Marking another year of the unsolved Balao Case

Campaigns to surface the disappeared continues
Jarrel Benedict Cacdac

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ommemorating the second year of his disappearance, movements to know the whereabouts of University of the Philippines-Baguio alumnus and First Quarter Storm survivor James Moy Balao tightens. Tireless Calls Since his abduction two years ago (September 17) in Tomay, La Trinidad Benguet, his colleagues, family and friends have not ceased in holding activities and campaigns to surface him. “We have learned how to cope up with his disappearance. Siyempre nalulungkot pa rin kami, pero CPA (Cordillera People’s Alliance) is still here. Tuluy-tuloy pa rin naman ang campaigns para mahanap siya. We are not going to give up looking for him,” CPA chairperson and Balao’s colleague Beverly Longid said. In an interview by the Northern Dispatch with Jude Baggo, Secretary General of Cordillera Human Rights Alliance(CHRA), last August 30, he stressed that they tried searching military

camps for a possible trace of his whereabouts. CHRA also tried actions such as looking for the assistance of the courts, talking with top ranking government officials concerned, and writing letters and petitions to surface. “We called upon our elders and indigenous leaders to invoke our ancestors to help us. We marched in the streets in protests and condemnation. Our voices, as it may seem, have fallen on deaf ears but we have not lost hope,” he added. His father, Arthur Balao, even in his sick condition, participated in protests and rallies, speaking before the media for the release of his son. “It pains us to note that James Balao’s parents passed away while their son remains disappeared,” Baggo stated. Commemorating his Contributions As part of the campaign to surface James, a special screening

Up BagUio
Opisyal na Pahayagan ng mga Mag-aaral ng Unibersidad ng Pilipinas Baguio
Tomo 37 Isyu 4 Setyembre 2010

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Roman’s term to end, BOR searches for next UP President 2 UPD Student Code, posibleng aprubahan na 2 Construction of student alumni center due this November 3 CAC to build classrom in FA 3 faculty room 3

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When the going gets tough
The government’s shortcomings on disaster management page 4
It was unusually windy that time. The trees were swaying as if they were to break any minute. Our dog was frantically barking, her noise added to the furies of the wind. All of a sudden, the local cables were overflowing of news with Metro Manila covered with heavy floods. And the whole scene came so fast...

A buhay las-sais ni Ang U P sa O sa t
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Naglabas ang Outcrop ng artikulo tungkol sa ‘Silent Martial Law’ sa Nueva Ecija noong Agosto 2006, na nagpapakita ng pasismo ng administrasyong Arroyo. Nga lamang, nananatili ang ganitong uri ng pagpapatahimik sa mga kritiko hanggang ngayon sa administrasyon ni Noynoy Aquino III.

Mismatched Agenda Youth sector claims for higher 4 state subsidy 4

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of the indie film “Sigwa” was organized by CHRA, Cordillera Afong, College Editors Guild of the Philippines (CEGP), and St. Louis School Center(CLSC) held at the Saint Louis Center Social Hall last September 18-19. Included in its first screening is a short program to honor James Balao and other Martial Law activists. Gawad Marcelo H. Del Pilar was also presented to the family of James by the CEGP to commemorate James’ contribution in the field of journalism. The event was attended by approximately 500 audience coming from different sectors of the community. Simultaneously, a photo exhibit was held on the CLSC grounds featuring his published articles on his college days.

A Challenge to Aquino’s Administration Longid emphasized that James is not an isolated case of this matter, and all over the Philippines and in Luzon alone, hundreds of these disappearances occur. “The enforced disappearances must serve as a challenge to the present government. Even though these things did not occur in his [Aquino] administration, he must do something about them,” she added.

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UpB outcrop Tomo 37 Isyu 4 Setyembre 2010

UP president selection draws near Nominees and Multi-Sectoral Issues Pronounced
Ivah Yael Capinig

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n preparation to the upcoming University of the Philippines Presidential election, a multisectoral forum facilitated by Faculty Regent Judy Taguiwalo, Staff Regent Clodualdo Cabrera and Student Regent Cori Alessa Co was held at SOLAIR UP Diliman last September 2 and 3.

Multi-Sectoral Issues The forum focused on the discussions regarding long-term issues that each sector (Faculty, Staff, Research, Extension and Professional Staff (REPS), and Student) experienced in general. Such are discrimination regarding rights, promotion and privileges of the university staff; trend of temporary or contractual workers and lack of comprehensive discussions for contentious issues. Moreover, the forum also talked of issues that the whole system faces like BOR’s authoritarian mode of governance, militarization of some campuses and privatization and commercialization of the services inside the university and UP as a whole. Along with the budget cut that the students do not agree on, the faculty also talked of problems with tenures of the professors and inequity of the benefits that the staff and REPS receive versus the benefits of the faculty. These problems are currently being addressed by different sectors with studies and pursuance of representatives of committees of UP. Other means of attending to these issues that the sectors suggested are negotiations, dialogues, consultations and lastly, mobilizations and such. Nevertheless, UP administration answers these sectors’ calls with further study and budgetary constraints while some issues are ignored and different forms of harassment are enacted.

Extra Challenge The sectoral staff also presented solutions in the said forum that the next president of the university would hopefully do. They wished for uniformed implementation of policies regarding benefits like leaves and promotions; junking of Office Performance Evaluation System (OPES; a system for measuring the collective performance of the individuals in an Office or Division). The staff also pleads for the continuance of Certificate of Service ; uphold and support democratic governance in the university; have a networking relationship between college universities and the viability of organizing and mobilizing unions and alliances in and outside of the university. Roman’s 2011 Predecessor Also, with the announcement of the nominees for the next UP president, sectors of the faculty together with the REPS, and students evaluated the vision papers and curriculum vitae of each of the nominees. The nominees are Consolacion Alaras, a retired professor of the College of English and Comparative Literature in Diliman; Dr. Patrick T. Azanza, senior lecturer at UP college of education and current CEO of two private business corporations; Leonor Briones, chairman to the board of trustees of Siliman University in Dumaguete City. Along with these are Esperanza Cabral, Independent Director of the Manila Bulletin Publishing Co.; Sergio Cao, current Chancellor of UP Diliman; Diliman Professors Benjamin Diokno (School of Economics) and Maria Serena Diokno (College of Social Sciences and Philosophy). Completing the list of the nominees are Raul Pangalangan, also a Diliman Professor in the

College of Law; current Regent for UP and president of the UP Alumni Association Alfredo Pascual; Virginia Teodoso, Professor in the UP School of Labor and Industrial Relations and; current Chancellor of UP Los Baños Luis Rey Velasco. These nominees will undergo fora with the different sectors (student, faculty and staff ) that will raise concerns that they would like the next president to address. The upcoming nominees’ fora will be on September 20 (Los Baños), 24 (Diliman) and October 14 (Manila) 2010 will be shown live to other UP campuses. The Board of Regents scheduled the elections on November 17, 2010, Wednesday.

