Hittite

Grammar
Olivier LauIIenburger
08/14/2008
v0.4.7
 DAM
2
Contents
Chapter
1
Introduction
A. Foreword 7
B. Presentation 8
Chapter
2
Writing and Phonetics
A. Writing 9
B. Phonetics
12
1. Vowels
12
2. Consonants
13
3. Liaisons 17
Chapter
3
The noun
A. Derivation
20
B. Declension 23
1. Outline 23
2. Vocalic stems
24
a. a/ã-stems
24
b. i-stems 26
c. u-stems
29
3. Consonant stems 30
a. tt-stems 30
b. nt-stems 31
c. n-stems
31
d. l-stems 32
e. r-stems
32
I. r/n-stems 33
g. Miscellaneous stems 35
h. Irregular stems
35
C. Adiective comparison 37
3
Chapter
4
Pronouns and numbers
A. Personal pronouns 38
B. Possessive pronouns and adiectives 40
C. Demonstrative pronouns 41
D. Interrogative and relative pronouns 42
E. IndeIinite pronouns 43
F. Numbers 44
Chapter
5
The verb
A. Derivation 46
B. InIlection 47
1. InIlection oI the active voice 50
a. mi-coniugation 50
1. Consonant stems 50
2. Vocalic stems 57
3. ãi-stems 59
4. iva-stems 61
5. Stems with inIix -nin- 63
6. Iteratives in -sk- 64
7. Causatives in -nu- 66
b. hi-coniugation 67
1. Consonant stems 67
2. Vocalic stems 69
3. Irregular stems 73
c. Blend oI mi- and hi-coniugations 74
2. InIlection oI the medio-passive voice 76
1. Consonant stems 76
2. Vocalic stems 77
3. Compound Iorms 79
4. The verbal substantive 79
5. The inIinitive 80
Chapter
6
Syntax
A. Agreement 81
4
B. Case usage 83
1. Vocative 83
2. Accusative 83
3. Dative-Locative and Allative 84
4. Genitive 85
5. Ablative and Instrumental 86
6. Ergative 87
7. Supplement 87
C. Comparison oI adiective 88
D. Adverbs 88
E. Postpositions 89
F. Pronouns 90
1. Personal pronouns 90
2. ReIlexive pronouns 91
3. Possessive pronouns 92
4. Demonstrative pronouns 93
5. IndeIinite pronouns 93
G. The verb 93
1. Voices 93
2. Tense and mode usage 94
3. Iterative usage 96
4. Verbal substantives usage 97
H. Negation 99
I. Interrogation 100
J. Particles 100
1. Generalities 100
2. The quotation particle 101
3. The particle -pat 'even. also¨ 102
4. The particles oI position -kan and -san 103
5. The particles -(a)sta and -(a)pa 104
K. Coniunctions 104
1. -a. -va 'and. also¨ 104
2. nu 'and¨ 105
3. ta and su 'and¨ 108
4. Other coordinating coniunctions 109
L. Clauses 110
1. Final clause and purpose clause 110
5
2. Causal clause and dependant positive sentence 110
3. Temporal clause 110
4. Conditional clause 111
5. Concessive clause 112
6. Indirect interrogative clause 112
7. Relative clause 113
6
Chapter 1
Introduction
A. Foreword
The outline oI grammar presented here is inspired Irom the Hethitisches Elementarbuch by
Johannes Friedrich. However. it is not an exact translation oI this book. I have nevertheless used his
examples. his tables oI the diIIerent paradigms and his numbering oI the classes oI verbs
(reIerenced in the lexicon).
I have deviated Irom the usual rules oI transcription oI Hittite by replacing the sign s by the letter 's'.
according to the correspondence Hittite cuneiIorm s ÷ phonetic /s/. This replacement only takes
place Ior the the transcription oI whole Hittite words. not when transcribing cuneiIorm signs ; one
will Iind Ior instance 'wa-as-ta ÷ wasta'. Moreover. in order to simpliIy the typing and since there is
no ambiguity. the letter I has been replaced by the simple h.
I have also replaced the symbols u and i used in the grammar oI Friedrich by the common letters w
and y (excepted Ior the cuneiIorm sign noted i a by Friedrich that I have transcribed ia. according to
the most Irequent transcription today). Furthermore. I have modiIied the transcriptions oI Friedrich
when the vowels oI two consecutive signs do not match. I have used instead the phonetic values
recognized nowadays that match. For example. pi-es-ta is replaced by pe-es-ta.
For the numbering oI paragraphs. I have used the same one as the grammar oI Friedrich. which
allows me to cross-reIerence data more easily inside the grammar. and among the grammar. the
lexicon and the texts. Moreover. the owners oI the grammar oI Friedrich will be able to Iind directly
the paragraphs.
Finally. this grammar is based on the second edition oI the grammar oI Friedrich that goes back to
1960. Hence. the grammar presented here does not take into account discoveries that have been
made since.
7
B. Presentation
Hittite is an Indo-European (I.E.) language. member oI the Anatolian language Iamily. It has been
deciphered Irom cuneiIorm tablets discovered in the 20th century in Anatolia. more precisely at
Bogazköy. where once stood Hattusa. the capital oI the Hittite empire. The discovered tablets range
Irom 1600 to 1200 BC.
The Anatolian Iamily includes several well-attested languages : Hittite. Luwian. Palaic. and several
languages more poorly attested. or whose membership with the Anatolian Iamily is not quite
certain : Lydian. Lycian. Sidetian. Pisidic. Carian.
Hittite texts sometimes include Luwian words (preceded by a special sign : or ). since
Hittites employed Luwian priests and a lot oI Luwian-speaking people were living in the Hittite
realm.
AIter the Iall oI the Hittite empire. the peoples around used a writing oI "hieroglyphic" type which
was already in use in parallel with the cuneiIorm writing. and which Ior a long time was believed to
be Hittite. but whose partial deciphering showed that it was Luwian.
The Anatolian Iamily exhibits a lot oI peculiar Ieatures compared with the other I.E. Iamilies. so
much so that some thought oI it as a sister Iamily oI I.E.. with both descending Irom a hypothetical
"Indo-Hittite". It is more probable that the Anatolian languages are part oI I.E.. but oI an earlier
stage than the "classical" I.E. (Brugmannian). This Iormer stage is then called Proto-Indo-European
(P.I.E.) or I.E. II. in opposition to the later I.E. (I.E. III). In particular. the Anatolian languages still
used P.I.E. phonemes (laryngeals) that vanished in the other I.E. languages.
The name "Hittite" comes Irom Hatti. name oI the country and the language (non I.E.) oI the people
present beIore the Hittites. The Hittite kings called themselves "kings oI the land oI Hatti". The
name that Hittites gave to themselves was "Nesumna" (inhabitants oI the town oI Nesa). and their
tongue "Nesili".
8
Chapter 2
Writing and Phonetics
A. Writing
1) a) The Hittite scribes borrowed the cuneiIorm writing in use in Mesopotamia.
b) The cuneiIorm writing was invented by the Sumerians and was originally an ideographic writing.
A sign was drawn as a little picture and represented a notion in relation with the pictogram. For
example. the sign representing a Ioot was used to mean "to stand". "to walk". "to run". "to bring".
etc... When the drawing oI the signs got simpliIied over the years. the original meaning oI the signs
became less and less clear. and the writing became logographic : a sign was used to represent a
precise word oI the language rather than an idea. However. the signs remained polysemous since
they kept the several meanings that they had already acquired.
c) Furthermore. a peculiar Ieature oI the Sumerian language is its apparent high level oI
homophony
1
. A lot oI diIIerent Sumerian words have the same pronunciation but a diIIerent
meaning. and are thus written with a diIIerent sign. Hence. it is necessary Ior the modern scholar to
distinguish between the shape oI the sign and its pronunciations (and meanings). As a result. the
signs are numbered according to their shape in various sign lists. independently oI their
pronunciation. For example. the sign - has the number 13 in the list oI Labat. It can be read AN
"sky" or DINGIR "god".
d) The signs are represented by their Sumerian reading. In order to distinguish between the readings
oI homophonic signs. these readings are numbered according to the Irequency oI the signs.
Traditionally. the Iirst index is not written. the second and third indices are replaced respectively by
an acute and a grave accent on the vowel oI monosyllabic words
2
. For example. the signs ª. -.
. < are transcribed u. u. u. u
4
.
e) The third stage oI evolution oI the cuneiIorm writing was the invention oI the phonetic use oI
signs. Another peculiar Ieature oI the Sumerian language is the Iact that a great proportion oI its
words are monosyllabic. As a result. the Sumerian scribes had the idea to use a sign Ior its phonetic
value instead oI its logographic value. This phonetic use was somehow restricted to complement the
logographic signs. either to select among the various readings oI one sign. or to speciIy grammatical
Ieatures such as declension or coniugation which could not be written down with a pure ideographic
writing. However. non-native speakers oI Sumerian such as Akkadians or Hittites were naturally
inclined to make a widespread use oI the phonetic writing since there was no more relation between
the logographic meaning oI a sign and its phonetic reading in their respective languages.
1 This apparent homophony may be an illusion caused by our incomplete knowledge oI the phonetic system oI
Sumerian. Actually. the Sumerian reading oI the signs is known to us thanks to the Akkadian scribes spelling them
out ; as a result. the reading oI a sign is 'Iiltered¨ through the diIIerent phonetic system oI Akkadian. Some scholars
have posited that Sumerian was a tonal language. or that it had more vowels than supposed. but these theories are
Iundamentally unprovable.
2 Sumerologists tend to use only indices and avoid more and more the use oI accents. Assyriologists and Hittitologists
still abide by the use oI accents.
9
2) The Hittite cuneiIorm writing uses all three modes oI cuneiIorm writing : phonetic. logographic
and determinative.
a) The phonetic signs are syllabic. They can represent a group consonant ¹ vowel (e.g. ba. mi. ru).
vowel ¹ consonant (e.g. ab. ir. uk) or consonant ¹ vowel ¹ consonant (e.g. bar. kid. lum). Signs oI
the third kind can also be expressed by the use oI two signs oI the Iirst and second kinds : bar can
be written ba · ar. kid ki · id and lum lu · um.
b) There exist signs Ior the lone vowels. There are no sign Ior lone consonants.
3) Logograms are non-phonetic signs representing a whole word. They can be read in any language.
be it English. French. Russian. etc... For example. the sign Ior "god" - is read dingir in Sumerian.
ilum in Akkadian. siuna- in Hittite. eni- in Hurrian. etc... As another example. the sign Ior "land" º
is read kur in Sumerian. mãtum in Akkadian. utne- in Hittite. umini- in Hurrian. ebani- in Urartean.
etc... It sometimes happens that the Hittite reading is unknown. In this case. the sign is transcribed
by its Sumerian reading in capital : DINGIR. KUR. etc... Composite logograms are composed oI
several signs ; they are transcribed separated by a dot : ANSE.KUR.RA "horse".
4) a) A word can be written either phonetically or logographically : the Hittite word Ior "god" can be
written si-u-na or DINGIR. The Hittite scribes. like the Akkadian ones. kept on using logograms as
short cuts in order to save their energy and space on tablet ; Ior example. it is Iaster to write
DINGIR - instead oI si-u-ni-is ^ - - ;. It also happens that a logogram is Iollowed by a
phonetic complement. especially in order to exhibit its declension. For example. the verb walh- ("to
strike") (logogram GUL) has a Iorm walhun ("I struck") that can be written phonetically wa-al-hu-
un. or halI-logographically GUL-hu-un or GUL-un. The substantive isha- ("lord") (logogram EN)
has a Nom. Sg. ishãs that can be written phonetically is-ha-a-as or halI-logographically EN-as. an
Acc. Sg ishãn written is-ha-a-an or EN-an. a Dat.-Loc. Sg. ishi written is-hi-i or EN-i. a Nom. Pl.
ishes written is-he-e-es or EN
MES
-es (or simply EN
MES
. cI §6d).
b) Some words were written only as logograms by Hittites. so that we do not know their
pronunciation. Ior example DUMU-as "son". MUNUS-za "woman". IR-is "slave". GUD-us "ox".
1-as "one".
5) a) Hittites also used to insert Akkadian words amid Hittite texts. These words are oIten called
akkadograms as they seem to be used logographically. In transcriptions. those words will be written
in italic capital. with the signs separated by a dash. Thus. one can Iind Ior Hittite isha- "lord" the
Akkadian belu(m) "lord" written : Nom. Sg. BE-LU (older: BE-LUM). Acc. Sg. BE-LAM. Nom. Pl.
BE-LU
MES
. etc... For the Hittite Dat.-Loc. Sg. atti-mi "to my Iather". one can Iind an Akkadian
word preceded by the Akkadian preposition ana "to" : A-NA A-BI-IA "to my Iather".
b) Hittite phonetic complements are seldom Iound aIter akkadograms : Ior example.
GIS
KA-AN-NU-UM-it "by means oI a iar-stand". EL-LAM-as Gen. Sg. "oI a Iree". The case oI the
Akkadian monosyllabic word in construct state SUM "name". used as a logogram with a Hittite
phonetic complement. is diIIerent : Nom.-Acc. Sg. SUM-an Ior Hittite lãman "name".
c) A logogram can be Iollowed by a Hittite phonetic complement. but also by an Akkadian one : Ior
example DUMU
RU
"son" (Akkad. mãru). 1
EN
"one" (Akkad. isten). DINGIR
LUM
or DINGIR
LIM
"god" (Akkad. Nom. Sg. ilum. Gen. Sg. ilim).
d
UTU
SI
"my Sun" (title oI the Hittite kings ; Akkad.
Samsi).
d) Sumerian coniugated Iorms such as BA.UG
7
"he is dead" (root UG
7
¹ preIix BA). KI.LAL.BI
"its weight" are rare in the Hittite context.
10
e) Akkadian declensions are not always respected : LU.ULU
3
.LU-an ELLUM next to correct
LU.ULU
3
.LU-an ELLAM.
6) a) Determinatives are ideograms used to deIine the category oI a word to which they are attached.
They are not pronounced. Most oI the determinatives are placed beIore the word they complement.
The logogram DINGIR "god" is also used as a determinative Ior all divine names (it is transcribed
d
Ior DINGIR):
d
Telepinu.
d
U or
d
ISKUR "storm-god".
d
ISTAR. etc... The logogram DIS points out a
proper name (it is transcribed
m
Ior male or
I
since DIS also represents the number 1) :
m
Mursili.
m
Suppiluliuma. LU "man" points out a proIession or an inhabitant :
LU
westara- "shepherd".
LU
anninivami- "cousin (m.)".
LU
KUR "enemy".
LU
SU.GI "elder". MUNUS "woman" points out a
woman's proIession or a woman's name (it is transcribed
I
Ior Iemale) :
I
anninivami- "cousin (I.)".
I
SU.GI "the Elder" (a priestess).
I
Putuhepa. URU "town" points the name oI a town :
URU
Hattusa.
URU
Halpa "Alep". GIS "wood" points out the name oI a tree or obiects made originally oI wood and
by extension oI other materials :
GIS
HASHUR "apple tree".
GIS
hattalu- "lock".
b) KUR "land" Ior country names is not considered as a determinative. but rather as a substantive.
Thus. Ior example KUR
URU
Hatti "the land Hatti". KUR
URU
Arzawa "the land Arzawa" should be
understood as an Akkadian genitive "the land oI Hatti".
c) Determinatives Iollowing their noun are Iewer : MUSEN "bird" Ior names oI birds : hara-
MUSEN
"eagle". or KI "place" (as well as URU.KI "place oI the town") Ior names oI place :
URU
Halpa
KI
"Alep". KUR A.GA.DE
KI
"land oI Akkad".
d) An important subclass oI determinatives Iollowing their noun is composed oI the plural markers
MES and HI.A. more rarely DIDLI (i.e. AS.AS) or MES.HI.A or DIDLI.HI.A : EN
MES
or
BE-LU
MES
"lords". ERIN
2
MES
ANSU.KUR.RA
HI.A
"Ioot-soldiers and charioteers". URU
DIDLI.HI.A
"towns". ERIN
2
MES.HI.A
"Ioot-soldiers".
7) a) When writing out Hittite texts. phonetic signs are transcribed by their Akkadian values.
b) However. the Hittite reading is in Iact diIIerent and it should be remembered that the cuneiIorm
signs sa. se. si. su are used Ior the Hittite syllables sa. se. si. su. While za. ze. zi. zu are used to
denote the voiced spirant z in Akkadian. they are used to denote the aIIricate ts in Hittite. The
Akkadian sign si (with emphatic s) is also read ze. whereas the only reading in Hittite - which has
no emphatics - is ze. The Akkadian sign sul. sul is read zul in Hittite (also written zu-ul).
8) a) A Iew signs have values speciIic to Hittite. The Akkadian sign as can be read tas in Hittite
texts. The Akkadian mes is also read es in Hittite (transcribed es
17
). GESTIN is used in Akkadian
only as a logogram Ior "wine" (Akk. karãnu. Hit. wivana-). whereas it is read wi in Hittite
(transcribed wi
5
). This is a nice example oI derivation oI a phonetic value Irom the Iirst syllable oI
the reading oI a logographic sign.
b) Some readings come Irom a logographic game. especially Ior proper nouns. The ending -ili oI
royal names such as
m
Mursili.
m
Hattusili. etc... can be written with the sign DINGIR (Akk. ilu(m)
"god". Gen. Sing. ili(m)) ; thus. one can Iind inscriptions such that
m
Mu-ur-si-DINGIR
LIM
÷
m
Mu-
ur-si-ILI(M).
m
Ha-at-tu-si-DINGIR
LIM
÷
m
Ha-at-tu-si-ILI(M). The name oI the country Hatti
sounds like the Akkad. hallu "sceptre" (logogram
GIS
GIDRU). thus. the royal name
m
Hattusili is
sometimes written
m.GIS
GIDRU-si-DINGIR
LIM
.
11
B. Phonetics
1. VoweIs
9) a) It is not always possible to read with certainty the vowel e (as in Akkadian). The signs oI the
syllables me. ne. el. es diIIer Irom those oI the syllables mi. ni. il. is. but the signs Ior re. le. ez. etc....
are also used Ior ri. li. iz. etc...
b) The existence oI a vowel o diIIerentiated Irom u in writing is unclear.
10) Even when Hittite can diIIerentiate in writing between e and i. both vowels are oIten Iound.
Next to e-es-har "blood". one also Iind written is-har ; next to pe-es-ta "he gave". pi-is-ta ; next to
pe-es-si-ia-mi "I threw". pe-es-si-ia-zi "he threw". one also Iinds pe-es-se-ia-mi. pe-si-ia-az-zi ; next
to -si "to him". also -se ; next to is-hi-i "to the lord". also es-he ; next to u-un-nu-me-en "we pushed
her". also u-un-nu-um-mi-in. etc... It is probable that the pronunciation oI the Hittite e was very
closed. close to that oI i.
11) There exists an alternation between e (i) and a in the Hittite paradigms : Irom sak- "to know" are
derived the Iorms saggai "I know". sakti and sekti "you know (Sg.)". sakki "he knows". sekteni "you
know (Pl.)". sekkanzi "they know". sakta and sekta "he knew" ; Irom ak- "to die". aki "he dies".
akkanzi "they die". but akir and ekir "they died" ; and Irom asas- "to sit". asãsi "he sits". but
asesanzi "they sit". asasta and asesta "he sat". asesir "they sat".
watar "water" has a Gen. Sg. wetenas and a Nom.-Acc. Pl. widãr. tekan "earth" a Gen. Sg. taknas.
Next to esmi "I am" and eszi "he is". one Iinds asanzi "they are" ; next to ekuzi "he drinks".
akuwanzi "they drink" and the iterative akkusk- "to drink copiously" ; next to mekki- "much". a verb
makkeszi "he does much". Instead oI paiweni "we go". paitteni "you go (Pl.)". one can Iind paiwani
and paittani ; instead oI daskitteni "you regularly take (Pl.)". daskatteni ; instead oI piskir "they
regularly gave". piskar. The reason Ior this alternation is not well understood.
12) There are sometimes variations between u and u : a-pu-u-un and a-pu-u-un "this" (Acc. Sg. oI
apã- "this"). u-i-ia-at-tin and u-e-ia-at-tin "send! (Pl.)". da-a-u and da-a-u "he should take".
13) a) The diphtongue -ai- can be contracted to -e- (-i-) : paista and pesta "he gave". naisut and
nesut "turn! (Sg.)". kappuwãit and kappuet "he checked". kappuwãizzi and kappuizzi "he checks".
b) A reverse diphtongation sometimes occurs by analogical correction where e is written ai : instead
oI epta "he grabs". one Iinds a-ip-ta ; instead oI meggaus "much". ma-iq-qa-us.
c) An alternation between -ãi- and -a- sometimes occurs : pãisi and occasionally pãsi "you go (Sg)".
