Ms. Andrea B.

Martinez
CASCAS -Department of Behavioral Sciences

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The brain is wider than the sky.
Emily Dickinson, 1830-1886

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Y Rene Descartes believed that fluid in your brain flowed into appropriate set of nerves and muscles when performing an action.

Y A physician can declare a person legally dead if the parts of his brain involved with thinking, feeling and acting are no longer alive even though his heart and lungs are still working.

Y Scientists in South Korea have created human embryos through cloning, and the extracted stem cells from these embryos will be used for research and possible treatment for diseases like cancer, Parkinson s disease and diabetes.

Y The Nervous system is the central information processing system of the body.

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Composed of glands and hormones, the endocrine system is responsible for body processes that happen slowly, such as cell growth.

Both the nervous system and endocrine system work together to help the body function properly.
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The pituitary gland
Regulates the activity of the thyroid, adrenals, and reproductive glands Produces growth hormone, which stimulates the growth of bone and other body tissues and plays a role in the body's handling of nutrients and minerals It also secretes endorphins, chemicals that reduce sensitivity to pain, and hormones that signal the ovaries and testes to make sex hormones. It also controls ovulation and the menstrual cycle in women.
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The thyroid
Located in the front part of the lower neck, and produces the thyroid hormones thyroxine and triiodothyronine which control the rate at which cells burn fuels from food to produce energy. Thyroid hormones also play a key role in bone growth and the development of the brain and nervous system in children. Attached to the thyroid are f our tiny glands that function together called the parathyroids which release parathyroid hormone, responsible f or regulating the level of calcium in the blood.
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The adrenal glands
The adrenal cortex produces hormones called corticosteroids that influence or regulate salt and water balance in the body, the body's response to stress, metabolism, the immune system, and sexual development and function. The adrenal medulla , produces catecholamines , such as epinephrine or adrenaline, which increases blood pressure and heart rate when the body experiences stress.
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The pineal glands
It secretes melatonin, a hormone that may help regulate the wake-sleep cycle. The pancreas produces insulin and glucagon that work together to maintain a steady level of glucose, or sugar, in the blood and to keep the body supplied with fuel to produce and maintain stores of energy.
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The female gonads
The ovaries produce eggs and secrete the female hormones estrogen and progesterone. Estrogen is involved in the development of female sexual features such as breast growth, the accumulation of body fat around the hips and thighs, and the growth spurt that occurs during puberty . Both estrogen and progesterone are also involved in pregnancy and the regulation of the menstrual cycle. The gonads are the main source of sex hormones.
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The male gonads
Located in the scrotum, the male gonads, or testes, secrete hormones called androgens, the most important of which is testosterone. These hormones regulate body changes associated with sexual development, including enlargement of the penis, the growth spurt that occurs during puberty, and the appearance of other male secondar y sex characteristics such as deepening of the voice, growth of facial and pubic hair, and the increase in muscle growth and strength. Testosterone also supports the production of sperm by the testes and has been linked to aggressive tendencies.
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There is a major difference between the peripheral and central nervous system:

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The Case of John Thomas
John Thomas was 18 when a farm machine ripped off both of his arms just below his shoulders. Since he was home alone, he had to walk to the farmhouse, kick open the front door, and with a pencil clenched in his teeth, dial the phone for help. When paramedics arrived, he reminded them to get his twin arms, which were still stuck in the farm equipment .

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The Case of John Thomas
John was taken to the hospital where doctors re-attached both of his arms. Three months later , John could raise arms up in the air but could not move them below his elbows. After three years of physical therapy and 15 operations, John could raise both of his reattached arms over head, make fists and grip with his hands. Surgeons believe that John will regain additional movement and feelings in his arms but that may take 2-5 years of physical therapy.
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Y Severed limbs such as arms, hands or legs can be reattached and regain movement and sensation because their nerves are part of the peripheral nervous system. Y Damage to spinal cords or brain injury may result to loss of sensation or motor movement because neurons have a limited capacity for repair or re -growth.

