10th lecture Telecommunication lines OTH, FTTx, DWDM, CWDM, OAN, AON, PON, APON, EPON, GPON Final

conclusions on the subject Summary for the final test – the list of questions

Ing. Michal Lucki, PhD.

1

Optical Transport Hierarchy (OTH) [1/8]
• • • • Backbone networks are built more than 10 years in accordance with Synchronous Digital Hierarchy SDH = STM-64 (10 Gbit/s) or STM-256 (40 Gbit/s) The development is towards OTN (Optical Transport Network) based on all-optical principle of OTH. Dense Wavelength Division Multiplex (DWDM) technology is used . Optical Transport Hirarchy is presented in ITU-T reccommendations – ITU-T G.709. Interfaces for the Optical Transport Network (OTN). 3/2003. – ITU-T G.798. Characteristics of optical transport network hierarchy equipment functional blocks. 6/2004. The sense of OTH is provide a platform for different technology (SDH, ATM, IP, Ethernet) with mature service network (monitoring of quality, management) and high speed transmission.

Ing. Michal Lucki, PhD.

2

Optical Transport Hierarchy (OTH) [2/8]
• • DWDM: 196.1 – 192.1 THz, i.e. 1528.77 – 1560.61 nm ITU-T G.692 specifies: – 40 wavelengths each 100 GHz wide, i.e. 0.8 nm – 80 wavelengths, the bandwidth of each is 50 GHz i.e. 0.4 nm The frequency of 193.10 THz corresponding to the wavelength of 1552.52 nm is a reference point, from which the WDM channels are determined Optical Supervisory Channel is preferred at 1510 nm.

• •

Ing. Michal Lucki, PhD.

3

Only one wavelength is used then.32 9953. Hierarchic level OTM-0. Michal Lucki.2 OTM-0.28 39813.225 43018. Transmission rates are derived from STM-16 – 256. The simpliest variant does not use wavelength multiplex and is called a null-hierarchic level.12 Can transmit STM-16 STM-64 STM-256 CBR2G5 CBR10G CBR40G CBR (Constant Bit Rate) Ing.057 10709. 4 .3 Transmission rate [Mbit/s] 2666.1 OTM-0. PhD.191 3.414 Frame length [ms] 48.Optical Transport Modules without wavelength multiplex • • • • Basic units of OTH are named as OTM (Optical Transport Modul).971 12.035 Transmits Practical transmission rate [Mbit/s] 2488.

PhD. 40 Gbit/s). 5 .414 Transmits Practical transmission rate [Mbit/s] n x 2488.12 and OTM-n.12 Can transmit • • n x CBR2G5 n x CBR10G n x CBR40G n x STM-16 n x STM-64 n x STM-256 Ing. Possile combinations: all three possible rates are contained in OTM-n. where n is the number of used wavelengths (optical channels) and m expresses the type of transmitted signal. Michal Lucki.5. There are wavelength multiplexors combined with different contrant bit rates CBR at particular wavelengths.1 OTM-n.28 n x 39813.057 n x 10709.123 (2.Optical Transport Modules with wavelength multiplex • General notification used for Optical Transport Modules using wavelength multiplex is OTM-n.3 Transmission rate n x OTU [Mbit/s] n x 2666. Hierarchic level OTM-n.2 OTM-n.m.32 n x 9953. combinations of two of them is contained in OTM-n.23.225 n x 43018. 10.

optical signal is being processed (creation of OTU frame in electrical domain makes SDH independent on OTU) Particular Optical Channel Carrier (OCC) carries Optical Channels (OCh) OTM transmits Optical Carrier Groups (OCG). PhD. in OCG.OTU – signal is processed in electrical dommain OCh transmits Optical Channel Transport Unit (OTU) Bbeginning from OCh-block. 6 . Michal Lucki.Multiplex scheme [5/8] • • • • • • • • OTM has its parallel at SDH in STM SDH signals are mapped to OPU OPU . Total transmission rate of data can be derived from STM-1 155. description of particular bytes is in ITU-T G.52 Mbps. there is multiplexing of channels carrying signals at different transmission rates.709 Ing.