14) a) 1. -(i)va- can be reduced to -e- (-i-)
1
: memivani and memini "Ior the word". tiezzi and tizzi "he
enters". wemivat and wemit "he Iound". tivantes "those who are sitting" (Irom dãi- "to sit") and
tintes.
2. From sankuwai- "nail". one Iinds the Gen. Sg. sankuis next to the neighboring Iorm sankuwavas
(and sankuwas).
b) Next to iskivazi and iskizzi "he anoints". one Iinds the poorly understood Iorm iskivãizzi.
15) a) -ava- can be contracted to -a- : Gen. Sg. oI salli- "tall" sallavas and sallas. Abl. Sg. oI suppi-
1 This reduction depends on the period where the text has been written.
12
"pure" suppavaz(a) and suppaz(a).
16) The diphtongs ue- (ui-) and -ue- (-ui-) can be contracted to u- and -u- : ueter and uter "they
brought ". uinut and sometimes unut "let leave! (Sg.)". kuera- and kura- "entrance". karuili- and
karuli- "old". atraweni and atrauni "we write". parkueszi and sometimes parkuszi "he becomes
pure".
17) a) In the same way. (u)wa- and -(u)wa- can be reduced to u- and -u- : antuwas and antuas
"man". awari- and auri- "border post". lauwatin and lautin "pour! (Pl.)" (also lauwai and laui "he
pours"). uwartas and urtas "he cursed". waranu and uranu "he should burn down". sanuwanzi and
sanunzi "they roast" (Part. sanuwant- and sanunt- "roasted").
b) More rarely. -uwa- (uwa-) is contracted to -ue- (ue-) : kappuwanzi and kappuenzi "they check".
uwanzi and uenzi "they come".
c) At the opposite oI a). the initial u- can be lengthened to uw- : uwarkant- Ior warkant- "Iat".
uwasta- Ior wasta- "to sin". uwitar Ior widãr (N.-A. oI watar "water").
18) The variations oI the previous Iorms should not be conIused with the regular I.E. ablaut that
connects kuenzi "he strikes" to kunanzi "they strike" and kuerzi "he cuts" to kuranzi "they cut". The
ablaut also connects dãi "he sits" to tivanzi "they sit". the Nom. Sg. zahhãis "battle" to Gen. Sg.
zahhivas (§69). ais "mouth" to Dat.-Loc. Sg. issi (§87). as well as tekan "earth" to Gen. Sg. taknas
(§78). hannessar "business" to Gen. Sg. hannesnas (§84). asawar "enclosure" to Dat.-Loc. asauni
(§85).
2. Consonants
a) Consonants groups
19) a) There is no rule to discriminate in the writing between simple and doubled consonants. Next
to the Iorms pessivazi "he throws". ivattari "he goes". istamasti "you hear (Sg.)". memivani "word
(Dat.-Loc. Sg.)". innarawanni "vigor (?) (Dat.-Loc. Sg.)". tarnatti "you let (Sg.)". one also Iinds
pisivazzi. ivatari. isdammasti. memivanni. innarawani. tarnati. It is probable that the scribes were
inclined to omit complex cuneiIorm signs when they Ielt that they were not necessary.
b) The diIIerence between simple consonant and doubled consonnant corresponds to an opposition
between Iortis consonant and lenis consonant. This opposition probably results Ior stops in an
opposition unvoiced / voiced. For example. attas "Iather" is pronounced /atas/. whereas apez
"consequently" is pronounced /abez/.
Stops are supposed to be always Iortis in initial position and lenis in Iinal position : genu "knee" ÷ /
kenu/ and sipant "libation" ÷ /spand/. The "law oI Sturtevant" explains that in median position. the
sequence oI cuneiIorm signs V-CV points out a lenis consonant. whereas a sequence VC-CV points
out a Iortis consonant. E.g. ap-pa-tar ÷ /apadar/.
20) a) The choice between a voiced or unvoiced cuneiIorm sign seems completely arbitrary : da. di.
du can be Iound instead oI ta. ti. tu ; ga (qa). gi. gu instead oI ka. ki. ku ; ba instead oI pa. Some
examples : damai- and tamai- "other". atta- and adda- "Iather". -ti- and -di- "your (Sg.)". esdu and
estu "he must be". kanes- and ganes- "to discover". kinu- and ginu- "to leave". taggasta and takkista
"he gathers".
KUS
kursa- and
KUS
gursa- "skin". daskatten. dasqaten and daskiten "take! (Pl.)". Gen.
Sg. oI kuiski "someone" kuelka. kuelga and kuelqa.
LU
patili- and
LU
batili- (a priest).
13
Some words are however always written in the same manner. For example. one Iinds written gi(-e)-
nu "knee" (and not
*
ki-e-nu-). dãi "he sits". but tivanzi "they sit". In the lexicon. the voiced b. d. g
will not be separated Irom the unvoiced p. t. k.
b) The Hittites apparently borrowed the cuneiIorm writing Irom the Hurrians who themselves had
borrowed it Irom the Old-Akkadians. This could explain why the Hittite writing system did not
diIIerentiate between the voiced and the unvoiced consonants. along with the usage oI s Ior the
phoneme /s/. matching the Old-Akkadian writing oI the sibilants. The Hittite writing system was
thus diIIerent Irom the one in usage at the same time in Mesopotamia. As an example oI the
diIIerence in the writing oI the stops between Hittite and Akkadian. the Akkadian-Hittite lexical list
KBo I.45 contains at line 11 : sa-pa-du (Ior the Akkadian verb sabãtu) ÷ ap-pa-tar.
21) A limitation oI the cuneiIorm writing comes Irom the Iact that cuneiIorm signs can only
represent syllables oI the kind consonant ¹ vowel (CV). vowel ¹ consonant (VC) and consonant ¹
vowel ¹ consonant (CVC). Hence. it is neither possible to write a group oI two initial or Iinal
consonants. nor to write a group oI three consonants. Ior example
*
tri- "three" (initial).
*
link "swear!
(Sg.)" (Iinal).
*
karp-zi "he liIts" (median). The Hittite scribes overcame this limitation by inserting
an extra vowel. especially at positions normally Iorbidden by the rules oI cuneiIorm writing : te-ri-.
li-in-ik and kar-ap-zi. Indeed. in classical Akkadian cuneiIorm writing. the last phoneme oI a
phonetic sign must be in harmony with the Iirst phoneme oI the Iollowing phonetic sign in such a
way that a (non-initial) sign starting with a vowel must be preceded by a sign ending with a vowel
(CV-VC but not CV-CV)
1
. One should always keep in memory that the writing always exhibits
more vowels than the spoken language. However. it is not always easy to know whether a vowel is
real or not.
22) a) The interpretation in median position is generally easy : Iorms such as sa-an-ah-zi "he
searches" have an incorrect spelling in "usual" cuneiIorm writing (with a Iinal consonant and an
initial vowel Iollowing). which indicates that the pronunciation is not
*
sanahzi which would be
written
*
sa-na-ah-zi. Furthermore. a Iorm such as sa-an-hu-un "I searched" points out a root sanh-.
which brings to a spoken Iorm
*
sanhzi "he searches". Many verbs are similar to sanh-. Ior example
parh- "to hunt" (par-ah-zi "he hunts"). karp- "to liIt" (kar-ap-zi "he liIts"). tarh- "to hold in check"
(tar-ah-zi). walh- "to strike" (wa-al-ah-zi). warp- "to bathe" (wa-ar-ap-zi). etc...
However. unclear Iorms such as sa-an-ha-zi "he searches". wa-ar-pa-zi "he bathes". etc... can be
Iound. Moreover. Ior hinkzi "he presents" (root hink-). one Iinds hi-in-ik-zi. hi-in-ga-zi and hi-ik-zi
(with a reduced n ; §31a). Ior linkt(a) "he swore" (root link-) li-in-ik-ta. li-in-kat-ta and li-ik-ta
(§157). iterative Iorms such as a-ar-as-ki-it Ior
*
ar-sk-it "he came several times" (root ar-).
b) Initial Iorms are less clear like az-zi-ik-kan-zi "they adore" Ior
*
at-sk-anzi (iterative oI ed- "to
eat" ; §141b). si-pa-an-za-ki-iz-zi "he makes several sacriIices" Ior
*
spant-sk-izzi. One Iinds even
less clear Iorms : Irom
*
(i)spart- "to escape". is-par-za-zi "he escapes". (i.e.
*
(i)spart-s-zi with
z ÷ /ts/. §27a). is-par-za-as-ta "he escaped" (i.e.
*
(i)spart-s-t) next to is-par-te-er "they escaped"
(i.e.
*
(i)spart-er). From hat- "to dry" (hãti "it dries". hãter "they dried"). one Iinds ha-az-ta and
ha-(az)-za-as-ta "it dried" (i.e.
*
hat-s-t(a)). One also Iinds unclear iterative Iorms oI tar- "to say" :
tar-as-si-ki-iz-zi "he repeated" (i.e.
*
tar-sk-izzi) and tar-as-sa-as-ki-id-du "he must repeat"
(i.e.
*
tar-sk-iddu!)
23) a) These extra vowels sometimes occur even though they are not necessary in the writing : e.g.
1 Broken written Iorms can occur in Akkadian. but they either represent a morphemic writing such as as-pur-am Ior
the ventive aspuram. or a glottal stop such as is-al Ior is´al.
14
sa-an-hu-un and sa-an-ah-hu-un "I searched" (root sanh-). wa-al-hi-ir and wa-al-ah-hi-ir "they
stroke" (root walh-). kar-pa-an-zi and kar-ap-pa-an-zi "they liIt" (root karp- ; §157). The reason Ior
this phenomenon is unclear ; it can be analogical to Iorms such that sa-an-ah-ta "he searched".
wa-al-ah-zi "he stroke". etc... or really express a phonetically double consonant
*
sanhhun.
*
walhher. or indicate a mute vowel
*
san(
O
)hun.
*
wal(
O
)her. or in the case oI the alternation h/hh
two diIIerent consonants (§28). For arhun "I arrived" (root ar-). the transcription a-ar-ah-hu-un
next to a-ar-hu-un can be Iound.
b) An incorrect spelling oI syllables is not always caused by an extra vowel ; the vowel can be real
with a simpliIied spelling oI the word. The Iorm kis-an "as Iollows" is oIten Iound next to
ki-is-sa-an. more rarely ma-a-ah-an next to ma-ah-ha-an "as".
LU
hi-ip-par-as ("prisoner").
si-is-at-ti Ior
*
si-is-sa-at-ti "you destroy (Sg.)". su-up-ia-ah "clean! (Sg.)" next to su-up-pi-ia-ah.
d
Ia-ar-is next to
d
I-ia-ar-ri-is. mar-mar-as "bush (??)" next to Dat.-Loc. Sg. mar-mar-ri. etc...
c) Finally. one can Iind correct transcriptions according to syllable splitting. even though the vowel
does not actually exist : sa-na-ah-ti "you searches (Sg.)" (Ior
*
sanh-ti) and wa-la-ah-si "you strikes
(Sg.)" (Ior
*
walh-si).
24) The interpretation oI the writing at the initial position is mainly based on assumptions. For
zi-ik-kan-zi "they put". the analogy with az-zi-ik-kan-zi "they adore" (÷
*
at-sk-anzi ; §22b) allows to
posit the Iorm
*
t-sk-anzi (with a reduction t- oI the root dãi- "to put. to place"). For pa-ra-a "ahead.
Iorward". the etymological link with I.E.
*
pro allows to assume a pronunciation
*
pra. whereas the
Iorm te-ri-ia-al-la (a liquid) has a variant 3-ia-al-la which lets assume a pronunciation
*
trivalla
(§129b3).
It is probable that the very Irequent (written) initials isp- and ist- (e.g. ispãi- "to be content ". ispant
"night". ispart- "to escape". istap- "to lock". istamas- "to hear". istandãi- "to hesitate". istark- "to
become ill". etc...) are in Iact pronounced sp- and st-. even iI it is also possible that it could be a
prothetic vowel (cI. lat. scalas ~ Ir. echelle).
25) a) 1. The interpretation oI the Iinals is not always as clear as the imperatives li-in-ik "swear!
(Sg.)" (next to li-in-ki. root link-). wa-al-ah "strike! (Sg.)" (root walh-). sa-an-ha "search! (Sg)"
(next to sa-a-ha. root sanh- ; §157). For example. the analogy brings to postulate Irom the ending oI
Pret. 3 Sg. in -t oI verbs with vocalic ending such as iva- "to do ". hatrãi- "to write" (ivat "he did".
hatrãit "he wrote") that the written ending -ta oI Pret. 3 Sg. oI verbs with consonant ending such as
es- "to be". istamas- "to hear". walh- "to strike" (e-es-ta "he was". is-ta-ma-as-ta "he heard".
wa-al-ah-ta "he stroke") represents in Iact a (spoken) ending -t (i.e.
*
est.
*
(i)stamast.
*
walht).
2. The same phenomenon occurs Ior the substantive : Irom anivat(t)- "vigor" (Acc. Sg. anivattan).
the Nom. Sg. a-ni-ia-az (§76a) is interpreted as a Iorm
*
anivat-s (with z ÷ /ts/ ; §27a). This allows to
interpret the Nom. Sg. ka-as-za "hunger" (root kast- ; Acc. Sg. kastan) as a Iorm
*
kast-s. likewise
Ior sa-u-i-ti-is-za "baby" interpreted as
*
sawitist-s. The written Iorms Nom. Sg. hu-u-ma-an-za
"whole" and participles a-da-an-za "eaten" (roots humant-. adant-) are interpreted as spoken Iorms
*
hùmant-s.
*
adant-s.
b) However. when the particle -a "and. also" is added to the Nom. Sg. oI a participle in -an-za ÷
*
-ant-s. the ending. spoken as
*
-ants-a. is not written simply -an-za. but rather -an-za-sa. e.g.
ir-ma-la-an-za "ill". ir-ma-la-an-za-sa "ill too". In Iact. to -an-za ÷
*
-ants is added the smallest
phonetic unit ending the group
*
-antsa. that is the sign sa ÷
*
sa (§27b). The ending -an-za-as-sa is
also used :
LU
ap-pa-an-za "the prisoner".
LU
ap-pa-an-za-as-sa "and the prisoner".
15
26) It seems that the groups oI consonants could be split by inserting vowels really pronounced.
Thus. one Iinds close written Iorms like gimra- and gimmara- "Iield". kussani and kusni "as a
reward" (also kussansit. kussanissit and kussasset "his reward" §31a). assanu- and asnu- "to
prepare". kar-sa-nu-. kar-as-nu- and kar-as-sa-nu- "to miss". tuhs- and tuhhus- "to carve". nasma
and nassuma "or". The distinction with the case oI unspoken vowels (§22II.) is not always clear :
Irom taks- "to link" is derived the Part. tak-sa-an-za "linked". but tak-ke-e-es-sa-an-zi "they link" ;
e-es-har-sum-mi-it "their blood".
b) IsoIated consonants
27) From the Iour sibilants z. s. s. s oI the Akkadian cuneiIorm writing. Hittite only uses s and z.
The letter s is used. as in Assyrian. to denote the sound /s/. while the letter z denotes the sound /ts/.
a) z ÷ /ts/ can be demonstrated by comparing Iorms like da-sk-izzi "he takes several times" (iterative
oI dã- "to take") and azzikkizzi ÷
*
at-sk-izzi "he adores" (iterative oI ed- "to eat"). as well as the
Nom. Sg. anivaz ÷
*
anivat(t)-s "vigor" compared with the Acc. Sg. anivattan (root anivat(t)-).
b) s ÷ /s/ can be demonstrated by Egyptian incriptions like Mrsr Ior
m
Mursili. Htsr Ior
m
Hattusili.
etc... (the Egyptian writing diIIerenciates s and s). as well as the comparison oI the Iorms da-sk-izzi
and azzikkizzi ÷
*
at-sk-izzi.
c) On the other hand. the extent oI the diIIerence between s and z is not well known Ior Proto-Hatti
(e.g. the name oI the town
URU
Lihsina next to
URU
Lihzina) and Palaic. even Ior Hittite. Indeed. one
Iinds close Iorms such as sakkar and zakkar "excrements". zamangur "beard" and samankurwant-
"bearded". zashi- and zazhi- "dream".
28) It is possible that the Hittite h had two diIIerent pronunciations :
a) a (less attested) stronger pronunciation. close to k. e.g. the isolated Iorms tetkissar. hameskanza
instead oI the neighboring Iorms tethessar "storm". hameshanza "spring". and conversely
UZU
ishisa- instead oI
UZU
iskisa- "back". The woman's Hurrian name
I
Giluhepa is written Krgp in
Egyptian.
b) a (well attested) weaker pronunciation (maybe only a breath). as indicated by the variants eshar
"blood" (Gen. Sg. eshanas) next to the rarer essar (Gen. Sg. esnas). as well as the isolated Iorms
idalawatti and tannattauwanzi Ior the neighboring Iorm idalawahti "you act badly (Sg.)".
danattahhuwanzi "to devastate".
c) The Hittite h comes Irom Proto-Indo-European phonemes called "laryngeals" that vanished in all
I.E. language Iamilies. except the Anatolian Iamily. Many variants oI the theory oI laryngeals exist
that vary on the quality and the number oI P.I.E. laryngeals. These laryngealist theories have been
built to explain some particular phenomena in I.E.. but the later discovery oI Hittite has proved their
validity.
In the most common theory. P.I.E. had three laryngeals. noted H
1
. H
2
and H
3
that could "color" a
neighboring vowel 'e'. The laryngeal H
1
had no coloration eIIect. the laryngeal H
2
colored in 'a' and
the laryngeal H
3
colored in 'o'. In Hittite. the laryngeal H
1
vanished and the laryngeal H
3
was
retained only in initial position. In median position. the Iricative resulting Irom a laryngeal can be
lenis (written between two vowels by ´h´) or Iortis (written between two vowels by ´hh´). For
example. eshar "blood" ·
*
esH
2
er. tar-ah-ha-an (root tarh- "to deIeat") ·
*
terH
2
-. hant "Iace" ·
*
H
2
ent. happ-in-ant "rich" ·
*
H
3
ep-. It should be noted that the theory described here is
16
incomplete : it does not explain cases where Hittite displays a 'h' where there is no laryngeal. and
conversely cases where Hittite does not display a 'h' where a laryngeal occured.
According to Kortlandt. Ior example. initial H
2
and H
3
remain in Iront oI an 'e' but vanish in Iront oI
an 'o' :
*
H
3
erbh- ~ harp- "to separate" but
*
H
3
orgh-ev- ~ ark- "to mount".
29) a) The -w- oI the group -uw- oIten becomes m. especially with verbs in -nu- (§169) and verbs in
-u(m)- (§174). From hatrãi- "to write" hatraweni "we write" are constructed the InI. I hatrawanzi
and the verbal substantive hatrawar. but Irom arnu- "to bring" arnummeni. arnummanzi and
arnummar. Irom tarna- "to let" tarnummeni. tarnummanzi and tarnummar.
b) -mu- is sometimes Iound instead oI -wu- : Irom idãlu- "nasty". one Iinds the Nom. Pl. Com.
idãlawes but the Acc. Pl. Com. idãlamus. Likewise. one Iinds Irom zashãi- "dream" the Acc. Pl.
zashimus.
30) a) Hittite has no initial r.
b) In median and Iinal position. r is weakly pronounced. to such a point that it is sometimes omitted
in writing. Examples in Iinal position : paprãta instead oI paprãtar "impurity". mivata instead oI
mivatar "prosperity". hatressa instead oI hatressar "sending" ; in median position : waggantes
instead oI wargantes (Nom. Pl.) "Iat". artati- instead oI artarti- "mushroom (?)". pian instead oI
piran "in Iront oI".
TUG
kuessar instead oI
TUG
kuressar "scarI".
31) In the same way. n in median position is weakly pronounced and is oIten omitted :
hu-u-ma-da-az next to hùmandaz (Abl. Sg. oI hùmant- "each"). u-e-es-sa-ta Ior wessanta "they
dress". is-ta-ta-a-it next to istandãit "he stayed". kar-pa-zi next to karpanzi "they liIt". ne-e-a-za
next to nevanza "driven". me-mi-ia-u-a-zi next to memivawanzi "to speak". li-ik-ta next to li-in-kat-
ta (both ÷
*
linkt) "he swore" (root link-). It is possible that the vowel was nasalized.
b) Conversely. an extra n letter is sometimes written though it does not exist : nepisanza instead oI
nepisaz "Irom the sky" (Abl. Sg.). hassannanza Ior hassannaz "out oI the Iamily". an isolated Iorm
li-in-kan-ta Ior
*
linkt "he swore" can be Iound.