Una sa anim. Inilahad ni Pang. Benigno “Noynoy” Aquino III ang mga plano ng kanyang administrasyon sa kanyang unang State of the Nation Address noong Hulyo 26. Naging malaking usapin ang kanyang mga panukala para sa sektor ng edukasyon. Philippine Collegian

After almost a decade of implementation Faculties, Students and Alumni Reviewed RGEP
Ivan Emil Labayne

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n an effort to assess the current Revitalized General Education Program (RGEP) after almost a decade of implementation, chosen teaching professors, non-GE teaching professors, alumni, faculty members and students participated on a Focused Group Discussion last September 20. The participants were divided into two groups: the first one is composed mainly of faculty members while the second one is comprised of faculty members and students. RGEP for a Cause RGEP’s model states four objectives, at least three of which must be addressed by every subject: (1) broaden intellectual and cultural horizons (2) awareness of various disciplines (3) integration of knowledge and skills and (4) foster nationalism balanced with internationalism. The program also states that GE courses must be taught only by senior faculties, those teachers

who occupy the upper half of the teacher’s rankings. However, only 20% of the faculty population of UP are senior faculty members. As of now, RGEP has two frameworks. The first one is what UP Diliman is adapting while the second is the framework that is being applied in all the other constituent universities. The two differ in terms of the competencies that the program seeks to address. The Diliman framework only has two target competencies; that is, development of critical thinking and independent learning, the second framework adds a third target competency, the oral and written communication. Moreover, unlike the second framework, the framework in Diliman requires their students to take up at least six units of Philippine studies. During the FGD, a suggestion to require three units of indigenous studies in UP Baguio was brought up. FGD: An Evaluation The FGD serves as a way to assess of the RGEP in terms of its effectiveness to the students, as well as to the instructors. “The group will talk about the concepts of the RGEP by means of the qualities of the teacher,[and] objectives of the RGEP, and also concerning about the class size,” said Lorelei Mendoza, a professor from the College of Social Sciences (CSS). The individuals of the group will have a chance to state the pros and cons they see about RGEP. Similar FGDs are being done in all the other campuses of UP. All the transcripts of each discussion will be centralized and will be used in the assessment of the program. The Advent of a Commendable Curriculum It was under the administration of UP Pres. Francisco Nemenzo when the RGEP was approved by the University Council. The incoming freshmen and transfer students of AY 2002-2003 were the first batch of students to experience the implementation of the said program particularly in

Kariton.

KALIWANG SULOK
Jesusa Paquibot

UPD. Prior to the RGEP, there was the General Education Program (GEP), which required certain subjects like Comm 1/Kom 1 and Comm 2/Kom 2 and History 1 to students. Any student who fails to take all the required subjects will not be allowed to graduate. In response, RGEP was conceived in the spirit “freedom of choice.” Its proponents claim that this can make the students more enthusiastic in learning, as he is to take subjects which he himself chose. Based on the university’s website, “The RGEP framework is to require students to take 15 units under each domain of knowledge-Arts and Humanities, Math, Science and Technology, and Social Sciences and Philosophy.” In defense of the RGEP, Nemenzo then stated that he saw the need to give students more “leeway and flexibility.” He observed that the old GEP failed to realize its objective of cultivating a capacity for independent, critical and creative thinking, since students are “forced to take subjects they have no interest in.” With the implementation of the RGEP, one infers as to where the path of this program is leading. Because of the “freedom of choice” on the selection of the desired courses, the process of enlistment was more likely compared to a market, with the students being the buyers and the courses playing the role of the commodities. A student chooses a subject that he thinks is needed. With this fact in mind, the students are not disposed in learning other disciplines of knowledge, concentrating solely on their area of specialization. Thus, in reality, the objectives for which the RGEP is made for are not serving their purpose. Another issue regarding the RGEP is the the inability or insufficient preparations of students. This struggle was also noticed by the professors of the university. With the students poor foundations of the subject, they tend to fall short or fail.

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Budget para sa militar at pambayad utang, tataas

Subsidiya para sa SUCs, kakaltasan
Levi Glen Ingente

Red Letters
The Humblest of all
Kitty Maria his I say with a tempered bitterness and the feeling that I might have been robbed of the freedom to defend myself. Amidst conclusions and concealed sneers, this is the last place I can see as a resort: I need to stay in this space. This semester was seemingly brought by a tornado, although it has shaken my world several times, it was fleeting. What happened in the whirlwind of events from June to September? Besides the bombastic events, whether in Audi or in Conve, the exams, the failures, the humiliation and the learning to grow up? I saw myself committing to this paper, exchanging an excess of free time for a monthly space of strewing banal phrases that only a few take notice of. There were good moments in Acads, a rare source of motivation in the daily routines of musing and doubting if I will ever play that Adele song again. The passing of this semester has been quite fast, and I am grateful that I have kept my being low-profile despite these red letters. Outside the box where I am the only dweller, events also happened fastpaced, not many of them escaping my flair for spotting things to speak tartly of. I have seen the world turning their heads, frantic and stupidly anxious, towards the greatest drama of the year, the one in Quirino Grandstand. It was our nature to mind things happening around us, mundane or not, significant or not, only to prattle and end up hotheaded. We know how to speak about the ugly side of things yet our inaction, or our mere commenting or sermonizing also paint ugliness. More than that, that issue has been exaggerated, or exposed too much in the news, in the papers, overshadowing the other issues, the equally, if not the more important ones --like the impending budget cut on education. Go google that later, before you check your Facebook account. I have seen Jejemon spread like a flu virus, only to fleet as well. When it is in the limelight among issues, we all have something to say about it. However petty, however commonsensical, however reactionary, we have things to say, perhaps to convince ourselves that we are not being indifferent. Even this paper thought of asking something about it in the monthly Alingawngaw. But the complexity of the issue was not fully exhausted, remaining only as a hot topic that primarily the media is supposed to simplify for us. But it is rarely a smart medium, and we, failing to exhibit greater smartness, offer our conviction on them. And then in the midst of it all, my editor told me that I am not being effective. That I, like the ones which I so gallantly criticize in this space, is also a pretentious know-it-all, do-it-all. It happened in a muted 7pm, in the shyest wood place in the campus, a declaration that is direct, blunt, and unforgiving all at the same time: “Last section mo na itong sa September. Wala ka na next sem.” I was a coward cat, and that was a jolting lightning. All my pride and angst diluted and wafted with the air. So this might really be my last. Though filled with a justified rancor, the white flag is not yet hoisted. As of now, I am still convincing them that hardly they can find another person who knows how to make butterflies out of human trash just by using less than 700 words, and someone who usually end up with a tutong na sinaing yet still able to laugh about it. And if they plan to find a replacement for me, I wonder if they can find someone who listens to Kesha and knows how to analyze her. So I keep my fingers crossed. After all, I believe I talk more sense than that Vajingjing does.

