivity: researcher should confine to his finding and be specific to his area of interest. can understand the procedure followed and adapted by him. Researcher Reputation: Experienced researcher are more reliable and their work is more valued Research and Decision Making Business research helps management in decision making. products. Conclusions should be limited to justify by data. In this global world rapid information and their manipulation can create problems for organizations. Such knowledge generated is usually later applied in organizational setting for problems solving. Knowledge of research provided information about innumerable internal and external factors of varied nature operating in the work and organizational environment. 6. measuring units effect of study etc should be clearly defined Researcher should represent his report with full confidence and any flaws and weakness in procedural design should be clearly mentioned. Reliability and validity of data collection method: researcher should analyze the data and mentioned the methods of data collection and analysis. 4. Report should reflect confidence and precision. Managers are responsible for final outcome by making right decisions at work.3. employees and competitors can make appropriate decision. management want to evaluate his research. and manager who is final authority for recommendation for implementation of equipments depends upon sharpness of manager decision making. the findings of such research contributes to the building of knowledge in the various functional areas of business. 7. Complicated technology is available for organization and manager knowing importance and use can make best decision for its use. 5. and seek methods of solving them. Procedural design clearly defined: researcher should mention the appropriate representative ness of population or sampling used in design. Which sampling method he used. OTHER TYPES OF RESEARCH Case Study: Page 4 of 67 . Management having information about customers. Thus knowledge of research greatly enhance the decision making skill of the manager TYPES OF BUSINESS RESEARCH Applied Research: Research done with the intention of applying the results of the findings to solve specific problems currently being experienced in the organization Basic / Pure/ fundamental Research Research done primarily (mainly) to enhance the understanding of certain problem that commonly occur in organization setting.
Action Research: Action research is sometime undertaken by consultants who want to initiate change processes in organization. defined. action research methodology is most appropriate while effecting planned changes. and diagnosed and research continue on an ongoing basis until the problem is fully resolved.Case study involves in-depth. solution. and gathers relevant data to provide a tentative problem solution. The operation of financial institution 2. The effects are then evaluated. In other words. Leveraged buyout 5. and new solution. Practices and procedure are frequently examined 3. Time series behaviors of quarterly earnings 6. Action research is constantly evolving project with interplay among problems. based on the research results. A sensible and realistic problem definition and creative way of collecting data are critical to action research. RESEARCH OBJECTIVES 1. Inter corporate financing 6. Behavior of stock exchange Page 5 of 67 . Yield on mortgage 7. the research begins with a problem that is already identified. or interrelated among functional areas ACCOUNTING 1. effects or consequence. Transfer pricing 7. Inventory control methods 4. the objective of basic research is to generate more knowledge and understanding of the phenomena of interest and to build theories. Taxation methods are researched FINANCE 1. Here. such theories subsequently form the foundation of further studies of many aspect of phenomena RESEARCH IN FUNCTIONAL AREA OF BUSINESS In business research is conducted in functional area to solve problematic issue in. Cash recovery rates 8. Applied research is carried out to solve existing problems by investigating problems and good managerial decision making 2. where the nature and definition of the problems happen to be the same as experienced in the current situation. Merger and acquisition 4. Budget control system 2. Accelerated depreciation 5. Optimum financial ratio 3. This solution is then implemented. contextual analysis of similar situation in other organizations.
How to discriminate goods from bad research 3. These are the sources through which a researcher reaches at his destination and find the answer of research question.MARKETING 1. Combine experience with scientific knowledge which making decision STYLE OF THINKING Different people think problems differently. Production operation management 5. knowing well the probabilities associated with the different possible outcome 5. Identify and effectively solve minor problems in the work setting 2. Advertising 3. HRM 3. Appreciate and be constantly aware of the multiple influence and multiple effects of factors imposing on situation 4. Sale promotion 4. Prevent possible vested interest from exercising their influence in a situation 6. Consumer preference 9. Relates to hired researchers and consultant more effectively 7. These sources are: EMPIRICISM: (empiric means based on experience only) People think or observes the thing on the basis of their past experience and method of logical deduction. Empiricism is often used in research where researcher face repeated problems and find the past solution will be implemented. Strategy formulation information system MANAGER RESEARCH RELATIONSHIP Being knowledgeable about research and research methods help professional manager to: 1. Page 6 of 67 . Distribution 5. New product development and other marketing aspects MANAGEMENT 1. Impact of changing demographics on management practices 4. Product image 2. After sale services 8. Scientific inquiry is a way by which people think SOURCE OF KNOWLEDGE There are different sources that provide help in scientific research. Employees attitudes and behaviors 2. Take calculated risk indecision making. Packaging 6. Pricing 7.
RATIONALISM We mean that reason is primary source of knowledge. Rationalist believes all knowledge can be deduced from known or basic truth nature UNTESTED OPINION Untested opinion is a form of knowing that people stick to despite contrary evidence. “That is the way we always done it here” is phrase that confuses entrenchment and habit with efficiency SELF EVIDENCE TRUTH: It could be deduced from known laws of nature for example people would die no matter what precaution were taken. METHODS OF AUTHORITY We rely on persons of authority to improve our confidence. Too often authority depends on status or positions rather that true expertise LITERARY STYLE The literary style is responsible for many classic case studies in social science. Case studies played a prominent role in the development of business knowledge POSTULATION: assumption without proof ESSENTIAL PRINCIPLE OF SCIENCE 1. Direct observation of phenomena 2. Clearly defined variable, methods and procedure 3. Empirically testable hypothesis 4. Ability to rule out rival hypothesis 5. The statistical rather that linguist justification of conclusion 6. The self correctly process THE HALLMARKS OR DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS OF SCIENCE 1. Purposiveness: Every research has a definite purpose. For example in organization manager wants to increase the commitment of employees. Then this research focuses on purpose of commitment. 2. Rigor: Rigor means careful, accurate and degree of exactness in research investigation. In example of employees manager may ask question from 12 to 15 to indicate employee’s commitment is not rigor. A rigorous research involves a good theoretical base and a carefully thought out methodology. 3. Testability: means that hypothesis developed can be testable and the data gathered support the logically developed hypothesis.
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4. Replicability: means that the result of tests of hypothesis should be supported again and yet again when the same type of research is repeated in other similar circumstances. 5. Precision and Confidence: Precision refers to the closeness of the findings to “reality” based on a sample. For example if we say that we results are close to 30 and 40 against actually 35 we say it precision but 20 to 40 is not precision Confidence: refers to the probability that our estimations are correct that is when we say 95 % confidence there is chance of plus minus 5 of failure. 6. Objectivity: the conclusion drawn through the interpretation of results of data analysis should be objective; that is, they should be based on the facts of findings derived from the actual data, and not on our own subjective or emotional values. The more objective the interpretation the more scientific the research investigation becomes. 7. Generalize ability: Generalizability refers to the scope of applicability of the research findings in one organization setting to other settings. 8. Parsimony: means that our research framework will be simple not complex. A simple framework requires fewer variables to control that contribute to research and are economically beneficial for research. FOUNDATION OF SCIENTIFIC METHOD The Scientific Attitude: It is a phrase that if tool of thinking are the mind of science then the scientific attitude is the spirit. Scientific attitude compel the researcher to thinks scientifically about the thing. Searching, investigation gives the researcher to explore the things. If we look at all the discovery we see that these are all result of scientific thinking of researcher or scientists Understanding Theory: Theory, an assumption or system of assumptions, accepted principles, and rules of procedure based on limited information or knowledge, devised to analyze, predict, or otherwise explain the nature or behavior of a specified set of phenomena; abstract reasoning. Sets of systematically interrelated concepts, definitions, and propositions that are advanced to explain and predict phenomena are theories. Difference between Theory and Hypothesis It is very difficult to distinguish between theory and hypothesis because both involve concepts, definitions, and relationship among variables. The basic difference is the level of complexity and abstraction. Theories tend to be abstract and involve multiple variables, while hypothesis tend to be simple, two variable propositions involving concrete instances.
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Theory and Research In research theory serves in many useful ways. 1. First as orientation, it narrows the range of facts we need to study 2. Theory suggest that how the problems be studies and which way is most important for better results 3. Theory suggest for researcher the system for data gathering and classifying it in meaningful way 4. Theories summarize what can be observed and what is beyond the observation of researcher. 5. Theory can be used prediction of further facts Model Model is a representation of a system that is constructed to study some aspects of that system or the system as a whole. CONCEPT: A concept is a bundle of meanings or characteristics associated with certain events, objects, conditions, situation and the like. Classifying and categorizing objects or events that have common characteristics beyond the single observation create concepts Source of concepts: 1. Shared usage developed concept 2. Through personal experience 3. Some concepts are unique to particular culture and are not easily translated Importance to research Concepts are basic to all thoughts and communication 1. We design hypothesis using concepts 2. We devise measurement concept by which to test these hypotheses statements 3. We gather data using these measurement concepts 4. We invent new concepts to express ideas The success of research depends on 1. How clearly conceptualize and 2. How well others understand the conceptive use Problems in concept use: 1. People differ in the meaning they include under the particular label. Different concept like household, regular user, personality ( 400 definition of personality) Construct: is an image or idea specifically invented for given research and / or theory building purpose. Constructs are building by combing the simpler concept especially when the idea or image we intended to convey is not directly subject to observation. 2. Concepts and construct are easily confused DEFINITION
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New Product Success Stock Market Prices Independent Variable Dependent Variable Moderating Variable: the moderating variable is one that has a strong contingent effect on the independent variable-dependent variable relationship. The specification and procedure must be so clear that any competent person using them would classify the object in the same way. or at the same time for different object or person. the most familiar are dictionary definition. the dependent variable is also present. when the independent variable is present. In these a concept is defined with synonym. there is an increase or decrease in the dependent variable also. The basic purpose of definition or operational definition is to provide an understanding and measurement concept. The researcher’s goal is to understand and describe the dependent variable. These terms have empirical referent ( that is we must be able to count. or to explain its variability. That is. Intervening Variable: An intervening variable is one that surface between the time the independent variable start operating influence the dependent variable and the time their Page 10 of 67 . For example a customer is defined as patron: a patron in turn is defined as customer or client of an establishment OPERATIONAL DEFINITION An operational definitional is one stated in term of specific testing criteria or operation. TYPES OF VARIABLES Dependent Variable: the dependent variable is the variable of primary interest to the researcher.There are different types of definition. The values can differ at various times for the same object or person. or predict it. VARIABLE A variable is any thing that can take on differing or varying values. measure or in some other way gather the information through our sense) Whether the object is defined is physical (i. and when each unit of increase in the independent variable. Independent Variable: An independent variable is one that influences the dependent variable in either a positive or negative way. the presence of a third variable (moderating variable) modifies the original relationship between the independent and dependent variable. In other words it is the main variable that lends itself for investigation as a variable factor.e machine tool) or highly abstract e. That is.g achievement motivation) the definition must specify the characteristics to study and how they are to be observed.