32) a) 1. The group -tn- is regularly transIormed to -nn-. especially in the declension oI abstracts in -
ãtar (§83 ; Gen. Sg. -annas · -atnas) : haddulãtar "health". Gen. Sg. haddulannas. idãlawãtar
"nastiness". Gen. Sg. idãlawannas.
2. The group -tn- remains without change in the Iollowing Iorm : huitar "animal liIe". Gen. Sg.
huitnas. very rarely with abstracts in -ãtar : harãtar "scandal". Dat.-Loc. Sg. haratni.
b) 1. The group -mn- can be assimilated to -m- : next to the ethnic names
URU
Hattusumna-
"inhabitant oI Hattusa".
URU
Luiumna "Luwian".
URU
Palãumna- "Palaian". one also Iinds Iorms
such as LU
URU
Zalpùma- "inhabitant oI Zalpa". LU
URU
Halpùma- "inhabitant oI Alep". Acc. Sg.
m
Suppiuman next to Dat.-Loc.
m
Suppiumni.
2. The transIormation oI -mn- into -nn- is less clear. and it is not sure whether the Iorm hilannas is
the Gen. Sg. oI hilamnar "gate".
33) The group -nunu- can apparently be shortened to -nu- : Irom kistanu- "to delete". one Iinds
1. Sg. Pret. kistanun (Ior
*
kistanunun). Irom
*
mernu- "to make disappear". 1. Sg. Pret. mernun. Irom
*
menunu- "to Iail (?)". Imp. 3. Sg. menuddu.
17
34) The group -nza sometimes changes Ior unknown reason to -nzan : hanza ep- and more rarely
hanzan ep- "to give a Iriendly welcome (?)". nanza (i.e. nu "and" ¹ -an "him" ¹ -za "selI") and
nanzan.
3. Liaisons
35) Hittite words are normally written separately. and liaisons are not visible in writing. A variant
with liaison such as hal-ki-im pi-an-zi Ior halkin pianzi "give (Pl.) grain" is a rare exception.
36) a) 1. A Iinal -n- is generally assimilated with the initial consonant oI a Iollowing enclitic particle
(with or without redoubling oI this consonant) :
*
istamanan-san "his ear" (Acc. Sg.) ~
istamanassan.
*
halugatallan-tin "your (Sg.) envoy" ~ halugatallat-tin.
*
tuzzin-man "my army"
(Acc.) ~ tuzziman. appizzivan-ma-at "but him aIter" ~ appizzivamat. hùman "all" ¹ particle -san
(§300) ~ hùmassan. SUM-an-smit "their name" (i.e. lãman-smit) ~ SUM-asmit. mãn "iI" ¹ particle -
wa oI quotation (§289) ~ mãwa.
2. For example. kussan-set "his salary" can be assimilated to kussasset and stay like that. or instead
use an extra vowel (§26) kussanissit.
b) Phenomena oI Ialse cut sometimes occur : nassan (nu "and" ¹ -as "he" ¹ particle -san) can be
written nansan. as iI the Nom. -as "he" was replaced by the Acc. -an "him".
c) A similar assimilation occurs more rarely with t : ta "and" ¹ -at "it" ¹ -si "to him" usually
becomes tatsi. but sometimes also tasse. nu "and" ¹ -at "it" ¹ particle -san usually becomes natsan.
but also sometimes nassan.
37) Phenomena oI liaison especially occur at the beginning oI enclitic pronouns such as -mu "to
me". -ta "to you (Sg.)". -si "to him". -as "he". -an "him (Acc.)". -at "it (Neut.)" and enclitic particles
such as -a (-va) "and". -ma "but". -asta "then". -wa(r) (quotation). -za (reIlexive). -kan and -san
(location) aIter an accentuated word or a particle nu. ta. etc...
38) a) When the particle nu "and" is Iollowed by the pronoun -as "is (ea)". -an "eum (eam)". -at
"id". -e "ei. eae. ea". -us (-as) "eos. eas" or the particle -asta or -apa (both ÷ "then (?)"). the u oI nu
is replaced by the Iollowing vowel :
*
nu-as ~ nas.
*
nu-an ~ nan.
*
nu-at ~ nat.
*
nu-e ~ ne.
*
nu-us ~
nus (
*
nu-as ~ nas).
*
nu-asta ~ nasta.
*
nu-apa ~ napa.
b) The same phenomenon occurs Ior the older particle ta "and" :
*
ta-as ~ tas.
*
ta-an ~ tan.
*
ta-at ~
tat.
*
ta-us ~ tus.
*
ta-asta ~ tasta. and Ior the rarer and older particle su "and" :
*
su-as ~ sas.
*
su-an
~ san.
*
su-us ~ sus.
c) In the same conditions. the particle oI quotation -wa(r)- takes the whole Iorm -war- : -war-as.
-war-an. -war-at. -wari (i.e.
*
-war-e). -war-us. -war-asta.
39) When a simple consonant stands between two vowels between a word and an enclitic (the
consonant being either the Iinal oI the word or the initial oI the enclitic). it is oIten (but not always)
doubled : nu ¹ -san ~ nu(s)-san. sumãs "to him" ¹ -an "him" ~ sumãssan. nu "and" ¹ -wa
(quotation) ¹ -nas "us" ~ nuwa(n)nas. mãn "iI" ¹ -a "also" ~ mãnna. apãs "this" ¹ -a "and" ~
apã(s)sa (also the Acc. Sg. apùn ¹ -a ~ apù(n)na). wastul "sin" ¹ -ma "but" ¹ -za (reIlexive) ¹ -kan
~ wastulma(z)zakan. UL (negation) ¹ -wa (quotation) ¹ -ta "to you (Sg.)" ¹ -kan ~ UL-
wa(t)ta(k)kan.
18
40) The enclitic pronoun -ta "to you (Sg.)" takes. when placed beIore the reIlexive particle -za. the
Iorm -tu (-du) : nu "and" ¹ -wa (quotation) ¹ -ta ¹ -za ¹ -kan ~ nuwaduzakan.
41) a) 1. The particle -a/-va "and" that connects two isolated words takes the Iorm -a aIter a
consonant and -va aIter a vowel :
d
Telipinusa (·
d
Telipinus-a) "and Telipinu". apãssa (· apãs-a ;
§39) "and this". but kã-va "and here". ape-va "and these".
2. It is generally written -va aIter logograms. Akkadian words and Ioreign names : EN
MES
-va "and
the lords". UL-va "and not".
URU
Kargamis-va "and Kargamis".
b) AIter words ending in -z and aIter all words in the ablative. the Iorm -va is preceded by a liaison
vowel i : tamedazziva (· tamedaz-va) "and Irom another". kez kezziva "Irom here and there".
42) Phenomena oI simpliIication oI doubled syllables can be observed :
a) -ma "but" ¹ -smas "to you (Pl.). to them" ~ -masmas which can be shortened to -mas.
b) 1. When the particle -za Iollows the particle -san. they become simpliIied in -zan (pronounced
*
-ts-san).
2. Following §34. nanza (· nu "and" ¹ -an "him" ¹ -za reIlexive) can also be written nanzan.
c) 1. When the particle -(a)sta "then (?)" Iollows the syllables -as. -is. -us. the initial -(a)s can
vanish and the particle is reduced to -ta : nu "and" ¹ -wa (quotation) ¹ -smas "to them" ¹ -(a)sta ~
nuwasmasta.
GIS
TUKUL
HI.A
-us-sus "your (Pl.) weapons" (Acc. Pl.) ¹ -(a)sta ~
GIS
TUKUL
HI.A
-
ussusta.
2. Also aIter -z : nu "and" ¹ -za (reIlexive) ¹ -(a)sta ~ nuzata (pronounced
*
nu-ts-sta). kez "here" ¹
-(a)sta ~ kez-sta (written ke-e-ez-ta. ke-e-ez-za-at-ta. ke-e-ez-za-as-ta).
19
Chapter 3
The noun
A. Derivation
44) The Iormation oI abstract nouns uses the Iollowing suIIixes :
a) -an (declension according to §78) : henkan- "destiny. epidemic. death" (hink- "to assign").
nahhan "Iear" (nah- "to Iear") ; maybe also kussan "salary" and sahhan "IieI".
b) -ãtar (declension according to §83) : idãlawãtar "nastiness" (idãlu- "evil"). palhãtar "width"
(palhi- "wide"). sullãtar "argument" (sullãi- "to argue"). lahhivãtar "expedition" (lahhiva- "to
campaign").
c) -essar (declension according to §84) : asessar "hearing" (es- "to sit"). hannessar "lawsuit"
(hanna- "to iudge"). palhessar "width" (palhi- "wide").
d) -asti (rarely) : palhasti "width" (palhi- "wide"). dalugasti "length" (daluki- "long").
e) -att- (declension according to §76) : kartimmivatt- "anger" (kartimmiva- "to be angry"). anivatt-
"achievement" (aniva- "to achieve"). nahsaratt- "Iear" (nahsariva- "to be aIraid"). karuilivatt- "old
age" (karuili- "old").
I) -ima- : tethima- "thunder" (tethãi- "to thunder"). ekunima- "cold" (ekuna- "cold"). weritema-
"Iear" (werites- "to be aIraid").
g) -ul (declension according to §79) : assul "happiness" (assu- "good").
h) -ur (declension according to §80) : aniur "(religious) task" (aniva- "to achieve") ; maybe also
kurur "hostile; hostility".
i) -(u)war (non verbal ; declension according to §85) : asawar "enclosure. Ience". partawar "wing".
45) The action nouns end in :
a) -ãi- (declension according to §69) : lengãi- "oath" (lenk- "to swear"). hurtãi- "curse" (hurta- "to
curse"). wastãi- "sin" (wasta- "to sin"). zahhãi- "Iight" (zah- "to strike").
b) -ul (declension according to §79) : ishiul "link. contract" (ishiva- "to link"). wastul "sin" (wasta-
"to sin").
c) -sha- (oI Hurrian origin ?) : dammesha- "damage". unuwasha- "ornament" (unuwãi- "to
decorate"). maybe also tesha- "sleep. dream".
d) -el (declension according to §79) : hurkel "disgust" (next to the concrete noun suel "thread").
e) -zel : sarnikzel "indemnity. replacement" (sarnink- "to replace. to pay").
46) The actor nouns are built with :
a) -tara- : wastara- "shepherd" (wesiva- "to graze").
b) -talla- : arsanatalla- "envious" (arsaniva- "to envy"). uskiskatalla- "observer" (uskisk- "to
observe").
I. GIS
irhuitalla- "basket bearer".
20
c) -ala- : aurivala- (next to aurivatalla-) "border guard" (auri- "border post"). ispantuzzivala- "wine
dealer" (ispantuzzi- "wine barrel"). karimnãla- "temple employee" (
E
karimmi- "temple").
d) The element -sepa can be broadly interpreted as a way to personiIy abstract notions : daganzipa-
"(genie oI the) earth". Ispanzasepa- "genie oI the night".
d
Kamrusepa "health goddess".
d
Mivatanzipa- "genie oI the growth oI plants".
47) The instrument nouns end in :
a) -ul (declension according to §79) : sesarul "sieve" (sesariva- "to sieve").
b) -uzzi : ishuzzi "belt" (ishiva- "to buckle"). lahhurnuzzi (kind oI altar). ispantuzzi- "wine barrel".
c) The suIIix -alli- can be added in order to build concrete nouns relative to a part oI the body :
kuttanalli- "necklace" (kuttar "neck"). harsanalli- "crown" (harsan- "head"). issalli- "saliva"
(ais/iss- "mouth"). purivalli- "gag" (Irom puri- "lip").
48) The suIIix -ant- has several uses not yet clariIied :
a) It builds substantives such as :
1. Supposedly collectives : utne- "land" and utnevant- "land (as a whole)". tuzzi- "army" and
tuzzivant- "mass oI troops". antuhsatar "humanity" and antuhsannant- (·
*
antuhsatnant-; §32a1)
"population".
2. A particular group about time. especially season names : hamesh(a)- and hameshant- "spring".
gim- and gimmant- "winter".
3. In many cases. there is no diIIerence between the base noun and the one modiIied by -ant- :
sankunni- and sankunnivant- "priest". huhha- and huhhant- "grand-Iather". hilammar and
hilamnant- "gate". eshar and eshanant- "blood". uttar and uddanant- "word. speech". kast- and
kistant- "hunger".
Inside this group. one can Iind several words about parts oI body : kalulupa- and kalulupant-
"Iinger". tapuwas- and tapuwassant- "rib. side". hastãi- and hastivant- "bone". sankuwai- and
sankuwavant- "Iinger nail".
b) 1. One can also Iind adiectives extended by the suIIix -ant- and synonymous with the root word :
assu- and assuwant- "good". irmala- and irmalant- "ill". suppi- and suppivant- "pure". dapiva- and
dapivant "all".
2. Some adiectives are maybe built Irom substantives : perunant- "rocky" Irom peruna- "rock".
kaninant- "thirsty" Irom kanint- "thirst".
49) Some derived adiectives are built with the Iollowing suIIixes :
a) -ala- : genzuwala- "Iriendly" (genzu- "Iondness"). tuwala- "Iaraway" (tuwa adv. "Iar") ; cI. also
§46c.
b) -ili- : karùili- "old" (karù adv. "previously").
c) isolated with -va- in order to designate the belonging : ispantiva- "nightly" (ispant- "night").
istarniva- "average" (istarn- "center").
d) with -want- with the meaning "that owns. provided with" : samankurwant- "bearded" (zamankur
"beard"). kartimmivawant- "angry" (kartimmiva- "to be angry"). kistuwant- "hungry" (kast-
"hunger") ; somehow diIIerent : esharwant- "scarlet" (eshar "blood"). apenissuwant- "such" Irom
apenissan "thus".
21
e) -zi- in constructs oI comparative type : hantezzi- "ahead. Iirst" (hant- "beIore"). appezzi- "back"
(appa "back. behind"). sarazzi- "superior" (sarã "up").
50) Miscellaneous constructs :
a) The Ieminine is not diIIerenciated Irom the masculine in the grammar. but the language has a
suIIix -sara- (probably inherited. and not borrowed Irom Proto-Hatti) : isha- "lord" and ishassara-
"lady". IR "slave" and
*
GEME
2
-assara- "slave".
b) Ethnic nouns use the suIIix -umna- (-uma- ; §32b1) :
URU
Hattusumna- "man Irom Hattusa".
URU
Palãumna "man Irom Paläu".
URU
Luiumna- "Luwian". LU
URU
Halpùma- "man Irom Alep".
Plur. LU
MES

URU
Nesumenes "people oI Nesa".
c) -(a)nni- seems to be the diminutive suIIix :
d
LUGAL-manni- (i.e.
d
Sarrumanni-) "young
Sarruma".
d
Ninattani- "small (statuette oI the goddess) Ninatta". armanni- "small crescent moon"
(arma- "moon").
51) The Iollowing suIIixes oI Luwian origin are used Ior Luwian but also Hittite adiectives :
a) -alli- and -talli- : hirutalli- "relating to an oath" (Luw. hiru(n)t- "oath"). muwatalli- "strong"
(Luw. (?) muwa- "strength"). pittivalli- "Iast" (piddãi- "to run").
b) -assi- (-assa-) in names such as
d
Hilassi- ("relating to the court (hila-)").
d
Wasdulassi- ("relating
to sin (wastul)").
d
Istamanassa- "god oI the ears" (istamana- "ear").
d
Sakuwassa- "god oI the eyes"
(sakuwa- "eye").
c) -imi- (in Iact the suIIix oI the Luwian past participle) in names such as
d
Sarlaimi- ("the High
One").
d
Alawaimi-. etc...
52) Occasionally. cases oI reduplication occur. e.g. : memal- "groats" (mall- "to grind"). titita-
"pupil". duddumi- "deaI". halhaltumari- "boundary stone". harsiharsi- "storm". akuwakuwa- "Irog
(?)".
53) a) Unlike the other ancient I.E. languages. Hittite has very Iew compound nouns : dã-vuga "two-
year-old" (next to vuga- "yearly. one-year-old"). appa-siwatt- "Iuture" ("aIter-day"). salla-kartãtar
"pride (?)". Less certain : huhha-hanna- "grand-Iather (huhha-) and grand-mother (hanna-)". as well
as the bird name pittar-palhi- ("wing-wide").
b) Though not strictly compound nouns. nominal constructs made oI a verb and a particle occur :
piran huvatalla- "Iorerunner" (piran "ahead". huva- "to run"). parã handandãtar "divine iustice".
kattakurant- (a "container cut (kuer- "to cut") at the bottom (katta)" ÷ with a Ilat bottom ?).
andavant- (antivant-) "married son-in-law" (anda ivant-) "got in (the house oI the Iather-in-law)".
22
B. DecIension
1. OutIine
54) a) Hittite has two genders : the common gender (comprising the masculine and the Ieminine
genders ; this gender will later split up in I.E. into a masculine and a Ieminine gender) and the
neuter gender (already declining).
b) There are two numbers : the singular and the plural. The dual has disappeared and has been
replaced by the plural.
55) a) Hittite has eight cases derived Irom the I.E. cases : nominative. vocative. accusative. genitive.
dative-locative. allative. ablative and instrumental. Vocative is poorly attested. while Old-Hittite
allative was replaced by dative-locative in Neo-Hittite.
b) Hittite also uses a special ending Ior neuter nouns subiects oI a transitive verb. This case. called
ergative. transIers the neuter noun to the common gender.
56) Outline oI declension :
Singular Plural
Nom. comm. -s -es. -us. -as
Voc. comm. - (-e)
Acc. comm. -n -us
N.-Acc. N. -. -n -. -a. -i
Erg. N. -anza -antes
Gen. -as (never -s!) -as. Old-H. also -an
Dat.- Loc. -i -as
All. -a -as
Abl. -az(a) -az(a)
Instr. -it -it
57) a) The ending oI the Nom. Sg. is always pronounced -s. It is written -s Ior vocalic stems : atta-s
"Iather". zahhãi-s "battle". heu-s "rain". Stems in -t produce a group oI consonants -t-s written -z
aIter a vowel : kar-tim-mi-ia-az ÷
*
kartimmivatt-s "anger". and -za aIter a consonant (while
pronounced -z ÷ -t-s ; §25a2) : hu-u-ma-an-za ÷
*
hùmant-s "this". ka-a-a-as-za ÷
*
kast-s "hunger".
b) 1. The isolated root is used as Voc. Sg. : isha-mi "my lord".
d
Kumarbi.
m
Appu.
2. For u-stems. vocative Iorms in -ue also occur : LUGAL-ue "ô king".
d
UTU-ue "ô Sun-god".
3. In all cases. the Iorms oI Nom. can be used as Voc.
23
58) The Gen. Sg. ends in -as. and never. as was once believed. in -s. There is no Iorm oI Gen. Sg.
UD-az (÷ UD-at-s) "oI the day" ; nekur mehur "evening" is not a genitive Iorm "time oI the night"
but rather an apposition "night-time". The genitives
m
Nunnus.
m
Taruhsus in Old-Hittite. as well as
the isolated Iorm sankuwais "oI the nail" can be explained by §14a2 as
*m
Nunnuwas.
*m
Taruhsuwas.
*
sankuwavas.
59) a) Old-Hittite had an All. Sg. in -a (· -ai · I.E.
*
-õi) and a Loc. Sg. in -i : All. aruna "to the
sea". Loc. aruni "in the sea".
b) 1. In Neo-Hittite. allative was replaced by the dative-locative in -i : aruni "to the sea. at the sea".
2. i-stems use Ior the Dat.-Loc. the ending -(v)a oI the old allative : tuzziva : "to the army. in the
army". hulukanniva (next to hulukanni) "in the chariot".
c) The ancient ending -ai (a stage Iormer to -a. §59a) is sometimes Iound :
m
Labarnai "at Labarna".
hassannai "to the Iamily" (Irom hassatar).
d) 1. In some cases. consonant stems use a Dat.-Loc. without ending : E-ir "in the house". UD-at "in
the day". SA-ir "in the heart". dagan "on the ground". nepis "in heaven". kessar-ta "in your (Sg.)
hand".
2. The isolated Iorm oI Dat.-Loc. Sg. sarku "to the hero" can be explained as a Dat.-Loc. without
ending. or according to §17a.
60) The ablative Sg. sometimes ends in -anza rather than -az (cI. §31b) : luttanza "Irom the
window". nepisanza "Irom the sky". hassannanza "out oI the Iamily (hassatar)".
61) The instrumental Sg. also ends in -ta : kissarit "with the hand". istamanta "with the ear" ; cI.
also wedanda and wetenit "with water".
