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UNIFIED CONTROL DESK FOR PROCESS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Yu. A. Kanenkov* and Yu. A. Zhdanov
Raised requirements of the technical, aesthetic, and ergonomic level and manufacturing quality of control desks for process equipment make it necessary for control systems designers to work out the most up-to-date technical solution for perfecting and unifying the designs of operator equipment, including control desks [i]. A comprehensive analysis of existing control desks from the design, technological, economic, standardization, and technical and aesthetic points of view has made it possible for the authors to pinpoint their drawbacks, outline ways to raise the level of unification, and determine the direction in which the form and design of these desks can be improved in regard to artistic composition. One such representative of existing designs is, for example, the control desk for airfractionating installations Kt-70 . The majority of other control desks widely used in control systems of air-fractionating installations apply the same design solutions. These desks have box-type housings composed of trapezoidal (obelisk) bodies. The information and instrument part (desk top) and cantilevered overhanging wedge-shaped table top which are connected together are mounted on a solid pedestal. The pedestal base is mounted on a supporting frame. The information displays and operative control elements are mounted on working face panels. The main drawbacks in the composition of the form of this type of desk are that the desks are visually awkward looking and the bodies constituting the desks are not correctly proportioned with respect to one another. The height of the desk is considerable (mainly 1200 mm and, in some cases, 1260 nun) and reduces the field of vision of the instrument panels in front of which it is installed. The information devices and control units are not rationally and compactly arranged on the working surfaces of the desk. The mutual arrangement of the information and control devices does not facilitate maximum information display. Units of auxiliary switchgear are mounted at inconvenient locations in the pedestal base. A monotonous color scheme impoverishes the already unaesthetic look of the desk. Design solutions for developing a new generation of control desks for process installations and systems based on unifying their component parts by accounting for technical and aesthetic requirements have been worked out in the SDO "Kriogenmash". These are based on the concept of a desk which, in form, incorporates and combines the functional and compositionwise merits while, at the same time, providing for convenience in servicing. In this, the unification was aimed at restricting the number of differing standard sizes of component parts of the desk, providing for high production efficiency, lowering the metal content, reducing labor consumption, etc. The artistic design requirement was aimed at perfecting the design solutions and providing for a high technical and aesthetic level of form of the control desk. The main parts which form the new generation desk (see Fig. i) are the information-instrument block i, cantilevered table top 3, wedge-shaped spacer 2, pedestal-base &, and the supporting foot 5. The rectangular and almost plane form of the bodies constituting the desk has relatively slightly separated (practically unseparated) surfaces. This facilitates a visually clear demarcation of the working and nonworking zones of the desk. Retention of the frame construction and simplicity of structural forms of the component parts provide for technological effectiveness of manufacture, assembly, and mounting of the desk. All components of the facing, load bearing, and functional sections are unified. On the whole, the geometry of form of the desk conveys a sense of space and proportionality of its component parts.
*Deceased. Translated from Khimicheskoe i Neftyanoe Mashinostroenie, No. 3, pp. 6-7, March, 1990.
9 1990 Plenum Publishing Corporation
As a rule. the number of regulated parameters is increased with simultaneous minimization of the internal spaces and overall dimensions of the desk in comparison with existing designs. make for convenience in repair and preventive maintenance. The remote control elements are mounted on the inclined operative control panel. its center of gravity is located in the pedestalbase zone. are transferred out of the pedestal-base to a more convenient location in the cantilevered table top. The provision for a horizontal board for each control desk raised the working comfort of the operator since this made a conveniently located and fixed place available right in front of the information-control instruments for making log-book entries and keeping the communicating devices (telephones. Ergonomic requirements were taken into account in developing the design of the new desk [5. I. However. microphone. The unified load-carrying connecting parts provide for this possibility and have the necessary fastenings for connecting the sections in a line. A rational selection and arrangement of small and multistep instruments and apparatus. This also facilitates access to the wiring of the instruments and electrical switches which. b) diagram. The design envisages the operator to be seated while working. Here. To provide for stability of the desk. special supporting feet are provided at its bottom part along the pedestal-base. both of which can be fixed in the open position. Cables and bunched conductors with their required fastenings are now located inside the interior of the pedestal base. unlike in the existing designs. etc. its design makes it possible to connect several desks in a row (into a section). Transfer of the blocks of terminals and other switching devices to the cantilevered table facilitated significant reduction in the geometrical dimensions of the pedestal-base. 4]. or 1200 mm. the working zone length along the front can be 800. The controlling and monitoring elements were carefully analyzed from the point of view of advisability of use and orderliness of their mutual layout [3. 15 ~ to the vertical. 128 . selector. 6]. the drop at the boundary of the horizontal board and operative control panel which forms a step of 30 mm height makes it possible to prevent the log-book and communication devices from dropping on the control elements when working on the desk. Unified control desk: a) outside view. However. the working monitoring panel.). The information displays are arranged below this.I 7 2 l I I I 11oo b I Fig. Along with this. 1000. The working surface height of the horizontal board of the table top from the floor is 710 mm. since situations leading to unstable equilibrium and even toppling of the desk on the cantilevered table side are possible during assembly and installation. The operative control panel is at an angle of 15 ~ to the horizontal and. in case lengthwise (along the front) extension is required. Depending on the overall dimensions of the information-control instruments of the desk. This is a typical shortcoming of existing designs. information displays. The light shield provides for improvement in readability of the periodically lighted up information-control signal panels and emergency-warning signalling lamps located at the top of the control desk. The easily removable light shield of the information-control unit and the hinged design of the operative control panel and horizontal board. The maximum distance of the control and monitoring elements from the operator does not exceed 650 mm. this type of panel consists of a single section. and information-control instruments in the desk ensure that there is an increase in the volume of information made available to the operator.
