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Journal of Nuclear Materials 191-194 (1992) 67-74

North-Holland nuclear

Radiation-induced microstructural change in ceramic materials

C. Kinoshita
Dfpartment of Nuclear Engineering, Kyushu Ullil'ersity 36 Hakozaki 6-10-1, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812, Japan

What is the characteristic difference between radiation-induced microstructural changes in ceramic and metallic
materials? /\ review is given of the current state of knowledge regarding this question, Elementary properties, which are
indispensable for describing the displacement process, are described for ionic and covalent crystals. The structure of cascade
damage and its stability are described in terms of the effects of deposited energy densiW and electronic cxcitation as well as
the characteristics of ceramic materials. The characteristic behavior of the nucleation and growth process of defect clusters
in various ceramic materials irradiated with electrons, ions and neutrons, which have been observed mainly through
transmission electron microscopy, is also reviewed. This review also considers the. effects of irradiation which is concurrent
with an applied electric field, transmutation-produced gases and atmosphere, though little definitive work has heen done.

1. Introduction excitation and knock-on and/or kinetic processes.

These processes are dependent on several characteris-
Design studies for the International Thermonuclear tics of these materials, such as the atomic bonding, the
Experimental Reactor (ITER) have become more de- crystal structure, the mass of the constituent elements,
tailed in recent years, and requirements and operating the impurity concentrations, the structural vacancy
conditions for ceramic materials have become clear [lJ. concentration, and the grain boundary struclure: among
Plasma facing components, various insulators and win- others. Therefore, it is critical that structural and prop-
dows are required to maintain magnetic, optical and erty changes be measured during irradiation rather
electrical integrity as well as structural integrity under than after irradiation.
various irradiation conditions [2]. Design studies are A review is given of the current state of knowledge
based on adopting existing matcrials and thercfore of the prominent features of radiation-induced mi-
concentrate on suppressing the neutron flux and the crostructural changes in ceramic materials, in contrast
ionizing radiation dose. However, it is still indispens- with those in metals. Included arc: (n fundamental
able to confirm the reliability of materials in fusion properties of atomic defects, such as the configuration
environments. Furthermore demo and commercial re- and the recombination volume of a Frenkel pair, the
actors will require the development of new materials displacement thrcshold energy and the migration en-
and the description of the physical mcchanisms respon- ergy of atomic defects in ionic (e.g. MgO) and covalent
sible for radiation effects in fusion environments. The (e.g. graphite and I3-SiC) crystals; (2) the effects of
strategies and stages of implementation for the study deposition energy density, electronic excitation and low
of fusion materials arc (n qualification of existing energy knock-ons on the structure and the stability of
materials, (2) development of novel materials and (3) cascade damage; (3) the characteristic behavior of the
fundamental understanding of radiation effects. How- nucleation and growth process of defect clusters in
ever, with the cxception of some components of ITER, terms of the characteristic features of ceramic materi-
existing ceramic materials might not work in fusion als; and (4) the effects of irradiation concurrent with
environments. Therefore, basic experiments for devel- an applied electric ficld, transmutation-produced gases,
oping novel materials and for characterizing the physi- biased displacements of constituent elements and/or
cal mechanisms involved in radiation effects are re- atmosphere on the microstructural change. Descrip-
quired. These experiments will be facilitated by the use tions of the electronic structural changes are beyond
of a wide variety of well characterized irradiation facili- this review and are related to the irradiation-induced
ties. property changes [3].
The physical properties of ceramic materials re-
quired for use in fusion reactors arc related to the
electronic states of the constituent atoms, the atomic 2. Fundamental properties of atomic defects
configurations, and the overall microstructure, includ-
ing defect clusters. Radiation induced microstructural The displacement threshold energy, the defect con-
changes in ceramic materials occur through electronic figuration, the formation energy, the recombination

0022-3115/92/$05.00 © 1992 - Elsevier Science Publishers B.Y. All rights reserved

68 C. Kinoshita / Radiation-induced change in ceramics



?T ,..


