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Integrated control of suspension and front steering to

enhance vehicle handling
C March and T Shim*
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan-Dearborn, Dearborn, Michigan, USA

The manuscript was received on 11 August 2005 and was accepted after revision for publication on 11 December 2006.

DOI: 10.1243/09544070JAUTO152

Abstract: Integration of vehicle chassis control system has gained increasing attention since
it can improve the vehicle safety and performance through effective coordination of individual
control systems. This paper presents the development of an integrated control system of active
front steering and normal force control using fuzzy reasoning to enhance the vehicle-handling
performance. Individual control systems were first developed, and then their performances
were compared with that of the integrated system. The simulation results indicate that the
integrated chassis control scheme utilizing the steering and suspension controllers has proven
to be more effective in attaining the desired performance that would not be attained

Keywords: fuzzy logic, integrated chassis control, active suspension, active steering, normal
force control, handling.

1 INTRODUCTION growing electric and electronic technologies and the

decreasing cost associated with them, electronic con-
In recent years the use of electronic control systems trol of vehicle dynamics will probably be pervasive
has become increasingly popular in automotive in the near future and there has been considerable
applications, resulting in significant improvement effort in the integration of individual active control
in vehicle handling and passenger safety. The systems known as global chassis control [7–12]. The
active vehicle control technologies, which integrate research reported here addresses the integration of
electronic components into existing vehicle hardware, normal force control (NFC) and front steering control
aim to improve the vehicle stability by controlling to enhance the lateral dynamics of a vehicle.
its components when the vehicle is at the physical It is well understood that lateral vehicle dynamics
limit of manoeuvres. It allows the driver to keep are strongly influenced by passive normal load
ultimate control of the vehicle and provides great changes during cornering [13–15]. When a car turns
flexibility to make the vehicle adapt to environmental to the left, the right-side, or outside, tyres become
variations as well as emergency manoeuvres to avoid more loaded and the load decreases on the left, or
accidents. Various types of active control system have inside, tyres. Owing to the non-linear behaviour of
been developed in the past to enhance the stability pneumatic tyres [16], the total lateral force capability
and handling characteristics of a vehicle [1–6]. Active of an axle decreases because of this load shift. By
front steering (AFS), active rear steering, four-wheel adjusting the roll stiffness at the front and rear of the
steering, and direct yaw moment control (DYC) are vehicle (using anti-sway bars, active or passive), the
some of the options widely explored. With the fast- loss of cornering capability can be directed towards
the front or rear as desired. The result of this adjust-
ment is the ability to influence the oversteer or
* Corresponding author: Department of Mechanical Engineering, understeer characteristics of the vehicle. This type of
University of Michigan-Dearborn, 4901 Evergreen Road, Dearborn, adjustment is made continuously in race situations
Michigan, 48128, USA. email: where drivers pit, complaining that the car ‘pushes’

JAUTO152 © IMechE 2007 Proc. IMechE Vol. 221 Part D: J. Automobile Engineering
378 C March and T Shim

or is ‘loose’. If a vehicle is equipped with active 2 VEHICLE MODEL DEVELOPMENT

suspension, then the capability exists to modulate
the normal force at each corner. The research in In Fig. 1, the motion of the vehicle system is
references [17] and [18] has shown the possible described in terms of a body-fixed (moving) coordi-
benefits to be attained by modulating normal force nate system with axes in the X, Y, and Z directions
through active suspension control during cornering represented in the diagram by the velocities U,
manoeuvres. V, and W respectively. This figure represents the
Integrated chassis control systems typically com- 14-degree-of-freedom vehicle system on which the
bine steer modulation, variable torque distribution, model is based. There are six degrees of freedom at
and independent wheel braking. In this paper, a the centre of gravity of the lumped vehicle mass:
novel approach to integrating active suspension linear and angular displacements along the X, Y, and
with AFS to enhance vehicle handling is introduced. Z directions. There are also two degrees of freedom
A fuzzy logic control (FLC) strategy is used in the at each of the four corners of the vehicle: unsprung
development of controllers for steering and active mass travel and wheel spin.
suspension systems. The use of FLC in handling In the development of the vehicle model, the
enhancement controller design has been successfully following assumptions were made.
utilized in references [8] and [19] to [23]. The con-
troller output consists of an additional steering 1. A small angle is assumed for the major vehicle
angle and the suspension actuation obtained by the motions (pitch, roll, and yaw) to obviate the need
integration of the difference between the reference for coordinate transformations.
yaw rate value as commanded by the driver and 2. The steering angles d of both front wheels, are
the actual achieved vehicle yaw rate. Significant considered identical.
improvements over the passive uncontrolled system 3. The effect of unsprung mass is only considered in
and individual controllers are seen in the areas of vertical motion and ignored in the vehicle’s lateral
directional response, forward velocity at the end of and longitudinal motions.
steer manoeuvres, and body roll motion. 4. The tyre and suspension remain normal to the
The rest of the paper is organized as follows: ground during vehicle manoeuvres.
sections 2 and 3 show the development of the vehicle
model and its validation with measured test data. Using Newton’s laws, based on the moving coordi-
Section 4 discusses the reference model to be used nate system, the equations of motion for the lumped
in the controller development. The controller develop- mass can be derived as
ment for steering and suspension is discussed in
m(U̇−Vv +Wv )
section 5. Section 6 looks at the simulation results y p
and, finally, section 7 draws the conclusions. =F +F +F +F −(F +F )d (1)
Lrf Llf Lrr Llr Crf Clf

Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of the vehicle model

Proc. IMechE Vol. 221 Part D: J. Automobile Engineering JAUTO152 © IMechE 2007
Integrated control of suspension and front steering 379

m(V̇−Wv +Uv ) For simulation purposes, the longitudinal and

r y
lateral tyre forces are modelled using a ‘magic formula’
=F +F +F +F +(F +F )d (2)
Crr Clr Crf Clf Lrf Llf tyre model [16]. This model has been implemented
m (Ẇ−Uv +Vv )=F +F +F +F −m g in the MATLAB/Simulink environment to examine its
s p r Srf Slf Srr Slr s
r r 2 Slf Slr Srf Srr

+h(F +F +F +F ) (4) The vehicle parameters of a compact car were used

Crf Clf Crr Clr
J v̇ =b(F +F )−h(F +F +F +F ) in the vehicle model and a constant-speed variable-
p p Slr Srr Llf Lrf Llr Lrr steer test, defined in SAE J266 [24], was performed
−a(F +F ) (5) on it. Figure 3 shows the comparison of the vehicle’s
Slf Srf
t lateral acceleration and yaw rate responses between
J v̇ = (F +F −F −F )+a(F +F ) the vehicle model and actual vehicle test data during
y y 2 Lrf Lrr Llf Llr Clf Crf
a constant-speed test. The test was carried out on a
−b(F +F ) (6) uniform, dry, level, and hard road surface. A ramp
Clr Crr
steering wheel input is applied while the vehicle runs
F , F , and F are the longitudinal, cornering, and
Lij Cij Sij at a speed of 60 mile/h. Vehicle data were recorded
suspension forces respectively at each wheel, where
at 200 Hz sampling rate. As shown, the responses of
the subscript i represents the left (l) or right (r) side
the vehicle model were well matched with the actual
and the subscript j represents the front (f) or rear (r).
vehicle measurements. The discrepancies shown at
Figure 2 shows the schematic diagram of the
lateral acceleration levels beyond 0.5g come from the
suspension and wheel at one corner of the vehicle.
factors that are not modelled in the development
The force generated by the active and passive
of the vehicle model such as tyre non-linearity,
components of each suspension can be determined
suspension effect (roll steer and roll camber), and
lateral compliance steer.
F =k (X −X )+F +b (Ẋ −Ẋ ) (7)
suspension s u s c s u s
The F term in the above equation is the control input
to the system, and a positive force causes an upward
acceleration on the body while causing a negative
It is difficult to determine the desired handling
acceleration on the wheel.
characteristic of a vehicle during a cornering
The equations of motion for each wheel can be
manoeuvre since it is a comprehensive measure of
represented by
the vehicle–driver combination. The neutral steer
M −F R−B=J v̇ (8) vehicle characteristic is often considered as desirable
y Lij w w
during the cornering manoeuvres and hence the
where M is the driving torque, B is the braking
y objective of handling enhancement is generally to
torque, R is the effective radius of the wheel, F is
Lij reduce the understeer behaviour of a vehicle without
the tyre force, J is the wheel’s moment of inertia,
w allowing it to become oversteer.
and v̇ is the wheel’s angular acceleration.
w For the reference vehicle, the 14-degree-of-freedom
vehicle model was used. In order to model neutral
steer behaviour, the reference vehicle was derived by
moving the centre of gravity of the test vehicle model
back to the vehicle’s geometrical centre to equalize
the static weights on all four suspension corners. The
vehicle’s moments of inertia and the suspension
parameters were also modified in the model to reflect
the effects of the equalized axle weights.
Figure 4 shows the comparison of the steering
angle at the front wheels versus lateral acceleration
during the constant-speed variable-steer test for the
Fig. 2 Schematic diagram of the quarter car model, uncontrolled (passive) vehicle model, the theoretical
and force and velocity components at the wheel neutral car (neutral steer bicycle model), and the