62) a) In Old-Hittite. the Gen. Pl. in -an (· I.E.
*
-õm) was distinct Irom the Dat.-Loc. Pl. in -as :
Gen. Pl. siunan "oI the gods". Dat.-Loc. Pl. siunas "with the gods". IR
MES
-amman "oI my slaves"
(according to §36a1 · IR
MES
-an-man).
b) In Neo-Hittite. the ending -as oI the Dat.-Loc. Pl. has been applied to the Gen. Pl. : Gen. Pl.
siunas "oI the gods" and Dat.-Loc. siunas "with the gods". The old genitive in -an is only Iound in
Iormal speech.
c) The endings -as oI the Gen. Sg. and the Gen. Pl. being the same in Neo-Hittite. the old ending
-an is sometimes used Ior the Gen. Sg. : LUGAL-an "oI the king".
m
Labarnan "oI Labarna".
63) The nominative and the accusative Pl. tend to be used one Ior the other :
a) The Nom. Pl. is used as accusative : pargawes "the great ones". huprushes "the elders". dalugaes
"the long ones".
b) The Acc. Pl. is used as nominative : parhandus "the stressed ones".
63b) Many nouns in Neo-Hittite exhibit an alternation between a-stems and i-stems. Some a-stems
borrow Iorms Irom the i-stems (especially the Nom. and Acc. Common Sg. and Pl.). and conversely
some i-stems borrow Iorms Irom the a-stems (especially the cases complementary to the previous
alternation : all the Neuter cases and the oblique Common cases ; cI. e.g. §67b). This is caused by
the inIluence oI Luwian.
24
2. VocaIic stems
64) a (and ã)-stems
a) Substantives
 Common : antuhsa "man". anna- "mother". aruna- "sea". kessera- "hand". ishã- "lord".
 Neuter : peda- "place"
Common
Singular
Nom. antuhsas annas arunas kesseras ishãs
Acc. antuhsan arunan kisseran
Voc. isha
Gen. antuhsas annas arunas kissaras
Dat.-Loc. antuhsi anni aruni kissiri ishi (eshe)
All. aruna isha
Abl. antuhsaz annaz arunaz(a) kissaraz(a)
Instr. kisserit
Plural
Nom. antuhses (antuhsus) annis ishes
Acc. antuhsus annus arunus kisserus
Gen. antuhsas
Dat.-Loc. antuhsas ishãs
Instr.
SU
HI.A
-it
Neuter
Singular Plural
N.-A. pedan
Gen. pedas
Dat.-Loc. pedi (pidi) pedas
Abl. pedaz (petaz)
65) a-stems
b) Adiectives
They are inIlected exactly like the substantive. No rule has been Iound Ior the alternation between
the endings -an and -a in Nom.-Acc. Sg. Neuter.
 dannatta- "empty". arahzena- "neighboring". kunna- (ZAG-(n)a-) "right".
25
Singular
Nom. comm. arahzenas kunnas
Acc. comm. dannattan arahzinan ZAG-an
N.-A. n. dannattan (dannatta) kunnan (ZAG-an. ZAG-na)
Gen. arahzenas ZAG-nas
Dat.-Loc. dannatti arahzeni kunni (ZAG-ni)
All. arahzena
Abl. arahzenaza kunnaz (ZAG-(n)az(a))
Instr. ZAG-(n)it
Plural
Nom. comm. arahzenes (arahzenas) ZAG-nis
Acc. comm. arahzenus (arahzenas) ZAG-nus
N.-A. n. dannatta arahzena kunna
Gen. arahzenan
Dat.-Loc. tannattas
66) i-stems
a) Substantives
 Common : halki- "cereal". tuzzi- "army".
GIS
hulukanni- "chariot". halhaltumari-
"cornerstone".
 Neuter :
NA4
huwasi- "grindstone".
DUG
ispantuzzi- "wine barrel".
Common
Singular
Nom. halkis tuzzis (tuzzivas)
GIS
hulukannis
Acc. halkin tuzzin
GIS
hulukannin
Gen. halkivas tuzzias
GIS
hulugannas
D.-L. tuzziva
GIS
huluganni(va)
halhaltumari
(halhaldummariva)
Abl. halkivaza tuzzivaz
GIS
hulugannivaz
(
GIS
hulugannaza)
Instr. halkit
GIS
hulukannit
Plural
Nom. halkis halhaltumares
Acc. halkius (halkes, §63a) tuzzius (tuzzivas)
Gen. halhaltummarivas
D.-L. halhaltumarivas
Abl. halhaltumaraza
26
Neuter
Singular
N.-A.
NA4
huwasi
DUG
ispantuzzi
Gen.
NA4
huwasivas
DUG
ispantuzzivas
D.-L.
NA4
huwasi(va)
DUG
ispantuzzi (
DUG
ispantuzziva)
Abl.
NA4
huwasivaz
DUG
ispantuzziaz
Instr.
DUG
ispantuzzit
Plural
N.-A.
NA4
huwãsi
HI.A
67) a) The Nom. Sg. tuzzivas is an analogical construct on the va-stem.
b) The Gen. Sg.
GIS
hulugannas. the Abl. Sg.
GIS
hulugannaza and the Abl. Pl. halhaltumaraza are
analogical constructs on the a-stem.
c) For the Dat.-Loc. Sg. tuzziva.
NA4
huwasiva. etc.... cI §59b2.
68) Substantives in ai-
a) They are inIlected with ablaut (§18) : lengais "oath". Acc. Sg. lengain. but Gen. Sg. linkivas.
etc...
b) One sometimes Iinds analogical constructs such as Gen. Sg. lengavas built Irom the Nom. and
the Acc. Sg.. or conversely the Acc. Sg. zahhin built Irom the Gen. Sg.
69)
 Common : zahhai- "battle". lengai- "oath". zashai- "dream".
 Neuter : hastai- "bone".
Common
Singular
Nom. zahhais
Acc. zahhain (zahhin) lingain zashain
Gen. zahhias linkivas (lingavas)
D.-L. zahhiva linkiva (lingai) zashiva
Abl. zahhivaz(a) linkivaz(a) zashivaz
Instr. zashit
Plural
Nom. lingais
Acc. lingaus zashimus (§29b)
27
Neuter
N.-A. hastai
Gen. hastivas
D.-L. hastai
Instr. hastit
70) i-stems adiectives
a) The declension oI the adiectival stems in -i and -u diIIer Irom the substantive by the apparition oI
an a beIore the thematic vowel in all cases except the Nom.. the Acc. and the Instr Sg.
b) The occasional Iorms without this a are analogical constructs on the substantive. especially Ior
karùili- "old".
71) a) salli- "big". suppi- "pure". mekki- "much". karùili- "old".
Singular
Nom. comm. sallis suppis mekkis karùilis
Acc. comm. sallin karùilin
N.-A. n. salli suppi mekki karùili
Voc. GAL-li
Gen. sallaivas (sallas) suppavas karùilias
D.-L. sallai
suppai (suppava. suppi.
suppa)
Abl. sallavaz suppavaz(a) (suppaz(a)) meqqavaz
karùiles
(karùilivas)
Instr. suppit
Plural
Nom. comm. sallaes suppaes (suppis) meggaes (mekkes)
karùiles
(karùilivas)
Acc. comm. sallaus (sallius) suppaus meggaus (mekkus)
N.-A. n. salla suppa meggava karùila
Gen. meqqavas
D.-L. sallavas suppavas (suppivas) karùilivas
Abl. suppavaza
b) Forms without an i like the Gen. Sg. sallas. the Abl. Sg. suppaz(a). N.-A. Pl. n. salla. suppa are
explained by §15a.
72) The root utne (KUR-e) n. "land" is close to the i-stems with the Iollowing declension :
Singular Plural
N.-A. utne (utni) utne
Gen. utnevas (utnivas)
D.-L. utni (utniva) KUR-eas
Abl. utneaz
28
73) u-stems
a) Substantives
 Common : harnau- "chair". wellu- "meadow". heu- "rain". LUGAL-u "king".
 Neuter : genu- "knee"
Common
Singular
Nom. harnaus wellus heus LUGAL-us
Acc. harnaun wellun heun LUGAL-un
Voc. LUGAL-ue
Gen. harnawas hewas (hevawas) LUGAL-was (LUGAL-an. §62c)
D.-L. harnawi welli LUGAL-i
Abl. welluwaz LUGAL-waz
Instr. heawit
Plural
Nom. hewes (hevawes)
Acc. heus (heamus. §29b)
D.-L. welluwas
Neuter
Singular Plural
N.-A. genu genuwa
Gen. genuwas genuwas
All. genuwa genuwas
Abl. ginuwaz
b) The Iorms oI heu- "rain" with -(v)a- beIore the thematic vowel (Gen. Sg. hevawas. Instr. Sg.
heawit. Nom. Pl. hevawes. Acc. Pl. heamus) are built by analogy with the adiective.
74) u-stems
b) Adiectives
a) Like adiectival i-stems. one Iinds a vowel a beIore the thematic vowel.
b) Occasionally. this a is caused by analogy with the substantive. For assu- "good". this analogy is
clear because the neuter assu has been substantivized with the meaning "good. property".
75) assu- "good". parku- "high". idãlu- "nasty".
29
Singular
Nom. comm. assus parkus idãlus
Acc. comm. assun parkun idãlun
N.-A. n. assu parku idãlu
Gen. assawas parkuwas HUL-uwas
D.-L. assawi pargawe idãlawi
Abl. assawaza pargawaz idãlawaz (idãlaz')
Instr. assawet HUL-it
Plural
Nom. comm. assawes pargawes (pargaus; §63b) idãlawes
Acc. comm. assamus (§29b) pargamus (§29b) (pargaus) idãlamus (§29b)
N.-A. n. assawa pargawa idãlawa
Gen. idãlawas
D.-L. pargawas idãlawas
Abl. idãlawaza
Instr. assawet
3. Consonant stems
76) tt (t)-stems
 Common : kartimmivatt- "anger". kar(a)itt- "tide". kast- "hunger". wett- "year" (logogr.
MU(.KAM)).
 Common and neuter : anivatt- "perIormance". siwatt- "day" (logogr. UD(.KAM)).
Singular
Nom. comm. kartimmivaz (§25a2 27a) anivaz (§25a2 27a) UD-az
Acc. comm. kartimmivattan anivattan UD-an (UD.KAM-an)
N.-A. n. UD-at
Gen. anivattas UD-as
D.-L. TUG.TUG-atti anivatti siwatti (siwat; §59d)
Abl. UD.KAM-az
Nom. comm. kar(a)iz (girez) kasza (§25a2) MU.KAM-za
Acc. comm. kastan MU-an
Gen. MU.KAM-as
D.-L. karaitti kasti witti
Abl. MU.KAM-az
Instr. kastita
30
Plural
Nom. comm.
UD.KAM
HI.A
-us
Acc. comm. kartimmivaddus
UD
HI.A
-us
N.-A. n. anivatta
D.-L. anivattas
UD.(KAM)
HI.A
-as
Nom. comm. garittes (karittivas)
MU
HI.A
-us
Acc. comm.
MU
HI.A
-us
N.-A. n.
wittan (§62a) (MU
HI.A
-as)
D.-L.
MU.KAM
HI.A
-as
77) nt-stems
 Substantive : ispant- c. "night" (logogr. GE
6
(.KAM)).
 Adiective : humant- "each. all".
 Participles : appant- "recovered". huiswant- "alive".
Singular
Nom. comm.
GE
6
(.KAM)-anza
humanza (§25a2) appanza huiswanza
Acc. comm. ispandan humandan appantan huiswandan
N.-A. n. human
Gen.
GE
6
-andas
humandas TI-antas
D.-L. ispanti humanti huiswanti
Abl. ispandaz humandaz
Plural
Nom. comm. humantes (humandus; §63b) appantes huiswantes
Acc. comm. humandus (humantes; §63a) huiswandus
N.-A. n. humanda appanti
Gen. humandas
D.-L. humandas
78) n-stems
 Mainly neuters (partly with ablaut; §18) : sahhan "IieI". laman "name". tekan (tagn-) "earth"
 Common : MUNUS-n- "woman"
Singular
Nom. comm. MUNUS-za
Acc. comm. MUNUS-nan
N.-A. n. sahhan laman tekan
Gen. sahhanas tagnas MUNUS-nas
D.-L. sahhani lamni tagni MUNUS-ni
31
All. tagnã
Abl. sahhanaz(a) tagnaz(a) (tagnãz)
Instr. sahhanit lamnit
Plural
Nom. comm.
MUNUS
MES
-us
D.-L. lamnas
MUNUS
MES
-as
79) l-stems
 Substantives (mainly neuters) : wastul "sin". ishiul "contract". tawal (a drink). suppal
"animal".
 Adiective : taksul "accustomed".
Singular
Nom. c. taksul
N.-A. n. wastul ishiul taksul tawal suppal
Gen. wasdulas ishiul(l)as taksulas tawalas
D.-L. wasduli taksuli tawali supli (§26)
Abl. ishiullaza
Instr. wasdulit tawal(l)it
Plural
N.-A. n.
wastul(
HI.A
) ishiuli
HI.A
taksul suppala
Gen. suppalan (§62a)
80) r-stems
a) without ablaut
 Substantive : huppar- c./n. "tureen"
 Adiectives : sakuwassar "true". kurur- "hostile" (also substantive n. "hostility")
Singular
Nom. comm.
DUG
hupparas
sakuwassaras kurur
Acc. comm. sakuwassaran
N.-A. n. huppar sakuwassar kurur
Gen. hupparas sakuwassaras kururas
D.-L. huppari sakuwassari kururi
Abl. hupparaza sakuwassaraza
Instr.
(
GIS
)hupparit
sakuwassarit
Plural
Nom. comm. sakuwassarus kurur
32
Acc. comm. sakuwassarus
N.-A. n.
DUG
huppãri
HI.A
kurur (kururi
HI.A
)
Gen. kururas
b) The neuter kessar- "hand" is inIlected in Old-Hittite with ablaut (like Greek ao:no. ao:o-oc) :
Singular Plural
N.-A. kessar
D.-L. kisri (kessar; §59d) kisras
All. kisrã kisras
Instr. ki-is-sar-at
In Neo-Hittite. this word is oI common gender and is inIlected like an a-stem : Sg. Nom. kessaras.
Acc. kisseran. etc... (§64).
81) r/n-stems
This group corresponds to the I.E. heteroclitic inIlection that leIt some traces in the other I.E.
languages (Old-Indian ùdhar. ùdhnas "udder". Lat. femur. feminis "thigh"). It is however well alive
and productive in Hittite. All stems are neuter. For more clarity. these stems have been grouped into
miscellaneous sub-groups :
82) a) Particular substantives. partly with and partly without ablaut
uttar "word. speech". eshar "blood". lammar "hour". watar "water". pahhuar (pahhur) "Iire". mehur
"time".
Singular
N.-A. uttar eshar (essar; §28b) lammar
Gen. uddanas eshanas (esnas; §28b)
D.-L. uddani eshani lamni
Abl. uddanaz(a) (uddananza; §60) eshanaz(a) (esnaza; §28b)
Instr. uddanit (uddanta; §61) eshanta (§61)
N.-A. watar pahhuwar (pahhur; §17a) mehur
Erg. pahhuenanza
Gen. witenas pahhuenas mehunas
D.-L. weteni pahhueni (pahhuni; §16) mehueni (mehuni; §16)
All. wetena
Abl. wetenaz(a) pahhuenaz (pahhunaz(a))
Instr. wetenit (wedanda; §61) pahhuenit
Plural
N.-A. uddãr widãr
Gen. uddanas
A
HI.A
-as
D.-L. uddanas mehunas
33
83) b) Abstracts in -ãtar and -tar
paprãtar "dirtiness". lahhivatar "countryside". zankilatar "sorrow"; huitar "Iaun" (partly with
ablaut ; -tn- does not transIorm into -nn-).
Singular
N.-A. paprãtar zankilatar huitar
Gen. paprannas huitnas (§32a2)
D.-L. papranni lahhivanni zankilanni
Abl. paprannaz(a)
Instr. huitnit
Plural
N.-A. lahhivatar
zankilatar
HI.A
(zankilatarri
HI.A
)
84) c) Abstracts in -essar
hannessar "business". uppessar "sending" (with ablaut)
Singular Plural
N.-A. hannessar uppessar
uppessar
HI.A
Erg. uppesnantes
Gen. hannesnas (hannissanas; §10. 26)
D.-L. hannesni (hannassani; §11. 26) uppesni
Abl. hannesnaz (hannisnanza; §10. 60)
Instr. hannesnit
85) d) Words in -war
All with ablaut ; till now. only in the singular : asawar "enclosure. Ience". partawar "handle".
Nom.-Acc. asawar partawar
Gen. partaunas
D.-L. asauni
Abl. asaunaz partaunaz
Instr. partaunit
This group is close to the inIlection oI the verbal substantive in -war. without being strictly
identical.
86) e) Words in -mar
hilammar "gate". Here too. only in the singular.
Nom.-Acc.
E
hilammar
Gen.
(
E
)hilamnas (hilannas? ; §32b2)
D.-L.
(
E
)hilamni
All. hilamna
Abl.
(
E
)hilamnaz
34
This group is close to the inIlection oI the verbal substantive in -mar. without being strictly
identical.
87) Miscellaneous consonant stems
Always neuter and attested only in the singular.
 s-stem : nepis "sky". ais "mouth" (with ablaut)
 guttural-stem : isgaruh "container"
N.-A. nepis ais isqaruh (iskarih)
Gen. nepisas issas
D.-L. nepisi (nepis; §59d1) issi (aissi) isqaruhi
All. nepisa
Abl. nepisaz(a) (nepisanza; §60) issaz
Instr. issit isgaruhit
88) Blend oI n-stems and vocalic stems
a) Some substantives are inIlected partly as a-stems and partly as n-stems. Thus Ior example
memiva(n)- "word. speech". arkamma(n)- "tribute". hara(n)- "eagle". alkista(n)- "branch (?)".
muri(van)- "grape Iruit" (all oI common gender).
Singular
Nom. memivas arkammas
haras
MUSEN
(
GIS
)alkistas
mures
Acc. memivan arkamman haran (hãranan) alkistanan
Gen. memivanas arkammanas haranas
D.-L. memivani (memini; §14a1)
Abl. memivanaz (meminaza; §14a1)
Instr. meminit (§14a1) murinit
Plural
Nom.
hãranis
MUSEN
Acc.
memivanus (memivanes;
§63a; memivas)
arkammus
(argamanus)
GIS
alkistanus
murivanus
(murius)
b) The very variable inIlection oI kutru(wan)- comm. "witness" can be interpreted in the same way :
Singular Plural
Nom. kutruwas kutrues (kutruwas. kutrus; §17a; kutruwanes. kutruenes; §17b)
D.-L. kutrui kutruas
89) Irregular inIlection
a) The two neuter roots kard- "heart" (logogr. SA) and parn- "house" (logogr. E) have their N.-A.
Sg built by lengthening the vowel oI the roots
*
ker and
*
per :
35
Singular Plural
N.-A. SA-ir pir kir E-ir
Gen. kardivas (stem in -i) parnas
D.-L. kardi parni (E-i; §59d1) parnas
All. karta parna
Abl. kartaz parnaza
Instr. kardit
b) The unusual inIlection oI the expression hassa hanzassa "grand-son and grand-grand-son (?)" is
not well understood :
Singular Plural
Nom. hassa hanzassa hasses hanzasses
Acc. hassa hanzassa hassus hanzassus
D.-L. hassi hanzassi hassas-sas hanzassas-sas
Instr. hassit hanzassit
36
C. Adjective comparison
93) Hittite does not Iorm the adiective comparative by means oI a suIIix as it is the case in other I.E.
languages. Comparison is expressed by the only adiective. and it can be detected only thanks to the
context.
94) a) However. one can recognize a suIIix -zi- in hantezzi- "Iirst". appezzi- "last". sarazzi-
"superior" and sanezzi- "sweet".
b) kattera- "inIerior" is constructed diIIerently. but with a similar Iunction.
95) kattera- is inIlected as an a-stem. the others as substantives in -i with some variations like
va-stems :
Singular
Nom. comm.
hantezzis
(hantezzivas)
appizzis
(appizzivas)
sarazzis sanezzis katterras
Acc. comm.
hantezzin
(hantezzivan)
appizzin
(appizzivan)
sarazzivan sanezzin katteran
N.-A. n. hantezzi appizzi sarazzi sanezzi kattera
Gen. hantezzivas
D.-L. hantezzi appizziva sarazzi katteri
Abl. hantezzivaz appizzivaz sarazzivaz sanizzivaz
Instr. sanizzit
Plural
Nom. comm.
hantezzes
(hantezzius.
hantezzivas)
appizzes
UGU-azzis
(UGU-azzius)
katteres
(katterrus)
Acc. comm. sanizzius
D.-L. hantezzivas
37
Chapter 4
Pronouns and numbers
A. PersonaI pronouns
96) Independant Iorms oI the 1st and 2nd persons
"I" "you" (Sg.) "we" "you" (Pl.)