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Y The spinal cord is the great highway of information into and out of the brain. Y It can initiate some automatic behaviors on its own. Y These involuntary, automatic behaviors are called reflexes an innate, automatic response to a stimulus.

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The most numerous brain cells (about 900 billion)
They provide scaffolding to guide the growth of developing neurons and support mature neurons They wrap themselves around neurons and form a kind of insulation so that neural messages don t get scrambled. They release chemicals that provide nutrition for neurons growth and function.
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Y Neurons numbering about 100 billion, these are specialized cells that communicate neural impulses or messages throughout the brain and the rest of the body. Y Depending upon their size, neurons receive and transmit electrical signals at the speed of up to 200 miles per hour.
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Neurons transmit information throughout the nervous system. There are about 100 billion neurons in the human brain and each has as many as 15,000 physical connections with other cells.
Interneurons Efferent neurons mediate sensory Afferent neurons (motor nerves) input and motor carry information (sensory nerves) output; do most carry information from the central of the to the central nervous system to information nervous system. muscles, glands processing within and other organs. the brain.
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Excitatory messages
A chemical secretion that makes it more likely that a receiving neuron will fire and an action potential will travel down its axon.

Inhibitory Messages
A chemical secretion that prevents a receiving neuron from firing
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Y Neurotransmitters are chemical substances that carry information (whether inhibitory or excitatory) across the synaptic gap to the next neuron.

Y Synapse tiny gaps between neurons.

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Y GABA inhibits the firing of neurons and thereby decrease anxiety; Y ACh involved in the action of muscles, learning and memory; associated with Alzheimer s disease. Y Norepinephrine (NE) involved in the control of alertness and wakefulness; high levels have been associated with anxietyproneness, dependency and sociability, lowlevels on disinhibition and impulsivity such as criminal behavior. Y Dopamine (DA) involved in the control of voluntary movement and attention. Lack of DA is associated with Parkinson s disease whereas excessive amount is linked with schizophrenia Y Enzyme MAO implicated in aggression, extraversion, sensation seeking

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Y Serotonin affects mood, sleep, appetite, impulsivity, aggression, pain suppression, sensory perception, obsessive worry, irrational anger, chronic pessimism and depression; too little serotonin can lead to depression Y Endorphins increase pleasure, elevate mood, increase appetite and reduce pain Y Epinephrine (adrenalin) affects emotional arousal, memory storage and metabolism of glucose necessary for energy release. Y Glutamate the most common neurotransmitter in the CNS and is important in memory;, excessive amounts of glutamate is toxic to neuron and can kill them.

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Y The human brain is shaped like a small wrinkled melon, weighs about 1,350 grams (less than 3 pounds), has a pinkish-white color, and has the consistency of a firm Jell-O. Y The human brain has about 1 trillion cells divided into two groups: 900 billion are glial cells and 100 billion are neurons.

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BRAIN Hindbrain Midbrain Forebrain
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Y Hindbrain the lowest portion located at the posterior part of the brain or at the rear of the skull. Three main part s of the hindbrain:
1. Medulla governs vital reflexes such as breathing, heart rate and blood pressure, swallowing and vomiting. 2. Pons governs sleep, arousal. 3. Cerebellum coordinates movement and balance but not in initiating body movements and timed motor responses such as those required in playing sports.

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Y

Midbrain located between the hindbrain and the forebrain, it is an area where many nervefiber systems ascend and descend to connect the higher and lower portions of the brain.
Two systems of the midbrain: 1. Reticular formation involved arousing higher centers of the brain when something happens that demands attention. 2. Other system consists of small groups of neurons that use special neurotransmitters.
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Y

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Forebrain the largest, most prominent part and highest region of the human brain found at the anterior part of the brain.