JAUTO152 © IMechE 2007 Proc. IMechE Vol. 221 Part D: J. Automobile Engineering
380 C March and T Shim

Fig. 3 Comparison of lateral acceleration and yaw rate between the vehicle model and test data

reference vehicle model represented in the controller. which is similar to that of the neutral steer vehicle
The understeer gradient K, which is often used to and is used for the reference vehicle in the controller
classify a vehicle’s handling characteristics, can be development.
determined from the steering gradient using
dd 57.3Lg
= +K (9)
d(a /g) V2
where V is the vehicle’s forward velocity (m/s), L
is the wheelbase (m), and g is the acceleration due In order to achieve the handling characteristics of
to gravity (m/s2). The line representing theoretical the reference model, a fuzzy reasoning control
neutral steer behaviour (K=0) is plotted on the methodology was used in the controller development.
steering diagram with a slope of 57.3Lg/V 2. The The control system is designed by using an error-
reference model has an understeer gradient of 0.17, reducing control technique to make the yaw rate of

Proc. IMechE Vol. 221 Part D: J. Automobile Engineering JAUTO152 © IMechE 2007
Integrated control of suspension and front steering 381

Fig. 4 Comparison of the steering diagram during the constant-speed variable-steer test

the actual vehicle follow that of the desired model. as fuzzy propositions; the Takagi–Sugeno or functional
Figure 5 shows a block diagram for the yaw rate fuzzy controllers, where only the antecedent con-
controller. The desired yaw rate V is produced by a ditions are expressed as fuzzy propositions while the
reference model when the steering input U is consequent results are defined as algebraic (crisp)
applied to the vehicle model. The yaw rate controller functions. The Mamdani-type fuzzy models were
adjusts the normal force F and additional steering used in the final stand-alone controllers. In the case
angle d in order to reduce the yaw rate error e of crisp inputs and outputs, a fuzzy inference system
(=V −V) between the reference model and the implements a non-linear mapping from its input
actual vehicle. space to its output space. An input is first fuzzified
Fuzzy logic controllers were employed for the into a linguistic variable using input membership
primary controllers (NFC and AFS). Additional logic functions stored in the fuzzy knowledge base. The
was also used to control the limits for controller flexibility of this methodology allows controllers to
intervention and to work out how the individual have single or multiple inputs and outputs. A vast
controllers interact with each other. In general, there number of choices are available and hence additional
are two types of fuzzy logic controller: the Mamdani membership functions and rules can be added to
or ‘linguistic’ fuzzy controllers, where both the fuzzify the input and output error further with more
antecedent and the consequent parts are formulated resolution; however, the chosen controller models

Fig. 5 (a) Schematic diagram of the yaw-rate based controller; (b) integration scheme

JAUTO152 © IMechE 2007 Proc. IMechE Vol. 221 Part D: J. Automobile Engineering
382 C March and T Shim