Nom. uk (ugga. ammuk) zig (zigga) wes (anzãs) sumes (sumãs)
Acc. ammuk (ammugga) tuk (tugga) anzãs sumãs (sumes)
Gen. ammel tuel anzel sumel (sumenzan)
D.-L. ammuk (uga) tuk (tugga) anzãs sumãs (sumes)
Abl. ammedaz(a) tuedaz(a) anzedaz sumedaz
97) a) Old-Hittite uses the Iorms uk. wes and sumes only Ior nominative ; ammuk. anzãs and sumãs
are used only Ior dative and accusative. Neo-Hittite borrowed the accusative Ior the nominative. and
the Iorms uk and wes have nearly vanished. The use oI the nominative sumes Ior the accusative is
explained by a borrowing oI the nominative (§63a). The identity oI the Iorms Ior accusative and
dative such as sumes shows a glide toward the dative. Also. the nominative Iorm uga moved toward
the dative. On the opposite. zik and tuk have not merged.
b) Old-Hittite has a Iorm sumenzan "your (Pl.)" ; sumel and anzel are more recent Iorms.
98) The pronoun apã- is used as an independant pronoun oI the 3rd person ; cI. §111II.
99) The suIIix -il(a) expresses reIlexion : ukila (ukel) "myselI". zikila "yourselI". sumãsila
"yourselves". apãsila "himselI" (Pl. Nom. apãsila. Acc. apãsilus!).
100) Enclitics Ior dative and accusative
a)
-mu "me. to me" -nas "us. to us"
-ta (-du beIore -za; §40) "you. to you (Sg.)" -smas "you. to you (Pl.)"
-si "to him" (Dat. only) -smas "to them" (Dat. only)
b) Examples with nu "and" : nu-mu "and to me". nu-tta "and to you (Sg.)" (§39). nu-ssi "and to
him". nu-nnas "and to us". nu-smas "and to you (Pl.). and to them".
nu-mu-asta "and then (?) to me" becomes numasta (§38a).
38
RefIexive pronouns
101) The reIlexive pronouns are expressed by the corresponding personal pronouns or by means oI
the particle -za (-z).
The pronominaI encIitic root -a- "he, she, it"
102) a) For the nominative and the accusative oI the pronoun oI the 3rd person. patricular Iorms oI
the root -a- are used ; with -si "to him" and -smas "to them". they Iorm a whole paradigm :
Singular Plural
Nom. comm. -as old -e. neo -at
Acc. comm. -an old -us. neo -as
N.-A. n. -at old -e. neo -at
This enclitic -a- comes probably Irom a weakened Iorm oI the accentuated demonstrative a- "this"
(§116).
b) For the Nom. Pl. comm.. Old-Hittite has kept the I.E. Iorm oI the pronoun Nom. Pl. -e ·
*
-oi.
whereas Neo-Hittite has used the Iorm at Iirst Sg.. then Pl. oI the neuter -at.
103) a) nu "and" and the older words ta "and" and su "and" combine with these Iorms according to
§38a and b to give n-as. t-as. s-as "and he". n-at. t-at "and it". n-an. t-an. s-an "and him" (Acc. Sg.).
n-e. tã (·
*
ta-e). s-e. n-at "and they". n-us (n-as). t-us (t-as). s-us (s-as) "and them" (Acc.Pl.).
b) Attached to nu and the particle -wa(r)- oI quotation. it becomes : nu-war-as "and he". nu-war-an
"and him" (Acc. Sg.). nu-war-at "and it". nu-war-i "and they" (Nom. Pl.; -i instead oI -e; §9a 102a).
c) It is not sure whether the neuter -it "it" in the expression netta "and it Ior you (Sg.)" (·
*
nu-it-ta ?) comes Irom a root -i- "he". It could be a Iorm nu-e-ta (N.-A. Pl. n.) with a semantic
change "and he Ior you" ~ "and it Ior you".
104) -as. -at. etc... are sometimes doubled : nassivas (·
*
nu-as-si-as) next to nassi (·
*
nu-as-si)
"and he Ior him". natsivat (·
*
nu-at-si-at) next to natsi (·
*
nu-at-si) "and it Ior him".
IsoIated pronouns of the 3rd person
105) a) The Iollowing Sg. oblique Iorms are built Irom a root si- "he. she. it" :
Gen. sel
D.-L. setani
Abl. sez
The dative enclitics -si "to him" and -smas "to them" (§100a) maybe come Irom the same root.
b) On the other hand. there is no nominative or accusative Iorm coming Irom a root sa-. The Iorms
Sg. Nom. comm. sas. Acc. comm. san and Pl. Nom. comm. se. Acc. comm. sus oI Old-Hittite. that
have been understood Ior long as irreducible Iorms. are in Iact built Irom the ancient and rare word
su "and" and the enclitic pronoun -a- "he" (§103a) like nas ·
*
nu-as.
39
B. Possessive pronouns and adjectives
106) a) Neo-Hittite has borrowed its possessive pronouns Irom the genitive oI the personal
pronouns : ammel attas "my Iather". tuel anni "to your (Sg.) mother". etc...
b) For a possible use oI the personal pronouns instead oI the possessive pronouns. cI §213b2.
107) Old-Hittite still has independent possessive adiectives that are sometimes Iound in Neo-Hittite
in set phrases. They are always enclitic :
-mi- "my"
-ti- "your (Sg.)" -smi- "your (Pl.)"
-si- "his" -smi- "their"
The possessive adiective oI the 1st Pl. person is not attested.
108) These adiectives are inIlected as a blend oI a- and i-stems :
Singular
Nom. comm. -mis -tis (-tes) -sis -smis -smes
Acc. comm. -min (-man) -tin -sin (-san) -sman
N.-A. n. -mit (-met) -tit -sit (-set) -smet (-semet)
-smet (-smit. -semet.
-samet. -simit. -summit)
Voc. -mi
Gen. -mas -tas -sas
D.-L. -mi -ti (-di) -si -smi -smi (-summi)
All. -ma -ta -sa -sma
Instr. -tit -set (-sit) -smit
Plural
Nom. comm. -mis -tis (-tes) -ses (-sis) -smes
Acc. comm.
-mus (-mis,
§63a)
-tus (-dus) -sus -smus
N.-A. n. -mit (-met) -set
Gen. man (§62a)
D.-L. -tas -smas
109) a) The possessive adiective agrees in case and number with the substantive : Gen. Sg.
kardivas-tas "oI your (Sg.) heart". D.-L. Sg. kissari-mi "in my hand". atti-ssi "to his Iather". istarni-
smi "in their center". Nom. Pl. aresmes ·
*
ares-smes (§19a) "your (Pl.) Iriends". Acc. Pl.
sarhuwandus-sus "her unborn children".
The Iinal -n oI the Acc. Sg. oI the substantive is assimilated according to §36a1 with the initial oI
the possessive : Acc. Sg. halugatallattin ·
*
halugatallan-tin "your (Sg.) envoy" (next to
halugatallan-min "my envoy". without assimilation). tuzzi-man ·
*
tuzzin-man "my army".
arha-ssan ·
*
arhan-san "his border".
40
b) In the Neo-Hittite era. the separation between the two elements is less and less Ielt. Following
constructions like attas-sis "his Iather" (Nom. Sg.) : attassin ·
*
attan-sin "his Iather" (Acc. Sg.). one
builds the Nom. Sg. attas-mis "my Iather". but the Acc. Sg. attasmin and attasman "my Iather". as
well as attastin "your (Sg.) Iather". as iI the inIlection only aIIected the end oI the group.
C. Demonstrative pronouns
110) The declension oI the Iollowing pronouns is clearer than those already seen. The endings are :
Singular Plural
Nom. comm. -s -e. -es. -us
Acc. comm. -n -us
N.-A. n. -t. - -e. -
Gen. -el (-edas) -enzan (-el)
D.-L. -edani (-edi) -edas
Abl. -ez (-edaz) -ez
Instr. -(i)t
111) The most important pronouns are kã- "this. hic" and apã- "that. is". apã- is also used as a
pronoun Ior the 3rd person with the meaning "he. she".
For apãsila "himselI". cI. §99.
112) Singular Plural
Nom. comm. kãs apãs ke. kùs (keus) ape. apùs
Acc. comm. kùn (kãn) apùn (apãn) kùs (ke, §63a) apùs (ape, §63a)
N.-A. n. ki (ke, §10) apãt ke (ki, §10) ape
Gen. kel apel kenzan (kedas) apenzan (apedas)
D.-L. kedani (keti) apedani (apeti) kedas apedas
Abl. kez (kezza) apez (apizza) kizza
Instr. ket (kedanda) apit (apedanda)
113) a) In Nom. Pl.. the Old-Hittite Iorms ke and ape. coming Irom the I.E. era. are replaced in Neo-
Hittite by the inIlected Iorms kùs and apùs coming Irom an analogical construction with the noun.
or. according to §63b Irom a borrowing oI the Acc. Pl.
b) The occasional Iorm ke oI the Acc. Pl. comes. according to §63a. Irom a borrowing oI the
nominative Iorm.
c) The unique Iorm keus oI the Nom. Pl. comes Irom the Iorm ke to which has been added the
pleonastic nominative ending -us.
114) From kã- and apã- are derived several adverbs :
a) kã "here". apiva "there ; then" ; ket "to here". apeda "over there" ; kez "Irom here". apez "Irom
there".
b) apidda "over there". apidda (apiddan. apeda ; also apidda(n) ser) "thereIore".
41
c) kissan "thus. consequently". slightly diIIerent apenissan "thus".
d) From the root kã- is derived the interiections kãsa "look!" and kãsma "look!".
115) Two pronominal adiectives are built Irom kissan and apenissan with the meaning "such" (also
"so much") : kissuwant- "toioooc" and penissuwant "toiou6 toc". Their declension is like humant-
(§77).
116) A deIective demonstrative root a- with the meaning "here" gives the Iollowing Iorms :
Singular Plural
Nom. comm.
*
e in es-ta (÷
*
e-sta "thus them ?")
D.-L. edani edas
Abl. ediz (etez. edaza)
117) The roots eni-. uni- and anni-. all meaning "that (aIore mentioned)" are designated as "halI-
inIlected". They are maybe already deictic particles.
a) One Iinds Irom uni- an Acc. Sg. comm. unin. a Nom.-Acc. Sg n. uni (also with a plural meaning)
and a Nom. and Acc. Pl. comm. unius.
b) One Iinds Irom eni- the Nom. Sg. comm. enis. the N.-A. Sg. n. eni (also with a plural meaning)
and an Acc. Pl. comm. enius. As Ior kissan. one Iinds an adverb enissan "as aIore mentioned".
c) One Iinds Irom anni- only a Nom. Sg. comm. annis. From this root are derived the adverbs annaz
and annisan "Iormerly".
118) One Iinds in texts the word oIten uninIlected asi- "the previous". used in the Nom. and the
Acc. Sg. at all genders. One also Iinds the Nom. Sg. comm. asis.
D. Interrogative and reIative pronouns
119) Nearly only the root kui- produces alive paradigms. It is used to Iorm interrogative and relative
substantives and adiectives.
Singular Plural
Nom. comm. kuis kues (kueus, §63b)
Acc. comm. kuin kueus (kues. kuis. kue, §63a)
N.-A. n. kuit kue
Gen. kuel
D.-L. kuedani kuedas
Abl. kuez (kuezza)
120) a) The general relatives are kuis kuis. kuis-as kuis "whoever". kuis imma. kuis imma kuis. kuis-
as imma. kuis-as imma kuis "whoever else".
42
Singular Plural
N.-A. n. kue kue
Gen. kuel imma
D.-L. kuedani (imma) kuedani kuedas kuedas
Abl. kuez imma kuez
b) kuissa "that" (§125a) can also be used with the meaning "whatever".
121) A pronoun derived Irom kui- is built with the ethnic suIIix : kuenzumna- "he who comes
Irom".
122) A parallel stem kua- (· I.E.
*
k
w
o-) has been used to build an adverb Irom the original Iorm oI
the N.-A. Sg. n. kuwat "why?" (phonetically · k
w
od) as well as other adverbs like kuwapi "where"
and its derivatives. and kuwatta(n) "where. to where" (kuwattan ser "why").
123) a) From an unattested interrogative-relative stem ma- is built masi- "how much" with the
Iollowing Iorms :
Singular Plural
Nom. comm. mases
Acc. comm. masin
N.-A. n. mase
b) From masi- are built masivant- and masiwant-. both meaning "as much as". with an inIlection
close to hùmant- "whole" (§77).
E. Indefinite pronouns
124) kuiski comm.. kuitki n. is used Ior the substantive "someone. something" and the adiective "a.
an". UL kuiski comm.. UL kuitki n. is used Ior the substantive "no one. nothing" and the adiective
"no. not any ".
125) a) kuissa (kuisa). made oI kuis and -a "and". means "each one" (and also "whoever" ; §120b).
b) kuis - kuis means "the one - the other".
126) InIlection oI kuiski and kuis(s)a :
Singular Plural
Nom. c. kuiski kuissa (kuisa) kuesqa kuesa
Acc. c. kuinki kuinna kuiusga kuiussa
N.-A. n. kuitki kuitta kueqa (kueqqa. kuekki)
Gen. kuelqa (kuelga. kuelka. kuelki) kuella
D.-L. kuedanikki (kuedanikka) kuedaniva kuedasqa
Abl. kuezqa kuezzi(va)
43
127) tamai- "other" is inIlected halI as a pronoun. halI as a noun. dapiva- "each. all" is also used to
build isolated pronominal Iorms. InIlection :
Singular Plural
Nom. comm. damais damaus (§63b)
Acc. comm. damain damaus
N.-A. n. tamai dapivan (dapin, §14a1) tamãi
Gen. dammel (tamedas) dapias dapidas
D.-L. damedani dapi damedas dapias
All. tamatta (tameda)
Abl. tamedaz (damedaza) dapiza (dapidaz)
128) From damai- "other" are built :
a) an adiective dameli- "diIIerent" (Sg. Acc. comm. damelin. D.-L. dammeli).
b) an adverb dameda "elsewhere".
F. Numbers
129) a) The pronunciation oI most numbers is unknown since numbers are generally written with
cuneiIorm logograms.
b) Only a Iew Iorms oI numbers are known :
1. The reading oI the number "one" is still contested : siva-.
2. The I.E. root dã appears in the ordinal dãn (§133) and the composition dã-vuga- "two-year-old".
3. The I.E. root
*
tri- "three" appears in the genitive te-ri-va-as (§132a). in
LU
tarrivanalli- (§133b)
and in the name oI liquid terivalla- (tarivalla-).
4. The word meu- "Iour" does not come Irom I.E. but Irom the Luwian mauwa "Iour". and is Iound
in several inIlected Iorms written phonetically.
5. The I.E.
*
sipta(m) "seven" appears in the name oI liquid siptamiva.
130) "one" is inIlected halI as a pronoun and halI as an adiective :
Nom. comm. 1-as (1-is)
Acc. comm. 1-an
N.-A. n. 1-an
Gen. 1-el
D.-L. 1-edani
Abl. 1-edaz (1-edaza. 1-eaz)
44
131) a) InIlection oI "two" :
Nom. comm. 2-us (2-el)
Acc. comm. 2-e (2-ela. 2-el)
D.-L. 2-etas
b) The expression "both" is expressed by 2-pat or more simply by 2-el (with the particle -pat
"accurate. right").
132) a) InIlection oI "three" :
Nom. comm.
3-es (i.e.
*
tres)
Acc. comm. 3-us (3-e)
Gen.
te-ri-ia-as (i.e.
*
trivas)
b) InIlection oI meu- "Iour" :
Nom. comm. mevawas (mewas)
Acc. comm. meus (4-as?)
Gen. mi-i-u-wa·-as?~
D.-L. 4-tas
133) a) The Iirst ordinals are known by their reading :
 hantezzi- "Iirst" (etymologically "ahead" ; §94).
 dãn "second" (uninIlected).
b) Hittite builds its ordinals with the suIIix -anna :
 2-anna (÷
*
danna ?) "second".
 3-anna "third".
 4-anna (4-in) "Iourth".
 5-anna "IiIth".
 6-anna "sixth".
 7-anna "seventh".
134) a) The numeral adverbs usually end with -anki :
 1-anki "once".
 2-anki "twice".
 5-anki "Iive times". etc...
b) It is possible that a construction with -is also exists :
 2-is "twice (?)".
 3-is "three times (?)".
 4-is "Iour times (?)". etc...
c) CI. also the Iollowing adverbial constructions :
1. From "one" : 1-eda "at a precise place ; Ior oneselI". 1-etta "in an only (?). to an only (?) ;
together".
2. From "two" : 2-an (i.e.
*
taksan) "halIway (?)".
45
Chapter 5
The verb
A. Derivation
135) The derivation oI verbs thanks to suIIixes constitutes the biggest part oI the chapter.
136) -ahh- is a denominative with the meaning "to do what the base word means" and "to bring to a
(natural and continuous) state" : sarazzivahh- "to put right on top" (sarazzi- "superior. paramount").
nakkivahh- "to make diIIicult" (nakki- "diIIicult"). idãlawahh- "to act badly" (idãlu- "nasty").
kururivahh- "to make war" (kurur "hostility"). 3-vahh- (i.e.
*
trivahh-) "to triple". 4-ivahh- "to
quadruple".
137) -annãi- expresses a persistence. somehow like a durative : iva- "to go . to march" ivannãi- "to
march continuously". parh- "to chase" parhannãi- "to chase continuously". walh- "to strike"
walhannãi- "to strike continuously".
The durative is oIten used with the iterative in -sk- (§141) : walh- "to strike" walhannesk- "to strike
unceasingly". hewãi- "to rain" hewannesk- "to rain unceasingly the whole day".
138) -es- is a denominative with the meaning "to become what the base word means" : idãlawes- "to
become nasty. to quarrel" (idãlu- "nasty"). parkues- "to become pure" (parkui- "pure"). salles- "to
grow . to increase" (salli- "tall"). makkes- "to become many. to grow" (mekki- "much").
139) The inIix -nin- is used. like the more Irequent suIIix -nu- (§140). in order to build the causative
oI some verbs : hark- "to collapse" harnink- "to throw down". istark- "to be ill" istarnink- "to make
ill".
140) a) The suIIix -nu- is the usual way to build the causative oI verbe : ar- "to stay" arnu- "to
send". war- "to burn" warnu- "to set on Iire". link- "to swear" linganu- "to administer the oath".
hark- "to collapse" harganu- "to throw down". weh- "to turn" wahnu- "to turn over".
b) There is sometimes no diIIerence between a verb and the one with -nu- : pahs- and pahsanu- "to
protect".
c) Occasionally. -nu- is used like -ahh- (§136) in order to build verbs Irom nouns with the meaning
"to act according to the base word by modiIying a Iormer state" : maliskunu- "to weaken" (malisku-
"weak"). dassanu- "to strengthen" (dassu- "strong"). sallanu- "to lengthen. to stretch" (salli- "tall").
tepnu- "to lessen" (tepu- "Iew"). parkunu- "to cleanse" (parkui- "pure"). esharnu- "to make bloody"
(eshar- "blood").
141) a) One can build Ior each verbal root a Iorm with the suIIix -sk-. with a meaning close to the
iterative. even though its use is a bit more complex : da- "to take" dask- "to take several times". pãi-
"to give" pesk- "to give several times". ep- "to grab" appisk- "to grab several times". hatrãi- "to
write" hatresk- "to write several times". eku- "to drink" akkusk- "to drink several times". punus- "to
ask" punusk- (·
*
punus-sk-; §19a) "to ask several times".
b) Some peculiar Iorms : ar- "to stay" ar(a)sk- "to stay several times" (§22). sipand- "to make a
46
libation" sipanzak- (i.e.
*
sipand-sk-; §22) "to make libations several times". ed- "to eat" azzikk- "to
adore" (§22). dãi- "to put" zikk- "to put several times" (§24). kuen- "to strike" kuask- (§11. 31a) "to
strike several times" (next to kuennisk-). hanna- "to iudge". hannesk- and hassik- "to iudge several
times" (§22. 31a). aus- "to see" usk- "to see several times".
c) 1. Because oI its Irequent use. -sk- is oIten used along with other suIIixes : arnusk- "to bring
several times". harninkisk- "to throw down several times". kururivahhesk- "to keep on making war".