( .r--'
(b) H r0-

Y '-'
Mg 0

Fig. 1. The most stable configuration around an O-interstitial at (t t t) (a) and its spontaneous recombination sites marked with.
(b). The nearest neighbor Mg- and O-ions move, respectively, inward and outward along the (111) directions by 4.6% and 27.4%

volume and the migration energy of a Frenkel pair are The configuration of an interstitial on the basal
the most fundamental properties which are directly plane of graphite and its relative self-energy were
related to radiation-induced microstructural changes. determined [5] and they are shown in fig. 2. Covalent
Ceramic materials are generally regarded as either crystals have a wide variety of stable positions includ-
ionic or covalent crystals and are characterized by the ing pseudo-stable topological positions in contrast to
long range Coulomb interaction and the directional the definitive stable position in ionic crystals [4].
interaction in the respective crystals. The fundamental
properties of MgO [41 and graphite crystals [51 as
studied through the molecular dynamics (MD) tech- G - - - - ......-______e
nique are used as being representative of ionic and /
covalent crystals. Not only arc they candidate materials / /
for fusion reactors,but they have been also systemati-
cally studied (e.g. refs. [6-81). \
Fig. 1 shows a unit cell of MgO, containing an anion \ \

\ \
interstitial [41. The most stable anion interstitial is G-----(4t)---.....
configured at the body centered position, and in this (a)
configuration the nearest neighbor cations move in-
ward by 4.6% and the nearest neighbor anions move ~
outward by 27.4%, due to the Coulomb force. The ~
spontaneous recombination sites of the interstitial ion ffi .01
are also shown in the figure. A Frenkel pair along the ~
(110) directions is unstable, but stable along the (100)
directions showing alternative anion and cation ar-
a: '------'B7, ----'-;A'-O-A--:OA.:'-:,A".-B,,;.,'::.B-;;-----'
rangements. Surprisingly, the number of the recombi-
nation sites is 52, which is only 50% larger than that of
fcc metals [4]. In the case of an anion vacancy, the (b)
nearest neighbor Mg- and O-ions of the vacancy move Fig. 2. Possible sites of an interstitial located between two
outward along the (100) directions and inward along c-layers of hexagonal graphite and relative self-energies of the
the (110) directions by 11.1% and 5.5%, respectively, interstitial at possible sites. The atomic configuration of inter-
again due to the Coulomb force in contrast to the stitial positions such as N, N', Nil, B', B" and Bill is projected
inward relaxation in metallic and covalent crystals [91. on the hexagonal lattice. Atoms. and 0 are in layers below
and above the interstitial, respectively.
C. Kinoshita / Radiation-induced change in cemmics 69

Table 1 a reliable result that the value along the (110) direc-
The formation energy (Er ) of a mono-valent and a di-valent tion is much higher than that along the (100) direc-
Frenkel pair and the migration energy (Em) of di-valent tion. because of easy recombinations of Frenkel pairs
vacancies in MgO. The results through the molecular dynamic alo~g the <110) directions shown in fig. 1.
(MD) technique [4], the static calculation [10] and experimen-
EI-Azab and Ghoniem [15J determined the displace-
tal [11,12) are compared
ment energy threshold surfaces of Si and C atoms in
Di-valent point defects Mono-valent SiC using the MD technique. Average displacement
point defects energies are 92.6 eV and 16.3 eV for Si and C atoms,
E r leV) Em leV]
Er[eV] respectively.
Mg 13.11 1.98 MD Mg 18.26
13.14 2.06 static calc.
o 12.65 1.97 MD o 17.46 3. The effects of deposition energy density, electronic
12.61 2.02 Static calc. excitation and low energy knock-ons on the structure
2.03±O.17 Experiment and the stability of cascade damage