were found to be adequate for the purposes of this where u is based directly on the driver’s steering
study. wheel angle input.
The fuzzy models used in the controllers Figure 6 shows the yaw rate error and its time
described in this section utilize a ‘centroid of area’ derivative being fed to the AFS fuzzy controller to
defuzzification method, defined by determine the controlled steer addition.
The input domains of the Mamdani steering
∆ m (z)z dz
z = z A (10) controller are partitioned with seven membership
COA ∆ m (z) dz functions for the yaw rate error e, and three for its
z A
where z is the crisp output from the controller derivative ė. The membership functions range from
COA the most negative values ‘NB’, to one around zero
and m is the respective degree of membership for
A ‘okay’, and to the most positive values ‘PB’ for e and
the output z of each rule. The centroid of area
defuzzification method was more representative of the functions for ė partition ‘negative’ values from
the control logic that is to be implemented. A per- ‘positive’ values as well as the ‘OK’ partition at
formance tuning approach based on parameterization approximately zero, as illustrated in Fig. 7.
and optimization of membership functions is used The concept of active steering has been around for
in the design of the fuzzy controllers discussed in some time now and some key characteristics that
this paper. Gaussian membership functions were were defined in studies more than 30 years ago by
used because of their smoothness and concise Kasselmann and Keranen [26] are still utilized in
notation. They have the distinct advantage of being steering controllers today. One such characteristic
smooth and non-zero at all points [25]. limits steer addition d to ±3° (±0.05 rad) [1]. This
was therefore used for the range of values in the
5.1 Active front steering controller output domain of the AFS controller.
For this controller, 7×3=21 fuzzy rules need to
In a typical vehicle active steering system, the steer- be defined to cover all possible combinations of
ing angle u at the tyre is set in part by the driver
linguistic variables of the two inputs. This rule base
through the vehicle classical steering mechanism
is shown in Table 1.
while an additional steering angle d can be set by
c The additional logic was designed to limit the
the controller using hydraulic or d.c. motor actuators
intervention of the AFS controller to zero when a
combined with a differential mechanical device [1].
cornering manoeuvre has switched from left to right
The steering angle is thus
while there is still a positive yaw rate error and vice
u=u +d (11) versa. AFS intervention is also disallowed when the
d c

Fig. 6 Structure of the AFS controller in the MATLAB simulink environment

Fig. 7 Input membership functions for the AFS controller

Proc. IMechE Vol. 221 Part D: J. Automobile Engineering JAUTO152 © IMechE 2007
Integrated control of suspension and front steering 383

Table 1 Rule table for AFS controller

Error for the following

Error rate NB NM NS okay PS PM PB


steer angle becomes zero and e is still non-zero. is actuated. This, however, yields the undesirable
Previous research [12] indicated that AFS is more effect of an increase in the body roll angle. This is
effective in the low to medium lateral acceleration illustrated in Fig. 8, which shows the changes in roll
range; so AFS intervention is phased out as this range angle and cornering force (based on normal force
is surpassed. input from the controller), with respect to the passive
vehicle without control. The abbreviations RF, RR, LF,
and LR on the x axis indicate the right front, right
5.2 Normal force controller
rear, left front, and left rear corners respectively of
It is important to determine ‘how much’, ‘when’, and the vehicle. Based on this analysis, actuation at the
‘where’ suspension actuation should be applied in front corner opposing the turn is deemed the best
order to enhance vehicle handling. Thus, a sensitivity location for enhancing vehicle handling.
analysis for the vehicle’s lateral forces was conducted With the inclusion of acceleration and brake
by applying a step steer to the left at low, medium, inputs, it can still be seen that actuation at the front
and high speeds with no brake input and no throttle. corner opposing the turn yields the best results as
During these manoeuvres, the actuator inputs at far as its effect on cornering force is concerned. It
the four corners of the vehicle have been varied also yields the lowest roll motion of the combinations
independently and in a few combinations to see tested.
which combination yields the desired result of The normal force controller ultimately consists of
maximum cornering force. two identical fuzzy controller modules that control
The following additional guidelines were also the suspension of each of the front wheels, as shown
used to determine the most effective actuation in Fig. 9. The yaw rate errors being fed to the con-
combination. trollers are opposite in sign. The input domains of
each control module are partitioned with four
Guideline 1. Minimize body motion (i.e. roll angle). membership functions for the yaw rate error e, and
three for its derivative ė. The membership functions
Guideline 2. Maximize peak transient cornering
range from approximately zero, ‘okay’, to the most
force per total supplied actuation force (TSAF).
positive values, ‘PB’ for e and the functions for ė
TSAF refers to the sum of all actuator forces being
partition ‘negative’ values from ‘positive’ values as
supplied by the active suspension system. This is
well as the ‘OK’ partition at approximately zero, as
taken into consideration since for most actuators
illustrated in Fig. 10.
the actuation force is directly related to the power
The output domains for both NFC modules are
that is required to produce that force.
normalized to range between the values of 0 and 1.
Guideline 3. In the event that guidelines 1 and 2 do A gain and a saturation block are applied to the
not coincide, then choose the actuator combination normalized output to limit the actuation force
that yields the best improvement in cornering being supplied to the vehicle model. Maximum
force with a corresponding roll motion that does values of over 5500 N have been observed in previous
not exceed the values for a passive system. studies [27]; thus this was the saturation force that
was used in the control scheme to limit the actuator
From the sensitivity analysis, it is observed that force. The output membership functions for the
either or a combination of both front wheels being controllers are shown in Fig. 11.
actuated results in an increase in the transient For these controllers, 4×3=12 fuzzy rules need
cornering force of the vehicle. In some cases a slightly to be defined to cover all possible combinations
larger increase is observed when the inner front of linguistic variables of the two inputs. This rule
wheel is actuated than when the outer front wheel base is shown in Table 2. Additional membership