PhD. Michal Lucki. 7 . for bit-synchronous mapping there is no stuffing – ATM cells – GFP frames (Generic Framing Procedure) with the length of 4 – 65535 bytes with 4 stuff bytes at maximum – Unspecified signals (bit streams) Ing.Optical Channel Payload Unit (OPU) [6/8] • It is possible to map the following tributory signals: – asynchronous/ bit-synchronous mapping of signals with constant bit rate (CBR) – typically STM.

Michal Lucki. 8 . as well as the indication of the access point.Optical Channel Data Unit (ODU) [7/8] • • • • • ODU (Optical Channel Data Unit) is created by adding 3x14 bystes of overhead ODU-OH The OverHead supports tantem connections of TCM signals OverHead contains service channel for the managements Provides the indication of errors by BIP-8 method Provides the indication of defects for the opposite muldex BDI (Backward Defect Indication) and BEI (Backward Error Indication). at which the corresponding ODU unit was created Ing. PhD.

from which 4x3808=15232 bytes is an information field destined for example for a complete STM frame. providing frame synchronization FAS. Michal Lucki. The other part of the OverHead. Ing. 9 .Optical Channel Transport Unit (OTU) [8/8] • • • • • Optical Channel Transport Unit OUT (not OChTU) comes into existence by adding the following overhead OTU-OH OTU-OH is created by 14 bytes at the beginning of a frame. containing 256 bytes provides Forward Error Correction (FEC ) by using RS code (Reed-Solomon) RS code can correct 128 error bytes at once OTU contains 4x4080=16320 bytes. and the following level of error indication. PhD.

10 . PhD. Michal Lucki.Generalities about FTTx [1/8] • • • FTTx (Fiber to the …) The solution for access network based on optical fibers There are two conceptions: – Optical Access Networks EPON – CWDM All-optical network FTTO. FTTH or hybrid solutions Hybrid solutions are used for: – Optical fibers are combined with symmetric metallic lines for ADSL2+ VDSL2 – Optical fibers are combined with coaxial cables for Cable TV (CATV) • • Ing.

but we do not deal with an optical access network in a full sense Ing. 11 . DSLAM multiplexor splits signal to existing metallic lines to provide ADSL. SHDSL. Michal Lucki. PhD. VDSL to the end users Limitted maximum transmission rate decreasing drastically with the distance from the exchange FTTEx is the most common solution nowadays.Exemplary solutions of FTTx [2/8] • FTTEx (Fiber to the Exchange) Optical fibers are terminated at the local telephone exchange.

12 .FTTCab. but still. FTTC. FTTB [3/8] • • • • Greater transmission rates can be achieved by replacing some of the metallic lines at the user-side of DSLAM. PhD. we have a hybrid conception FTTCab (Fiber to the Cabinet) – optical fibers are terminated in a outdoor splitter FTTC (Fiber to the Curb) – optical fiber reaches the group of buildings FTTB (Fiber to the Building) – optical fibers reach particular buildings. Michal Lucki. they can be terminated inside them at the particular telephone boxes or they may be followed by wireless connection with the user Ing.

FTTO. PhD. Michal Lucki. FTTH [4/8] • • • • • FTTO (Fiber to the Office) All-optical conneption! Optical fibers terminate at the office of important customers with huge demands on the transmission rate FTTH (Fiber to the Home) Optical fibers are terminated at the end users’s socket! Ing. 13 .

PhD. e. France Telecom had to speed up because the activity of alternative Iliad Group was high Globalization – Swiss Telecom was sold to italian Fastweb that will build up FTTH Telefónica O2 is the owner of access networks in the Czech Republic. Michal Lucki. state institution and local governments can support FTTx In Czecho (Slovakia) ‘FTTx FORUM-CZSK’ has bee established to support the development of FTTx Passive in frastructure costs is the same for G-PON and Ethernet Ing.Factors influencing the development of FTTx [5/8] Biggest accelerators: • • • • • • • • • • • • The demand for huge transmission rates increases exponentially.g. 14 . especially for HDTV Building with optical fibers infrastructure are more expensive (apartments prices were about 4% greater) Small information capacity of metallic lines Some metallic lines should be replaced not only because of small capacity but also because they are old and ruined Maintenance of metallic lines more expensive than the development of totally new optical network Optical fibers are more friendly to environment than possible new metallic lines Indoor networks of end users are the weakest part of the whole telecom system Huge competition .