indi pa man natatapos ang taon, isang dagok na naman ang nagbabadyang muling sumubok sa kalagayan ng mga mag-aaral at maging mga kawani ng iba’t-ibang State Universities and Colleges (SUCs) para sa taong 2011. Kulang na kulang Ayon sa budget ng administrasyong proposal Benigno

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STFAP Bracketing Release Deferred
Computer System fails
Kaisa Aquino

ue to an unpredicted difficulty with the computer center based in UP Diliman, the supposed release of the third batch of Socialized Tuition and Financial Assistance Program (STFAP) bracketing has been delayed for months now. What happened? Like every other year, the information from the STFAP office here in UP Baguio is sent to the Office of Scholarship and Student Services (OSSS) and to the computer center which holds not only data from the STFAP but of the administration, registrar and library records of the entire UP system. But this time, according to Ma’am Crispina Facunla, Head of the Office of Student Financial Assistance, the computer unexpectedly crashed and since it contains a lot of important data, it cannot be interfered. The STFAP brackets were expected to be posted last August but until now, no result is out despite submitting the data earlier than the deadline - July 30, 2010 “Pero wala tayong magagawa dahil sa system yun, sa mismong computer. Buti sana kung tao, baka pwede pa… at hindi pa siya nangyari before…” Ma’am Facunla stated as she expressed her sympathy on the affected applicants. The problem with the computer center was not anticipated which is why they did not know what to do with the system, prolonging the posting of the STFAP brackets. First aid Regardless of how risky making a promise is, Ma’am Facunla also assured that the bracketing will be released before the enrollment for the second semester. “Dapat sana may other ways… Dahil nag-aalala na ang mga estudyante kasi bayaran nanaman,. Tapos mahirap pa kasi wala dito mismo sa campus yung problema, nasa Diliman pa… Pero meron naman tayong alternative, tulad nung student loan,” Ma’am Facunla said, who is troubled with the problem on the bracketing. At any rate, the STFAP bracketing will still be effective for the next semester despite the trouble encountered.

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“Noynoy” Aquino III, P23.4 bilyon lamang ang ilalaan para sektor ng edukasyon mula sa mahigit P1.6 trilyon na kabuuang budget ng gobyerno. Wala pa ito sa kalahati ng inererekomenda ng United Nations (UN) na paglalaan ng 6% ng Gross Domestic Product (GDP) para sa edukasyon. Ang panukalang budget para sa taong 2011 ay bumaba ng P4 milyon kumpara sa budget na inilaan ngayong taon na paghahatian pa ng 112 na SUCs sa buong bansa. Dahil dito, 25 na SUCs ang kakaltasan ng pondo partikular na ang University of the Philippines system na mababawasan ng P1.39 bilyon. Kaugnay nito, 15 lamang na pamantasan ng kabuuang bilang ng mga SUCs ang hindi maapektuhan ang budget para sa Maintainance and other Operating Expenses (MOOE) na ang kabuuang pondo ay mababawasan ng P1.1 bilyon. Ang pondo para sa MOOE ang ginagamit sa pagpapatakbo ng mga serbisyo at pasilidad ng mga kolehiyo gaya na lamang ng scholarships, pambayad sa kuryente at iba pa. Sa katunayan, ilan sa mga SUCs ay lagpas 50% ng budget ang kakaltasin tulad na lamang

ng Southern Philippines AgriBusiness & Marine and Aquatic School na mababawasan ng 66.27% ang pondo para sa MOOE. Dagdag pa rito, binanalak din ng administrasyong Aquino ang hindi paglalaan ng pondo para sa Capital Outlay o ang budget na inlalaan para sa mga bagong pasilidad at imprastraktura ng isang ahensya ng pamahalaan. Unti-unting pag-iwan sa kabataan Samantala, ipinahayag naman ni Kabataan Partylist Representative Raymond Palatino ang pagtutol niya sa panukalang budget para sa susunod na taon. Ito ay pagpapakita umano ng pag-abandona ng gobyerno sa tungkulin nitong mabigyan ng mataas na kalidad ng edukasyon sa murang halaga ang mga kabataan. Ayon kay Palatino, ang mga budget cuts na katulad nito ay magdudulot lamang ng pagtaas ng matrikula ng mga SUCs dahilan para tumaas ang dropout rate at bumaba ang bilang ng mga kabataan na makakakuha ng tertiary education. Dahilan din ito upang mapilitang makipagsosyo ang

mga SUCs sa mga pribadong sektor na magdudulot ng pagiging semi-privatized ng mga ito. Higit itong magpapababa ng tiyansa na makapagpatuloy pang makapagaral ang ilang mga kabataan. Siksik, liglig at umaapaw Matatandaan na binigyangdiin ni P-Noy sa kanyang State of the Nation Address na hindi gagastos ang estado para sa PublicPrivate Partnerships ngunit ayon sa budget proposal ng kanyang administrasyon, maglalaan ito ng humigit-kumulang P15 bilyon para rito. Bukod pa rito, pinakamalaki rin sa kasaysayan ang iuukol na pondo ng gobyerno para sa pambayad utang na aabot sa P823.27 bilyon. Ito ang pinagsamang pambayad na P357.09 bilyon sa interes at P466.18 bilyon para sa prinsipal. Muli na namang tataasan ang ilalaang pondo para sa militar na aabot sa P104.7 bilyon at ang pork barrel mula P10.9 patungong P24.8 bilyon. Ang mga pagtaas ng subsidiya ng mga ito ay sa kabila ng “austerity measure” ng administrasyong Aquino upang pagkasyahin ang ‘di umano’y kulang na budget para sa lahat ng serbisyong panlipunan.

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As P-Noy plans to abolish SK
Levi Glen Ingente and Ivah Yael Capinig

Kabataan PL Rep. Palatino introduces HB No. 1963
The objectives of the bill, to name a few, are regulating seminars and discussions for SK members, filling of vacancies (in case of refusal of an elected official, convicted of a felony, et. al.) and, establishing a common process in releasing and regulating SK funds. Along with these, the general intentions of the proposed bill are to bring back the trust and faith of the people, especially the youth and to affirm SK as the main government unit inclined to help and put forth services for the youth. Officials of the Sanggunian are also expected to be efficient in regards with their responsibilities and obligations inside and outside the SK. The pending amendments The bill, entitled Sangguniang Kabataan Reform Act of 2010, is composed of 22 sections all amending and/or reinforcing Republic Act No. 7160 or known as “The Local Government Code of 1991.” In response to the allegations, allotment of finances of the SK will be monitored and regulated by Katipunan ng Kabataan (KK) and the Annual Barangay Youth Development Plan (ABYDP). All budgets suggested by the SK must be agreed upon with the majority of the KK and be approved by the ABYDP. Funds must be deposited in the nearest government-owned bank or in the municipal treasurer. The act also states that KK shall be the highest decisionmaking body in the barangay and official consultant of the SK. KK will be composed of the youth of the barangay. Specifically, those that are no less than 15 years of age and not older than 21. KK will then produce a body with officers chosen among them. This body will be the ones responsible for closer coordination with other organizations of the youth. Another fact that was introduced in this bill was the annual celebration of Buwan ng Kabataan. The activity is mainly for election for young counterparts of the local or municipality’s officials. Those that are elected shall hold office and shall do tasks and duties that may be provided by the order. One of the privileges that a SK official will receive is that during an official’s term, he/she will receive free tertiary education given that the official is currently enrolled in a state university or college. Another privilege is that an incumbent official is exempted to take the course National Training Service Program – Civil Welfare Training Service (NSTP – CWTS). The last section of the act orders that this bill will take effect 15 days after its publishing on newspapers or any general circulations. With reports from Julian
Inah Anunciacion