JAUTO152 © IMechE 2007 Proc. IMechE Vol. 221 Part D: J. Automobile Engineering
384 C March and T Shim

Fig. 8 Effect of actuation location on the roll angle and cornering force

Fig. 9 NFC structure in the MATLAB simulink environment

Fig. 10 Input membership functions for the individual normal force controllers

functions and rules can be added to fuzzify the input 5.3 Integrated control system
error further with more resolution; however, the
above stated rules were found to be adequate for the The purpose of the integrated controller is to com-
purposes of this study. bine intuitively the AFS and NFC strategies in order

Proc. IMechE Vol. 221 Part D: J. Automobile Engineering JAUTO152 © IMechE 2007
Integrated control of suspension and front steering 385

handling dynamics. The major objectives of the

integrated system are as follows:
(a) to improve steering responses or yaw rate track-
ing performance of the vehicle in normal driving
(b) to minimize the influence of the controller on
the vehicle’s longitudinal dynamics;
(c) to avoid discontinuity and to require seamless
transition from one subsystem to the other with
a change in the control priorities [12].
The AFS control strategy drives the yaw rate error
closer to zero throughout the duration of the lane
Fig. 11 Output membership functions for the indi- change manoeuvre than the NFC strategy. It is hence
vidual normal force controllers also able to match more closely the trajectory of the
reference vehicle. This is also expected since the AFS
Table 2 Rule table for normal force control is active for the entire steer manoeuvre while
controllers the NFC is active only at the start of steer in either
direction. It is observed that the NFC strategy exhibits
Error for the following a reduced effect on the longitudinal dynamics of the
Error rate okay PS PM PB vehicle since the NFC vehicle ends the manoeuvre
with a higher velocity than the AFS-controlled car.
Negative No change PS PM PB
OK No change PS PM PB
Since the system needs to draw on the advantages
Positive PM PM PB PB of the individual controllers the integrated controller
can therefore be designed with the following in mind:
(a) to track the reference vehicle equally to or better
to attain a level of performance that would not than the AFS stand-alone system;
otherwise be achievable by either individually. In (b) to equal or improve the final velocity at the end
order to determine how the strategies were to be of the manoeuvre in comparison with the AFS
combined, the lane change manoeuvre with no brake stand-alone system;
or acceleration inputs was performed and the results (c) to reduce the power absorbed by the respective
examined. The integration strategy is hence obtained suspension systems from that observed in the
through simulation investigation of the vehicle- NFC system.

Fig. 12 Suspension controller look-up table

JAUTO152 © IMechE 2007 Proc. IMechE Vol. 221 Part D: J. Automobile Engineering
386 C March and T Shim

The integrated control was based primarily on yaw force F , to be added as well as the amount of
rate error, derived from the difference between the additional steer d , which should be added to the
actual and desired yaw rates. As shown in Fig. 5, the driver’s steer input. In this system, when the yaw rate
difference in the yaw rates from the two models, e, error is no longer zero, the yaw moment demand will
is used by the controller to determine the suspension be shared between the AFS and NFC control strategies.
The block diagram of the proposed integration
scheme is also illustrated in Fig. 5. As seen in the
diagram, the major means of integration is the use
of a look-up table, which is shown in Fig. 12. Such
look-up tables are tunable by the control designer
and it is known that, in an actual controller, a multi-
dimensional table which is also dependent on the
vehicle’s forward velocity and other parameters can
be readily implemented in the controller.
Even though the controller used in this study pri-
marily controls the yaw rate error, it is known that
controlling only this parameter will not be sufficient
to ensure that in all cases the desired course is
followed. It is possible for yaw rate error to be accept-
able while the vehicle is in lateral drift; therefore it
Fig. 13 Steering wheel input for 40 mile/h, 60 mile/h, is desirable also to control another parameter such
and 80 mile/h as the lateral acceleration error.