The intervening variable surfaces as function of the independent variable operating in any situation. in symbolic. There are two type are reasoning Deductive Method: The process by which we arrive at a reasoned conclusion by logical generalization of a known facts Example: all high performers are highly proficient in their job. In other words. If Aslam is high performer we then conclude that he is highly proficient in his job. It is also called double movement of reflective thought. and help to conceptualize and explain the influence of the independent variables on the dependent variable. in induction we logically establish a general proposition based on observed facts. Inductive Method: Induction is a process where we observe certain phenomena and on this basis arrive at conclusion. called meaning. Example: production processes are prime feature of factories or manufacturing plants. There is thus temporal quality or time dimension to the intervening variable. in ordinary language or. Deduction occur when we observe a Page 11 of 67 .impact is felt on it. MV Coach Training Game IV Team Work Intervening Variable DV THOUGHT PROCESS: REASONING: Research problems are solved through reasoning. logical form. Every day we reason (think) with varying degree of success and communicate our message. in special case. We therefore conclude that factories exist for production purposes Combining Induction & Deduction Induction and deduction processes are used in research reasoning in a sequential manner.
HYPOTHESIS A hypothesis can be defined as a logically assumed relationship between two or more variables expressed in the form of a testable statement. “Why is this” answer this question we advance a tentative explanation (hypothesis). Proposition: A statement about concepts that may be judged as true. observation. Page 12 of 67 . Hypothesis also described as statements in which we assign variables to cases. You infer a conclusion (hypothesis) to answer the question and explain the fact that the bulb is burned out 4. We know from experience that a burned out bulb will not light. You push the light switch and find no light 2. You ask the question “Why no light” 3. A proposition formulated for empirical testing is called hypothesis. 1. 5. Deduction is the process by which we test whether the hypothesis is capable of explaining the fact. or false to observable phenomena. Relationships are assumed on the basis of the network of association established in the theoretical framework formulated for the research study. A new bulb put in the lamp will result in light when the switch is pushed 6. The hypothesis is a good if it explains the event or condition (fact) that prompted the question. described and elaborated network of association among the variable deemed relevant to the problem situation and identified through process as interviews. By testing the hypotheses and confirming assumed relationship.fact and ask. We put in the new bulb and push the switch. and literature survey. The light goes on. It is logically developed. (Induction) Fact 1 ? (Deduction) (Deduction) Hypothesis Fact 2 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK The theoretical framework is the foundation on which the entire research project is based. You use this hypothesis to conclude (deduce) that the light will not go on when we push the switch. it is expected that solution can be found to correct the problem encountered.
is the statement expressing as relationships between two variables or indicating difference between groups Null Hypotheses HO: µ m= µ w Where HO is null hypotheses µ m is mean motivational level of men µ w is mean motivational level of women Alternate for the above is HO: µ m> µ w or HO: µ m< µ w The role of Hypothesis: In research hypothesis play very important role Page 13 of 67 . DIRECTIONAL AND NON DIRECTIONAL HYPOTHESES If relationship between two variable terms as positive. airsafety violation will be reduced STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESES: FORMAT 1. The alternate hypotheses. NULL AND ALTERNATE HYPOTHESES The null hypothesis is a proposition that states a definitive. IF-THEN STATEMENT Example: 1 Employees who are more healthy will take sick leave less frequently Example: 2 If employees are more healthy. which is the opposite of the null. the null statement is expressed as no (significant) relationship between two variables or no (significant) difference between two groups. In general. exact relationship between two variables. the lower the job satisfaction of employees It is a directional hypothesis Example: there is relationship between age and job satisfaction It is a non directional hypothesis 3. negative. less than. more than and like then these are directional hypotheses Example: the grater the stress experienced in the job.Example: If the pilots are given adequate training to handle midair crowded situations. That is. it state that the population correlation (Population and sample means=0) between two variables is equal to zero or that the difference in the means of two groups in the population is equal to zero ( or some definitive number). then they will take sick leaves less frequently 2.
We therefore conclude that factories exist for production purposes Page 14 of 67 . 2.1. Hypothesis must be better than its rival BUILDING BLOCK OF SCIENCE IN RESEARCH Deductive Method: The process by which we arrive at a reasoned conclusion by logical generalization of a known facts Example: all high performers are highly proficient in their job. It limits the researcher what shall be studied and what shall not be It identify facts that are relevant and those that are not It suggest which form of research design is most appropriate It provide a framework for organizing the conclusion that result Good Hypothesis A good hypothesis fulfill the three condition: 1. it must explain the facts that give rise to the need for explanation. Example: production processes are prime feature of factories or manufacturing plants. Hypothesis be adequate for its purpose. 2. or distribution of some variable in term of values meaningful to research task. If Aslam is high performer we then conclude that he is highly proficient in his job. Inductive Method: Induction is a process where we observe certain phenomena and on this basis arrive at conclusion. this means it clearly states the condition. In other words. For exploratory hypothesis. 5. size. 3. in induction we logically establish a general proposition based on observed facts. For descriptive hypothesis. It guides the direction of study. 4. Hypothesis must be testable: 3.
Observation 2. Preliminary information gathering 3. Hypothesizing Page 15 of 67 . Theory formulation 4.BUILDING BLOCK OF SCIENCE Refinement of Theory Or Implementation Ob serv atio n fic nti Ide on of ati blem Pro ea Ar Interpretation of Data Theoretical Frame work or Network Association Analysis of data Hypothesis Data Collection Research Design Constructs Concept operational definition HYPOTHETICO-DEDUCTIVE METHOD The seven step process in Hypothetico-Deductive Method 1.
Data Analysis 7. Further scientific data collection 6. behavioral response of organizational members and client system f) Literary survey i) reason for literary survey ii) conducting the literary survey iii) identifying the relevant sources iv) extracting the relevant information v) writing up the literature review STEP3: PROBLEM DEFINITION Define problem using funnel techniques STEP 4: THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK a) Variables STEP5: HYPOTHESIS DEVELOPMENT a) Statements of hypothesis STEP 6: ELEMENTS OF RESEARCH DESIGN a) Purpose of study i) exploration ii) description iii) hypotheses testing iv) case study Page 16 of 67 . It is entire situation where manager see a possible need for research. and other structural aspects iii) perception.5. Deduction RESEARCH PROCESS STEP 1: THE BROAD PROBLEM AREA The first step is the Identification of the broad problem through observation and focusing on situational factors. Problems may be of four types: a) current problems b) areas where manager wants improvements c) conceptual and theoretical issues which tightened the basic research to understand the certain phenomena d) some question which researcher wants to answer empirically STEP 2: PRELIMINARY DATA COLLECTION e) Nature of data to be gather i) back ground information of the organization ii) managerial philosophy. company policies. attitudes.
b) types of investigation i) Causal versus correlational ii) Group difference iii) Ranks c) extent of researcher interference i) minimal ii) normal iii) manipulation iv) control d) study setting i) contrived ii) non contrived e) Unit of analysis i) Individual. The scientific attitude set free the creative drive that makes discoveries possible. then the scientific attitude is the spirit. group. organization. culture f) time horizon: cross sectional versus longitudinal studies g) measurement of variable: i) operational definition ii) Measuring Scales a) Nominal b) Ordinal c) Interval d) Ratio iii) Rating Scales a) Dichotomous scale b) Category c) Likert d) Numerical e) Semantic differential f) Itemized rating g) Fixed or constant sum rating h) Staple i) Graphic j) Consensus scale iv) Ranking scale a) Paired comparison b) Forced choice c) Comparative scale h) Data collections methods: THE SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE If the tools of thinking are mind of science. All scientists Page 17 of 67 . dyads.
Unit:2 EXPLORATION: Exploration begins with the typically published data. Sources of secondary data: • Books • Novels • Periodicals • Magazine • Journals PRELIMINARY DATA COLLECTION g) Nature of data to be gather iv) back ground information of the organization v) managerial philosophy. For example Newton third law of force was just his scientific attitude which makes discovery of force of gravity. attitudes. behavioral response of organizational members and client system h) Literary survey vi) reason for literary survey vii) conducting the literary survey Page 18 of 67 . There are two types of data 1) primary data 2) secondary data Primary data is one which researcher first time collects Sources of primary data: • Observation • Interviews • Questionnaires While secondary data means data already gathered by someone else and researcher collects his for their research. company policies. and other structural aspects vi) perception.think scientifically and make discoveries.
and the behaviours of all participants in that event. it is the methods of data collection which may distinguish qualitative from quantitative approaches. the actions.the methods are not exclusive to a particular research approach. Focus groups are an increasingly popular technique used by both quantitative and qualitative researchers. One obvious way to collect this type of data is to keep a detailed set of notes which describe the interactions under study. may also be found in research which is more traditionally quantitative . audio or even video recording. the nature of this relationship. It is also argued that only the human researcher is capable of recognizing and recording the often very subtle verbal and non-verbal cues which accompany social interaction. The data should be an accurate reflection of the "truth" for a given situation. since the researcher may be playing an active part in that interaction this is not always very easy to do. Whereas quantitative researchers may make use of a wide variety of data collection instruments including • • • laboratory apparatus psychometric instruments and other forms of pencil and paper tests. particularly to the inexperienced researcher. This will include the responses of the individual. otherwise the researcher is engaged in journalism. and even though the researcher may have a closer relation with the participant than in quantitative research. although more likely to be used by qualitative researchers. However. But what appears simple is in fact an immensely complex task and although there are tools available to assist in data collection and analysis. the complexity of this type of research should not be underestimated. but also perhaps the pattern of interaction between individuals. quantitative or qualitative. The main data collection instrument of the qualitative researcher is often the researcher themselves. Superficially this may seem relatively straightforward.e. Nowadays it is common for researchers to make use of available technology to assist in the data collection . It should also be noted that the techniques described below. Obviously where recording is possible it should be used as this will improve the accuracy and objectivity of the data collected. It should be noted however that even this may cause difficulties for some people. nor the ideological biases of the researcher should be allowed to confound the data collected. This is one reason why empathy between the researcher and the participants in a study is so important in qualitative research. and indeed this may be one of the reasons qualitative research seems so attractive. Objectivity is important in qualitative research. (or worse .g. particularly if sensitive issues are being discussed. Thus the main task of the qualitative researcher is to record in as much detail as possible the events. A focus group is essentially a situation contrived by the researcher in which a Page 19 of 67 .fiction writing!) rather than research.viii) identifying the relevant sources ix) extracting the relevant information x) writing up the literature review Data Collection To the casual observer.