When crystals arc irradiated with fast neutrons, the

kinetic energy of the neutrons is transferred to primary
The next properties discussed are the formation
knock-on atoms (PKAs). One of characteristic features
energy of a Frenkel pair and the migration energy of
of neutron irradiation is the cascade damage produced
vacancies in MgO. Results on these properties deter-
by high-energy PKAs. It is possible to use energetic
mined through the MD technique [4], static calcula-
ions combined with high voltage electron microscopy
tions [10], and experiments [11,12J arc shown in table 1.
(HVEM) to provide in situ observation of electronic
The migration energy of divalent oxygen vacancies is
excitation and/or ion implantation [16-18] under im-
1.97 eV as determined by the MD technique and 2.03
pulsive energy deposition. Abe et al. [18] found tiny
eV as determined by our experiments. The migration
vacancy-type clusters corresponding to cascade damage
energy of mono-valent point defects, however, might
in Si, Ge, and a Si-Ge alloy under irradiation with a 30
be much different from this value, because the forma- keY Xe + ion flux of 1 X 10 15 Xe + /mzs. The visible
tion energies of a di-valent Frenkel pair and of a
cluster density increased rapidly during the few sec-
mono-valent one are much different from each other onds of irradiation. In MgO, uAl 2 0) and MgAl 2 0 4 ,
[4J. This feature cJlanges the kinetic behavior of point they observed no clusters corresponding to individual
defects under an ionizing radiation field. cascades, but observed black dot-contrast due to inter-
The final property discussed is the temperature
stitial dislocation loops after irradiation up to a higher
dependen~c of the displacement threshold energy in flue nee level. In those ionic crystals, vacancy-rich cores
MgO. Fig. 3 shows experimental results presented by are not stable enough to induce distinct contrast, but
Pells [13] and Satoh et a1. [11] together with results interstitial loops appear through the nucleation and
obtained through the MD technique. The threshold growth process. The materials that have been irradi-
energy increases with decreasing temperature as also ated with the dual (ion plus electron) beam are listed
seen in metals [14]. Because of the uncertainty in the
in the paper by Abe et al. [18]. According to their
potential energy, the absolute values obtained through results, the materials which evolve contrasts corre-
the MD technique might not be reliable. However, it is
sponding to cascades are limited to covalent crystals
consisting of relatively high-Z elements. The amor-
phous phase appears in low-Z covalent crystals such as
250 graphite and SiC. Interstitial loops appear in ionic

200 & (110} Mg

L- (110) 0
: Palls ar al.
crystals. Concurrent irradiation with 30 keY Xe+ ions
and 1000 ke V electrons, which provide cascade damage
Molecular and only isolated Frenkel pairs, respectively, sup-
150 0 (100) 0 Dynamics @ Saleh &
presses the accumulation of cascade damage relative to
t::. (100) Mg
that seen in experiments with single beam irradiation
100 A with 30 keY Xe+ ions [18].
6 (110)Mg • (110) 0 Zinkie [19] observed an effect of concurrent dis-
50 • (100) 0 (100) 0 placements and electronic excitation in the cross-sec-
tion microstructures of a.AlzO), MgO and MgAlZ04
0 200 400 500 800 1000 1200 following heavy ion irradiation at 650°C. Dislocation
Temperature (K) loop formation occurs only where the ionizing to dis-
Fig. 3. TIle temperature dependence of the displacement placive ratio is lower than about 10, 500 and 1000 for
threshold energy of Mg- and O-ions along the (l00) and MgAl 2 0 4 , MgO and aAl Z 0 3 , respectiveJy. ZinkJe
(110) directions in MgO [4,11,13). pointed out that the ratio of ionizing to displacive
70 C. Kinoshita / Radiation-induced change in ceramics

,. 3 0 , . . - - - - - - - - - - ,
1 MeV Electron Irradiation
T· 77 K 1 a-AhO> ( 700K; 1.9 • JO:IJ elm~. )
j 25

0.5l !"n irrad. AI,o,

:' 20

I ~~,cjJ .
°1 2 3

Fig. 4. The density of photons emitted from virgin and

neutron irradiated aAl Z0 3 irradiated with 1000 keY elec-
trons for 1 f.LS at 77 K [20]. J 2000
Time (sec)