Fig. 14 Comparison of the vehicle responses for varying levels of control during a 40 mile/h
lane change manoeuvre

Proc. IMechE Vol. 221 Part D: J. Automobile Engineering JAUTO152 © IMechE 2007
Integrated control of suspension and front steering 387

6 SIMULATION RESULTS lation, driver inputs of the steering wheel angle and
wheel torque (accelerating and braking) were also
The vehicle parameters shown in Table 3 were used user definable.
in the simulation of the vehicle model. The static
deflection at each corner together with the vehicle’s
initial speed, the wheel’s no-slip wheel velocity, and 6.1 Single-lane-change manoeuvre
the road friction coefficient were used to initialize To compare the control strategies formulated, a
the model prior to simulation. For any given simu- single-lane-change manoeuvre (SLCM) is used. The
lane change manoeuvre is an abbreviated version of
Table 3 Vehicle parameters the double-lane-change manoeuvre (DLCM) used by
Symbol Units Test value Reference value
the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
and the Consumer Union in their rollover propensity
a m 1.053 1.306 analyses of vehicles. The SLCM represents a changing
b m 1.559 1.306
B N/m/s 3000 2500 vehicle path owing to an obstruction ahead. It can
N/m/s 2000 2500 hence be regarded as a passing or a collision
h m 0.663 0.663
J kg m2 2211.7 2211.7
avoidance manoeuvre.
p The manoeuvre is accomplished by a 2 s sinusoidal
J kg m2 496 496
J kg m2 1.1 1.1 steering input. The steering is held constantly at
J kg m2 2324.8 2249.466
y 0° for the remainder of the simulation (shown in
K N/m 46 800 39 300
N/m 31 800 39 300 Fig. 13). For the manoeuvre, the same input is
K N/m 200 000 200 000
kg 1349 1349
applied to the steering wheel of the vehicle travelling
m kg 1176 1176 at 40 mile/h in its controlled and uncontrolled state.
R m 0.285 0.285 The ratio of the steering to road wheel angle for the
t m 1.483 1.483
test vehicle is 16 to 1.

Fig. 15 Suspension characteristics for a vehicle during a 40 mile/h lane change manoeuvre using
NFC and integrated control

JAUTO152 © IMechE 2007 Proc. IMechE Vol. 221 Part D: J. Automobile Engineering
388 C March and T Shim

Figure 14 compares the performance of the indi- The yaw rate error plot shows that the integrated
vidual baseline controllers with that of the integrated controller most closely matched the yaw rate of the
controller in the key areas of vehicle trajectory, roll reference vehicle.
angle, forward velocity, and yaw rate error. It is It should be noted that the proposed controller is
observed that, with all levels of control, the overall designed to enhance vehicle-handling performance
lateral position of the vehicle is increased at the end when the vehicle roll motion is in a stable region.
of the manoeuvre. The reference vehicle attains an Since a vehicle oversteer tendency makes a vehicle
overall lateral position of 4.18 m. This is 53.68 per more prone to rollover, if a wheel lift-off is detected
cent greater than the lateral position attained by the or a vehicle is in danger of rollover, the controller
uncontrolled vehicle. The normal force controller, which improves the vehicle yaw rate may result in
AFS controller, and integrated controller strategies vehicle rollover. Thus the proposed controller should
yielded respectable increases of 5 per cent, 48.8 per be modified to be effective in this region by consider-
cent and 49.6 per cent respectively. ing the rollover propensity in the development of the
The roll behaviours for the normal force controller controller.
and integrated controller strategies both indicate Figure 15 shows the suspension behaviour of the
reduced body roll during the manoeuvre (compared vehicle as the suspension is actuated during the NFC
with the AFS controller). It is shown in the ‘vehicle’s and the integrated control modes. The peak-to-peak
forward velocity’ plot that, while the AFS-controlled suspension deflections for the NFC and integrated
vehicle reasonably matches the desired vehicle control modes for the right front suspension corner
path, it also loses the most momentum during the are 0.078 m, 0.066 m, and 0.072 m respectively. The
manoeuvre with a final velocity of 17.668 m/s and results for the left front corner for the same are
experiences the highest degree of body roll. The 0.078 m, 0.064 m, and 0.079 m respectively. All are
normal-force-controlled, integrated controlled, and seen to be well within the range that typical suspen-
the uncontrolled vehicles end the simulation at sion systems are capable of providing. A reasonable
17.784 m/s, 17.675 m/s, and 17.78 m/s respectively. actuator power is also seen for both front corners.