2. In particular. the durative in -annãi- (§137) is oIten Iollowed by the iterative suIIix -sk- : walh-
"to strike" walhannesk- "to always strike continuously". pars- "to break" parsivannesk- "to break
one aIter the other".
d) One seldom Iinds the suIIix -ss- borrowed Irom Luwian instead oI -sk- : essa- "to do several
times" (iva- "to do"). halzessa- "to call several times" (halzãi- "to call").
142) Occasionally. a phenomenon oI reduplication oI the verbal root occurs : wek- and wewak- "to
wish. to ask". kis- and kikkis- "to become". kikki- instead oI ki- "(to lie ÷) to start" ; cI. also pappars-
"to spring". katkattenu- "to make snort". asas- "to sit". wariwarant- ÷ warant- "burning".
For an iterative meaning oI the Iorms with reduplication. cI. the replacement oI wewakkinun "I
demanded immediatly" in KBo III 4 II 11 by the iterative wekiskinun in the copy 888/c III 9.
143) a) As in the other I.E. languages. Hittite uses particles to modiIy the meaning oI verbal roots.
Hittite exhibits here an archaic side since particles are always written as independant words and
small words can be placed between the particle and the verb.
b) The most important particles are : anda (andan) "to the inside". appa (appan) "back. again".
arha "away". katta (kattan) "downwards ; in addition. with". parã "Iorward ; out". piran "ahead".
sarã "upwards. up". ser "above" ; e.g. pãi- "to go" anda pãi- "to go into". appa pãi- "to go back".
appan pãi- "to go aIter". arha pãi- "to go away". parã pãi- "to go on ; to go out". sarã pãi- "to go
up" ; dã- "to take" appa(n) dã- "to take back". arha dã- "to take away". parã dã- "to take out".
katta(n) dã- "to take down". sarã dã- "to take up ; to take. to catch".
c) 1. A verb can have several particles at the same time : appa(n) anda pãi- "to go into again". ser
arha dã- "to take up away". appa sarã dã- "to take up again".
2. The particle awan is used only with another particle. e.g. awan arha "away". awan katta
"downwards". It is diIIicult to deIine its precise meaning.
144) a) Unlike the isolated particles. the preIixes u- "here" and pe- "there" are indissociably attached
to the verb : uda- (ueda-) "to bring". peda- "to send" ; uiva- "to bring". peva- "to send" ; unna- "to
pull". penna- "to push". The relation between uizzi "he comes" and pãizzi "he goes" as well as
between the pair uwate- "to bring" and pehute- "to send" is less clear.
b) However. it happens that the particle pe- "there" occurs as isolated (especially as a complement
oI hark- "to hold"). and that particles are inserted between it and the verb : pe harzi "he produces".
pe-pat harkanzi "they also produce".
B. InfIection
145) The Hittite verb has two coniugations. named Irom the ending oI the 1st pers. Sg. Pres. : the
mi-coniugation and the hi-coniugation.
47
146) There are two voices : the active voice and the medio-passive voice. The second one is used
Ior the middle. as in Greek or Indo-Iranian. Ior the passive and Ior the deponent verbs (i.e. verbs
with an active meaning coniugated at the medio-passive voice).
147) a) The inIlection system oI the verb is very simple : there are two simple tenses. present (also
used Ior Iuture) and preterite. and two modes. indicative and imperative. Some compound tenses are
built with auxiliary verbs (§184. 259).
b) The verb is coniugated with two numbers. singular and plural. There is no dual.
148) There are some verbal nouns. namely the inIinitives I and II. the supine and the verbal
substantive. as well as a participle. oI passive meaning Ior transitive verbs and active meaning Ior
intansitive verbs.
149) Outline oI the endings :
Active Medio-passive
mi-coni. hi-coni. mi-coni. hi-coni.
Indicative Present
Sg. 1. -mi -hi (-ahhi) -hahari (-hari. -ha) -hahari (-hari)
2. -si -ti -tati (-ta) -tati (-ta)
3. -zi -i -tari (-ta) -ari (-a)
Pl. 1. -weni -weni -wastati (-wasta) -wastati (-wasta)
2. -teni -teni -duma (-dumari) -duma
3. -anzi -anzi -antari (-anta) -antari (-anta)
Indicative Preterite
Sg. 1. -un (-nun) -hun -hahat(i) (-hat(i)) -hahat(i) (-hat(i))
2. -s (-t. -ta) -s (-ta. -sta) -tat(i) (-ta) -at(i) (-tat)
3. -t (-ta) -s (-ta. -sta) -tat(i) (-ta) -at(i)
Pl. 1. -wen -wen -wastat -
2. -ten (-tin) -ten (-tin) -dumat -dumat
3. -er (-ir) -er (-ir) -antat(i) -antat(i)
Imperative
Sg. 1. -(a)llu -allu -haharu (-haru) -haharu (-haru)
2. - (-i. -t) - (-i) -hut(i) -hut(i)
3. -du -u -taru -aru
Pl. 1. -weni -weni - -
2. -ten (-tin) -ten (-tin) -dumat(i) -dumat(i)
3. -andu -andu -antaru -antaru
48
Verbal substantive InIinitive Supine Participle
-war I. -wanzi -wan -ant-
II. -anna
150) In Neo-Hittite. the Iollowing tendencies develop :
a) 1. The ending -ti oI the 2. Pers. Sg. Pres. oI the hi-coniugation sneaks into the mi-coniugation :
epsi and epti "you grab (Sg.)". harsi and harti "you hold (Sg.)". Old-H. istamassi Neo-H. istamasti
"you hear (Sg.)". karussivasi and karussivatti "you keep silent (Sg.)". harnikti "you ruin (Sg.)".
manivahti "you handle (Sg.)".
2. More rarely. the ending -si oI the same person can be Iound in the hi-coniugation : normaly
wastatti and rarely wastasi "you sin (Sg.)".
b) 1. The verbs in -ahh- (§136). that are coniugated according to the mi-coniugation. can build their
3. Pers. Sg. Pres. and Pret. according to the hi-coniugation : dasuwahzi and dasuwahhi "he dazzles".
isivahta and isivahhis "he searched".
2. Consequently. Ior huittiva- "to drag". 3. Sg. Pres. huittivazi and huittivai.
c) Conversely. the inIlection oI the 3. Pers. Sg. Pret. and Imp. oI the mi-coniugation can be used in
the hi-coniugation : akis and akta "he is dead". aku and akdu "he must die".
d) Some verbs are coniugated with both coniugations : dalahhi and dalivami "I let". Several
examples can be Iound at §178. A lot oI verbs exhibit small irregularities that cannot all be listed in
this grammar. The lexicon should be used instead.
151) Particularities oI the mi-coniugation :
a) The 2. Pers. Sg. Pres. rarely ends in -zi : istamaszi "you hear (Sg.)".
b) Neo-Hittite oIten builds the 2. Pers. Sg. Pret. Irom the 3. Pers. Sg. : Old-H. ivas Neo-H. ivat "you
did (Sg.)" (same as ivat "he did"). Old-H. sallanus "you made larger (Sg.)" sallanut "he made
larger". Neo-H. tittanut "you put (Sg.)" and "he put".
c) At the 1. Pers. Sg. Imp.. es- "to be" has. along with the regular Iorm asallu "I want to be". the
irregular Iorms eslut and eslit "I want to be".
152) Particularities oI the hi-coniugation :
a) 1. The 3. Pers. Sg. Pres. oI the hi-coniugation has sometimes an ending -ai instead oI -i : sipandi
"he sacriIices" and rarely sippandai. arri "he washes" and sometimes arrai.
2. Also at the 3. Pers. Pl. Pret. : sipantir "they sacriIiced" and the isolated Iorm sippantair.
b) Conversely. the Iorm oI the 3. Pers. Sg. Pres. wastai (root wasta- ¹ ending -i) oI the verb wasta-
"to sin" is also written wasti.
c) At the 3. Pers. Sg. Pres.. one Iinds parsiva "he breaks" (§178) with -a instead oI -i. probably by
dissimilation oI the preceding -i-.
153) At the Pret. and Imp. oI the medio-passive. the Iorms with an ending -i oI Old-Hittite
(-(ha)hati. -tati. -ati. -antati. -huti and -dumati) correspond to the Iorms without -i oI Neo-Hittite
(-(ha)hat. -tat. -at. -antat. -hut and -dumat).
49
1. Active voice
a. mi-Conjugation
1. Consonant stems
154) a) Monosyllabic stems with one Iinal consonant : es- "to be". ep- "to grab". nah- "to Iear". ãs-
"to stay". ses- "to sleep". wek- "to require". eku- "to drink" (i.e.
*
ek
w
-) :
Indicative Present
Singular
1. esmi epmi nahmi
2. essi epsi (epti, §150a1) nahti (§150a1)
3. eszi epzi ãszi
Plural
1. eppueni
2. epteni (apteni, §11) nahteni
3. asanzi appanzi ãssanzi
Singular
1. sesmi wekmi ekumi
2. wekti (§150a1) ekussi
3. seszi wekzi ekuzi (ekuzazzi. ezzazi. §155)
Plural
1. sesueni akueni
2. ekutteni
3. sesanzi (sasanzi) wek(k)anzi akuwanzi (ekuwanzi)
Indicative Preterite
Singular
1. esun eppun nah(h)un
2. esta ãsta
3. esta epta (ipta) nahta
Plural
1. esuen eppuen (appuen)
2. esten epten
3. esir eppir
50
Singular
1. sesun wekun ekun
3. sesta wekta ekutta
Plural
1. wekuewen (!) ekuen
3. sessir wekir ekuer
Imperative
Singular
1. asallu (eslut. eslit)
2. es ep nãhi
3. esdu epdu (eptu) ãsdu
Plural
2. esten epten
3. asandu appandu
Singular
2. ses wek eku
3. sesdu
Plural
2. sesten ekutten
3. akuwandu
Verbal subst. esuwar Gen. nahhuwas sesuwar wekuwar
InI. I eppuwanzi ãssuwanzi sesuwanzi
InI. II appanna akuwanna
Participe asant- appant- nahhant- ãssant- sasant- wekant- akuwant-
155) b) Similar. with the insertion oI an -s- between the root and the ending : ed- "to eat". mat- "to
support". ispart- "to escape" :
Indicative Present
Singular
1. edmi
2. ezzassi mazatti
3. ezzazzi (ezzai; §150b2) mazzazzi (mazzi) isparzazzi (isparzizi. isparzai. §150b2)
Plural
1. eduwani (atueni)
2. ezzatteni (azzasteni)
3. adanzi
51
Indicative Preterite
Singular
1. edun isparzahhun (hi-coni.)
2. mazzasta isparzasta
3. ezta mazzasta isparzas (isparzasta)
Plural
3. eter isparter (isparzir)
Imperative
Singular
2. et (ezza. ezzazza)
3. ezzaddu
Plural
2. ezzatten (ezzasten)
3. adandu (ezzandu)
InI. II adanna
Part. adant- isparzant-
156) c) Similar. with ablaut (§18) : kuen- "to strike. to kill". huek- "to swear" (and huek- "to throw
down") :
Indicative Present
Singular
1. kuemi (§31a) hukmi
2. kuesi (§31a) (kuenti. §150a1)
3. kuenzi kuerzi (kuirri) huekzi (hukzi)
Plural
1. kuennummeni
2. kuenatteni
3. kunanzi (kuennanzi) kuranzi hukanzi
Indicative Preterite
Singular
1. kuenun (kuenunun)
2. kuinnesta
3. kuenta kuerta huekta
Plural
1. kueun (§31a) (kuinnummen) hugawen
.2 kuenten
3. kuennir kuerir
52
Imperative
Singular
2. kuen(n)i
3. kuendu huikdu
Plural
2. kuenten
3. kunandu kurandu
Verbal subst. Gen. kuennumas
InI. I kuennummanzi
InI. II kunanna kuranna hùkanna-
Part. kunant- (kuennivant-) kurant- hùgant-
157) d) Monosyllabic with two Iinal consonants ; cI. §22 and 23a : walh- "to strike". sanh- "to
search". hark- "to collapse". karp- "to liIt". link- "to swear".
Indicative Present
Singular
1. wa-al-ah-mi sa-an-ah-mi (sa-an-ha-mi)
2. wa-la'-ah-si (§23c) sa-an-ah-ti (sa-na'-ah-ti. §23c, sa-an-ha-ti. sa-an-ha-si)
3. wa-al-ah-zi sa-an-ah-zi (sa-an-ha-zi)
Plural
1. wa-al-hu-wa-ni (wa-al-ah-hu-e-ni)
2. wa-al-ah-ta-ni sa-an-ah-te-ni (sa-an-ha-at-te-ni)
3. wa-al-ha-an-zi (wa-al-ah-ha-an-zi) sa-an-ha-an-zi
Singular
1. kar-ap-mi
2. har-ak-ti
3. har-ak-zi kar-ap-zi (karpizzi. kar-ap-pi-iz-zi) li-in-ga-zi (li-ik-zi)
Plural
1. har-ku-e-ni li-in-ku-e-ni (li-ku-wa-an-ni')
2. har-ak-te-ni
3. har-ki-ia-an-zi kar(-ap)-pa-an-zi. kar(-ap)-pi-an-zi li-in-kan-zi
53
Indicative Preterite
Singular
1. wa-al-hu-un (wa-al-ah-hu-un) sa-an-hu-un (sa-an-ah-hu-un. sa-ah-hu-un)
2. wa-al-ah-ta sa-an-ah-ta (sa-an-ha-ta. sa-ah-ta)
Plural
2. wa-al-ah-tin sa-an-ah-tin
3. wa-al-hi-ir sa-an-hi-ir
Singular
1. kar-ap-pu-un li-in-ku-un
3. har-ak-ta kar-ap-ta
li-in-ik-ta (li-in-kat-ta. li-in-kan'-
ta |§31b|. li-ik-ta)
Plural
1. li-in-ku-en (li-in-ga-u-en)
3. kar-pi(-e)-ir
Imperative
Singular
2. wa-al-ah sa-an-ha (sa-a-ah)
3. sa-ah-du
Plural
2. wa-al-ah-tin sa-an-ha-at-tin (sa-a-ah-te-en)
3. sa-an-ha-an-du
Singular
2. kar-ap (kar-ap-pi-ia) li-in-ik (li-in-ki)
3. har-ak-du kar-ap-du
Plural
.2 kar-ap-tin (kar-ap-pi-ia-at-tin) li-en-ik-tin
3. li-in-kan-du
Verbal subst. wa-al-hu-wa-ar kar-pu-wa-ar
InI. I wa-al-hu-wa-an-zi sa-an-hu-wa-an-zi
InI. II har-kan-na
Part. sanhant- harkant- kar(-ap)-pa-an-t- li-in-kan-t-
158) The root hark- "to hold. to have" is special in that it drops its k beIore an ending starting with a
consonant whereas it keeps it beIore an ending starting with a vowel :
54
Indicative Present Indicative Preterite
Singular Plural Singular Plural
1. harmi harweni (harwani) harkun harwen
2. harsi (harti) harteni harten
3. harzi harkanzi harta harkir
Imperative Participe
Singular Plural
2. har-ak harten
3. hardu harkandu harkant-
159) e) Polysyllabic stems : istamas- "to hear". punus- "to ask". hamenk- "to attach".
Indicative Present
Singular
1. istamasmi punusmi ha-ma-an-ga-mi
2. istamassi (istamasti. istamaszi)
3. istamaszi punuszi ha-ma-an-ki
Plural
1. punussueni
2. istamasteni (istamastani)
3. istamassanzi punussanzi hamankanzi (haminkanzi. hamangazi)
Indicative Preterite
Singular
1. istamassun punussun
2. punusta
3. istamasta punusta
ha-mi-ik-ta (ha-ma-ak-ta. ha-ma-an-
kat-ta. ha-ma-na-ak-ta)
Plural
1. punussuen
2. istamasten
3. istamassir punussir haminkir
Imperative
Singular
2. istamas punus
3. istamasdu punusdu
Plural
2. istamasten punusten
3. istamassandu punussandu hamankandu
55
Verbal subst. istamassuwar punussuwar hamenkuwar
InI. I istamassuwanzi
Participe istamassant- hamenkant- (hamankant-)
160) I) Polysyllabic stems ; verbs in -es- and -ahh- : idalawes- "to become evil" ; idalawahh- "to
behave badly". suppivahh- "to clean". manivahh- "to give back".
Indicative Present
Singular
1. idalawahmi
2. idalawesti idalawahti (idalawatti. §28b)
3. idalaweszi idalawahzi
Plural
2. idalawesteni
3. idalawessanzi idalawahhanzi
Singular
1. suppivahmi manivahmi
2. manivahti
3. suppivahhi (§150b1) manivahzi (manivahhi)
Plural
3. suppivahhanzi manivahhanzi
Indicative Preterite
Singular
1. idalawahhun
3. idalawesta HUL-ahta
Plural
1. idalawahhuen
2. HUL-ahten
3.
HUL
MES
-sir
Singular
1. suppivahhun manivahhun
2. manivahta
3. suppivahhas manivahda (manivahhis)
Plural
3. manivahhir
56
Imperative
Singular
2. suppivah manivah
Plural
2. manivahten
Verbal subst. suppivahhuwar
Part. idalawahhant- manivahhant-
2. VocaIic stems
161) a) Polysyllabic stems : uwate- "to bring". pehute- "to supply". wete- "to build". watku- "to
iump".
Indicative Present
Singular
1. uwatemi pehutemi wedahhi
2. uwatesi pehutesi wedasi
3. uwatezzi (uwadazzi) pehutezzi wetezzi watkuz(z)i
Plural
1.
uwateweni (uwatewani.
uwatummeni)
2. uwatetteni (uwatettani) pehutetteni
3. uwadanzi pehudanzi wedanzi watkuwanzi
Indicative Preterite
Singular
1. uwatenun pehutenun
wetenun (wedahhun.
wetun)
2. uwatet pehutet
3. uwatet pehutet (pehutes) wetet (wedas) watkut
Plural
1. uwatewen wetummen
3. uwater pehuter weter
Imperative
Singular
2. uwate (uwati. uwatet) pehute
3. uwateddu
Plural
2. uwatetten (uwatatten) pehutetten
3. uwadandu pehudandu wedandu
57
Verbal subst. wetummar watkuwar
InI. I wetummanzi
Part. pehudant- watkuwant-
162) b) Monosyllabic stems : lã- "to detach". hã- "to believe. to trust". sã- "to be angry".
Indicative Present
Singular Plural
1. lãmi hãmi
2. lãsi hãsi
3. lãi lãnzi sãnzi
Indicative Preterite
Singular Plural
1. lãun (lãnun) hãnun lãwen
2. lãis hãis
3. lãit sãit
Imperative
Singular Plural
2. lãi latten
Verbal subst. sãwar
Part. lant- hãnt- sãnt-
163) c) The monosyllabic root te- "to speak" shares its paradigm with tar- "to speak" :
Indicative Present Indicative Preterite
Sg. Pl. Sg. Pl.
1. temi tarweni tenun
2. tesi tarteni
3. tezzi (and Luw. tardi) taranzi tet
Imperative Part. tarant-
Sg. Pl.
2. tet tetten
3. teddu darandu
164) d) The very Irequent verbs pãi- "to go" and uwa- "to come" are special in that they make the
transition with the verbs in -ãi- :
58
Indicative Present
Singular Plural
1. pãimi uwami (uwammi) paiweni (paiwani) uwaweni
2. pãisi (pãsi. pãitti) uwasi paitteni (paittani) uwatteni
3. pãizzi uizzi pãnzi uwanzi (uenzi)
Indicative Preterite
Singular Plural
1. pãun (pãnun) uwanun (uwanunun) pãiwen (pãwen) uwawen
2. uwas uwatten
3. pãit (paitta) uit (uitti) pãir uer
Imperative
Singular Plural
2. uwatten (uitten)
3. paiddu wuiddu (uwadu) pãndu (pãntu) uwandu
Verbal subst. pãwar uwawar
InI. I pãwanzi uwawanzi
Part. pãnt- uwant-
2. The 2. Pers. Sg. (and partly Pl.) oI the Imperative oI pãi- "to go" and uwa- "to come" are not
commonly used (uwat "come!" is only Iound once). Instead. the Iollowing locutions are used :
a) Ior pãi- "to go" an independant and more Irequent root i- "to go" with the Imperative 2. Pers. Sg.
it "go!" and a Pl. itten "go!" ;
b) Ior uwa- "to come" the interiection ehu "here!" ~ "come!". ehu can also be used with a particle :
andu ehu. parã ehu. kattan ehu.
3. ãi-stems
165) hatrãi- "to write". kappuwãi- "to count. to examine". handãi- "to add". sarkuwãi- "to tighten".