Fig. 5. Time dependence of the volume density of interstitial

irradiation was one of the important radiation damage dislocation loops in MgO, aAJ Z 0 3 and MgAlz04 during
parameters. The analogous behavior of loops was found irradiation with 1000 keY electron fluxes of (1.9-2.0) x 1O z3
in MgAl204 irradiated with fission neutrons [6]. e/m 2 s. Irradiation temperatures are shown in the figure and
Tanimura and Hoh [20] found another synergistic about 0.3 Tm (Tm = melting point) [21].
effect of displacement damage and electronic excita-
tion. Fig. 4 shows the optical density as a function of
photon energy for aA1 20 3 irradiated with pulsed 1000
keY electrons. Virgin aAl 20 3 emits small amount of incubation time for the times studied and may saturate
photons, but neutron irradiated aAl 20 3 emits large at higher fluences. Irradiation with 1000 keY electrons
numbers of photons corresponding to point defects. induces no microstructural evolution in MgAlZ04 up to
the fluence level of 10 27 ejm 2 , except for the procduc-
tion of 'Y-alumina at temperatures above 1190 K [11].
4. The characteristic behavior of the nucleation and Irradiation with 7 keY Ar+ ions, on the other hand,
growth process of defect clusters induces nuclei of tiny loops which are mostly of the
i(111) interstitial type [6,11]. Instead of nucleating
Electron irradiation induces rather isolated Frenkel dislocation loops, amorphization is induced at lower
pairs of interstitials and vacancies as well as electronic temperatures in covalent crystals, such as graphite and
excitation. Some of the point defects that escape re- SiC [7,22].
combination aggregate to fmm interstitial or vacancy The characteristic kinetic behavior of loops is based
clusters. HVEM provides direct observation of the on the size of the nuclei of the interstitial dislocation
nucleation and growth process of defect clusters during loops. In ionic crystals, stoichiometric clusters lie on
electron irradiation. Various ceramic materials so far definitive habit planes and the nucleus of the loop
observed have been classified into groups in terms of might be anti-Schottky doublets for MgO, quintettes
the characteristics of the nucleation and growth pro- for aAl z0 3 and septets for MgAlz0 4 , reflecting the
cess of interstitial dislocation loops under electron matrix structure in each case. In covalent crystals,
irradiation in HVEM [6,12]. The density and the size of there might be a variety of topological configurations
the loops were examined as functions of irradiation of point defects and defect clusters, as seen in fig. 2,
time, electron flux, electron energy and irradiation especially at low temperatures. The structural vacancy
temperature. Fig. 5 shows typical examples of the vol- is another factor controlling the kinetics of loops.
ume density of dislocation loops in MgO, aAl 20 3 and TiC o.85 , for instance, contains 7.5% of structural vacan-
TiC o.85 as a function of irradiation time under 1000 cies due to nonstoichiometry. Most of the displaced
keY electron fluxes of 0.9-2.0) X 10 23 e/m 2s at 0.30 atoms in TiC o.85 , therefore, can recombine with struc-
Tm (Tm = melting point) [21]. In MgO, the volume tural vacancies, and the nucleation and growth of inter-
density of loops remains constant for increasing irradi- stitialloops is greatly suppressed. The concentration of
ation time after the initial rapid nucleation. Irradiation interstitials contained in loops in MgO, TiC o.85 and
of aAl 2 0 3 with 1000 keY electrons gives linear nucle- aA1 20 3 , expressed as a fraction of total atoms present,
ation up to about 1000 s and then slower nucleation is 1.8 X 10- 2, 6.0 X 10- 4 and 1.2 X 10- 3 after irradia-
eventually leading to saturation. The density of disloca- tion to 4 X lO z6 ejm 2 (corresponding to about 0.5 and
tion loops in TiC o.85 , on the other hand, increases 1 dpa for MgO and aAl z0 3) at about 0.30 Tm , respec-
linearly with increasing irradiation time after some tively.
C. Kinoshita I Radiation-induced change in ceramics 71
;; 10
ture of loops in MgAl z0 4 . Three types of loops were
0I found; one was of the *(111) interstitial type which