n response to Benigno “Noynoy” Aquino III’s plan to abolish the Sangguniang Kabataan (SK), Kabataan Partylist Representative Raymond Palatino files House Bill No. 1963 also called as the SK Reform Act of 2010. The making According to his explanatory note posted on their website, Palatino emphasized that President Aquino’s suggestion to abolish the SK may be amended. It is for the whole institution not to suffer because of the performance of the few. Palatino also noted that the SK should not be abolished for it is the chief representative of the youth. It is the government’s way to youth empowerment, education, as well as an access to give basic services to the youth. Allegations that the SK has thus far received were collecting of kickbacks from SK projects, and with this, SK officials collaborate with barangay officials that share same interests and, buying of votes. To address such allegations, Representative Palatino gathered the SK National Executive Board and various SK officials in the country. It has been agreed that a new bill be created to amend and further monitor SK actions.

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UpB outcrop Tomo 37 Isyu 4 Setyembre 2010

The government’s shortcomings on disaster management
t was unusually windy that time. The trees were swaying as if they were to break any minute. Our dog was frantically barking, her noise added to the furies of the wind. All of a sudden, the local cables were overflowing of news with Metro Manila covered with heavy floods. And the whole scene came so fast... For as long as time can tell, disasters have always been a part of our collective consciousness. The eruption of Mt. Pinatubo; Typhoon Milenyo, Ondoy, Pepeng; Quirino Grandstand hostage-taking crisis, among others to name a few, gravely struck the Philippines. Again and again, it resulted to high death tolls and destroyed properties – many are left homeless, many lost their loved ones, many are forced to lose their sources of livelihood and many are haunted by traumatic experiences. The efforts of the government to reduce such casualties quite leave us no proof of improvement. Disparity Steps The Philippines is located at the Pacific Ring of Fire, making it more susceptible to different kinds of disaster – from earthquakes to volcanic eruptions to tsunamis. Yearly, the country experiences an average of 20 typhoons, half of which are considerably destructive. Way back in 1990, the Central and Northern Luzon regions were hit by a 7.7 Richter scale earthquake having a 1,666 death toll. Twenty-three provinces from the six regions of the country were greatly affected. It resulted to temporary major cutoff of power connections, transportation and communication. The Ambuklao Dam near Baguio city was even forced to shutdown causing the electricity and irrigation activities to be freezed. 90% of Baguio City was devastated – from agriculture to infrastructure, costing a total of P12.2 billion damage. During the earthquake aftermath, the only first organized response team to help Baguio-Benguet was the Philippine Military Academy (PMA), followed by an array of non-government organizations (NGOs). On the second day of the event, National

When the going gets tough
Disaster Coordinating Council (NDCC) which are responsible for such disaster cases, tried to assemble the Regional Disaster Coordinating Council (RDCC) – responsible for the disaster response in regional level but was not successful in launching an adequate disaster response. It took the whole NDCC three to four days to set a coordinated action with them resulting to late emergency reliefs and rehabilitation. Similarly, the infamous eruption of Mt. Pinatubo in 1991 resulted to a total of 773 deaths – many of whom died from ash falls, lahar, and several kinds of illnesses caught at the evacuation center. Moreover, the continuous threat of lahars and floods caused alteration of landscapes and annihilation of flora and fauna species. NDCC reported a total of 41,629 damaged houses. About 80,000 hectares of land and 30,000 hectares of fishpond were also ruined. The NDCC lacked appropriate funding, leading to the use of resources that were left undamaged by the eruption to be sidetracked for relief and recovery response. Just last year, four consecutive typhoons landed in the country in such a short time span – Ondoy, Pepeng, Quedan, and Ramil. Typhoon Ondoy whipped the whole Metro Manila and Pepeng inflicted its wrath to Northern Luzon. However, while Pepeng was still on the Philippine Area of Responsibility, typhoon Quedan arrived causing Pepeng to shift course to Japan. Pepeng further brought rain and destruction to Northern Luzon. Typhoon Ramil, on the other hand, brought moderate rains on Southern Luzon. In just a short period of time, many people were sent out of their homes up to their rooftops, freezing cold. Rescue teams only arrived mostly after 24 hours of waiting. The storms severely damaged the whole nation. Much of the losses in farming crops came from Northern Luzon. P9 million of their investments in the field were mostly destroyed. The NGOs are left alone to distribute relief goods resulting to lopsided distribution of goods among people. In the 2009 Mortality Risk Index of the UN International Strategy for Disaster Reduction, the Philippines actually ranked twelve among 200 countries that is exposed to tropical cyclones, floods, earthquakes, and landslides. Over the period of 1970 to 2000, typhoons alone resulted to 65% of deaths, 76% damaged properties, and 2.6% losses in rice crop production. Cases of d i s a s t e r management of the country a r e the prime responsibility of NDCC. Their disaster management (DM) mainly focuses on the country’s mitigation in the pre-event, with response during the event and recovery rehabilitation on the post event. It is then carried out at various political subdivisions and administrative regions and by all means will coordinate with each other to ensure the safety of the people. However, despite having such system, unsynchronized efforts among the NDCC members were evident. The NGOs are left alone to distribute relief goods resulting to lopsided distribution of goods among people. To hasten delivery of emergency supplies with those affected areas, there is a need to decentralize tasks of rescuing, recovery and relief management among other concerned agencies which is quite impossible especially during a calamity when no back-up power can be utilized if power cut-offs occur. Deadly epicenter After considering all the casualties of the two typhoons, former President Arroyo finally signed into law a reformed disaster risk reduction and management system last May 27. Under Republic Act 10121 (RA 10121) or Philippine Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Act of 2010, the NDCC will now be called National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council (NDMRC) and it will implement improved actions and measures to all aspects of disaster risk reduction and management. However, the reformed NDCC was not fully operated. They still failed to reduce casualties during the typhoon Basyang. Although the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) was at fault for missing an accurate calculation of the storm, the council was again unprepared as there were no clear lines of communication. Moreover, NDCC members lack quick rescue capability since they have little rescue equipments. State funding for disaster mitigation, together with other social services, remains in slump. In contrast to the ever increasing military budget, disaster mitigation and post-event measures are left with meager funding, leading to the unnecessary deaths of innocent Filipinos. This phenomena is clearly a callous manifestation of state neglect. Hence, the government’s neglect remains as the problem’s epicenter. Disasters are inescapable. They are fruits of hazards and may be the effects of unjust human activities. It grimly affects people in physically, emotionally, economically, and even politically. Nonetheless, the effects they will incur on our country can be lessened if they are addressed properly and quickly. The old maxim remains true: “An ounce of prevention is better than having a pound of debts.”