Indicative Present
Singular
1. hatrãmi
2. hatrãsi kapuesi (§17b)
3. hatrãizzi kappuwãizi (kappuezzi. §13a)
Plural
1. hatrãweni (hatrauni. §16)
2. kappuwatteni
3. kappuwanzi (kappuenzi. §17b)
59
Singular
1. handãmi
2. handãsi
3. handãizzi (hantezzi. §13a. handãi) sarkuezzi (sarkuizzi)
Plural
3. handanzi
Indicative Preterite
Singular
1. hatrãnun kappuwanun
2. hatrães kappuit (§13a)
3. hatrãit (hatrães) kappuwãit (kappuet. §13a)
Plural
3. hatrãir
Singular
1. handanun
3. handãit sarkuit (and Luw. sarkutta)
Plural
1. handãuen
3. handãir
Imperative
Singular
2. hatrãi kappuwãi (kappui. §13a)
3. hatrãu kappuwãiddu (kappuiddi. §13a)
Plural
2. hatratten kappuwatten
3. kappuwandu
Singular
2. handãi sarkui (sarku. §16)
3. handaiddu
Plural
3. handandu
Verbal subst. kappuwawar handãwar
InI. I handawanzi
Part. hatrant- kappuwant- handant- sarkuwant-
60
4. iya-stems
166) a) iva- "to do". tiva- "to move Iorward". wemiva- "to Iind". huitiva- "to pull".
Indicative Present
Singular
1. ivami (ivammi) tivami
2. ivasi tivasi
3. ivazi (ivazzi. iezi) tivazi (tiez(z)i. tivazzi. §14b)
Plural
1. ivaweni (ivawani) tivaweni
2. ivatteni tivatteni
3. ivanzi tivanzi (tienzi)
Singular
1. wemivami huittivami
2. wemivasi huittivasi
3. wemivaz(z)i (wemiezi) huittiazi (huittiezzi. huittivai)
Plural
1. wemivaweni
2. huittivatteni
3. wemivanzi huittivanzi
Indicative Preterite
Singular
1. ivanun (ivaun) tivanun
2. ivas (ivat. §151b) tivat
3. ivat (iet) tivat (tiet)
Plural
1. ivawen tivawen
.2 ivatten
3. ier tier
Singular
1. wemivanun huittivanun
3. wemivat (wemit) huittivat (huittit)
Plural
1. wemivawen huittivawen
3. wemiver
61
Imperative
Singular
1. ivallu
2. iva tiva
3. ivadu (iedu) tivaddu
Plural
2. ivatten tivatten
3. ivandu (iendu) tivandu
Singular
2. huitti
Plural
3. wemivandu
Verbal subst. ivawar tivawar huittivawar
InI. I ivawanzi tivawanzi wemivawanzi huittivawanzi
InI. II tivanna
Part. ivant- tivant- (tint-. §141a1) huittivant-
b) The verb huwãi- (hùva-) "to run. to Ilee" oscillates between ãi-stem and iva-stem :
Indicative Present Indicative Preterite
Sg. Pl. Sg. Pl.
1. huvami hùvaweni huvanun
2. huvasi (huevasi)
3. huwãi (huwãizzi) hùvanzi (huwanzi) huwais (huwas) huwair (huer)
Verbal subst. Gen. huvawas
Part. huvant- (huwavant-)
5. Stems with infix -nin- (§139)
167) harnink- "to destroy". sarnink- "to replace". ninik- "to mobilize".
Indicative Present
62
Singular
1. harnikmi sarnikmi
2. harnikti
3. harnikti sarnikzi ninikzi
Plural
1. sarninkueni
2. harnikteni sarnikteni ninikteni
3. harninkanzi sarninkanzi nininkanzi
Indicative Preterite
Singular
1. harninkun sarninkun nininkun
2. harnikta
3. harnikta sarnikta ninikta
Plural
3. harninkir nininkir
Imperative
Singular
2. harnik ninik
3. sarnikdu
Plural
2. harnikten
3. harninkandu nininkandu
Verbal subst. harninkuwar Gen. nininkuwas
InI. I harninkuwanzi sarninkuwanzi
Part. harninkant- sarninkant- nininkant-
63
6. Iteratives in -sk- (§141)
168) a) dask- "to take several times". pesk- "to give several times". usk- "to see oIten" (Irom aus-.
§176). akkusk- "to drink a lot".
Indicative Present
Singular
1. daskimi peskimi
2. daskisi peskisi uskisi (uskatti)
3. daskizzi peskizzi uskizzi akkuskizzi
Plural
1. daskiwani (dasgaweni. §11. 20) pisgaweni
2. daskitteni (daskatteni) piskatteni uskatteni akkuskittani
3. daskanzi peskanzi (paiskanzi) uskanzi akkuskanzi
Indicative Preterite
Singular
1. dasganun peskinun uskinun akkuskinun
2. daskes
3. daskit peskit uskit akkuskit
Plural
1. usgawen
2. peskatten
3. daskir peskir (piskar. §11) akkuskir
Imperative
Singular
1. piskellu
2. peski uski akkuski
3. daskiddu uskiddu akkuskiddu
Plural
2. daskatten piskatten uskatten
akkuskitten
(akkuskatten)
3. daskandu (daiskandu) piskandu uskandu akkuskandu
Verbal subst. uskivawar
Supine daskiwan peskiwan
Part. uskant-
b) azzikk- "to adore". zikk- "to put several times". tarsikk- "to say several times" (§22b. 24)
64
Indicative Present
Singular
1. zikkimi tarsikkimi
2. zikkisi tarsik(k)isi
3. azzikizzi zikkizzi tarsikizzi (tar-as-ki-iz-zi)
Plural
1. zikkiuwani
2. azzikkittani
3. azzikkanzi zik(k)anzi tarsikkanzi (tar-as-kan-zi)
Indicative Preterite
Singular
1. azzikkinun
2. zikkes tar-as-ki-it
3. zikkit
Plural
1. tar-as-ki-u-en (tar-si-ga-u-en)
3. azzik(k)ir zikkir
Imperative
Singular
2. azzikki zikki
3. azzikkiddu zikkiddu
Plural
2. azzikkitten (azzikkatten)
3. azzikkandu
Part. zikkant-
7. Causatives in -nu-
169) arnu- "to bring". wahnu- "to turn". pahsanu- (pahhasnu-. §26) "to insure". assanu- (asnu-.
§26) "to prepare. to obtain".
Indicative Present
65
Singular
1. arnum(m)i wahnumi pahsanumi assanumi
2. arnusi wahnusi assanusi (asnusi)
3. arnuz(z)i wahnuz(z)i assanuz(z)i (asnuzi)
Plural
1. arnummeni wahnummeni
2. arnutteni wahnutteni
pahsanutteni
(pahhasnutteni)
3. arnu(w)anzi wahnuwanzi pahsanuwanzi assanuanzi (asnuwanzi)
Indicative Preterite
Singular
1. arnunun wahnunun assanunun
3. arnut wahnut assanut
Plural
1. wahnum(m)en
3. arnuir (arnuer) wahnuir (wahnuer) pahsanuir assanuir
Imperative
Singular
1. assanullu (asnullu)
2. arnut pahhassanut asnut
3. arnuddu pahsanuddu assanuddu
Plural
2. arnutten pahhasnutten
3. arnu(w)andu pahhasnuandu
Verbal subst. arnummar
wahnumar
(wahnuwar)
pahsanummar
assanuwawar (!. Gen.
as(sa)num(m)as)
InI. I wahnummanzi
pahsanummanzi
(pahhassanumanzi)
assanummanzi
Part. arnuwant- wahnuwant-
pahsanuwant-
(pahhasnuwant-.
pahhassanuwant-)
66
b. hi-Conjugation
1. Consonant stems
170) a) With one Iinal consonant : sak- "to know" (sek-. §11) ; ak- (ek-) "to die". ar- "to arrive".
wak- "to bite". asas- "to place".
Indicative Present
Singular
1. saggahhi (sãkhi) arhi
2. sakti (sekti) akti arti
3. sakki aki ari
Plural
1. sekkueni akkueni erweni
2. sekteni akteni erteni (arteni)
3. sekkanzi akkanzi aranzi
Singular
1. asashi (asashe. §10)
2. asasti
3. waki asãsi
Plural
3. asesanzi (asisanzi. §10)
Indicative Preterite
Singular
1. saggahhun arhun (a-ar-ah-hu-un. §23a)
2. sakta
3. sakkis (sakta. sekta) ak(k)is (akta) a-ar-as
Plural
1. sekkuen erwen
3. sekkir ekir (akir) erir
Singular
1. asashun
3. wakkis (waqas. wãkit) asasta (asesta)
Plural
1. wakuen
3. asesir (aseser)
67
Imperative
Singular
1. seggallu aggallu
2. sãk ak
3. sakdu aku (akdu) aru
Plural
2. sekten (sikten) arten
3. akkandu
Verbal subst. asesuwar
InI. I arawanzi asesuwanzi
InI. II waganna
Part. sekkant- akkant- arant- asesant-
171) b) With two Iinal consonants : pahs- "to protect". taks- "to gather". sipand- "to bestow a
libation".
Indicative Present
Singular
1. pahhashi (pahhasmi) taggashi sipandahhi
2. pahhasti takkissi
3. takkeszi (taggassi. takkizzi) sipandi (sippantai. §152a1)
Plural
1. pahsueni sipanduwani
2. pahhasteni takkesteni (taggasteni)
3. pahsanzi takkessanzi sipandanzi (sippantinzi)
Indicative Preterite
Singular
1. sipandahhun
3. pahhasta takkista (taggasta) sippandas
Plural
3. pahsir takser sippanter (sippantair)
Imperative
Singular Plural
2. pahsi pahhasten
3. pahsandu
Verbal subst. sippanduar
InI. I taksuwanzi sip(p)anduwanzi
Part. pahsant- taksant- sipantant-
68
2. VocaIic stems
172) a) dã- "to take".
Indicative Present
Singular Plural
1. dahhi dãweni (dawani. dummeni)
2. datti datteni (tatteni)
3. dãi danzi
Indicative Preterite
Singular Plural
1. dahhun dãwen
2. dãs datten
3. dãs dãir
Imperative Verbal subst. Gen. dãwas
Sing. Plur. InI. I dã
2. dã datten InI. II danna
3. dãu (daddu) dandu Part. dant-
173) b) dãi- "to place". pãi- "to give". nãi- "to guide". zãi- "to exceed". halzãi- "to call".
Indicative Present
Singular
1. tehhi pihhi nehhi
2. dãitti (tãitti) paisti (pesti) nãitti (nevat(t)i)
3. dãi pãi nãi
Plural
1. tivaweni pivaweni (piweni) nevaweni
2. tãitteni (tãisteni) pesteni (pisteni) nãisteni (naistani)
3. tivanzi (tienzi) pivanzi nevanzi
Singular
1. halzihhi (halzivami)
2. zãitti (zãsi) halzãitti (halzesti. halzivatti. halzivasi)
3. zãi halzãi
Plural
1. halzivaweni (halziwani)
2. halzivatteni
3. halzivanzi
69
Indicative Preterite
Singular
1. tehhun (tehun) pehhun (pihhun) nehhun (nevahhun)
2. pãitta
3. dãis (dãista) pãis (pesta) nãis (naista. naesta)
Plural
1. tivawen (daiwen) pivawen (piwen) nevawen
3. daier (tiir, dãir) pier nãir (neier)
Singular
1. zihhun halzihhun
2. halzãit
3. zãis halzãis
Plural
1. zãiwen halzivawen (halziwen)
3. halzier
Imperative
Singular
2. dãi pãi nãi (neva) halzãi
3. dãu pãu nãu
Plural
2. dãisten pesten nãisten (nevatten) zãitten halzisten
3. tivandu piandu
Verbal subst. tivawar pivawar nevawar Gen. halzivawas
InI. I tivawanzi pivawanzi halzivawanzi
InI. II tivanna pivanna
Part. tivant- pivant- nevant- halzivant-
174) c) With -u(m)- Ior the 1st Pers. Pl.. Ior Verbal subst. and Ior InIinitive : tarna- "to let". sarra-
"to separate". wasta- "to sin". uda- "to bring". peda- "to transIer".
Indicative Present
Singular
1. tarnahhi wastahhi
2. tarnatti (tarnãsi) sarratti wastatti (wastasi)
3. tarnãi (tarnãizzi) sarrai (sarri. sarrivazi. sarrezzi) wastai (wasti)
Plural
1. tarnummeni (tarnummani) sarraweni
2. tarnatteni sarratteni
3. tarnanzi sarranzi
70
Singular
1. udahhi pedahhi (pitahhi)
2. udatti pedatti
3. udãi pedai
Plural
1. utummeni pedum(m)eni
2. udatteni pedatteni
3. udanzi (utinzi) pedanzi (pitenzi)
Indicative Preterite
Singular
1. tarnahhun sarrahhun wastahhun
2. tarnas wastas
3. tarnas (tarnesta) sarras (sarret) wastas
Plural
1. tarnum(m)en (tarnuen) sarrummen
2. tarnatten
3. tarnir sarrer waster
Singular
1. udahhun pedahhun (pidahhun)
3. udas pedas
Plural
1. utummen petummen
3. uter (utir) peter (piter)
Imperative
Singular
2. tarna (tarni) sarri uda peda
3. tarnãu (tarnesdu) udãu pedau
Plural
2. tarnatten (tarnisten) udatten pedatten (pidesten)
3. tarnandu udandu pedandu
Verbal subst. tarnummar sarrumar wasdumar utummar petummar
InI. I tarnummanzi sarrumanzi utummanzi pedummanzi
Part. tarnant- sarrant- wastant- udant-
71
175) d) With the 3rd Pers. Pl. Present built on the model oI the verbs in -va : essa- "to act" (iterative
oI iva- "to do". §141d). mema- "to speak". unna- "to push". penna- "to pull". uppa- "to send".
Indicative Present
Singular
1. essahhi (issahhi) memahhi (memahhe) unnahhi
2. essatti mematti unnatti
3. essai memai (memmai) unnai
Plural
1. essueni memaweni (memivaweni)
2. essatteni mematteni unnatteni (unnisteni)
3. essanzi memanzi (memivanzi) unnanzi (un(n)ivanzi)
Singular
1. pennahhi uppahhi
2. pennatti
3. pennai uppai
Plural
1. uppiweni
2. uppatteni
3. pennanzi (pennivanzi) uppanzi (uppianzi)
Indicative Preterite
Singular
1. essahhun memahhun unahhun
2. unnes
3. es(s)esta memista (me(m)mas) unnes (unnesta)
Plural
1. essuen unnummen
2. memisten
3. esser (isser) memir
Singular
1. pennahhun uppahhun
2. uppesta
3. pennis (pennesta) uppesta (uppas)
Plural
1. uppiwen
3. pennir uppir
72
Imperative
Singular
1. memallu
2. essa (essi. issa) memi unni penni uppi
3. essau
memau (me-ma-at-tu
4
)
unnau uppãu
Plural
2. issatten memisten
3. essandu (issandu) memandu
Verbal subst. essuwar
InI. I
memivawanzi
(memiuwanzi)
pennumanzi (pennuanzi.
pennivawanzi)
Supine essuwan
Part. memant- uppant-
3. IrreguIar
176) au- (aus-) "to see".
Indicative Present Indicative Preterite
Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur.
1. uhhi aummeni (umeni) uhhun aumen
2. autti autteni (austeni. usteni) austa
3. auszi uwanzi austa auer
Imperative
Sing. Plur. InI. II
1. uwallu uwanna
2. au austen
3. ausdu uwandu
73
c. BIend of mi- and hi-conjugations
177) The previous paradigms already exhibited many variants oI the Hittite verb. with pecular Iorms
that not only diverged Irom the regular model. but also Irom the regular coniugation. There is not
enough room here to treat all the variations between the mi- and hi-coniugations. The Iollowing
verbs exhibit Iorms oI both coniugations (partly because oI a change in the Iormation oI the root) so
variable that it is impossible to aIIect them to a precise coniugation.
178) dala- and daliva- "to let". ishãi- and ishiva- "to link". sãi- and sivai- "to open" (probably
ancient like dãi- "to place"). sunna- and sun(n)iva- "to Iill". parsãi- and parsiva- (parsi-) "to break".
Indicative Present
Singular
1. dalahhi (dalivami)
2. dalatti (dalivasi)
3. dãlãi (dalãizzi. dalivazi) ishãi (ishivazzi. ishezzi) sivaizzi (siezzi)
Plural
1. dalivaweni sivaweni
2. dalesteni ishivatteni
3. dalivanzi ishivanzi sivanzi
Singular
1. sunnahhi (sunivami) parsivahhi (parsivami)
3. sunnai (sun(n)ivazi. sunizzi) parsãizzi (parsivazi. parsiva |§152c|. par-as-si-ia. pa-ar-si)
Plural
2. sunnatteni
3. sunnanzi (sun(n)ivanzi) parsivanzi (parsãnzi)
Indicative Preterite
Singular
1. dalahhun (dalivanun) ishih(h)un (ishivanun) sivanun
3. dãlis (dalesta. dalivat) ishivat sivait
Plural
1. dalivawen
2. dalivatten
3. dãlir ishier sivãir
Singular
3. sunnas (sunnista. sunet) parsivat
Plural
3. sunnir
74
Imperative
Singular
2. dala (dali) sãi (siva) sunni
3. tãlesdu sunniddu
Plural
2. dalesten sãisten sùnisten
3. ishivandu sivandu
Verbal subst. dalumar (talivawar) ishivawar sunnumar
InI. I sivawanzi sunnumanzi parsivawanzi
InI. II sivanna
Part. dalivant- ishivant- sivant- sunnivant- parsivant-
75
2. Medio-passive voice
179) The diIIerence between mi- and hi-coniugations has no importance Ior medio-passive (cI. the
outline oI endings at §149). It is not taken into account in the Iollowing paradigms.
1. Consonant stems
180) ar- "to be placed". tarup- "to get together". es- "to be sat". kis- "to become". pahs- "to protect"
(deponent).
Indicative Present
Singular
1. arhahari eshahari
2. artati (artari) estari
3. artari (arta) tarupta(ri) esari (esa)
Plural
1. arwasta esuwasta(ri)
3. arantari (aranta) taruppantari esanta(ri) (asanta)
Singular
1. kishahari pahhasha
2. kistati (kista) pahhasta
3. kisari (kissari. kisa) pahsari
Plural
1. pahsuwasta
2. pahhasduma
3. kisandari (kisanta) pahsantari
Indicative Preterite
Singular
1. arhahat eshahat (eshat. eshati. ishahat)
2. artat estat
3. artat taruptat esat (esati. estat)
Plural
1. arwastat
3. arantat (arandati) taruppantari esantat
76
Singular
1. kishahat (kishat. kishati) pahhashahat (pahhashat)
2. kisat (kistat)
3. kisat (kisati) pahhastat
Plural
2. kisdummat
3. kisantat(i)
Imperative
Singular
1. arhaharu
2. arhut eshut kishut
3. artaru taruptaru esaru kasaru pahsaru
Plural
2. ardumat esdum(m)at kisdumat pahhasdumat
3. arantaru taruppantaru kisandaru pahsandaru
Verbal subst. taruppuwar
InI. II asanna
Part. taruppant- asant- kisant- pahsant-
2. VocaIic stems
181) iva- "to go. to march". nãi- (neva-) "to speak to". zahhiva- deponent "to Iight" (or middle "to
Iight one another"). uwa- "to turn out. to appear" (middle oI au(s)- "to see". §176 ; next to aus-
deponent "to see"). ki- "to happen".
Indicative Present
Singular
1. ivahhari nevahhari zahhivahha(ri)
2. ivattati (ivattari) nevattati (naista(ri))
3. ivattari (ivatta) nevari (neva. niva(ri)) zahhivattari
Plural
1. zahhivawastati
2. ivadduma zahhivadduma
3. ivantari (ivanta) nevantari (nevanta)
Singular
3. uwaitta(ri) kittari (kitta)
Plural
3. kivantari (kivanta. kianta)
77
Indicative Preterite
Singular
1. ivahhahat (ivahhat) nevahhat zahhivahhat
2. ivattati
3. ivattat nevat(t)at (nevaddat. nevat) zahhivattat (zahhivatta)
Plural
3. ivantat ne(v)antat (nevantati)
Singular
1. uwahhat (aushahat)
3. uwaittat (austat) kittat (kittati)
Plural
3. uwantat kivantati
Imperative
Singular
2. ivahhut naishut (neshut) zahhivahhut
3. ivattaru nevaru
Plural
2. ivaddumat naisdumat zahhivaddumat
3. ivantaru nevandaru
Singular
1. uwahharu
3. kittaru
Plural
2. kiddumati
3. uwandaru
Verbal subst. nevawar
InI. I zahhivauwanzi
InI. II uwanna
Part. ivant- nevant- zahhivant-
182) The medio-passive oI war- "to burn" (intr.) exhibits a dissimilation oI the Iinal r with the r oI
the root : the 3rd Pers. Sg. Present is pronounced warãni ·
*
warãri "it burns" (the 3rd Pers. Pl. is
regular : warandari) and the 3rd Pers. Sg. Imper. warãnu ·
*
warãru "it must burn".