I was dominant at lower temperatures and lower fluence
.- 10 I
I levels. The other two were of the +(10) and the
--'- I
;a I
I ~(110) interstitial types seen at high temperatures and
~" I
0 high fIuences. Furthermore, {-(lIO) loops had three
~ I
-3 I
iI types of habit planes; these were the {Ill}, {1Ol} and
.~ 10

0- J
I {11O} planes. The fraction of 11) and t(1lO) loops
plotted as a function of the diameter of loops showed
"E I I that the loops change their character from the (111 )
= ·4 I
~ 10 I
type to the t(110) type during growth [21,24]. Among
the *(110) loops, smaller loops were on {Ill} planes,
middle ones on {lOll planes and larger ones on {11O}
planes [21,24J.
From those results, the character of loops is pre-
dicted to change according to the following steps: un-
Fig. 6. The fraction of sUlvived Point defects comprising stable tOl1) -> stable tOll) -> tOlO){ll I}
"visible" dislocation loops per displacement per atom as -> +(UO){llO} -> 1(l10){1l0}. The unstable loops dis-
functions of irradiation temperature and neutron tluence [24], appeared during TEM examination [6] and they are
for MgAl204.
predominantly detected after irradiation to lower neu-
tron fluences at lower irradiation temperatures. The
Vacancy type clusters are generally voids, cavities or growth of some unstable (111) loops makes them
bubbles. Colloid formation is a characteristic feature of stable. During growth, dislocation loops change their
ionic crystals. Burgers vector from -!;-(111) to t(11O) to reduce stack-
In order to confirm the general description, Ki- ing fault energy, and they further change their habit
noshita et al. [23] examined several materials such as planes from {111} to {IlO} planes through the rotation
SiC, TiC o.85 , aAl Z0 3 and MgAl Z0 4 irradiated to fis- of {Ill} planes along glide cylinders to reduce the
sion-neutron fluences of 1 X 1O z 4, 1 X 10 25 and 9 X 10 z5 dislocation line energy [24].
n/m z at 673, 773 and 873 K in Joyo, which is a fast The nuclei of t<llO){110} loops are as large as
breeder testing reactor in Japan. Weak-beam dark-field anti-Schottky septets and their composition is stoichio-
images of those materials irradiated at about 0.3 Tm metric MgAl Z0 4. Therefore, this type of loop has less
showed many tiny faint contrasts in SiC, reflecting a chance to nucleate. Loops of the *(111) type, on the
wide variety of topological configurations of defect other hand, introduce both anion and cation faults and
clusters. Well-defined loops were observed in TiC o.85 , a possible composition is Mg zAl04 or Al 3 0 4 . There-
aAl z0 3 and MgAl Z0 4. Defect clusters in TiC o.85 , fore, nuclei of these loops might be as large as septets,
aAl z0 3 and MgAl z0 4 developed into interstitial loops but require no preservation of stoichiometry or electri-
and tangled dislocations with increasing irradiation cal neutrality. This type of loop has a greater chance to
temperature and fluence. The diameter and the den- *
nucleate than the (110) type does, though they are
sity of the loops increased and decreased respectively not always stable under certain irradiation conditions.
with increasing neutron tluence and irradiation tem- In MgAl 2 0 4 irradiated with fission neutrons, no direct
perature. From the diameter and the density of loops, nucleation of tOlO) type loops occurs, but t(111)
the fraction of surviving point defects composing visi- loops nucleate. The size of the nuclei are larger than
ble loops per dpa was estimated for all kinds of irradia- septets and some of the loops are unstable under
tion conditions [21]. Although unfaulted loops and irradiation. These features might provide a lower prob-
dislocation lines also absorbed interstitials in a non- ability of introducing stable defect clusters and explain
conservative fashion, almost all loops in those crystals the radiation resistance of MgAl Z0 4 •
irradiated at 673 K were faulted. As an example, the
results for MgAl Z0 4 [24] are shown in fig. 6. The
fraction is 0.002-0.09% for MgAlZ04' 0.06% for TiC o.85 5. The effects of concurrent irradiation and electric
irradiated at 673 K with a fluence of 1 X lO z4 n/m z field, transmutation-produced gases and / or atmo-
and more than 0.5% for aAl z0 3 irradiated under the sphere on the microstructural change
same condition. Recombinations with structural vacan-
cies provide a possible explanation for the lower inter- In this section, typical examples of the effects of
stitial survival i.n MgAlZ04 and Ti.C o.8s . concurrent irradiation and electric field, transmuta-
In order to investigate other reasons for this sup- tion-produced gases and/or atmosphere on the mi-
pression, such as changes in loop nucleation and crostructural changes, which have been so far ob-
growth, Kinoshita et al. [21] also determined the struc- served, are shown.
72 C. Kinoshita I Radiation-induced change in ceramics