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In contrast to the ever increasing military budget, disaster mitigation and postevent measures are left with meager funding, leading to the unnecessary deaths of innocent Filipinos. This phenomena is clearly a callous manifestation of state neglect. Hence, the government’s neglect remains as the problem’s epicenter.

References: Citizen’s Disaster Response Center. Disasters: The Philippine Experience. Martin Publishing Services, 1992. Natural Disaster Risk Management in the Philippines: Enhancing Poverty Alleviation through disaster reduction. World Bank/ National Coordinating Council, v1 33822 Emmanuel M. de Guzman. Eruption of Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines on June 1991 http://volcano.philvocs.dost.gove.ph http://ndcc.gov.ph

Text by Ana Margarita Palma Graphics Diane Jane Pumihic and Alexandrea Dioso Page design Ruel Caricativo

UpB outcrop Tomo 37 Isyu 4 Setyembre 2010

kultura

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Alas-sais sa buhay ni Oble
Ang UP sa postmodernong tereyn ng tunggalian

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UpB outcrop Tomo 37 Isyu 4 Setyembre 2010

editoryal opinyon

Punong Patnugot John Levi Masuli Kawaksing Patnugot Ivan Emil Labayne, Ruel Caricativo Tagapamahalang Patnugot Nikki Camille Malabad Patnugot sa Lathalain Pauline Gaña Patnugot sa Kultura Alejo Marco Galano Patnugot sa Guhit Alexandrea Dioso Patnugot sa Lapat Pamela Peralta

Alingawngaw
1. Anong mga nai-drop mong subject? Bakit mo sila dri-nop? Drop lahat. Nag-LOA dahil wala nang pera pang-aral. 07-44559 PE2 (Badminton). Ang aga eh! Masarap matulog sa Baguio. 08- 17137 Math1, ang hirap kasi. 10-08150 Math53. 09-53687 Wala eh. I’m smart kasi… Onyok Wala. Sayang ang pera ng nanay ko. 10-09678 Genetics. Kasi po may alien. 07-36200 PE2 (weights training) kasi strict si Sir Florendo sa attendance. 08-31507 Na-late ako sa dropping period. Sheez. 10-07663 Wala. Matatanggal ako sa degree program kung sakali. 06-46500 PE – 3x na, NSTP-2x. 08-13440 2. Sino ang bet mo sa UP Presidential Candidates? Bakit? Ung chanci ng UP Diliman. Folk You Basta ung galing Harvard Law. 1009678 Ung Dean ng LB!!! para large class policy, wahaha! 09-xxxx3 Pwede bang si Sir Toto Z na lang? He3. 07-17123 Si Sir Nimreh. 10-abcde Mam Lorelei Mendoza!!! Haha. Magaling un. Demand, surplus, interest rates at lahat kaya niyang sagutin. 09-31996 Dr. Serena Diokno! itaas ang bandera ng mga History Majors. 09-36692 Si Prof. J. hehe. 09-19225 3. Ano ang masasabi mo sa Outcrop so far? TAOB! Hindi ako nakakuha ng kopya. 09-36692 Sayang ung pa-print nila! Tulong yun saken e. 07-17123 Nanghuhusga ng taong may sarili rin naming paninindigan! 10-05xxx Apat na taon na ako sa UP pero ang Outcrop ay well… 07-51063 Paki-balik naman yung printing business niyo kasi ang gahaman ng LRC. LOL. 10-01594/10-12232 Outcrop, so far is indeed judgmental, which makes what they do not campus journalism. 05-xxxxx Ang asteeg!!! Pwede pa bang sumali? 10-55960

Editoryal

Time to grow up, kids
is not an innate and supernatural force that hallucinates the students into being so. The constant arousing and organizing of the students are consciously (and painfully done, in fact) by mass leaders and institutions that seek to maintain UP’s role in the Filipino society. Hence, in doing so, these organizations and institutions must try to shrink their egos, even their identities, to reach the mass students into higher consciousness and collective action. If not, then UP will fall into the trap of being a school of masquerading delinquents and pompous posers. The Outcrop as an institution has been trying to do this task for many years since its conception. With the goal of informing the students of the pressing issues that affect them, the Outcrop has published articles that feature the dark and painful realities of the Filipino society, inside and outside the campus. Articles about death and inequality have been a staple in the paper, the same way as death and inequality has been a staple in our daily living. Living in a disintegrating society as the Philippines is not about love, happiness and cheese. No wonder why our favorite teeny magazines are swimming in jolly and profitable escapism. Hence, the Outcrop as an element

The history of our nation is marked by scars of repression and abuse, with the whole process remaining as relevant as they are in the past. Still, internal contradictions remain, with the rotting status quo perpetually defending its lines against the progressive elements of change and dissent. The University of The Philippines has long been known for its culture of dissent. It has become a womb for all sorts of radical acts and phenomenon— the feminist movement, the rise of the queers, men with long hair, bald women, t-shirts printed with profanity, liberal ‘free love’, and revolutions of all kinds. Its students fired the First Quarter Storm in1970 against the Marcos regime, leading to the well-known Diliman Commune. UP students stood at the forefront in the campaign against Joseph Estrada’s crimes against the people. The eye of the people is often on the UP students, on what they will say and do concerning pressing issues. The university is filled with people always trying to think outside the box. These very traits of UP singularizes it from other academic institutions. However, this culture of dissent

of transformation must never spoonfeed these intoxicating illusions to the students, primarily because UP students must be students of objective reality and not be inclined to believe in First World dreams. In trying to share the spirit of dissent to the readers, it is necessary to minimize all sorts of cheesiness and middle-class daydreaming. A stone can never be munched as a candy through mere words. Yet, strange as it is, disappointing in fact, is the knowledge that some students prefer to munch illusionary candies rather than chew the stone. To demand the organizations to just do diplomatic peace signs and demand the student publication to just write about the campus fashion fads or positive, inspirational articles (which in reality are only exceptions to the general grime of Filipino life) only underlines the readers’ immaturity. UP is no carnival. Hence, if one wants to preserve UP’s culture of dissent, it is not only the mass leaders and organizations who must flex their bones to achieve this aim. The students must also consciously be critical, active and most importantly, not indifferent of all the filth reigning in our society today. It is time to grow up and leave the toys behind. There is a lot of work to do.