and believed that an environmental factor (e.do they allow a totally open discussion between the participants or is more structure imposed in terms of the discussion points. This will be influenced by the nature of the study. but the researchers' own theoretical perspective may also be important. Although the aims of the study should be clearly defined. Participant observation studies offer a number of advantages to the researcher. The difficulty with using diaries as a research tool is in determining exactly what is to be recorded. but there are of course also a number of difficulties. However in other cases.g. The degree of structure imposed by the researcher may be important . While there are many advantages in using diary techniques these types of studies will be particularly prone to accusations of observer bias and lack of generalisability. it is not unknown for this type of study to identify research questions which alter the direction of the research. Indeed for this type of research. Diaries may be kept by the researcher or the participant in a study and may be a rich source of data which would be unobtainable using any other technique. may provide data and insights which may not have been revealed through interviews with individuals.participant and non-participant. participant observation studies involve the researcher becoming an active participant in the study. For example a nurse who was interested in the social interaction between nurses may choose this approach to collect data. The extent to which a participant observer divulges their research to other participants will depend on the investigation. As the name suggests. such disclosure might prejudice the data collection and researchers have chosen to keep their activities secret from the other participants (notwithstanding the ethical problems with this!). Advantages include the degree of flexibility offered by this approach. In some studies the researcher has let it be known to other participants that they are actively collecting data for a research project. time allows for discusses the nature of the research question. a degree of participation by the researcher may be the only way in which data can be collected.number of people are brought together to discuss a particular issue. even of the same topic. than the more objective techniques. While the researcher might to some extent have an "open agenda" as far as the focus groups are concerned it is vitally important that they have clear aims and a well defined purpose for the focus groups. Even within this relatively simple scenario there are a number of variables which the researcher might manipulate. gender. The most obvious difficulty with participant observation is that the Page 20 of 67 . Comparisons between different diary studies. The size of the group. its composition in terms of age. through their interaction. The use of diary techniques by qualitative researchers is quite common. diet) was significant. then they may ask parents of autistic children to keep a diary that included details of food intake. Observation studies are of two basic types . Field research in which the social behaviour of groups of people is the focus of the research is more likely to reveal the "truths" sought. social class and so on may all be important. It may be thought of as a collective interview in which it is hoped that the participants. and the resources available will determine many of these factors. are often fraught with difficulty. Given that it is impossible to record everything the researcher must have clear criteria for determining what is to be recorded and what is not. For example if a researcher was looking at the development of autism in young children. A researcher with a different perspective may not request that any information on diet be included in a diary but may (for example) choose to focus on social interaction.
difficult. would of course know this. indeed the research outcomes may have negative implications for their role in the health care team. and where more than one observer is being used. at the very least. At one extreme we have the fully controlled laboratory observational study. they may not be well motivated or even interested in the research. and some would suggest leaves the researcher open to accusations of bias and distortion. One of the main problems with any form of observational study concerns the reliability of the observational techniques used. The degree of structure imposed by the observer on the situation under observation may vary quite considerably. This would be useful if we were interested in the way doctors interact with patients while collecting a patient history. This may well influence their own behaviour and their degree of involvement with the group . Participating in the group activities may make the unobtrusive collection of data. if the group under study is involved in illegal (euthanasia) or unethical (making jokes about patients) activities. Participant observers will of course become involved with the group at a social and emotional level.g. These techniques may vary from the very detailed video recording of the situation to rather more crude time-sampling techniques in which pencil and paper records of the observed behaviour are made at different intervals of time over the research period. e. though experimental studies are usually excluded from this category.and this of course may change the very phenomena under study. interview transcriptions. to have a measure of inter-rater reliability. There may also be ethical problems for the researcher. the laboratory situation allows a greater degree of control over the situation than does the field study in the operating theatre. For a researcher to remain hidden from the other participants does not remove all the difficulties. where possible.even if the behaviour is not directly relevant to the research being undertaken. In clinical situations the researcher may be asking clinicians to record the observations and this may bring into question their reliability in the task. The researcher has to impose Page 21 of 67 . to have some measure of observer reliability. In another type of study we might install a video camera in an operating theatre to observe the behaviour of surgeons and how they interact with other members of the surgical team. This would be especially so if the researcher had to rely on memory to record data on an event after a significant period of time .audio and video recordings. In the former situation the people under study. Data Analysis Qualitative studies typically produce a great deal of data . who may or may not be the researcher themselves. The non-participant observer makes little or no attempt to hide what they are doing although they may seek to minimize their intrusion on the situation being observed. but so is the person using the instrument. In terms of imposed structure.presence of the researcher (if known) may change the very behaviour under study. The degree of control that can be exerted will of course influence the extent to which hypotheses may be formally tested. Not only are the instruments used to record the data important. If the researcher attempts to change this behaviour by the group then their research may well be compromised . A typical laboratory observational study might put doctors into a typical interview situation in which actors play the part of patients.perhaps at the end of the day or even later. descriptions of the situations observed. Clinicians are likely to be very busy with their routine tasks. in the latter study they may or may not depending on whether the researcher thought it was important. It is always desirable in observational studies.
Indeed supporters of Grounded Theory argue that researchers should put aside any theoretical preconceptions when they begin their research.these coding units may be individual words. In recent years computer packages (e. Triangulation involves using two different methods to study the same phenomena. discourse analysis are techniques which have been developed specifically for sampling and analyzing data of this type. Thus qualitative researchers may see the data analysis as part of the data collection phase of the research.g. rather than the researcher trying to impose a theoretical perspective on the situation before the data is even collected. Using the chosen coding units the data analysis might precede by simply identifying the number of times particular items occur. Again problems of inter-rater reliability and the potential for researcher bias needs to be considered. They may consult with the participants to check the validity of the conclusions arrived at. It should perhaps be emphasized that unlike quantitative analysis which is usually the end point in a study. characters etc. Although they would argue that their methods produce richer. The theory should emerge as the data is collected. themes. in qualitative research the analysis and theoretical statements which follow emerge from the data and often influence the subsequent direction of the research. phrase. This allows the researcher to test their assumptions and to check hypotheses in a wider context. However we can say that there is much similarity among sequence proposed. Page 22 of 67 .g. qualitative researchers have developed other techniques aimed at improving the reliability and validity of their studies. the researcher cycles or repeats their research activities as themes emerge. or it may introduce more sophisticated techniques e. One major difference between quantitative and qualitative approaches is that the qualitative researcher may involve the participants in the study in the analysis of the data. This would be very rare to find in a quantitative study. but where possible the researcher should represent their inclusion/exclusion criteria clearly. more valid data. requiring the researcher to indicate how confident they feel about a particular theme that emerges. some steps are completed first and some continue along the pother steps. stories. Content analysis. In beginning the analysis of the data decisions about the coding units will also have to be made .some form of order onto this data if it is to make sense and to contribute to our understanding of the research problem. Some steps carried out simultaneously. e. It is not uncommon that there exist some variations in these steps.g. This may involve the researcher in decisions which are often more subjective than objective. Hopefully both methods will reveal similar findings about the topic being researched.e. Qualitative research is often criticized for the degree of subjectivity and lack of rigour in the techniques used. Qualitative research tends to operate iteratively i. The time spent on a topic or its frequency of occurrence may also be used as coding units. or more commonly now. using observational techniques in conjunction with structured interviews. THE ORIGIN OF RESEARCH NEED Research is a sequential process involving clearly defined steps. These procedures will initially require that the researcher samples from the wide range of materials that may have been collected. NUDIST) have been developed to aid the researcher with the data analysis.
The sequence of the research process is given in the following diagram Management Question Problem Research Question Exploration Research Proposal Design Sampling Sto p Budget and Value Assessment Pilot Testing Project Planning Question Answered Revision of Research and Investigative questions Revision of Measurement question and procedure Data Gathering Data Collection Page 23 of 67 .
Analysis. Interpretation. And reporting Analysis and Interpretation Result Report The research process (Uma Sekaran ) 1 OBSERVATION Broad problems area of research interest identified 3 2 PRELIMINARY DATA GATHERING Interviewing literature survey PROBLEM DEFINITION Research problem delineated 4 THEORETICAL FRAME WORK Variable clearly identified and labled 5 GENERATION OF HYPOTHESIS 6 SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH DESIGN No 7 DATA COLLECTION ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 8 DEDUCTION Hypothesis Sustanited Research question answered Page 24 of 67 .
In classical it mey be testing of theory. a particular study may grow out of little more a student’s need to selects a research topic for class assignment. Tools/ Data Driven Research Problems Availability of techniques is an important factor in deciding how research be done or whether a given study can be done. Person’s skills in given techniques are too blinded by their special competencies. Management Research Problems In business research problems originates from the needs of manager. There are so many needs of manager where he wants to make decisions. For example: Decision making into three problems types 1) Choice of purposes or objective 2) Generation and evaluation of solutions 3) Trouble/shooting or control situation Formulating the research problems Is it Researchable Page 25 of 67 .Yes 9 REPORT WRITING 10 REPORT Presentation 11 Managerial Decision Making Academic Research Problems: In an academic setting . More serious academic research tends to be developed within the bounds of some theoretical framework. Their concern for techniques dominates the decisions concerning what will be studied and how.
Question of value and policy can be weighed in management decisions. Questions Hierarchy • • • • Management Questions: Represents a decision that a manager must make and is the problems prompting the research Research Question: Once a researcher has a clear statements of manager question. To be researchable. These ill-defined or ill structured problems have characteristics that are virtually opposite those of well defined problems. he must translate it into a research question: a fact oriented information question Investigating Question: Investigative questions are those the researcher must answer to satisfactorily respond to general research question Measurement Question: Are those we actually ask the respondents Management Question Research Question Investigative Question Measurement Question Decision making and problems solving Making Decisions Page 26 of 67 . Ill-defined question: Some categories of problems are so complex. and bound by constraints that they prove to be intractable to traditional forms of analysis. a question must be one for which observation or other data collection can provide the answer. value – added.Not all questions are researchable and not all research questions are answerable.