Fig. 7. A bright-field micrograph showing that He bubbles

prefrentially appeared at and near grain boundaries in SiC
ceramics containing B as sintering aid annealed at 1400°C for Fig. 8. A dark-field micrograph showing the modulation of
1 h after irradiation at 640°C with fission neutrons to 6.0 X 10 24 aluminum colloids in OlAl Z0 3 irradiated at 650°C with 2000
n/m 2 (E > 100 keY) [32]. keY AI + ions to 3.8 X 10 21 Al + 1m 2. The irradiated specimen
was examined in cross section with transmission electron
microscopy. EOR corresponds to the end of range of those
Hodgson [25,26] found serious electrical degrada- ions in OlAl z0 3 (19).
tion in oxide insulators. Following a period of steady
conductivity due to induced electron-hole pairs, the
conductivity of aAI 2 0 3 increased exponentially during ceramic materials (e.g. ref. [28]). Iseki and his cowork-
irradiation around 500 C with 1.8 MeV electrons and
ers [29-32] systematically studied the microstructural
an applied electric field of 1.3 X 10 5 V 1m. Hodgson evolution of radiation damage in SiC after neutron
pointed out the necessity of concurrent ionizing radia- irradiation and the subsequent annealing, using three
tion, displacement damage and electric field for this types of commercially available SiC ceramics, such as
degradation to occur, and found a marked similarity to reaction-bonded SiC containing free Si, pressureless
colloid production in alkali halides [27]. He also ob- sintercd SiC containing 1% Band C, and hot-pressed
served large aluminum precipitates through optical mi- SiC containing 1% BcD. Among those ceramics, only
croscopy, though no definitive mechanism of colloid the SiC containing B evolved large He bubbles, shown
formation has been found. in fig. 7. This was accompanied by a large amount of
Many workers have obtained results on the large swelling through the nuclear reaction of 10B(n, arLi
influence of He transmutation gas on cavity swelling in and the sufficient flow of both He atoms and vacancies

Fig. 9. Bright-field micrographs showing dislocation loops or cavities in MgO irradiated at about 1200 K with 1000 keY electrons.
(a) and (b) are for MgO specimens rinsed in cold water and hot water for a few minutes, respectively.
C. Kinoshita / Radiation-induced change in ceramics 73