59-78 Numerous instances where oxygen plant fittings have caught fire have been encountered in operating these plants. Kanenkov. CAUSES OF FIRES IN HIGH-PRESSURE FITTINGS OF OXYGEN PLANTS AND WAYS TO RAISE THEIR FIRE-SAFETY A. Yu. improve working conditions of operators. 4. The "man-machine" system.The height of the new desk is ii00 mm. LITERATURE CITED i. 0009-2355/90/0304-0129512. Ergonomic Principles of Design of Machine Tools and Transfer Machines [in Russian].2. The shock waves occur on opening the fittings connecting the high-pressure lines with the filling ramp lines. etc." Kislorod. Baranov. GOST 23000-78. 3. lower the metal content. Bobin. As a rule.032-78 SSBT." Khim. Working surfaces of the desk panels which are always in the operator's are painted in a light (light gray or smoky) color.59. Introduction of these desks makes it possible to raise the level of unification of the designs. these fires lead to traumatic injuries to service personnel. Kanenkov and I. M. A.g. and G. Up to 10-15 fires occur in cylinder valves or ramp valves in large oxygen filling stations where about 3"106 cylinders are serviced annually. from the extreme panels of the board. 39-40 (1979).04-396:621. Vinogradova. and raise their work culture and effectiveness when operating the control desk as part of control systems of process equipment. the fire starts from the packing gland or valve sealing element made of nonmetallic materials (polyamide. Yu. Neft. General ergonomic requirements. The emergency is of a local nature when the burning sealing element comes in contact with components made of a metal which is not combustible in oxygen (e. for instance. and Yu. B. 3. the steel spring in valve KVB-53) in the immediate vicinity of the sealing element often leads to ignition of the steel components. this does not lead to any injury to servicing personnel. GOST 12. The work place for working while seated. 3-9 (1969). dark blue). No. the fires occur more often than not while shutting or opening valves of filled cylinders as well as at the initial cylinder filling stage. It should be noted that the probability of fire increases with the action of a shock wave on Translated from Khimicheskoe i Neftyanoe Mashinostroenie.. valve sealing elements of ramp and cylinder valves catch fire at the initial cylinder filling stage under the action of shock waves on the seal. reduce labor consumption in their fabrication. The functional purpose elements of the frame of the desk is emphasized with a coat of darRer color Color harmony is achieved by a contrasting color combination which makes it part a clearly contemporary look to the desks. No. S. brass). field of vision of the supporting (e. N. A. Promst. "Design of instrument panels and control desks of airfractionating installations by accounting for requirements of technical aesthetics. The presence of steel components (for instance. March. entrainment of burning molten metal by the oxygen stream from the valve. I. Markevich. Moscow (1979). Smirnov UDC 621.. Subsequent development of the valve fire and its consequences depend on the type o9 metallic components in contact with the sealing element.. Mashinostr. Control desks. In all cases. As analysis has shown. A. VNIIT~. 5. 3. Methodical Materials [in Russian].. Kashenkov. V. Handbook on Ergonomic Provisions in the Development of Techniques. Rozovskii and V. possible to im- The new design solution of the unified control desk conforms to today's requirements of technical aesthetics. fibers. General ergonomic requirements. and injury to personnel. Quite often. F.50 9 1990 Plenum Publishing Corporation 129 . 3. VZMI. As a rule. I. 1990. "Control desks out of unified sections. polycarbonate. Moscow (1983). 6. Akimov. No. M. 2.) [i]. Gagua.g. This increases the field of vision of panels of the instrument board and makes it possible to mount at least one more row of monitoring instruments by transferring them. Sh. Yu. P. ppo 8-10.