Quality Decision Making Decision makers should.Decisions must be made at many levels in a business. Through careful analysis these alternatives can be identified from available opportunities or options. a decision is a choice made from two or more alternatives. Analyzing the alternatives identifies the consequences. Alternatives are the potential solutions that can be identified after considering the limiting factors. The formal decision making process: 1. Defining the problem or opportunity 2. the advantages and disadvantages for each possible choice. This includes communicating the decision to appropriate personnel and putting plans. programs. Developing potential alternatives 4. By definition. Selecting the best alternative is making the choice that offers the most advantages and the fewest disadvantages. Time and resources are usually major limiting factor s to possible decisions. Selecting the best alternative 6. In many cases these opportunistic occasions may provide new ways of doing things or be the beginning of new business if properly pursued and executed. Identifying limiting factors 3. the pros and cons. to the best of their abilities: Page 27 of 67 . Implementing the decision requires taking action to get results. While many decisions are made in order to solve problems. and procedures into effect. Implementing the decision 7. Analyzing the alternatives 5. to the day to day repetitive operations performed by lower level managers. from executive decisions on the goals and objectives that a business wants to pursue. Establishing a control and evaluation system provides a feedback mechanism for tracking the implementation of the decision. some decisions are more the result of opportunities that present themselves. and allows for modifications or adjustments to be made as necessary. Establishing a control and evaluation system • • • • • Limiting factors help rule out many possible choices.
a manager must estimates the expected outcome of each alternative. weighs costs and risks of both positive and negative consequences 4.1. but neither its costs nor its benefits are easily estimated in advance Option Analysis: method by which management assessing the value of research when management has a choice a well defined option. reexamine positive and negative consequences of all alternatives. take all new information into account. Conceptually the value of applied research not difficult to determine. Manager follows the process and at last make adequate decision VALUING THE RESEARCH INFORMATION Manager needs information to guide decision in specific area. Prior Evaluation: A proposal to conduct a through management audit of operation in a company may be a worthy one. including initially rejected ones 7. thoroughly check a wide range of alternatives 2. Intensively search for new information for evaluating alternatives 5. It is usually an after the fact event. Each alternative can be judged in term of associated cost and benefits associated with it. including contingency plans for known risks In business research decision making process is a discussed in Research Process By Uma Sekaran or Emory Models. Manager make CBA and make decision. but managerial judgment still plays a major role Decision Theory: To compare two or more alternative. make detailed provisions for implementation. research produces added value and increase revenue or reduce expenses. Value of information may be judged in the term of’ “ the difference between the results of decisions made with the information and result that made without information” EVALUATION METHODS: • • • Ex Post Evaluation: If there is any measurement of the value of research. In business. gathers full range of goals and implications of choices 3. • Page 28 of 67 . and a formal analysis can be conducted. An appropriate study may help manager avoid possible losses and increase profit. even when it doesn't support initial course of action 6.
Unit-4 THE NATURE OF MEASUREMENT Page 29 of 67 .
neutron. the number series has a unique origin indicated by the number zero Page 30 of 67 . and peer group pressure. 2. such as genes. selecting observable empirical events 2. and automobiles. people. quantity. posture. Psychological properties include attitudes and intelligence. A persons physical properties may be stand in term of weight. table. class affiliation. Object includes the things of ordinary experience. to measure is to discover the extent. researchers do not measure objects or properties. or equal to the difference between any other pair of numbers 3. or equal to another number. In a literal sense. or status. This definition implies that measurement is a three part process 1. especially by comparison with a standard Measurement Measurement in research consists of assigning number to empirical events in compliance with a set of rules. using the number or symbol to represent aspects of the events and 3. They measure indicants (showing) of properties MEASUREMENT SCALES Sales classifications employ the number system. height. Numbers are ordered. The most accepted basis for scaling has three characteristics 1. or capacity of some thing. One number is greater than. books. Properties are the characteristics of the objects. less than. Differences between numbers are ordered. attitudes. such as. dimension.In a dictionary sense. Social properties include leadership ability. less than. Objects also include things that are not so concrete. The difference between any pair of numbers is greater than. applying mapping rules to connect the observation to the symbol What Is Measured Concepts used in research may be classified as object or properties.
Nominal scales are least powerful of the four types They suggest no order or distance relationship and have no arithmetic origin. but Determination of equality of no unique origin interval or difference Order. or origin Determination of equality Order but no distance or Determination of grater or unique origin lesser values Both order and distance. flavour or any other property between INTERVAL SCALE Page 31 of 67 . For example when we compare colour. Nominal measures are especially valuable in exploratory study where the objective is to uncover the relationship rather than secure precise measurement. The scale wastes any information about varying degree of the property being measured. and unique Determination of equality of origin ratios NOMINAL SCALES Nominal scale partition a set into categories that are mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive. In ordinal scale we use as Greater than or less than Superior inferior When more than one property is interested. distance. The use of ordinal scale implies the greater than or less than without stating how much greater than or less than. ORDINAL SCALE Ordinal scale includes the characteristics of the nominal scale plus an indicator of order. distance. than it can crate misleading concept for researchers.Types of Scale Nominal Scale Ordinal Scale Interval Ratio Characteristics of Scale Basic Empirical Operation No order.
Hunger. boredom. The much potential is systematic (result from a bias) while the remainder is random (occur unreliably) erratic Four major error sources are • The Respondent as Error Source: Opinion difference will come from relatively stable characteristics of respondent that affects the scores. or otherwise deal with them. Measure of weight. careless tabulation. It incorporate the concept of equality of interval (distance between 1 and 2 is equal to distance between 3 and 4). ethnic group. incorrect encoding etc • Instrument as an Error Source: defective instrument can cause distortion in two major ways. First it can too confusing and ambiguous THE CHARACTERISTICS OF SOUND MEASUREMENT Page 32 of 67 . we must recognize the sources of potential error and try to eliminate. impatience. Typically of these are employees status. neutralize. or general variation in mood may also have an impact • • Situational Factors: any condition that places an strain on the interview can have serious effects on the interviewer respondent rapport The measure as an Error Source: the interviewer can distort response by rewording. social class. Sine attainment of this ideal is unlikely. or other distraction. Calendar time is such a scale RATIO SCALE Ratio scale incorporates all the power of previous ones plus the provision for absolute zero origin. paraphrasing. The ratio scale represents the actual amount of variation. membership. anxiety. or reordering question. like these limit the ability to respond accurately and fully. distance and area are example SOURCES OF MEASUREMENT DIFFERENCE The ideal study should be designed and controlled for precise and unambiguous measurement of the variables. height.The interval scale has the power of both nominal scale and ordinal scale and plus one additional strength. and nearness to plants Respondent may also suffer from temporary factors like fatigue.
Content Validity: the content validity of a measuring instrument is the extent to which it provides adequate coverage of the topic under study. Criterion Related Validity: this form of validity reflects the success of measure used for prediction or estimation. then content validity is good 2. and times. if one did . There are three concept the improve validity 1. Reliability: A measure is reliable to the degree that it supplies consistent result. one would not do the measuring. If the instrument contains a representative sample of the universe of the subject matter of interest . Internal validity is the ability of the research instrument to measure for what its designer claims it does. Page 33 of 67 .There are four criteria for evaluating a measurement tool • • • Validity Ability Practicability Validity: many form of validity are mentioned in the research literature. Construct Validity: one may also wish to measure or infer the presence of abstracts characteristics for which no empirical validation seems possible. and the numbers expand the concern for more scientific measurement. 3. The difficulty of meeting this test is that usually one does not know what the true difference are. There are most important are external and internal validity The external validity of research finding refers to their ability to be generalized across persons. setting. Attitudes scales and aptitude and personality test are generally concern concept that fall in this category. Validity in this context is the extent to which difference found with measuring tools reflects true difference among respondents being tested. Reliability is a contributor to validity and is a necessary but not sufficient condition for validity.
Convenience: a measuring device passes the convenience test if it is easy to administered 3. while operational requirement call for it to be practical. 1. Equivalence: a second perspective on reliability considered how much error may be introduced by different investigators or different sample of items being studied 3. Interpretability: this aspect of practicality is relevant when persons other than that the test designer must interpret the result DEVELOPMENT OF MEASUREMENT TOOLS Many concepts in business are easy to measure. Stability: a measure is stable if you can secure consistent results with repeated measurement of the same person with the same instrument 2. For example . Internal Consistency: A third approach to reliability uses only one administration of an instrument or test to assess consistency or homogeneity among the items Improving Reliability: One can improve reliability if external sources of variation are minimized and the conditions under which the measurement occurs are standardized Practicality: The scientific requirement of project call for the measurement process to be reliable and valid. and interpretability. convenience. These concepts must be operationally defined by developing a special measurement procedure. sale effectiveness or market potential. Reliable instrument used frequently with confidence. researchers want to measure concepts such as motivation. This process involve four steps Page 34 of 67 . Economy: some trade-off is usually needed between the ideal research project and the budget. if you study wages and workers benefits payments. And this confidence is due to 1.Reliability is concerned with estimates of the degree to which a measurement is free of random or unstable error. 2. Practicality has been defined as economy. In other instances. you find they are stated in dollar amounts and accurate records are kept.
but we get something between the true score and test score. Use of more than one indicator lends stability to the scores and improves their validity. Formation of Indexes CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT: The first task is to develop the concept (construct).1. Indicator Selection 4. When the concept is concrete and measurement tool is standardized. it may be considerable to combine them into single index. FORMATION OF INDEXES: When there are several dimensions of a concept or different measure for each dimension. the indicators to measure each concept must be developed. statistical measures. SCALING DEFINED Page 35 of 67 . In developing these ideas one must enumerate the specific ways the corporation may be involved with various groups and what the nature of each of these involvement is CONCEPT SPECIFICATION: the second task is to breakdown these concepts into various components INDICATORS SELECTION: once the dimensions have been set. When the concept is abstract (attitude toward various institutions) and measurement tool is not standardized then you will not be confident test result reflects true score. Any single indicator may not be fair representation of what is being measured. Indicators can be questions. THE NATURE OF SCALING Business research concepts (constructs) are frequently complex and abstracts while the available measurement tools can be crude (simple) or imprecise. the variation between the true and test score is small. Concepts Development 2. several possibilities should be considered. or other scoring devices. We want valid measurement. It is reasonable to believe that each individual indicator has only a probability relation to what we really want to know. Since there is seldom a perfect or absolute measure. Concepts Specification 3.