UpB outcrop Tomo 37 Isyu 4 Setyembre 2010
Kawani Levi Glen Ingente, Aila Velasco Panghaliling Kawani Neil Patrick Mamaclay, Diane Jane Pumihic, Ana Margarita Palma, Jesusa Paquibot, Jonathan Valdez Opisyal na Pahayagan ng mga Mag-aaral ng Unibersidad ng Pilipinas Baguio
Miyembro ng College Editors Guild of the Philippines at Solidaridad - Alyansa ng mga Pahayagang Pang-kampus sa UP Mapagpalayang Kaisipan sa Malayang Pahayagan upboutcrop@gmail.com
Visit our page on Facebook. Search for “UP Baguio Outcrop”

7

UP Baguio Ikot
...hindi lang naman kung saan tayo dadaan papasok ng klasrum ang kailangan nating isipin; mas kinakailangan nating pag-isipan ang tatahaking daan sa labas ng pamantasan. Neil Patrick Mamaclay

M

araming desisyon ang kailangan nating pagdaanan sa buhay; gaya na lamang ngayon, hindi ko mapagdesisyunan kung dadaan ba ako sa catwalk o tatawid na lang sa oblation grounds at dadaan sa may court A patungong 20s. Pero total naman at hindi pa ako late sa klase ko sa Histo 1, mag-ikotikot muna tayo. Magsisimula tayo dito sa orasan na marahil ay unang nakikita ng lahat ng pumapasok sa unibersidad; sa akin lang ba ang problema o parang ambilis ng takbo ng orasan ngayon dahil isang oras na daw mula ng umalis ako sa bahay. Ang bilis talaga ng panahon, parang kanina lang ay hayskul tayo. Nakasisiguro akong mabilis din lang lilipas ang huling apat na taon natin sa pagaaral bago natin maranasan ang ‘tunay na mundo.’ Kamustahin na rin natin si Manang Mani at ang kanyang mga paninda; gaya

ng sinabi ni Manang nuong freshie night, pahalagahan daw natin ang edukasyon, dahil ito daw ang mag-aangat sa ating pamumuhay. Perpek 10 talaga ang simpleng maanghang na mani, dahil ang mga panindang ito ang naging pasaporte ng kanyang mga anak tungo sa edukasyong nakamit nila. Nakakatuwang isipin na kahit hirap sa buhay ay nagawang maitaguyod ni Manang ang kanyang mga anak hanggang sa pagtatapos nila ng kolehiyo. Malamang ay marami sa atin, kung hindi man lahat, ang magsusuot din ng sablay sa nalalapit na hinaharap. Ngunit dahil halos P 1.39 billion ang ikakaltas sa subsidiya ng pamahalaan, tila hindi lang ingay ng megaphone na pinagpapasa-pasahan ang maririnig natin ng paulit-ulit ngunit maging ang reklamo ng ating mga magulang. Kasi naman, kahit may STFAP, hindi na sapat ang ibinibigay ng gobyerno sa pamantasan ng estado (kung sa estado pa nga siyang maituturing). Sa panahong tayo na ang inaasahan ng bansa, sana ay para sa kanya tayo manilbihan. Batiin mo na rin yung mga kaibigan mo na naghihintay sa lobby, nabasa mo na ba yung mga placards duon? Eh si Kuya Ralph ba, pinakinggan mo na? Ayon daw sa pagaaral ng UNESCO noong 2008, 73% ng mga kabataan ay napipilitang huminto sa pag-aaral bunsod ng matataas na matrikula habang 22% lamang ang survival rate ng mga estudyante hanggang fourth year college. Ayon din sa Commission on Higher

Education, sa 100 pumapasok sa elementary, 9 lang ang nakakapagtapos ng kolehiyo dahil 80% ng mga high school graduates ay hindi nakakatuntong ng kolehiyo. Punta na muna tayo ng Joystick o Cusina Camacho, na pwede nating makita sa ibang perspektiba, gaya na lamang ng: sila ang humalili sa ating mga magulang sa pagbibigay ng ating mga pangunahing pangangailangan. May pera ka pa ba? Hindi ko rin kasi napapansin kung minsan ang paggastos ko. Nag-aalala ka rin marahil kung paano na kaya kung tayo na ang dapat kumita ng pera at tustusan ang mga pangangailangan (at maging luho, kung minsan) ng ating mga kanya-kanyang pamumuhay o “lifestyle.” Ngayon nga ay halos isang kainan na lamang ang 100 piso; paano pa kaya kung kinakailangan na nating bumili ng mga pangangailangan natin gamit ang ating sariling bulsa? Naku, kailangan ko na pa lang pumasok sa aking klase, baka mamaximum absences kasi ako eh. At ang huling perpek 10 na lugar na ating dadaanan ay ang mga ordinaryo nating silid-aralan. Ito ang magtuturo sa atin ng lahat, mula sa Marxist jargons hanggang sa kung paano magmix ng chemicals. Dahil hindi lang naman kung saan tayo dadaan papasok ng klasrum ang kailangan nating isipin; mas kinakailangan nating pag-isipan ang tatahaking daan sa labas ng pamantasan.

Hello Kitty*
H
Sa tingin ko, walang nahuhuling mga estudyanteng inoorganisa at bagkus ay mayroon lamang mga nahuhuling organisador... Sa ganitong antas, aba’y tila kailangang mag-isip-isip ng mga organisador kung tama ba ang pinasukan nila at kung sapat ba ang paninindigang pinanghahawakan nila. Ruel Caricativo
arshness. Habang nile-layout ko yung article mo, naglalaro sa utak ko ang salitang ito. Kumusta? Sana nga’y hindi ka pa kinukuyog ng mga freshy. Balita ko, antag** yata ang mga sinabi mo sa kanila nitong nakaraan. Sa kabilang banda, habang binabasa ko ang ginawa mo ay may maaayos ka namang punto. Mukhang nahuhuli nga ang mga freshy sa usapin ng pulitikal na kamulatan – halimbawa iyong isyu ng mga magsasaka sa Hacienda Luisita, ang usapin ng tuition and other fees increase at ngayon nga ay ang nakaambang PE fee increase dito sa UP Baguio. Maaaring sa ngayon ay tila nakalimutan na nila ang esensya ng naganap na Walkout, o kung naintindihan nga ba nila. Maaaring sa ngayon, hindi pa nila alam kung ano at paano makakamit ang tunay na pagbabago. Ngunit parang umiiwas ka ring sagutin ang tanong na ito sa ginawa mong article at inaasahan kong sa hindi malayong panahon ay magkita tayo at pag-usapan ito. Linggo. Pasado alas nuwebe na, pangalawang gabi ng presswork. Walang tao sa catwalk at tila ako na lang yata ang papasok sa campus ng ganitong oras.