Fig. 16 Comparison of vehicle responses for varying levels of control during a 60 mile/h lane
change manoeuvre

Proc. IMechE Vol. 221 Part D: J. Automobile Engineering JAUTO152 © IMechE 2007
Integrated control of suspension and front steering 389

To test the robustness of the controller, a similar a changing vehicle path based on predetermined
test was conducted at a speed of 60 mile/h. The result cone placement in the road, as shown in Fig. 17 [28].
from this test is shown in Fig. 16. It is observed from The manoeuvres were conducted on a dry road at
these plots that at the higher speed the performance an entry velocity of 45 mile/h just before the first
is similar to that achieved previously at 40 mile/h. steering input. No throttle input or brake application
was simulated during the remainder of the simu-
lation. In order to follow the desired path, the con-
6.2 Double-lane-change manoeuvre
trolled vehicle and the uncontrolled vehicle had to
The International Standards Organization (ISO) 3888 have the radically different steering inputs illustrated
Part 2 DLCM is used in this test to observe the vehicle in Fig. 18. Other key differences to note are the con-
behaviour in response to steering wheel inputs being trolled vehicle’s reduced roll angle and the reduced
used in an emergency manoeuvre. The test represents propensity to rollover as demonstrated by the fact

Fig. 17 ISO 3888 Part 2 DLCM

Fig. 18 Vehicle performance for varying levels of control during a 60 mile/h DLCM

JAUTO152 © IMechE 2007 Proc. IMechE Vol. 221 Part D: J. Automobile Engineering
390 C March and T Shim

that the tyres are further from lift-off. In the tyre 5 Koibuchi, K., Yamamoto, M., Fukada, Y., and
deformation plots, tyre lift-off occurs if and when the Inagaki, S. Vehicle Stability Control in Limit
tyre tension becomes zero. Cornering by Active Brake. SAE technical paper
960487, 1996.
6 Pascali, L., Gabrielli, P., and Caviasso, G. Improving
Vehicle Handling and Comfort Performance Using
7 CONCLUSIONS 4WS. SAE technical paper 2003-01-0961, 2003.
7 Nagai, M., Hirano, Y., and Yamanaka, S. Integrated
NFC and AFS are reasonably efficient methods of control of active rear wheel steering and direct yaw
moment control. Veh. System Dynamics, 1997, 27,
enhancing vehicle handling. The implementation
of NFC is very straightforward, given the prevalent 8 Zeyada, Y., Karnopp, D., El-Arabi, M., and
use of active suspension systems today, and AFS El-Behiry, E. A combined active steering differential
is becoming more and more common in modern braking yaw rate control strategy for emergency
vehicle design. A full-vehicle model was used to maneuvers. SAE technical paper 980230, 1998.
demonstrate how the two strategies could be inte- 9 Horiuchi, S., Okada, K., and Nohtomi, S. Integrated
grated and what the performance benefits that are control of four wheel steering and wheel torques
likely to be derived are. using nonlinear predictive controller. SAE technical
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The use of fuzzy reasoning was also explored and
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Proc. IMechE Vol. 221 Part D: J. Automobile Engineering JAUTO152 © IMechE 2007
Integrated control of suspension and front steering 391

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d road–wheel angle (rad)

APPENDIX v pitch angular velocity (rad/s)
v roll angular velocity (rad/s)
Notation r
v wheel’s rotational speed (rad/s)
a distance from the centre of gravity to the v yaw angular velocity (rad/s)
front axle (m) V yaw rate of the actual vehicle
b distance from the centre of gravity to the V yaw rate of the neutral steer vehicle
rear axle (m)
b suspension damping (N/m s)
B brake torque applied to wheels (N m) i =f denotes front;=r denotes rear
F cornering force at the tyre (N) j =l denotes left;=r denotes right

JAUTO152 © IMechE 2007 Proc. IMechE Vol. 221 Part D: J. Automobile Engineering