SCALE CLASSIFICATION Selection of scale require the decision in six key areas 1. they are asked to judge which objects has more of some characteristics or which solution takes the most resources. Number Of Dimension: Scales are either unidimensional or multidimensional. Response Scale: Scale may be defined as categorical and comparative. Use these respondents as judge of the objects or stimuli presented to them 2. Study Objective: A scale may be designed to a. 5. What is defined: Procedurally. Degree of Preference: Scaling approach may also involve preference measurement or non preference evaluation. 3. Scale Properties: Scales approaches may also be viewed in the term of the scales properties possessed by each.Scaling: is a procedure for the assignment of number ( or other symbol) to a property of a objects in order to impart some of the characteristics of numbers to the properties in question. Multidimensional scaling recognize that an object might be better describe in attributes space of n dimensions rather than on a unidimensional range. 4. respondents as asked to choose object each favours or solution each would prefer. ordinal scale. the respondents are asked to choose which one of pair is best one. In the former. Such as nominal scale. These approaches are also known as rating and ranking respectively. without reflecting any personal preference toward objects or solutions. Page 36 of 67 . Measure the characteristics of the respondents who complete it or b. one seeks to measure only one attribute of the respondent or object. Categorical (rating scale) are used when respondent score some objects without direct reference to other object. interval and ratio scale. you know that property of temperature is that it variation leads to an expansion or contraction of material such as mercury. we assign numbers to indicants of the properties of objects. In comparative (Ranking) scaling. In the latter. If you wants to measure the temperature of the air. With unidimensional scale.
Likert Scale: is designed to examine how strongly subjects agree or disagree with statements on five points scale 4. Arbitrary Approach: In which the scale is developed on an ad hoc basis. e. Numerical Scale: The numerical scale is similar to semantic differential scale with the difference that numbers on the 5 points or 7 points are provided with bipolar objective at end 6. Item Analysis Approach: Individual items are developed for as test that is given to a group respondent. Factor Scale: are constructed from Interco relation of items. Rating Scales: 1. Consensus Scale: A panel of judges evaluates the items to be included in the instrument based on relevance to the topic area and lack of ambiguity.6. is provided for the each item and the respondent states the appropriate number on the side of each item Page 37 of 67 . Scales Construction: We can classify scale by the methods used to build them. There are five scale design techniques a. event. Semantic Differential: Several bipolar attributes are identified at the extreme of the scale and respondents are asked to indicate their attitude 5. individual items are then analysed to determine which one discriminate between persons or objects with high total scores and low total scores. d. or person studied.as needed. Itemised rating Scale: A 5 point or 7 point scale with anchor . Cumulative Scale: are chosen for their conformance to a ranking of items with ascending and descending discriminating power. RESPONSE METHODS: RATING SCALE: Rating scales have several response categories and are used to elicit response with regard to the object. Dichotomous Scale: is used to elicit yes or no answer 2. c. Common factors counts for relationship. Category Scale: use multiple items to elicit a single response 3. b.
events. The raters are inclined to score those people higher whom they know well and with whom they have egoinvolved. among a small number of objects respondents are asked to choose between two objects at a time. Formula (n ( n+1))/2 2. 3. Fixed Or Constant Scale: The respondent are asked to distributes a given number of points across various items 8. 9. Central Tendency: The raters are reluctant to give extreme judgement. Stapel Scale: This scale simultaneously measure the direction and intensity of the attitude toward the item under study. and this fact accounts for the error of central tendency. or situation under study PROBLEMS IN USING RATING SCALE: 1.7. 1. 3. among the alternative provided. Forced Choice: The forced choice enables respondent to rank objective relative to one another. Graphic Rating Scale: a graph is used to represent the answer of the question 10. event. Page 38 of 67 . Comparative Scale: The comparative scale provides a benchmark or a point of reference to assess attitude toward the current object. or persons and elicit the preferred choice and ranking among them. There is also opposite to this situation. Paired Comparison: Is used when. The latter is a negative leniency. Consensus Scale: A panel of judges evaluates the items to be included in the instrument based on relevance to the topic area and lack of ambiguity RANKING SCALES Ranking scales make comparison between or among object.where one rates acquaintance (Social contact) lowers because one is aware of the leniency danger and attempts to counteract it. Leniency error: The error of leniency occurs when a respondent is either is an “easy rater” or “hard rater”. 2. Halo Effect: The halo effect is the systematic bias that the rater introduces by carrying over a generalized impression of the subject from one rating to another.
each company would be scored from 4 to 20 by each respondent. Total may be made by individual items. by company. Consider the following example for image of company How do regard company reputation 1 2 3. we might use attitude score of each individual to study difference among them Advantages: • • • • • Easy to develop Inexpensive Highly specific Designed approach is subjective No evidence that respondent view each item with same frame of reference Disadvantages CONSENSUS SCALE Consensus scale require that items are selected by a panel of judges who evaluate them on 1. These data may be analyzed from a respondent centre point of view. or for individual may be calculated to determine how they compare to others. The results may be studied in several ways. relevance to topic area Page 39 of 67 . by company as palace of work. 4 As place to work As a place of civic project For ecological concern As employer of minorities bad bad bad bad Good Good Good Good We might score each of these from 1 to 5 depending upon the degree of favorableness reported. Based on a total for these four items. for ecological concern and so on. Totals for each company. Some are chosen for inclusion in the instrument. Thus.SCALE CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES ARBITRARY SCALE Arbitrary scales are designed by collecting several items that are believed are unambiguous and appropriate to given topic.
If a given statement has large interquartile range. The eight intermediate piles are unlabled to create the impression of equal –appearing interval between the three labled positions. The respondent is asked to agree or disagree with each Page 40 of 67 . The most popular type using this approach is summated scale Summated scale consists of statements that express either a favorable or unfavorable attitude toward the object of interest. Three of the 11 piles are identified to the judges by labels of “favorable” and “unfavorable” at the extreme and “neutral” at the midpoint. Advantages: • • • • differential scale are reliable It is costly Time consuming Involve 50 or more individual for decisions Disadvantages ITEM ANALYSIS The item analysis procedure evaluates an item based on how well it discriminates between those persons whose total scores is high and those whose total score is low. the level of attitude it represents A widely used approach is Thur-Stone Differential Scale A Differential Scale also known as the method of Equal appearing Interval was developed to create an interval rating scale for attitude measurement. The scale position for a given statement is found by calculating its medial score.2. The judges sort each card into 1 of 11 piles representing their evaluation of the degree of favorableness that the statements express. and 3. usually the interquartile range. There is one statement per card. A measure of dispersion. Statements included in the finale attitude scale are selected by taking a sample of those with median scores spread evenly from one extreme to other and with small interquartile range. potential for ambiguity . it is judged to be too ambiguous to be used in final scale. is calculated for each statement. Often 50 or more judges evaluate a large number of statements expressing different degree of favorableness toward an object. The judge’s agreement or disagreement with the statement is not involved.
Style X is good looking 2. The major scale of this type is Guttman scalogram. it is possible to estimate which item were answered positively and negatively.statement. We have developed a preference scale of four items as follow 1. If these items form a unidimensinal scales. I prefer style X to other style Respondents are asked to express themselves on each item by indicating whether agree or disagree. CUMULATIVE SCALE Total score on cumulative scale have the same meaning. Suppose we are surveying the new style of running shoe. Each response is given a numerical score to reflect its degree of attitude favorableness. the response pattern will be approach the ideal configuration as shown Ideal Scalogram Response Pattern Page 41 of 67 . A scale is said to be unidimensional if the responses fall into a pattern in which support of the item reflecting the extreme position results also in supporting all items that are less extreme. Scalogram analysis is a procedure for determining whether a set of items forms a unidimensional as defined by Guttman. The most frequently used form is the likert scale. Giving a person’s total score. With scale the respondent is asked to respond to each statement by choosing one of five agreement choices Example I consider my job rather unpleasant Strongly Agree 1 Agree 2 Neither Agree nor Disagree 3 Disagree 4 Strongly Disagree 5 The number indicates the values to be assigned to each possible answer with 1 indicating the least favorable degree of job satisfaction and 5 the most favorable. The appearance of style X is acceptable to me 4. and the score are totaled to measure the respondent’s attitude. I will insist on style X next time because it is great looking 3.
one first define the universe of content. n is the number of items.= disagree In developing a Scalogram. Reproducibility should be 0. Assume you are interested in attitude of people toward television advertising. How to uncover underlying dimension that have not been identified. You might define the universe of content as “viewer attitude toward TV advertising” the second step is to develop items that can be used in pretest that tell us if this topic is scalable. Page 42 of 67 . Then order the statements left to right from the most favorable to least favorable.Items 2 x 4 x x 1 x x x 3 x x x x Response 4 3 2 1 0 x = agree .90 or better for a scale to be considered uni-dimensional FACTOR SCALE: Factor Scales includes a variety of techniques that have been developed for two problems 1. and N is the number of cases. how to deal with the universe of content that is multidimensional and 2. Pretest respondent numbers may be small say 20 or 30 but final scale use should involve 100 or more respondents Take the pretest results and order the respondents from top to bottom – form those with the most favorable totals to least favorable. Guttman suggest that a pretest includes 12 or more items. The next step is to discard those statements that fail to discriminate well between favorable and unfavorable respondents.e/n(N) Where e is the number of errors. Finally calculate a coefficient of Reproducibility (CR) Reproducibility = 1. while the final scale may have only 4 to 6 items.
Information sources are classified into two sources Page 43 of 67 . The scale items appears as Good Passive ___ : ___: ___ : ___: __: __: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ____: Bad ____: Active SD Scale for Analyzing Candidates for an Industry Leadership Position (E) Sociable (P) Weak (A) Active (P) Yielding (A) Slow (E) True (P) Heavy (A) Hot (7) (1) (7) (1) (1) (7) (7) (7) ___ : ___: ___ : ___: ___ : ___: ___: ___: ___ : ___: ___ : ___: ___ : ___: ___ : ___: ___ : ___: ___ : ___: __: __: __: __: __: __: __: __: __: __: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: (1) Unsociable (7) Strong (1) Passive (1) Regressive (7) Tenacious (7) Fast (1) False (1) Light (1) Cold (7) Successful (E) Progressive (7) (E) Unsuccessful (1) Unit-5 Nature of Secondary Data Sources Every study is a research for information about some topic. The meanings are located in multidimensional properties space. Semantic differential is based on the proposition that an object can have several dimension of connotative meaning. Researchers are more confident of their information’s integrity by drawing from all relevant sources. This method consist of a set of bipolar rating scale. called semantic space. is an attempt to measure the psychological meanings of an object to an individual. by which one or more respondents rate one or more concepts on each scale items.There are many approaches used for factor scale but most important is SEMANTIC DIFFERENTIAL (SD) This scaling method developed by Osgood and his associates. usually seven points.
dropouts Descriptive information not highly valued in research community. Uses of Secondary Data Secondary data are used for three research purpose 1. Examples: Uses of Wheat last Year. Provide information to establish context and rationale for analytic study -e. Provide information about basic conditions concerning social. Source of information on research design issues—sampling. often overlooked or de-emphasized but important to policymakers and public B. state. Purpose of secondary research A. Secondary data may be used as the sole basis for research study. locality. 2. 2. problem --e. Locating Accessing Evaluating a. Steps in Using Secondary Data 1.g. Primary Data: Those come from the original sources and are collected especially to answer our research question. or control and record it. questionnaire design.1.. Secondary Data: Study made by other for their own purpose.g. 3. Secondary data is an integral part of a large research study. Export of Sports equipments etc 2. Research procedures typically call for some early exploration to learn if the past can contribute to the present study. He can specify its operational definition. teenage pregnancy. 3. and educational welfare of nation. student achievement Importance of this function recognized by increased publication of statistical reports by state and federal agencies 2. Provide information on severity and changing nature of a condition. Researcher collects that information which he needed. eliminate it. Purpose of study Page 44 of 67 . Provide descriptive. statistical information 1. etc. economic. They fill a need for a specific reference on some point.. Secondary/archival data can be used for analytic studies through secondary statistical analysis C.