then new installations will be done Ing. PhD. buildings must be reconstructed first. new backbone optical network may be not economic Some districts are poor. there is 6. end users does not want to pay more than 1 Euro for their installation The salary of optical engineers are very high If the density of population is low. as the mort rapid development was in the 90’s (in Western Europe many metallic networks are very old now ) Certain problems with the legislative in some countries „Local Loop Unbundling” – Deutsche Telekom does not want to share backbone network based on FTTx with minor operators and is in a conflict with Conseil de l'Union européenne (Council of the European Union) The equipment at the part of the user is expensive. Michal Lucki.S. 15 • • • • • .Factors influencing the development of FTTx [6/8] Biggest limitations: • • Huge penetration of existing lines in reach countries (e. but it’s still only 1% of the total penetration) Metallic networks are relatively „young” in the Central Europe.000 FTTx connections in the U.A.g.000.

Michal Lucki. there was 33. and the predicted development for 2008 was 44% Ing. July 2007 In August 2007. PhD. 16 . the number of FTTH increases faster than xDSL Fiber to the Home Council.Economies with the highest penetration of Fiber to the Home/ Building + LAN [7/8] FTTH is major FTTB+LAN is major Asia and Scandinavia wins In Asia..000 FTTx connections in the Czech Rep.

PhD. Michal Lucki.Economies with the highest penetration of Fiber to the Home/ Building + LAN – latest actualization [8/8] Ing. 17 .

PhD. 18 • • • . particular traces are terminated in a distribution node b) Multipoint access with the ring topology (AON). star topology. c) multipoint access with the tree topology (PON) Ing. Michal Lucki.Topology of Optical Access Networks (OAN) [1/13] • Optical Line Termination (OLT) – provides an interface between access network and a service network Optical Distribution Network (ODN) – the quantity of means between OLT and Optical Network Units Optical Network Termination (ONT) – interface between end user equipment and access network Optical Network Unit (ONU) – between optical and metallic part of an access network a) P2P.

PTP. P2MP with Passive Optical Network (PON) – shared and more effective technology Each of mentioned variants can use two fibers separately for each direction of transmission. 100 Mbit/s or 1 Gbit/s Ethernet Branching by using active elements . 19 . STM-1 (155 Mbit/s) or STM-4 (622 Mbit/s). Michal Lucki.PTMP.1:32 The bit rate can be increased by more coarse multiplex (CWDM) Ing.Active Optical Network (AON) point-to-multipoint . or one fiber with wavelength multiplex PON: splitters with the splitting ratio of 1:8 . P2P with individual fibers from the central unit of the operator.Variants of transmission [2/13] • • • • • • point-to-point . PhD.

Specification of optical signals in OAN [3/13] • • Transport functions of access networks must provide duplex environment Signals in both directions can be transmitted by using: – Space Division Multiplexing.e. i. there is simplex transmission by using two separate fibers – Frequency Division Multiplexing in one fiber. Michal Lucki. PhD. direction of transmission are divided by different bandwidth in the area of one wavelength • Wavelength Division Multiplexing in one fiber. 20 . commonly used wavelengths are 1310 nm and 1550 nm for the two directions of transmission (bit rates about 140 Mbit/s – 10 Gbit/s) The idea of WDM: to put many signals into one fiber Ing.

which works on the same principle.Multiplexors and demultiplexors at WDM [4/13] • • Realization on the example of demultiplexors: Dielectric filters – The signals comes to first filter. The lasy channel is reflected directly to the receiver Waveguides organized as Arrayed Waveguide Grating AWG guiding/reflecting only selected wavelengths • • FBG . first optical channel is drop and passes to the receiver – Other optical channels are directed (reflected) to the following filter. 21 . PhD.Fiber Bragg Grating Ing. Michal Lucki.