to grain boundaries at temperatures above 1300°C. The [2] F.W. Clinard, Jr., E.B. Farnum, D.L. Griscom, R.F.
characteristic influence of H, He and C on microstruc- Mattas, S.S. Medley, F.W. Wiffen, S.S. Wojtowicz, KM.
tural evolution, such as loop formation, cavity forma- Young and S.J. ZinkIe, in these Proceedings (ICFRM-5),
tion, chemical change, in various ceramic materials is J. Nuc!. Mater. 191-194 (1992) 1399.
[3] S.J. ZinkIe and E.R. Hodgson, in these Proceedings
also shown in these proceedings [33-38].
OCFRM-5), J. Nuc!. Mater. 191- I 94 (I992) 58.
Biased displacements of constitucnt clements might [4] Y. Isobe, master thesis, Kyushu University, (1990).
induce not only microstructural change but also chemi- [5] Y. Taji, T. Yokota and T. Iwata, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 55
cal change due to the electro-chemical gradient. Fig. 8 (1986) 2676.
shows aluminum colloids that are periodically modu- [6] C. Kinoshita and K. Nakai, Jpn. J. App!. Phys. series 2,
lated in aAI 20, irradiated with 2000 keY Al+ ions up Lattice Defects in Ceramics (1989) 105.
to 3.8 X 10 21 Al +1m 2 at 650°C. This material was ex- [7] C. Kinoshita, K. Nakai, A. Matsunaga and K. Shinohara,
amined in cross section with transmission electron mi- Proc. Jpn. Academy 65B (1989) 182.
croscopy by Zinklc [19]. Preferential aluminum colloids [8] C. Kinoshita, J. Nucl. Mater. 179-181 (1991) 53.
can be casily understood [38], but the modulation of [9] RA Swalin, Thermodynamics of Solids (Wiley, New
York, 1962).
aluminum colloids, which was also obscrved after 1000
[10] J. Rabier and M.P. PuIs, Philso, Mag. A52 (1985) 461.
keV electron irradiation [11], might not be understood
[II] Y. Satoh, C. Kinoshita, K. Nakai, J. Nuc!. Mater. 179-181
without considering the effects of concurrent irradia- (1991) 399.
tion and an electro-chemical gradient. [12] C. Kinoshita, K. Hayashi and T.E. Mitchell, Adv. Ceram.
An example of the effects of concurrent irradiation 10 (1984) 490.
and atmospheric change is shown in fig. 9 [8]. It shows [13] G.P. Pells, Radial. Eff. 64 (1982) 71.
dislocation loops or cavities in MgO first rinsed in cold [14] R. Drosd, T. Kosel and J. Washburn, J. Nuc!. Mater.
or boiling water, respectively for a' few minutes and 69 & 70 (1978) 804.
subsequently irradiated at about 1200 K with 1000 keY [IS] A. EI-Azab and N.M. Ghoniem, in these Proceedings
electrons. Mg-vacancies might be introduced through OCFRM-5), J. Nuc!. Mater. 191-194 (1992) 1110.
[16] C. Kinoshita, K. Shinohara, M. Kutsuwada, H. Abe, K.
OH- ions present in boiling water and might combine
Fukumoto and E. Tanaka, Proc. of the 2nd Tnt. Symp. on
with irradiation induced O-vacancics to nucleate cavi-
Advanced Nuclear Energy, Mito, 1990, p. 420.
ties. [17] K. Fukumoto, C. Kinoshita, H. Abe, K. Shinohara and
M. Kutsuwada, J. Nuc!. Mater. 179-181 (1991) 935.
[18] H. Abe, C. Kinoshita and K. Nakai, J. Nuc!. Mater.
6. Summary 179-181 (1991) 917.
[19] S.J. ZinkIe, to be submitted to J. Mater. Research.
A review is given of the current state of knowledge [20] K. Tanimura and N. Hob, private communication.
of the fundamental material properties and processes [21] C. Kinoshita, K. Fukumoto and K. Nakai, Ann. Chim. FI.
of radiation damage in ceramic materials. Examples of 16 (1991) 379.
characteristic phenomena of radiation-induced mi- [22] A. Matsunaga, C. Kinoshita, K. Nakai and Y. Tomokiyo,
crostructures in ceramic materials are also given. The .T. Nuc!. Mater. 179-181 (1991) 457.
future prospects lie in additional sophisticated experi- [23] C. Kinoshita, K. Nakai, K Fukumoto, M. Kutsuwada and
ments to determine the response of these materials to K. Nogita, Sci. Rep. Res. Inst., Tohoku Univ. A35 (1991)
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[24] K Nakai, K. Fukumoto and C. Kinoshita, in these Pro-
research is also needed to develop a better understand-
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[26] E.R. Hodgson. J. Nuc!. Mater. 179-181 (1991) 383.
[27] E.R. Hodgson, in these Proceedings OCFRM-5), J. Nuc!.
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[28] S.J. ZinkIe and S. Kojima, J. Nuc!. Mater. 179-181 (1991)
The author thanks Prof. N. Itoh, Dr. S.l. ZinkIe and 395.
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