How information obtained (how representative) f. Organization who conducted it c. it definition. units of measure. Information collected (how was it measured?0 d. – Secondary • Use of a table on. and different time involved It is difficult to assess the accuracy of the information because one knows little about research design or the condition under which research occurred Secondary information are often out of date Types of Secondary Sources Documentary sources Survey sources Multiple source Documentary • Organization’s records • Organizations’ communications (internal and external) – Primary data not secondary • Books. consumer expenditure Government surveys and economic statistics Censuses – Census of Population – Census of Employment Continuous and regular surveys – General Household Survey – Labour Force Survey Official statistics – Mainly time-series Page 45 of 67 . say. newspapers. 5. Consistency with other information Analyzing Reporting Advantages of Secondary Data: Can be found more quickly and cheaply Less costly than primary data In some cases is prohibited Disadvantages Secondary data may not meet specific information It is collected by other for their own purpose. journals. etc. b.4. When information collected e.
The logical first step to learn is whether any one else has already prepared a bibliography on the subject. Diverse material from special collection. By inspecting the title s. university publication. Assess may be through on line of VD-ROM 2. But published sources of data are classified into five categories. EVALUATING SECONDARY DATA Page 46 of 67 . Company publication such as financial statements etc. Electronic and Traditional Library: First step to conducting research in a library is to decide which source will provide access to the data need to collect. 3. 1. Main sources are all the departments of an organization Management Accounting Research and development Marketing Finance MIS Interviewing of Secretaries of company External Sources All the sources outside the organization are external sources. dates and other indexing information. The files are sets of records grouped together for storage on some medium. Indices are available for both electronic and traditional library Search for Bibliography: bibliography makes the entire research project more efficient because you quickly find an inventory of a material on subject. In contrast to electronic library manual library are time consuming and costly but can be used as search for data collection.On the basis of above mentioned types of sources we can divide sources into two types Internal sources External sources Internal Sources Internal sources of organization data are so varied that it is difficult to provide generalization about their use. authors. Government Documents: 5. Books: it is estimated that 47000 books title are published in US annually 4. Research Procedure An important source of data collection is library. you can selects the priority sources for further study. Within this category there are many reference books. doctoral dissertation and research record. Computerized Databases: they are composed of interrelated data files. Periodical: the 32nd edition of Ulrich’s International Periodical Directory lists approximately 140000 periodicals worldwide.
This enables you to avoid any error in transcription and review the cautionary and other comments that went along with the original data. Unit-6 CHARACTERISTICS OF A SURVEY To survey is to question people and record their response for analysis Page 47 of 67 . Or we can say the how well do the data fit the research need Data quality means that what confidence you can put in the accuracy and legitimacy of the data. It is good research practice to go to the original source of the information rather than use an intermediate source that has quoted from the original. Another aspect of data accuracy concern with it completeness: how does the reported material cover? Is it based upon a narrow sample. Another aspect Data quality concern the capability of sources of the data. Second aspect of source capability concern the original source: Could the respondent answer this question? What are the chances that the respondent would know and be willing to give such information under the study condition? A concern that any investigator has in studying the quality of secondary data is the degree to which the accurately reflects reality. Data Pertinency 2.Secondary data evaluating depends upon two forms 1. In this context there are two concerns 1. Finally you may uncover revisions that have been made in the data since the intermediate source use it. First are the persons who conducted the study people in whom you can have confidence? Are they highly regarded? Is their organization well regarded 2. The question of data quality is first a question of data accuracy. a large population or what? Answer to these questions may suggest that data are nor appropriate for the problem. Data Quality Data Pertinency means having logical precise relevance to the matter at hand.
They are 1. respondent gives no value to participation in survey 2. depth and detail information are secured 2. interviewer observe behavioral cues of interviewee 3. an understanding by the respondent of his role 3. interview can not condition of interview 4. Increasing Respondent Receptiveness: The first goal in an interview is to establish a friendly relationship with the respondent. availability of needed information from the respondent 2. The Introduction: Page 48 of 67 . The respondent must a) believe the experience will be pleasant and satisfying b) think the survey is important and worthwhile c) have any mental reservation satisfied 2. EVALUATION OF THE PERSONAL INTERVIEW 1. interviewer have control over condition 5. respondent intentionally misled the researcher by answering false information Application: the most appropriate applications are those where respondents are uniquely qualified to provide the desired information PERSONAL INTERVIEWING A personal interview (face to face) is a two way conversation initiated by an interviewer to obtain information from a respondent. they can use securing devices for measuring 6. adequate motivation by the respondent to cooperate INTERVIEWING TECHNIQUES 1. interviewer can adjust the respondent language SUCCESS REQUIREMENT Three broad conditions must be met to have a successful personal interview.Strength: The greatest strength of questioning as primary data collection techniques is its versatility Surveys are more efficient and economical than observation Survey by using telephone or mail can cover moiré geographical area Weakness: Quality of information depends upon the respondent cooperation Reasons for non-cooperation may be: 1. they may have not knowledge about specific topic 4. they may feel fear for some personal information in personal interviews 3. respondent may interpret the topic indifferent meanings 5. Three factors will help with respondent receptiveness.
Non Response Error: Availability is an important source or error fro personal interview. If enough attempts are made it is usually possible to contact most target respondent 2. flexible schedule. Response Error: When the data reported differ from the actual data. response error occur 3. good communication skill. willingness to work and mobility PROBLEMS IN PERSONAL INTERVIEWING 1. If the respondent is busy or away: If it is obvious that the respondent is busy. Good Interviewing Relationship: The successful interview is based on the good rapport meaning a relationship of confidence and understanding exist between interviewer and respondent 5. It is difficult in probability sampling. Interviewer Error: a) when interviewer not establish good cooperation with respondent b) interviewers are inconsistent of way of interviewing c) when interviewer fail to obtain or motivate the respondent d) interviewer are expensive TELEPHONE INTERVIEWING Telephone interview helps in setting up personal interviews and screening population for unusual types of respondents. it may be a good idea to give a general introduction and try to stimulate enough interest to arrange an interview at another time. For contracting the proper respondent establish good relationship 4. This non response error occurs when you cannot locate whom you are supposed to study. showing any special identification 3. Solution to non response is to make call back. EVALUATION OF TELEPHONE INTERVIEW 1. Selection and Training: The job requirement for interview includes some college experience. Recording the interview: Record the response as they occur if you wait then you miss some valuable information 7. It is unique mode of communication. Gathering The Data: Interviewer interprets the exact wording of question and probe into 6. Telephone interview offer low cost Page 49 of 67 .Interviewer should immediately identify themselves by name and organization.
response rate is high 3. Preliminary Notification: advance notification particularly by telephone is effective in increasing response rate There are many other techniques 1. no requirement of administrative cost and supervision TYPES OF TELEPHONE INTERVIEW Computer –assisted telephone interviewing (CATI) : telephone interview can be conducted by using personal computer and recording the interview by saving time and money. Return Envelopes 4. honest information. Postages 5. Personalization 6. This mode is often compared to self-administered questionnaires and offers the advantages of respondent privacy. Questionnaire Length: 2. confidentiality. and terminates. The questions are voice –synthesized and the respondents answer and computer timing triggers continuation or disconnect. These are 1. Computer-administered telephone survey: there is no interviewer. place data into file for later tabulation.2. Cover Letters 7. and anonymity must be assured Can be expensive Scope is limited results may be misleading if only respondents who are interested in topic respond IMPROVING RETURN Response of mail survey can be improved by different techniques. conducts the interview. Anonymity Page 50 of 67 . Survey Sponsorship 3. thoughtful. tension-free situation Gives people more time to complete the questionnaire all respondents receive same questions in printed form—free from bias Disadvantages of Mail Survey: Low response rate One or two follow-ups are needed for a good return Questionnaire must be easy to understand Difficult to summarize open-ended questions Accurate mailing lists are required Overuse of this method may make some people reluctant to respond Privacy. Follow Up: Follow-up or reminders are very successful in increasing response rate 2. SELF ADMINISTERED QUESTIONNAIRE/ MAIL SURVEY Advantages of Mail Survey: Efficient for volume of information collected People more likely to provide frank. A computer calls the phone number.
Their colleagues are interviewed Case Studies the experiences and characteristics of selected persons in a project generally utilized with a small number of individuals or groups procedures evolve as work progresses.8. Deadline Dates Data collection and analysis table Method Existing Information What it measures Records. such as survey and observation unique opportunity to study organization. discriminate and correlate takes time figures may represent estimates rather than actual accounts does not reveal individual values. in depth can be tailor made to specific situations requires absolute accuracy can be very subjective time consuming— requires extensive amounts of data focus is on a limited number of cases. personnel records. best for a back-ground or as a guide to further study several cases are needed for best analysis Page 51 of 67 . cannot necessarily be generalized to larger community. beliefs. Advantages readily available minimal cost data available on a wide variety of characteristics can be accessed on a continuing basis descriptive data can provide insight into program that cannot be observed in any other way Disadvantages user may need to sort. files. reports. or reasons underlying current trends Example past Plans of Work are reviewed to determine program trends.. Size. Reproduction and color 9. etc. Money incentive 10. not suitable as a method in isolation. no confining categories of classifications allows depth of in-sight into relation-ships and personal feelings can be effectively used in combination with other methods. historical accounts. receipts. or changes personnel records -are examined to determine preprofessional training of employees a few participants from each program are visited about their experience. group. etc.