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Baby Theresa w as one of the 1,000 babies born each year in the United States with almost no brain. This rare condition, caused by errors in genetic instructions, is called anencephaly, a condition of being born with little or no brain. Babies with anencephaly have limited survival; the longest has been two months.
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Y Y

Limbic system plays an important role in memory, drive reduction and emotion. Two principal structures of the limbic system:
1. Amygdala involved in the discrimination of objects that are important in the organism s survival (e.g. appropriate foods, mate, social rivals) and in emotion, particularly aggression and fear. 2. Hippocampus has a special role in the storage of memories.

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Y

Y Y

Thalamus sits on top of the brain stem and serves as the major sensory relay station between lower and higher brain centers; controls sleep and wakefulness Basal ganglia essential to starting and stopping voluntary movements. Hypothalamus the master control for emotions and basic drives such as hunger, thirst, sex and aggression; it is also involved in stress and reward.

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The new brain responsible for our ability to think, evaluate and make complex judgments.

The cerebral cortex is relatively recent evolution; it has four major sections called lobes
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Y Left hemisphere receives information only from the right side of the body. Y Right hemisphere receives information only from the left side of the body.

Y Language functions (speaking, listening, reading, writing and understanding language) Y Analytical functions (figuring things out step-by-step; mathematics) Y Controls right side of the body

Y Non-verbal and spatial abilities such as music and art, perceptual and spatialmanipulative skills, expression of emotion, recognition of faces, some language comprehension, knowing directions, solving puzzles, drawing pictures, and recognizing familiar objects or people. Y Synthetic functions (figuring things out by combining to form wholes) Y Controls left side of the body
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Left Hemisphere
Processing & Analysis of Information - Logical. - Sequential. - Analytical. - Concentrates on details. - Deductive reasoning. - Verbal. - Relationships between self and environment. - Analytical space-time concepts (e.g. numerical operations). - Language (speaking, listening, reading, writing).

Right Hemisphere
- Holistic. - Global. - Parallel processing. - Comprehension. - Inductive in reasoning. - Spatial abilities (knowing directions) - Solving puzzles . - Drawing pictures. - Recognizing objects and people. - Nonverbal language (timing, intention, pragmatics). - Space-time complex concepts (e.g., physics). Responsible for the left side of the body's skeletal and muscles and somatosensation - Interprets the right visual field.
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Specialized Skill

Sensory Perception & Motor Function

- Responsible for the right side of the body's skeletal muscles and somatosensation. - Interprets the left visual field.

Y The corpus callosum is a bundle of nerve fibers that connects the brain s left and right hemispheres.

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Y Y

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The occipital lobes are located at the lower back of the brain. They are responsible for vision and visual perception, as well as shape, color and motion perception. Damage to occipital lobes may cause blindness.

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Where is it? The occipital lobe is located in the extreme rear of the cerebral hemisphere at the back of the brain.

What does it do? This lobe is dedicated entirely to vision in terms of detection, identification, and interpretati on of objects.

What happens when it is injured? - Visual agnosia - not consciously knowing that one has seen an object. - Difficulty locating objects in the environment. - Color Agnosia - difficulty with identifying colors. - Word Blindness difficulty in recognizing words. - Inability to track the movement of objects.

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Y The temporal lobes are found on the sides of the brain right above the ears. Y Their major functions are auditory perception, language comprehension, memory and some emotional control. Y The auditory cortex processes sound coming from the ears. Y An area of the left temporal lobe, Wernicke s area, is involved in language comprehension.

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Where is it? The temporal lobe is a large thumb-shaped extension of the cerebral hemisphere located near the temples on either side of the head.

What does it do? The auditory cortex is responsible for hearing. The temporal lobes are also involved in memory acquisition and storage, perception, and categorization of objects. - Involved in processing auditory information (e.g., sound discrimination, comprehension of language, listening, reading; music). - Important for sense of smell. Left temporal lobe - Specialized for the comprehension of language such as listening and reading. Right temporal lobe - Specialized for the comprehension of music.