12-2003.695.14) • C – Conventional 1540 – 1560 (chanel No.2. • • • • Coarse Wavelength Division Multiplex CWDM with passive add-drop of channels ITU-T G. PhD.18) • Channels 2-5 are used for short hauls. 14-17 for long distance First CWDM application in the Czech Rep.5) • E – Extended 1360 – 1460 nm (channels 6 – 10) • S – Short 1460 – 1540 nm (11 . Optical interfaces for CWDM . Michal Lucki. tolarance ±6.5 nm (transmitted wavelength can be temperature-dependant – cheap lasers) For SMF. 22 . has been done by the RLC enterprise Ing. 07-2004. 15) • L – Long 1560 – 1620 nm (16 . G.Coarse Wavelength Division Multiplex (CWDM) [5/13] • • G.2 specifies the first carrier at the wavelength of 1271 nm There is huge channel spacing of 20 nm. there are 18 channels: • O – Original 1260 – 1360 nm (channels 1 .694. Spectral grids for WDM applications: CWDM wavelength grid.694.

one may limit the number of channels to 4 However.c.652.CDWM versus DWDM [6/13] • • • • • CWDM has its sources in DWDM It offers low cost investment and operation Lower number of channels – theoretically 18 colors. PhD. the number of channels can be event 18 for long hauls Ing. Michal Lucki. 23 . the recommendation of G. practically 12 are used For long distances.

5 dB. the attenuation of CWDM elements is 3. 24 . CWDM serves for the multiplication of information capacity Multipoint – signals at the particular wavelengths are being dropped and incorporated in different access points (Optical Add Drop Muldex OADM) Short Haul permitting the maximum attenuation of 16. min.5 – 7.5 dB and the minimum one of 5 dB (the reach of 30-50 km for P2P) Long Haul – max. Michal Lucki.5 dB • • • Line topology Signals can be transmitted by two separate fibers or by one fiber with but each direction of transmission is at different λ Ring topology with backup mechanisms Ing. attenuation 14 dB (the reach of 50-80 km for P2P) Typically.Topology of Access Networks using CWDM [7/13] • • Point-to-Point – all the channels are terminated in one end muldex. PhD. attenuation of 25.

immune to temperature (not to get the signal to another WDM channel) Ssuitable bandwidt – must be narrow not to cover other WDM channels and to minimize chromatic dispersion Conclusion: Light Emitting Diodes have too small power and too wide bandwidth to be used in WDM systems Low noise.Requirements for laser diodes in WDM systems [8/13] • • • • • • • Power – sufficient to be detected at the opposite side Modulation sufficient for achieving required transmission rate Nominal position of the central point of spectrum – must be stable. PhD. no fluctuations Suitable mechanical properties. immune to weather Low price. long life Ing. Michal Lucki. 25 • .

Michal Lucki. PhD. 26 .Model of optical network [9/13] Detecting eye: signal suitable for recovery at the distance of 300 km (halfamplitude on y-axe problematic for interpretation). Poor clock (x-coordinate) Ing.

27 . PhD. Active Optical Network (AON) [10/13] • • Active Optical Network uses active network elements combined with SDH technology Passive Optical Network the splitters divides the stream in a static manner with predefined splitting ratio.Passive Optical Network (AON) vs. Broadband optical access systems based on Passive Optical Network (PON).1. often combined with CWDM and Optical Add-Drop Multiplexors ITU-T G. 10-1998 • Ing. Michal Lucki.983.

BPON.244 and 2. 28 • • • • . One fiber with wavelength multiplex or two fibers are used For one-fiber variant.16 + 16 DWDM channels (with the pitch of 0. the following wavelengths can be employed – 1539 .983 specifies the transmission in Passive Optical Network by using ATM cells with the transmission rate 155. GPON • ITU-T G.ATM Passive Optical Network (APON).1.488 Gbit/s (128 users) Ing. Gigabit-capable Passive Optical Networks (GPON): General characteristics.08 Mbit/s for the downstream Additionally. the variant with symmetrical rates of 622. 03-2003.1360 nm – upstream – 1480 .1500 nm – downstream – Optionally. PhD. 4.52 Mbit/s symmetrically. or 622.1560 nm – for video distribution G.984. ITU-T G.8 nm) for STM-1.04 Mbit/s was sumplemented for BPON (Broadband PON).984 specifies GPON with nominal rates of 1. there is following band assignement: – 1260 .1565 nm . Michal Lucki. 16 or 1Gb Ethernet – 1550 .