opportunity for many depending on how people to be involved in questions are designed decision-making and asked process tendency for scope of can be used to record data to be limited— behaviors as well as omission of opinions. formal methods observation or case study Advantages Disadvantages efficient for volume of information collected people more likely to provide frank.What it measures Methods Surveys (Includes personal interviews. drop-off questionnaires. underlying behavioral beliefs and attributes patterns usefulness enhances if time-consuming combined with other compared with less methods. i. attitudes. and attributes in response to specific questions Advantages Disadvantages Example agents report how frequently they use certain resource center materials workshop participants indicate their likes and dislikes about the program offered What it measures Method Mail Surveys opinions. reactions. attitudes. attitudes. about a population subject to can provide an misinterpretation. tensionfree situation gives people more time to complete the questionnaire all respondents receive same questions in printed form—free from bias low response rate one or two follow-ups are needed for a good return questionnaire must be easy to understand difficult to summarize open-ended questions accurate mailing lists are required overuse of this method may make some people reluctant to respond privacy. telephone interviews. confidentiality. thoughtful.) opinions. and anonymity must be assured can be expensive scope is limited results may be misleading if only respondents who are interested in topic respond Example extension personnel asked their opinion of staffing extension clientele questioned to determine level of satisfaction with extension programmin g Page 52 of 67 .. beliefs.e. behaviors. honest information. beliefs. reactions. and attributes in response to specific questions can be inexpensive samples must be carefully selected to sample can be used to ensure statistical provide information meaning. behaviors.
program questionna ire Page 53 of 67 . school administrators. beliefs. behaviors. reactions.e. and attributes in response to specific questions Advantages can collect a lot of data inexpensively by having everyone at a meeting or program complete the survey form easy to clarify items which present difficulty provides greatest sense of respondent anonymity good method to collect baseline and attitudinal data high response rate can be used for quantitative and qualitative methods Example end of meeting.) reach only those who are present group dynamics may affect individual responses opportunity for researcher influence workshop participants called to determine reaction to program extension personnel called to assess their opinion of the preservice training process What it measures Method Group Administered Survey opinions.What it measures Method Telephone Surveys Advantages response rate is high cost is competitive with mail survey speedy and efficient source of data researcher can provide clarification on unclear questions respondents are more relaxed with a stranger by telephone than face to face interviewer can read questions from script and take notes without concern of distracting respondents respondents cannot read the interviewer’s body language Disadvantages Example time consuming telephone numbers are needed proportion of unlisted numbers or households without phones may cause frame error questions should still be simple and easy to understand (no more than five response categories) interviewer’s voice or identity may lead to some biasing respondents may feel interview is an invasion of privacy interviewer has little opportunity to “loosen up” the respondent interviewer cannot read respondents’ body language scope of survey is limited interviewer training may be necessary Disadvantages may require the cooperation of others (i. etc. attitudes..
use probes and pick up on nonverbal cues qualitative or quantitative less expensive and faster than personal interviews personalized approach group members stimulate each other may be most expensive method slowest method of data collection and analysis responses may be less honest and thoughtful interviewer’s presence and characteristics may bias results interviewer should go to location of respondent respondents who prefer anonymity may be inhibited by personal approach may reach only a smaller sample respondents who prefer anonymity may be inhibited by personal approach input may be unbalanced because some group members dominate group members and interviewer can bias responses data more difficult to analyze and summarize Disadvantages district specialist interviews program participant about program and instructor focus group What it measures Method Observation particular physical and verbal behaviors and actions Advantages setting is natural. etc.e.) may be easier to reach specific individuals (i.. high status.What it measures Method INTERVIEWS Personal person’s responses and views Advantages Disadvantages Example Group person’s responses and views easier to reach those who are considered unreachable (the poor. community leaders. flexible and unstructured evaluator may make his/her identity know or remain anonymous evaluator may actively participate or observe passively can be combined with a variety of other data collection methods most useful for Example the evaluator has less control over the situation in a natural environment Hawthorne effect—if group is aware that they are being observed. mobile. homeless. etc. resulting behavior may be affected observations cannot be generalized to entire population unless a record how frequently 4-H campers use the appropriate safety measures Page 54 of 67 .) higher response rate likely more personalized approach easier to ask openended questions.
especially for the interviewers summary and analysis of data can be difficult response to public hearings is affected by location. he/she may lose objectivity not realistic for use with large groups Disadvantages Example the “extremes” of a population tend to respond—those definitely “for” or “against” use of public television and teleconferencing is limited to those who have access to public television and a phone public hearings are time consuming. distance & date use of public television to address the national issue of “Youth at Risk” public hearing or community meeting concerning environment al issues of use of pesticides and water quality Interviewing Techniques: It is important that the interviewer ask the question properly. Extension Council. and town meeting methods would be quick methods of obtaining input plan for representativeness is developed if observer chooses to be involved in the activity. etc. Page 55 of 67 . ideas Advantages all citizens would have an opportunity to respond teleconferencing. To achieve these aims interviewer must be trained to carry out those procedures that foster a good interviewing relationship. call in. records the response accurately and probe meaningfully. What it measures Method Mass media/public hearings opinions.studying a “small unit” such as a classroom.
may require the proposal for to sell the property. These proposals may be solicited or unsolicited. to change the procedure. These proposals are prepared specifically to solve the business problems to improve the business activities. Name of person submitted report. c) By whom submitted. And if some one put proposal without any request it will be unsolicited.Unit-9 PROPOSAL Proposal may be defined as a kind of report in which the person consult. Title Page: it is covering page of report and consist of a) Topic of report or title of report It is the topic of report on which report is written. It is most important part of proposal. Page 56 of 67 . offer advise and training to carryout research for the improvement of products or services or procedure. 2. If govt. TYPES OF PROPOSAL There are two types of proposal. PURPOSE OF PROPOSAL: The proposal are generally requires or asked to solve the problems changing the procedure. agency request or asked for proposal it will be solicited proposal. to clean the city and traffic control. analyze the specific problems or issue and then submit proposal to solve the problems. to construct the plan or to improve good and services etc. to construct the building. Business Proposal: These proposals may be solicited or unsolicited. 3. 1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY/ABSTRACT: It facilitate the reader to get the over view of the proposal rather than to read the entire proposal. d) Date/ department First write name of department and then date 2. Research proposal: The research proposals are academic in nature. PARTS OF PROPOSAL 1. b) To whom submitted Name of person or organization to which report is submitted. to find the answer of an important question. DRAFT AGREEMENT/CONTACT: This part of proposal contains written term and conditions. such as the govt. It summarizes how the objective wills be met and what procedure will be followed.
qualification. First of all allocate budget for proposal. objective. This proposal can be effective within these limits and ineffective beyond these limits. conditions. b) Problems: First define the problem that why we changing the proposal. TABLE OF CONTENT: Brief proposal usually do not require table of content. Machinery required etc. e) Back Ground: Tell about company previous experience. j) Appendix: It contains photograph and other related information. d) Project Team: Mentioned the name of team takes part in proposal. and illustration. ad make policy decision about strategic planning. Long proposal do require one as well as list of table figure. f) Procedure: What procedure we will adopt. STEPS IN REPORT WRITING Six steps to be taken before preparing reports 1. organization or person who required proposal. Page 57 of 67 . What are the problems for which this proposal is preparing? c) Scope: Define the boundaries of proposal. g) Equipment and facilities: Equipment required for this proposal. The report facts may pertain to events. progress. planned presentation of facts to one or more persons for a specific. carryout operational or technical assignment. proposal prepared and effective in fields. solve problems. Technology adopted or will be adopted. How companies earned profit by adopting proposal of this company. pervious proposal planned etc. purpose of report. products. results. Who lead the team. Define the problems. or plan procedure. INTRODUCTION: It may consist of a) Purpose: Here we will define that how this proposal will facilitate the respondent. h) Personnel: Human resource used in project. 5. experience of participants.4. They may help the receivers understand a complex business situation. qualities. i) Budget: It is most important part of proposal. Business report Business report A business report is an impartial. problems or suggested solutions. First step in report writing is to show the problems on which the report is based and give his purpose. significant business purpose.
Research report section and their order of inclusion Short Report Report Modules Prefatory information Letter of transmittal Title page Authorization Letter Executive Summary Table of contents Introduction Problems Research objective Background Methodology Sample design Research design Data collection Data analysis Limitation Finding Conclusion Summary and conclusion Recommendation Appendices Bibliography Memo Letter or Short Technical Long Report Managemen t Technical 1 √ √ √ √ 1 √ √ √ 2 √ √ √ Briefly 1 √ √ √ √ √ 2 √ √ √ 3 2 √ √ √ 3 4 √ √ 5 √ 4 3 √ √ 5 1 √ √ √ √ √ 2 √ √ √ 3 √ √ √ √ √ 4 5 √ √ 6 7 Page 58 of 67 . Get an idea of source to which you may turn. 4. Organize data and prepare final outline. Means arrange in systemic form and prepare the main structure of the report on the basis of that data. Consider who will receive the report. For collection of material that may support your idea. While reporting a report keep the person or organization in mind who will consider this report. Determine ideas to include. suggestion in report and if there is some special them interpret it. Collect needed material. Sort. 3. analyze and interpret data. So that it should be according to understand level of receiver. Analyze your idea. you may adopt (a) Primary research. (b) Secondary research. 5. 6.2.
covering all the aspects in the body of the report in abbreviated form It could be a concise summary of the major findings and conclusions including recommendation. Instead. extremely short v) Eliminate judgment term 3. they assist the reader in using the research report 1. It should also state nad explain the purpose and scope of study. it is common to include a letter of authorization showing the authority for undertaking the research 5. a letter of transmittal should be included. Authorization Letter: when the report is sent to public organization.PARTS OF REPORT Prefatory Items Prefatory materials do not have direct bearing on the research itself. Fly Title: It is same as title page 4. Title Page: it is covering page of report and consist of b) Topic of report or title of report It is the topic of report on which report is written b) To whom submitted Name of person or organization to which report is submitted. Write this section after the rest of the report is finished Page 59 of 67 . eight to ten words desirable iii) Consider subtitle iv) Avoid title that is vague. 2. Executive Summary: an executive summary serves two purpose It may be a report in miniature. The letter should refer to the authorization for the project and any specific instructions or limitation placed on the study. Two pages are sufficient for executive summary. c) By whom submitted Name of person submitted report d) Date/ department First write name of department and then date Here are some suggestions i) Remember 5 W’s ii) Keep title short. Letter of Transmittal: When relationship between the researcher and client is formal. It is important when a report is for a specific client and when generated for an out side organization.
for a technical report.6. focus group. the methodology is an important section. and other devices should be described 3. Data Collection: This part of the report describes the specifics of gathering the data. CONCLUSION: Page 60 of 67 . or another source. Then it should be mentioned in the introduction with details placed in an appendix. In an experimental study. FINDINGS: This is the longest section of the report. Sample Design: The researcher explicitly define the target population being studied and sampling methods used 2. equipment. The objective is to explain the data rather than draw interpretation or conclusion. tests. When quantitative data can be presented this should be done as simply as possible with chats. INTRODUCTION Introduction prepares the reader for the report by describing the parts of project it includes: Problems Statement: The problems statement contains the need for the research project. The problems is usually represented by a management question Research Objective: Research objectives address the purpose of the project Background Background material may be of two types 1. It may be the preliminary results of exploration from an experience survey. However. It contains a least five parts 1. Limitations: this section includes the area which researcher can’t cover or not allowed for study. the material. the methodology should not have a separation section. 4. control conditions. It could be secondary data from the literature review METHODOLOGY: In short reports and management reports. graphs and tables. 2. Data Analysis: This section summarize the methods used to analyze the data 5. Research Design: The coverage of design must be adapted to the purpose. Table of Contents: It contains information about chapter and topic of report.