What happens when it is injured? - Disturbances with selective attention to what is seen and heard. - Memory problems. - Categorization problems. Left temporal lobe - Wernicke's Aphasia - An inability to read and comprehend what someone is saying - Persistent talking. Right temporal lobe - Inability to recognize and appreciate music. - Prosopagnosia - difficulty in recognizing faces. - Difficulty understanding spoken language (i.e., some types of aphasia). - Specific memory impairments (e.g., inability to recognize faces). - Impaired detection of smell. 66

Wernicke s area, located in the left temporal lobe, it plays an important role in understanding language Y Damage to Wernicke s area results to problems comprehending words.

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The parietal lobes interpret bodily sensations such as pressure, pain, touch, temperature and location of body parts. A bond of tissue on the front of the parietal lobe, called somatosensory cortex, receives information about touch in different body areas.

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Where is it? The parietal lobe is located on both sides of the head near the top and to the back.

What does it do? - Responsible for perceiving, analyzing, and assembling touch information from the body. - Integrates visual, auditory, and touch information in order to formulate complete impression of the world. Left parietal lobe Area where letters come together to form words and where words are put together in thoughts. Right parietal lobe Responsible for understanding the spatial aspects of the world including recognizing shapes, being aware of one's body in space and deficits.

What happens when it is injured? - Difficulties with hand and eye coordination. Left parietal lobe - Inability to recognize or locate touch sensations from the right side of the body. - Inability to know the meaning of words. - Anomia- inability to name objects. - Dyscalculia - inability to do mathematic calculations. Right parietal lobe - Inability to recognize or locate touch sensations from the left side of the body. - Perceptual Agnosia - "not knowing" (e.g., not able to recognize familiar objects touched by the hands). - Difficulty with drawing objects. - Lack of awareness of certain body parts and/or surrounding 70 space.

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The accident occurred on Sept. 13, 1848 in Vermont. Phineas Gage and several railroad co-workers were using blasting powder to construct a roadbed. In a blasting incident, an iron rod blew up through the left side of Gage s face and out through the top of his head. Though the wound in his skull healed in a matter of weeks, Phineas became a dif ferent person. From being mild-mannered, hardworking and emotionally calm individual prior to the accident, Phineas became moody, irresponsible and incapable of participating in planned activities. The accident altered his personality.
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Y Y

The frontal lobe located towards the front of the brain has primary role in the integration and response output to the environment. The frontal lobe receives and integrates the information (e.g., sensations) f rom the other lobes, and then determines the best way to interact with the environment based on the sensory inf ormation.

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Three Major Functions:
1. Motor control at the very back of the frontal lobes lies the motor cortex, which sends messages to the various muscles and glands in the body. 2. Speech production the Broca s area is known to play a crucial role in speech production. 3. Higher functions thinking, personality, emotion and memory are controlled by the frontal lobes. 76

Where is it?

What does it do?

What happens when it is injured? - Inability to synthesize signals from the environment. - Inability to assign priorities. - Inability to make decisions. - Inability to initiate actions. - Inability to control emotions. - Inability to behave and interact socially and make plans. - Changes in personality. - Poor judgment. - Inability to plan a sequence of complex movements needed to complete multi-stepped tasks. - Inability to behave appropriately in social situations. 77

The frontal lobe is located at - Provides executive control the front of the brain just over much of the brain's behind the forehead. higher functions. - Consciousness. - Self-awareness. - Judgment. - Initiation/Motivation. - Control over emotional responses. - Planning / Sequencing. - Word formation. - Prospective memoryremembering to do something.

Broca s area, found in the left frontal lobe, it plays an important role in the control and production of speech. Y Damage to Broca s area results to problems in saying words correctly.

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The meninges can serve as a cushi on or shock -absorber of the brai n. 79

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What happens when the brain is damaged? The brain is made up of cells called neurons. At birth, we have essentially all the neurons we will ever have for the rest of our lives. Once the nucleus (or cell body) of the neuron has been damaged, the neuron is unable to successfully reconnect or heal itself. Therefore, once a neuron is injured and dies, the damage to the brain as a whole is permanent.
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Take care of your brain. There s no spare parts left for a damaged brain.

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