Maliban sa mga gwardya na bumati sa akin, naisip ko pare-pareho din lang pala tayong dumadaan ng catwalk – pare-pareho ng dinadaanan, kumbaga. Siyempre, hindi ko alam kung magkakapareho rin ang mga patutunguhan natin. Mahabang usapin ang pagbabago at marahil ay mauubos lang ang espasyong ito kung itutuloy ko ang diskursong ito. Ngunit mas kapuna-puna, para sa akin, ang mga ibinato mo sa mga freshy. Sa tingin ko, walang nahuhuling mga estudyanteng inoorganisa at bagkus ay mayroon lamang mga nahuhuling organisador. Sa paanong paraan napunta sa ganitong usapan ang nais kong puntuhin sa’yo? Malinaw na sa usapin ng kamulatan, tungkulin ng mga tukoy na organisador mula sa unibersidad, lalo na iyong mga nanggaling sa masang organisasyon at mga katulad nito, na imulat ang mga estudyante. Ngunit hindi limitado sa mga ito ang pagoorganisa sa kanila dahil mayroon ding ibang mga organisasyon na nagsasagawa ng kaparehong gawain. Ngayon, di hamak na kung ang mismong mga organisador ay nahuhuli, malinaw na manipestasyon nito ang kawalan ng maayos at organisadong pagpapakilos sa mga freshman. Siguro ay nagsasalita ako ng mga bagay na marahil ay ngayon mo lang narinig. Kung narinig mo man, baka pinili mong huwag pakinggan. Ang unibersidad na ito ay salamin ng ating lipunan. Kung sa loob nito ay nahihirapan nang mag-organisa ng mga estudyante, ano pa kaya sa ibang unibersidad na tila bilangguan dahil sa hayag na panggigipit sa mga organisador doon? At lalong paano pa kaya sa mas malawak na lipunang nagsisilbing mas malaking bilangguan na nagkukubli sa ganitong burgis na pamantasan at maging ng iba pang institusyon.

Sa ganitong antas, aba’y tila kailangang mag-isip-isip ng mga organisador kung tama ba ang pinasukan nila at kung sapat ba ang paninindigang pinanghahawakan nila. Kung nais lamang nila ng mabango o magpabango ng pangalan para sa anumang layunin o kaya nama’y magpaka-“astig,” nagkamali lamang sila ng pinasukan. Hindi perks ng pag-oorganisa ang mas mataas na kamulatan kaysa sa “iba.” Kung ganito ang lagay, paano kapag tinanong ka ng isang masang estudyante na ang pakikibaka niyo ay manipestasyon lamang ng isang “spiralling negativity” para ipakitang “masama” ang imperyalismo, ayon kay Baudrillard? Sasagutin mo ba? Marahil, kailangan mo pang kilalanin si Zizek. Kahit ano pang organisasyon ang kinabibilangan ng isang estudyante, parte pa rin siya ng sektor ng estudyante. Hindi nga ba’t “arouse, organize, mobilize”? Walang konsepto ng “discriminate organizing” ang mga organisador sapagkat dumarating ang krisis sa ekonomiya at edukasyon na parang bagyo: walang pinipili, higit na nahihirapan ang mga dati nang naghihirap. Marahil sa ngayon ay magtatanong ka na kung bakit ganito ang mga tinuran ko at nalayo sa iyo ang usapan. Nais kong linawin sa iyo na anumang mga sinabi mo sa mga freshy noong nakaraan ay repleksyon ng kung ano ang nagaganap sa mga organisasyong dapat ay pangunahing nagmumulat sa kanila sa mga usaping panlipunan. Tila may kakapusan pa rin sa ating mga organisador dahil maging ikaw ay nasa ganyang antas pa rin ang kamulatan: malinaw ang mga kritisismo (o kaya nama’y puro kritisismo) ngunit walang malinaw na solusyong nais tunguhin.
*para kay Kitty Maria: isang bukas na liham **antagonistic.

Yupi an

g Yupi

The pikon-talow chikabelsz

8

kultura
hon Isang talinhaga ang Batas Militar. Ang lahat ng paggunita, o pagsasalarawan rito ng iba’t-ibang naratibo ay laging nagkukulang sapagkat nagwawakas lamang ang mga ito bilang representasyon ng orihinal. Kaiba sa mga naunang pelikula, hindi nagpatali ang “Sigwa” sa simpleng pagsasalarawan o pagbabalik-tanaw sa nakalipas. Sa pamamagitan ng mga tauhan sa pelikula, nagbukas ito ng mga pintuang maaaring tahakin ng mga manunuod upang makabuo ng pag-unawa sa mga pangyayaring inilahad sa pelikula; isang pag-unawang marahil ay hindi hahayaang ibigay ng mga popular na konsepsyon ng Batas Militar at ang mga nauna pang pangyayari rito. Ang madilim na nakaraan Binalikan ng pelikula ang Sigwa ng Unang Kwatro (First QuarA n g sigwa ng ating panangunit hindi nito napawi ang kawalang-kasiguraduhan, ang mga personal na bagabag, at ang mga tunggalian sa lipunan na nakita na rin sa FQS. Sa aspeto ng ritmo, ang mabilis na pagpapalit ng bawat kuha sa nakaraan ay pinag-iba sa kabagalan ng daloy sa kasalukuyan. Sa nakaraan, mabilis ang mga pangyayari, puno ng tunggalian at paghamon sa lahat ng sulok kaya hindi pwedeng magpaiwan. Sa kabilang banda, ang kabagalan ng kasalukuyan ay mistulang nagsasaad ng relatibong kapayapaan. Ngunit hindi nito naitago ang tunay na kalagayan. Sapagkat sa kabagalan ng mga pangyayari ay mas mapapansin ang mga tensyong nakapaloob sa bawat tauhan at sa paggalaw nila sa isang lipunang nagpapanggap bilang maayos at mapayapa. Magkakaiba ang naging pagpapatuloy ng mga tauhan sa mga karanasang idinulot ng pagiging mga radikal nila bago mag-Martial Law. Sa mga pagkakaibang

UpB outcrop Tomo 37 Isyu 4 Setyembre 2010
Akda ni Ivan Emil Labayne Grapiks at Disenyo ng Pahina Pamela Peralta
Isa siya sa mga lider-aktibsita noon, papet ang tawag sa gobyerno. Ngayon, nasa palasyo na siya kung saan ang mga kasama nya ay ang dating mga tinutuligsa. Higit pa, siya mismo ay tuta na rin ng nasa kapangyarihan. Ang alingawngaw ng mga daing at sigaw ng pasakit ang nagdala kay Oliver upang isuko ang labang pinili. Bago pa man tawagin para tortyurin, napanghinaan na si Oliver. Sa isang banda ay maaaring kauna-unawa ang kanyang ginawa, ngunit hindi nito mababago ang naipakita nang karuwagan. Sa kasalukuyan, tagapagsalita na siya ng Pangulo. Produkto nga kaya ang pagbalikwas na ito ng kabuktutan ng kilusang pinanggalingan niya o dulot ng kanyang sariling pagpapasya? Nang magkaharap-harap sila ng mga dating kasama sa libing ng isang kaibigan, tinanggap niya ang pagkamuhi ni Sita. Isang matunog na sampal, at ipinakita niyang mali ang ka-

a t Azon, nanatili si Sita – ang tanging nanatili. Ipinakita niya na hindi sa lahat ng pagkakataon ay dapat mabago ang pagkilos ng pagbabago ng mga kalagayang kinapapalooban; na hindi lahat ng pagpapasya ay panandalian. Ang ilan sa kanila ay kayang tumagal at lalo pang tumibay, mas mahigpit na hahawakan, mas masiglang mapaninindigan. Kaya sa gitna ng itinatagong mga kontradiksyon ng kasalukuyan ay may mga tulad ni Sita na pinipiling lumugar sa bukana ng mga kontradiksyong ito – ang lugar kung saan pagpapasyahan kung maitutuwid o mananatili ba ang mga kontradiskyon. Bukas na pamamaalam Masaya na si Dolly. Nasa palasyo pa rin si Oliver. Nasa squatters area pa rin si Rading. Tahimik na sa probinsya si Azon. Nakikidigma pa rin sa bundok si Sita. Sa gitna ng paglalakbay