3. paper and report consulted in compilation of report. TYPES OF REPORT 1. It includes all the decision and points discussed. Index: Alphabetically list of topics. and time. Sectional summaries may be used if there are many specific findings Conclusion may be presented in a tabular form for easy readings and reference Recommendation: this section includes suggestion for further List of illustration: It carries the information about table. monthly or annual. Information report: In this report you want to summaries the report. a) Conference report: Points of meeting. accomplishment or activities in overtime or at given stage of major assignment. b) Progress report: It shows the progress. Bibliography: it contains the reference of books.Summary and Conclusion: The summary is a brief statement of the essential findings. Justification-Recommendation Report: Persuasion is center to the recommendation report. Analytical report: The analytical report carried out in order to analyze the situation or problems. eg. It may end with or without specific recommendation. In the recommendation reports after analysis the situation we made the certain recommendation for specific problems. The text of such reports usually organized by topic discussed or presented simply. c) Periodic report: The report of specific period. Page 61 of 67 . 2. design and list. graph. it is the summary of activities undertaken within specific time period. quarterly. meeting attended by people. Enclosure/Appendix: It contains supporting evidence for points made in report. Weekly. There are many kind of report.
so that a study of the sample and an understanding of its properties or characteristics would make it possible for us to generalize such properties or characteristics to the population elements. Parameters: characteristics of population are called parameter. Element: An element is a single member of the population Population Framework: The population frame is a listing of all the elements in population from which the sample is drawn. or things of interest that the researcher wishes to investigate. population standard deviation or variance. Advantages: High generalizability of finding. (a) Information letter report (b) Analytical letter report Sampling Design Population: Population refers to the entire group of people. time and human resource. Reason for sampling: • It would be practically impossible to collect data from. Letter report: simply a report in letterform and it is often used to send information from outside organization. Such as population means. events. Subject: A subject is a single member of the sample. Probability Sampling: The elements in the population have some known chance or probability of being selected as sample subject 1. just as an element is a single member of the population. There are two types of letter reports. Sample: A sample is a subset of the population. Sampling: Sampling is the process of selecting a sufficient number of elements from population.4. or test. The payroll of an organization would serve as the population frame if its members are to be studied. or examine every element • Even if it is possible it would be prohibited in term or cost. Unrestricted or Simple Random Sampling: Every element of the population has a known and equal chance of being selected as subject. Page 62 of 67 . • Sample study create more reliable result than population in some cases • Fatigue is reduced and error are removed in sample study • In some cases study of entire population is impossible like electric bulb.
Multistage Cluster Sampling: Multistage cluster sampling involves a probability sampling of the primary sampling unit. Proportionate stratifies sampling: If the subjects drawn are proportionate then it is called proportionate stratified sampling. There are five types of it • Systematic sampling: The systematic sampling design involves drawing every nth element in the population starting with a randomly chosen element between 1 and n. costs of data collection are low Disadvantage: the least reliable and efficient among all probabilities sampling design since subject of cluster are more homogeneous than heterogeneous i. Advantages: easy to use if population frame is available Disadvantages: systematic biases are possible • Stratified Random Sampling: It involves a process of stratification or segregation. followed by random selection of subject from each stratum. From each of these Page 63 of 67 . Restricted or complex Probability sampling: An alternative to unrestricted sampling. then some are chosen at random. Single stage cluster sampling: Involves the division of the population into convenient clusters. Advantages: In geographic clusters. Advantages: All groups a have adequately sampled and comparison among groups are possible. Advantages: Most efficient among all probability design Disadvantages: Stratification must be meaningful. More time consuming than sampling random sampling or systematic sampling i. all the members in each of the randomly chosen groups are studied. Disproportionate stratified sampling: if subject drawn are disproportionate then it is called disproportionate stratified sampling Disadvantages: Population frame for each stratum is essential 3. and investigating all the elements in each of the randomly chosen cluster ii.Disadvantages: not as efficient as stratified sampling 2. randomly choosing the required number of clusters as sample subject. ii. Cluster Sampling: Groups that have heterogeneous members are first identified.
Advantages: Quick. Quota Sampling: Subjects are conveniently chosen from targeted groups according to some predetermined number or quota. a third level of probability sampling is done from each of these secondary units and so on. the most easily accessible member are chosen as sample. 4.Probability Sampling: The elements in the population have not known chance or probability of being selected as sample subject 1. convenient. not generalizable to entire population. Area Sampling: Cluster sampling within a particular area or cluster. Advantages: cost-effective. Advantages: very useful where minority participation is a study is critical Disadvantages: not easily generalizable Page 64 of 67 . Convenience sampling. Advantages: offer more detailed information on the topic of study Disadvantages: original biases. will be carried over. Disadvantages: not generalizable to all. Individual may be not be happy responding a second time Non.primary units. Judgment Sampling: subjects selected on the basis of their expertise in the subject investigated Advantages: some time. 2. less expensive. probability sample of the secondary sampling unit is then drawn. if any. Double Sampling: The same sample or subset of the sample is studied twice. the only meaningful way to investigate Disadvantages: generalizability is questionable. 3. Useful for decision relating to particular location Disadvantages: take time to collect data from an area 5.
(see New Product Development) Advertising research . market structure. Types of business research Businesses engage primarily in four types of research: Marketing research . In this case.This attempts to assess the likely impact of an advertising campaign in advance. Types of marketing research Marketing research techniques come in many forms.Market research has a broad scope and includes all aspects of the business environment. and numerous other factors that make up the business environment.a small-scale product launch used to determine the likely acceptance of the product when it is introduced into a wider market concept testing . and also measure the success of a recent campaign. (See Environmental scanning.to determine if consumers consider a concept useful mystery shopping . Research has many categories.Marketing research (also called "consumer research") comprises a form of applied sociological study which concentrates on understanding the behaviours. industries. economic trends.) Sometimes the term refers more particularly to the financial analysis of companies. whims and preferences. and what new product innovations near-future technology can develop. of consumers in a market-based economy. or sectors. from medical research to literary research. government regulations. This method is often used for quality control or for researching competitors products. They then record the entire experience. technological advances. including: test marketing .An employee of the company conducting the research contacts a salesperson and indicates they are shopping for the product they sell.This looks at what products can be produced with available technology.Business Research Methods Marketing research Research Research covers the search for and retrieval of information for a specific purpose. mainly current and future. financial analysts usually carry out the research and provide the results to investment advisors and potential investors. store audits . Product research .to determine whether retail stores provide adequate service Page 65 of 67 . It asks questions about competitors. Market research .
to determine what motivates people to buy and what decision-making process they use positioning research .to determine the approximate level of demand for the product sales forecasting . or company price elasticity testing .what do consumers feel about the names of the products? brand equity research .exit interviews or surveys that determine a customer's level of satisfaction with the quality of the transaction distribution channel audits .to determine the expected level of sales given the level of demand customer satisfaction studies . brand. Both exploratory and conclusive research exemplify primary research.what does the brand stand for? brand name testing .the researcher observes social phenomena in their natural setting observations can occur cross-sectionally (observations made at one time) or longitudinally Page 66 of 67 .statistical significance and confidence not calculated .to assess distributorsâ€™ and retailersâ€™ attitudes toward a product. psychographic. Conclusive research draws conclusions: the results of the study can be generalized to the whole population. Secondary research costs far less than primary research.small number of respondents . and behavioural characteristics of potential buyers consumer decision process research .generally used to draw conclusions . and projective techniques Quantitative marketing research .involves a large number of resondents .how does the target market see the brand relative to competitors? .to determine how sensitive customers are to price changes segmentation research .examples include focus groups. It should draw definitive conclusions only with extreme caution.generally used for exploratory purposes . namely: Qualitative marketing research . A company collects primary research for its own purposes.to determine the demographic. Types of marketing research methods Methodologically.examples include surveys and questionnaires Observational techniques . but seldom comes in a form that exactly meets the needs of the researcher. depth interviews.not generalizable to the whole population .demand estimation . This contrasts with secondary research: research published previously and usually by someone else. Exploratory research provides insights into and comprehension of an issue or situation. A similar distinction exists between exploratory research and conclusive research.tests a specific hypothesis uses random sampling techniques so as to infer from the sample to the population . marketing research uses four types of research designs.how favourably do consumers view the brand? All of these forms of marketing research can be classified as either problem-identification research or as problem-solving research.
Sugging forms a sales technique in which sales people pretend to conduct marketing research. For example. then manipulates at least one of the variables . then conduct a focus group (qualitative research design) to explore the issues.examples include product-use analysis and computer cookie traces Experimental techniques .examples include purchase laboratories and test markets Researchers often use more than one research design. Reliability refers to the likelihood that a given operationalized construct will yield the same results if re-measured. a cigarette company might commission research that attempts to show that cigarettes are good for one's health. It asks. but with the real purpose of obtaining buyer motivation and buyer decision-making information to be used in a subsequent sales call. â€œAre we measuring what we intended to measure?â€� Applied research sets out to prove a specific hypothesis of value to the clients paying for the research. Page 67 of 67 . Validity refers to the extent to which a measure provides data that captures the meaning of the operationalized construct as defined in the study.the researcher creates a quasi-artificial environment to try to control spurious factors. Metaanalysis (also called the Schmidt-Hunter technique) refers to a statistical method of combining data from multiple studies or from several types of studies. Many researchers have ethical misgivings about doing applied research. Some commonly used marketing research terms Many of these techniques resemble those used in political polling and social science research. They may start with secondary research to get background information. Conceptualization means the process of converting vague mental images into definable concepts. Precision refers to the exactness of any given measure. Finally they might do a full nation-wide survey (quantitative research design) in order to devise specific recommendations for the client. Frugging comprises the practice of soliciting funds under the pretense of being a research organization.(observations occur over several time-periods) . Operationalization is the process of converting concepts into specific observable behaviours that a researcher can measure.
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