3ah EFM (Ethernet in the First Mile) EFMF (Fiber) employs P2P topology for 100Mbps or 1Gbps Ethernet There is the variant of EFMC … using metallic lines and the principles of VDSL and SHDSL …of course they are combined with optical fibers in P2P topology EFMC Ing. Michal Lucki. 03-2003 The conception of Ethernet for an access network. 29 .985.Ethernet in the First Mile (EFM) on Passive Optical Network (EPON) [12/13] • • • • • G. BPON and GPON Specified in IEEE 802.which is being developed simmultaneously to APON. 100 Mbit/s point-to-point Ethernet based optical access system. PhD.

2 SMFs (or 2 MMFs. 750 m reach – 2BASE-TL-O/R (Long haul.EPON – 1000BASE-PX10-D/U (Downstream – OLT. Central Office/Remote unit) . Upstream – ONU) .3ah interface [13/13] • Metalic connection – EFMC: – 10PASS-TS-O/R (Short haul.1 SMF. Michal Lucki.696 Mbit/s – 1 pair (SHDSL). Upstream – ONU) . but with the reach of 550 m at maximum) Multipoint optical network .10 –100 Mbit/s – 1 pair (VDSL). Upstream – ONU) – one Single Mode Fiber (SMF) – 100BASE-LX10 – two SMFs – 1000BASE-BX10-D/U (Downstream – OLT. Central Office/Remote unit) .7 km reach Optical connection – P2P (point to point). 20 km Ing. 30 • • . Upstream – ONU) . 2.1 SMF. reach oup to10 km – 1000BASE-PX20-D/U (Downstream – OLT. 10 km reach – 100BASE-BX10-D/U (Downstream – OLT.IEEE 802.1 SMF – 1000BASE-LX10 . PhD.2 – 5.

chromatic dispersion. Michal Lucki. signal recovery (EDFA). OTDR) You met with the education process in different environment that you are used to Ing. PhD. simulation on signal recovery. 31 . checked your patience and the ability to find resources. and various optical fibers What is the actual development of metallic lines (xDSL). attenuation) What are the assumptions for instalations of new line or adapting existing ones (regimes of operation. prices. connected (splicing). crosstalk. labeled. practical procedures) How fibers and metallic cables can be manufactured. and how to measure their properties (TDR. optical networks (OAN) What are the advantages and main limiting factors of metallic and optical solutions (bandwidth. transmission rates.You have probably learnt… • • • • • • • • • • You have seen more than 400 slides. couple of videos and simulations You provided basic measurements in a compact fashion Some of you improved your English. modeling of PCFs) You have learnt: what are the physical and transmission properties of symmetric pairs and coaxial cables. use offered references You were give basic tips about how to model metallic and optical lines (matlab server.

OTDR Transmission rates and used modulation in xDSL Limiting factors of metallic and optical networks Principles of OTH. materials used for manufacturing of metallic cables Characteristic features of Photonic Crystal Fibers (IGPCF. suspension. geometrical dimensions of SMF. used wavelengths. CWDM Advantages of optical fibers compared to metallic lines Ing. MM-GI. PCF The origin of attenuation and chromatic dispersion. HNPCF) Guidance mechanism of optical fibers. regimes of operation. PhD. and submarine cables Manufacturing process of optical fibers and prices of offered products. FTTx. typical values Signal recovery: compensation of dispersion and amplification by EDFA Procedure of splicing or connecting by different connectors Principle of TDR. 32 .Areas of problems for a next-week test • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Characteristic features of coaxial cables and symmetric pairs The procedure of cable installation and distributing cables in a conduit and a cable tray Difference between conduit. typical values of numerical aperture. HCPCF. Michal Lucki.

Exemplary questions (for a multiple choice test) • Are attached as a separate file on http://www.cz ->Education -> Subjects -> Structured master studies -> Present form in English -> XE32TKV Telecommunication lines -> Lectures The information about the date. Michal Lucki.comtel. PhD. time and place are in ‘Control tests’ or ‘Examination’ Ing. 33 .

PhD.cz/en ->Education -> Subjects -> Structured master studies -> Present form in English -> XE32TKV Telecommunication lines -> Lectures Ing.comtel. 34 . Michal Lucki.Thank you for attention This presentation is available at: http://www.

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