Sigwa: hopes Rage...of perils and
Idinerehe ni Joel Lamangan. Tampok sila Dawn Zulueta/Megan Young (Dolly), Zsazsa Padilla/Pauleen Luna (Sita), Gina Alajar/ Lovi Poe (Azon), Tirso Cuz III/Marvin Agustin (Oliver).
ito, naipakita ang REBYU iba’t-ibang pagpapasyang maaaring gawin habang nahaharap sa mga pagbabago ng lipunan, malaki man ito o maliit. Si Azon at Rading: ‘di na tulad ng dati Parehong nalampasan ang rehas ng nakaraan, kapwa nabawasan ang tatag ng loob nila Azon at Rading sa pagharap sa kanilang kinamulatan at pagkilos ayon dito. Biktima ng kababuyan ng mga militar, hindi nagawang isakripisyo ni Azon ang kanyang anak para sa pinaglalaban ng kilusang kanyang kinabilangan. Sa kunwaring pagkakaroon ng “tahimik na buhay,” pilit niyang tinatakasan ang isang kasinungalingang dulot ng nakaraan – ang pagkukunwaring kanya ang anak ni Dolly. Nakaranas rin ng matinding paghihirap si Rading, at sa kabila ng patuloy na pagsali-sali sa ilang pagkilos at rali, hindi niya na masasabing ang pagtalima niya sa kanyang mga paniniwala ay kasinglakas pa ng dati. Isang saglit silang nag-alay ng buhay at pagkakataon para sa adhikaing baguhin ang lipunan, gaanuman kahirap ito. Ngunit ang pagharap sa isa sa mga pinakamatitinding dulot ng ganitong sakripsiyo ang pumigil sa kanila upang ipagpatuloy ang kanilang adhikain. Si Oliver: ang bagong “tagapagtanggol ng status quo”

ter Storm), ang panahong puno ng mga pagkilos at pagtuligsa laban sa gobyerno. Sa pagbabaliktanaw ni Dolly sa mga karanasan nila ng kanyang mga kaibigang akitibista noong FQS, ay sabay na naipakita sa mga manunuood ang kalagayan ng nakaraan at ng kasalukuyan. Ang pagtatabing ito ng mga pangyayari sa kasalukuyan ay isa sa mga kapansin-pansing pamamaraan na ginamit ng pelikula upang patingkarin ang mga pangyayari sa Sigwa ng Unang Kwatro. Sa aspeto ng ilaw at ritmo ay mas napag-iba ng pelikula hindi lang ang hitsura ng dati at ng ngayon kung hindi pati na rin ang sitwasyon at ang pamumuhay ng mga tao rito. Maaliwalas ang karamihan sa mga kuha sa panahon ng kasalukuyan samantalang kakaunti ang ilaw na ginamit sa panahon ng nakaraan lalo na sa mga eksena ng pagpoprotesta o pagtotortyur sa mga aktibista. Sa una ay maaaring madaling bigyan ng interpretasyon ang naganap na pagbabago mula sa nakaraan patungong kasalukuyan. Marahas, madilim, puno ng pangamba at walangkasiguraduhan ang nakaraan. Sa panlabas, ang kasalukuyan naman a y mistulang puno ng liwanag,

Pelikula

ruwagang ginawa niya na nagpahamak sa dating mga kasama. Si Dolly: Ligaw sa panahon Matapos ang pananatili’t pagtuturo sa Amerika, pinabalik sa Pilipinas si Dolly ng paniniwalang matatagpuan pa rin niya ang kaniyang anak. Malalim ang balon ng alaalalang meron siya sa Pilipinas, kahit pa sandali lang ang paglagi niya rito. Naging myembro ng Kabataang Makabayan, nagkaroon ng isang pag-ibig, na sa kasamaang palad ay naging sanhi lang ng dalamhati, at napalalim ang kamulatan sa mga bagay sa lipunan— ito ang mga mahahalagang bagay na ‘di naiwasang mabalikan ni Dolly sa kanyang pagbalik sa bansa. Sa pagsubok na tagpiin ang mga butas na gawa ng madilim na nakaraan, unti-unti siyang nagtagumpay. Nahanap niya ang kanyang anak, ang pangunahing dahilan ng pagbabalik-bansa. Kasabay naman ng personal niyang tagumpay, natuklasan niya na ang laban na dati niyang sinalihan ay nagpapatuloy subalit hindi na siya kabilang dito sa kasalukuyan. Si Sita: ang ikinubling liwanag Sa pelikula ay tinabunan siya ni Dolly. Si Sita ay nakita lamang natin sa panlabas – ang tanging nagpatuloy ng labang halos sabay-sabay na pinasukan nilang magkakaibigan. Sa paglipas at pagbabago ng panahon, ang pinili niya ay ang hindi pagpili ng bagong landas. Habang nasa Palasyo na si Oliver, nakaranas na ng Amerika si Dolly, “nasa tahimik” na sila Rading

kasama ang convoy ay naharangan ng mga rebelde ang sasakyan ni Oliver. Sa pagbaba niya upang paalisin ang mga ito ay darating si Sita, at magtitinginan sila ni Oliver – ang dating magkasintahan, ngayon ay magkalaban. Bigla, lalabas ang credits. Tapos na. Sa pagtatapos ng pelikula, wala na si Dolly. Maiiwan ang dating magkasintahan, na sa ngayo’y magkabilaan ang posisyon sa tunggalian ng lipunan. Si Oliver, ang sa ngayo’y tagapagtanggol ng gobyerno, at si Sita, ang rebeldeng nakikipaglaban para sa pagbabago – sa huli ay ang dalawang bagay na dinadala nila ang maghaharap. Ang kasalukuyan, ang status quo, at ang nakaraang nagpapatuloy at naghahangad angkinin ang kinabukasan. Magtitinginan ang dalawang tauhan sa mga huling sandali ng pelikula, at ramdam ang tunggalian ng kanilang magkaibang pinaglalaban. Bago ang credits, isang close-up ang inilaan para kay Oliver, matigas ngunit may kaba ang hitsura. Tapos ay si Sita, matatag rin ngunit ‘di mabakasan ng pag-aalinlangan ang mukha. At sa kaniya na nagtapos ang pelikula.

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