78
3. Compound forms
184) Hittite also has several compound verbal Iorms oddly similar to those oI some modern
languages.
a) The participle with es- is used to express :
1. the passive oI transitive verbs : DUMU.MUNUS pivanza esta "a girl has been given".
2. a state Ior intransitive verbs : antuhsatar pãn esta "the population was gone".
b) The perIect and pluperIect can be expressed. as in modern languages. by means oI har(k)- "to
have" (§158) with the participle at the N.-A. Sg. Neuter : ivan harmi "I have done". ivan harkun "I
had done".
c) The expression "to begin to do something" is expressed by means oI dãi- "to place. to put" with
the supine in -uwan oI a verb generally iterative : ERIN
2
MES
peskiwan dãir (tier) "they prepared to
regularly give troops".
4. The verbaI substantive
185) The verbal substantive in -war can be inIlected according to its Iunction :
a) The genitive is especially Irequent ; it is not built like the stem in -war but like a shortened stem
in -u- : pãwar "going". Gen. pãwas ; tivawar "sitting" (Irom dãi-). Gen. tivawas ; nininkuwar
"quantity". Gen. nininkuwas ; turivawar "harnessing". Gen. turivawas ; arnummar (§29a)
"bringing". Gen. arnummas ; tarnummar "leaving". Gen. tarnummas.
b) The other cases are not very Irequent and are built diIIerently :
1. Either Irom the shortened root in -u- (very rarely) : armahhuwar "impregnation". Abl.
armahhuwaza ; hanessuwar "plastering". Abl. hanessuwaz.
2. More Irequently Irom the whole root in -war. with or without the change -war/-wan- (-un-) :
u) With change : huittivawar "pulling". D.-L. huittivani ; assivawar "love". Instr. assivawannit ;
miumar "prosperity". Instr. miumnit.
þ) Without change (with preservation oI the r in the whole paradigm) : wekuwar "demand". Abl.
wekuwarraz ; arkuwar "prayer". N.-A. Pl. arkuwarri
HI.A
; minumar "enriching". N.-A. Pl.
minumarri
HI.A
(minumar
HI.A
).
186) The genitive oI the verbal substantive looks like the Latin gerund : memivas kuis ivawas
"which thing (is the one) oI the making" means Iinally "which thing (is) to be made". kuis arha
tarnummas "who (is the one) oI the leaving" means "who (is) to be leIt". Thus. these genitives oI
substantives can be interpretated as singular nominatives oI adiectives. They can also be built Ior
plural nominatives : next to kuis IKRIBU sarninkuwas "which prayer (is the one) oI the atoning" i.e.
"as atonement to be done" one Iinds the plural IKRIBI
HI.A
kues sarninkues "which prayers (are) to
be done as atonement".
79
5. The infinitive
187) The diIIerence between the inIinitives in -uwanzi and in -anna can be summed up that way :
a) -anna builds the inIinitive Ior all verbs with ablaut :
1. the root verbs with ablaut oI the mi-coniugation : adanna (Irom ed- "to eat"). appanna (Irom ep-
"to take"). akuwanna (Irom eku- "to drink"). kunanna (Irom kuen- "to kill"). hukanna (Irom huek-
"to swear").
2. the verbs with ablaut oI the hi-coniugation : tivanna (Irom dãi- "to put"). pivanna (Irom pãi- "to
give") ; also in this category danna (Irom dã- "to take").
3. secondarily and without a clear rule Ior some other verbs : waganna (Irom wak- "to bite").
harkanna (Irom hark- "to collapse"). tivanna (next to tivawanzi ; Irom tiva- "to walk"). tuhsanna
(next to tuhsuwanzi ; Irom tuhs- "to cut . to split"). unuwanna (next to unuwanzi ; Irom unuwai- "to
decorate"). hananna (next to hanumanzi ; Irom han- "to draw (water)").
b) -uwanzi builds :
1. the inIinitive oI all the other verbs oI the mi- and hi-coniugations.
2. some isolated Iorms such as eppuwanzi (next to appanna ; Irom ep- "to take"). kuen(n)ummanzi
(next to kunanna ; Irom kuen- "to kill") which are also verbs with ablaut.
Both Iorms oI the inIinitive are completely equivalent at the syntactic level (§272b).
80
Chapter 6
Syntax
A. Agreement
189) The adiective and the pronoun agree with the noun in gender. number and case.
a) Examples Ior the adiective and the participle : arranza halkis "washed grain". damain wãtar "Ioul
water". arahzenes utneantes humantes "all the neighboring countries". tarpallius wassandus
"dressed idols".
b) Examples Ior the pronouns : apãs-pat memias "also each word". tuzzivas-mis "my army". kùn
MUNUS-an "this woman (Acc.)". ki ishiul "this obligation". hassatar-set "his power". kues
aurivalus "which outposts". aresmes (i.e.
*
ares-smes) "your (Pl.) comrades". sarhuwandus-sus "her
unborn children". ke arkuwarri
HI.A
"those prayers". kedani pidi "at this place". apez linkivaz "Irom
this oath". kardivas-tas "oI your (Sg.) heart".
190) However. Hittite oIten agrees according to the meaning. especially Ior the agreement oI the
number :
a) 1. A collective singular can be understood as a plural : KUR-eanza humanza URU
DIDLI.HI.A
BAD EGIR-pa eppir "the whole country took (Pl.) the IortiIied cities".
2. Conversly. a plural can be understood as a collective singular : hewes kisa "the rains occur" (lit.
"a period oI rain occurs"). apãt ERIN
2
MES
ANSU.KUR.RA
MES
"these Ioot-soldiers and chariot
drivers". NAM.RA
MES
kuin uwater nas 1 LIM esta "the prisoners that they brought were (lit. was)
1000".
b) The point oI view oI Hittite can vary in the same sentence between singular and plural. or
between the common and neutral gender : KARAS-za-kan kues tepawes isparter apãt-ma-kan
hùman arha haspir-pat "oI the Iew troops that escaped. they were all destroyed too". nan GIM-an
KUR-eanza austa nat nahsarrivandari "and when the country saw him. they (i.e. the inhabitants)
took Iright".
c) 1. It should also be underlined that a logogram can conceal several pronunciations and
grammatical Iorms. Thus. KUR "country" can stand Ior the neuter utne and the common utnevant-.
2. Behind logograms tagged as plural such as ERIN
2
MES
and NAM.RA
MES
. the plurals "soldiers"
and "prisoners" or the singulars "army" and "crowd oI prisoners" can be hidden. That is why one
sometimes Iinds the plurals kues ERIN
2
MES
"these soldiers". NAM.RA
MES
kues "these prisoners".
and sometimes the singulars kãs 6 ME ERIN
2
MES
"this troop oI 600 (men)". NAM.RA
MES
kuin
"this crowd oI prisoners".
191) True disagreements can be observed Ior gender :
a) For parts oI body. Thus. the neuter genu "knee" sometimes agrees correctly with the neutral
possessive pronoun : genu-ssit "his knee". sometimes with the common possessive pronoun :
81
genus-sus "his knee". The two Iorms Ior "hand". kessera- (c.) and kessar (n.) seem to exhibit almost
an inversion oI the gender oI the possessive : on one hand SU-as-set "his hand" (i.e. kesseras-set ;
subst. comm. ¹ poss. neut.). on the other hand kessar-sis "his hand" (subst. neut. ¹ poss. comm.).
b) Occasionally elsewhere in poorly known cases : mãn antuwahhas (comm.) suppi (n.) "iI a man
(is) pure". Next to the correct Iorm GE
6
-an hùmandan "the whole night". one Iinds several times
GE
6
-an hùman (adi. n.).
192) c) Some adiectives like mekki- "much". kurur- "hostile". taksul- "Iriendly" are only partially
inIlected ; kurur and taksul have no Nom. Plur. comm. Hence. Ior example kunanzassa mekki
LU
appanzassa mekki "the killed as well as the prisoners (are) many" (literally "the killed as well as
the prisoners (is) many" ; kunanzassa and appanzassa ÷ kunanza and appanza ¹ -a "and" ; §25b).
apãs DUMU-as SU.GI-eszi nu-za DUMU
MES
mekki ivazi "the mentioned boy becomes old and
begets many children". zik-ma-mu-za kurur es "but you (Sg.). be Iriendly towards me". kues kurur
esir "who were Iriendly". tùwaza-ma taksul-pat esir "but they were however IaithIul Iar away".
193) The Nom.-Acc. Plur. Neut. oI the adiective is weak and the possessive pronoun does not use
this inIlection ; instead oI the plural. the corresponding Iorms in the singular can or must be used :
a) Optional Ior the adiective : EZEN
HI.A
SISKUR
2
HI.A
... parkui suppi piskanzi "they give
celebrations (and) sacriIices as pure (and) saint". E
MES
DINGIR
MES
... parku ISTU KU.BABBAR
GUSKIN unuwanda "high temples. decorated with gold (and) silver". kue kallar idãlu uddãr "which
charming. nasty words".
b) Mandatory Ior the possessive pronoun : uddãr-mit "my words". sakuwa-sset "his eyes". CI. the
paradigms at §108.
194) Substantives with a numeral can be in the singular or the plural : 2 huprushes
"2 huprushi-containers" next to 2 huprushin. karùila DUB.2.KAM
HI.A
"2 old trays". 7
NA4
passilan
"7 Ilints". 7
DUG
purpuris ... suwan "7 Iilled purpuris-containers".
195) a) 1. In the present. it is common to build pure nominal sentences with a subiect and an
attributive substantive without verbal phrase : attas assus "the Iather (is) good". ANA
d
UTU
SI
-ma-as anninivamis "but the Sun (is) a cousin". MU.KAM-za-wa-ta ser tepawessanza
"hence the year (is becoming) short Ior you (Sg.)".
2. The same construction is also possible in the imperative (e.g. with the prohibitive le ¹ Ind. Pres..
§264. 280a) : nu-war-as ammuk
LU
MUDÏYA "thus he (must be) my husband". 1-as 1-edani
menahhanda le idãlus "the one (must not be) nasty towards the other".
Example oI mixed construction : nu-wa-za damedaza KUR-eza kurur es ammetaza-ma-wa-za-kan
KUR-eza arha le kurur "now be hostile towards another country. do not (be) hostile towards my
country".
3. Very short nominal sentences can be made oI the only attribute without subiect : hurkel "(it is) an
abomination". BUBUTÃNUM SA NIM.LAL "(it is) a Iamine oI the bees". UL harãtar "(it is) not a
blow". warpuwanzi "(it is time) to bathe".
b) In the preterite. the verbal phrase cannot be omitted : attas assus esta "the Iather was good".
ABÜYA genzuwalas esta "my Iather was helpIul". nu-za MU.KAM-za ser tepawessanza esta "and
then the year became short".
Example oI comparison present-preterite : dandukisnasa DUMU-as ukturi natta huiswanza "and the
82
child (is) not alive Ior ever " next to mãmman danduskinasa DUMU-as ukturi huiswanza esta "iI
the child was alive Ior ever".
196) When the subiect oI a sentence is a plural neuter. the predicate is in the singular :
a) This rule. the same as the Greek usage. is regular with a verbal phrase : uidãr ANA SAPAL
MUL
HI.A
seszi "the rations oI water stay under the stars". ape-va uddãr QATAMMA lagãru "thus
these words must bow as well". kue 2 ALAM ... kitta "which 2 images ... Iind themselves".
b) Unlike the Greek usage. the attribute is generally in the singular too. even iI it is not isolated :
ke-ma tuppa
HI.A
... anivan esta "but those tablets ... were written". kururi
HI.A
meggava nininkan
esta "many enemy troops were mobilized". E.g. also : ke-va-kan E DINGIR
LIM
... ukturi
QATAMMA assu esdu "so these temples ... must be steady as well as good" with the variant
ke-va-wa E DINGIR
LIM
QATAMMA pahhasnuwanda esdu nu-war-at-san ... ukturi esdu "so these
temples must also be saIe. and they must be steady".
B. Case usage
1. Vocative
197) a) The vocative Sing. is notably used in prayers and mythological texts :
d
UTU-e isha-mi "ô
Sun. my lord".
d
UTU-e sarkui (variant sarku) LUGAL-e "ô Sun. heroic king".
b) In these texts. and even more in more recent texts or texts oI other kinds. the Iorms oI nominative
are used instead oI vocative : zik-pat genzuwalas
d
UTU-us "you are obliging. ô Sun".
198) The base root oI the noun (that looks like the vocative) can be used in order to introduce a new
name in a narration : MUNUS-as SUM-set
I
Sintalimeni "the name oI a woman (is) Sintalimeni". but
also : DAM-SU
I
Tatizuli tamai UD-at seshas "his wiIe Tatizuli decided herselI another day". It is
not easy to estimate the inIluence oI the Akkadian writing here.
2. Accusative
199) The Hittite constructions using accusative Ior an "internal obiect" will be especially
emphasized.
a) The use consisting in adding to a verb a noun oI the same root or meaning at the accusative (Lat.
acerrimam pugnam pugnare. longam viam ire. Akkadian dinam danum. purussam parãsum). also
exists in Hittite (cognate accusative) : hannessar hanna- "to solve a dispute". kupivatin kup- "to set
up a plan". hukmais hu(e)k- "to take an oath". uppessar uppa- "to dispatch a sending".
b) The neuter accusatives oI pronouns and numerals associated to intransitive and transitive verbs
(in addition to the external obiect) must also be understood as internal obiects (Lat. hoc te rego.
Greek :oc :o ,oioc) : tuk UL kuitki idalawahhun "I did not treat you (Sg.) badly at all". appãtava
NIS DINGIR
LIM
sarratti "so you (Sg.) thus break the oath". kivan 1-an dammeshanunun "I only
punished her with this".
200) a) Verbs related to illness can be built in two ways :
83
1. Either the ill person is the intransitive subiect. as in English :
I
Gassulivawivas istarkiat "G. Iell
ill". EGIR-ma-as irmalivattat "but he Iell ill".
2. Or the illness is subiect and the concerned person is obiect in the accusative : kappin DUMU-an
HUL-lu GIG GIG-at "the bad illness stroke the young boy".
b) The illness is oIten omitted in construction 2. so that it looks like an impersonal construction
with the person as obiect in the accusative : istarkivazzi kuinki "someone Iell ill". tuk-ma
irmalivattat "but you (Sg.) Iell ill".
201) a) Very rarely (and Iormerly ?). the accusative answers the question "where to ?" : nu-smas
HUR.SAG-an parhanzi "and they will chase you (Pl.) to the mountain". GU-SU
GIS
APIN-an ser
tizzi "his neck goes onto a plough". Usually. the dative in Old-Hittite and the dative-locative in Neo-
Hittite are used to answer the question "where to ?".
b) The accusative Ior ways is diIIerent : man-kan
HUR.SAG
Tehsinan sarã pãun "I climbed
Mount T.".
202) The accusative can be used as is as an adverb. Ior example in hantezzi "Iirstly. at the Iirst
opportunity". karuwariwar "in the morning". nekuz mehur "in the evening".
3. Dative-Locative and AIIative
203) Old-Hittite still makes the diIIerence between the allative in -a Ior the questions "to whom ?"
and "where to ?" and the locative in -i Ior the question "where ?". The allative aruna thus means "to
the sea". the locative aruni "at sea". likewise nepisa "to heaven". nepisi "in heaven".
204) In Neo-Hittite. allative and locative have merged in a single dative-locative Iorm in -i that
answers the questions "to whom ?". "where ?" and "where to ?". Examples Ior locative : URU-an
sasti walhun "I attacked the city in bed (i.e. in dream)".
URU
Hattusi gimmandarinun "I passed the
winter at Hattusa". Ior allative :
URU
KU.BABBAR-si uwanun "I went to Hattusa". nu-smas-kan
peruni parhanzi "and they will hunt you (Pl.) to the rock". KUR
ID
Seha IR-anni dahhun "I reduced
the land oI the river Seha in slavery".
205) a) The verb "to be" can have a possessive dative : ANA SES-YA NU.GAL kuitki "nothing (is)
to my brother (i.e. my brother has nothing)".
b) It is the same Ior indications oI measurement : ANA wasanni-ma pargater-set 6 IKU "the
wasanna (the track) is 6 ikû high".
c) Hittite also uses a possessive genitive with the present meaning "to belong" :
URU
Ivaruwaddas
URU-as annaz ammel SA ABI ABÏYA esta "the city I. previously belonged to my grandIather".
206) The dative-locative can be used in an apparently pleonastic way : nu-smas uzuhrin adanzi
"they eat (Ior themselves) grass". nu-smas DINGIR
MES
-as ZI-ni mekki nahhantes estin "be (Pl.) (Ior
yourselves) very cautious with the mentality oI the gods". assivannas-wa-nnas IR
MES
esuen "we
were (Ior ourselves) beloved subiects (lit. slaves oI love)". le-ta nãhi "do not be aIraid (Ior
yourselI)".
207) The dative-locative gets the Iollowing uses Irom its locative meaning :
84
a) Dative oI purpose : nu-kan kuin ANA
m
Nuwanza haluki parã nehhun "and whom I sent to N. with
the obiect oI an embassy".
b) Dative oI the actor oI passive : zik-za-kan ammuqqa 1-edani AMA-ni hassantes "you (Sg.) and
me (are we) born Irom a mother ?".
d
UTU-i-kan kuis assivattari "he who is loved by the Sun".
c) Comparative dative ; cI. §222.
d) Temporal dative : apedani UD-ti "this day". nekuz mehuni "in the evening" (§58).
e) Dative oI the person Irom whom one demands : nu-mu ...
d
ISTAR
URU
Samuha ANA ABÏYA
wekta "and Istar oI Samuha demanded me Irom my Iather" (cI. French demander a quelqu´un).
208) One Iinds the adverb assuli "Ior the good" Irom the dative-locative oI assul "happiness" (it is
not an adverb in -li Irom assu- "good").
4. Genitive
209) a) The genitive generally stands beIore the noun it complements : parnas ishas "the man oI the
house". attasas E-ri "in the house oI his Iather". LU-nas wastul "crime oI the man".
b) The opposite can happen when the complemented noun is a logogram : LU taksulas "man oI
peace" (next to taksulas URU "city oI the peace"). INIM kunannas "an aIIair oI murder".
210) a) A more clumsy use oI the genitive occurs with the simultaneous use oI the possessive
pronoun ("oI the man his head"). It is especially popular in laws (and elsewhere in Old-Hittite) :
GUD-as IGI-SU "the eye oI the ox". MUNUS-as ELLI sarhuwandus-sus "the unborn child oI a Iree
woman". kel mene-ssit "the Iace oI this one".
b) The genitive stands aIter the indeIinite pronoun : suppala-sset kuelqa "the animals oI someone".
211) Hittite also uses the genitive as other classical languages with the obiective genitive. the
partitive genitive. etc... : SU.DIM
4
-as sardivas "help against an agression". hùmandas-pat
EGIR-izzis DUMU-as esun "I was the last child oI all (lit. Dat.-Loc. Pl "under all")". CI. also §205c.
212) a) A very popular construction is the expression "he oI ..." to describe another substantive :
Irom wastul "sin". one Iinds wastulas Ior "(the man) oI the sin" ÷ "sinner" (next to wastulas
UKU
3
-as). Irom tavazil "theIt" tavazilas "(he) oI the theIt" ÷ "thieI" and "(that) oI the theIt" ÷
"penalty Ior the theIt". kardivas-tas "(that) oI your heart (kard-)" ÷ "your desire". mãn-as harkannas
"iI he (is guilty) oI the decease". More examples : assawas memivanas "(he) oI good relations" ÷ "in
good relations". TI-annas "(he) oI the liIe (huiswatar)" ÷ "with a long liIe" ; also genitives oI
inIinitives (§185a) : nahhuwas "(he) oI the respect" ÷ "reverential". kuis arha tarnummas "who (is
one) oI the leaving" ÷ "who (can be) exempted (oI the military service)". kuit-ma DI-sar sumel UL
tar(ah)huwas "what business (is) however (that) oI your inability" ÷ "what business that you cannot
settle by yourselves".
b) Whence the Akkadian : SA MAMETI "he oI the oath" ÷ "suzerain". SA KASKAL
NIM
"that oI the
trip" ÷ "supply".
c) Sometimes. such genitives are inIlected like independant nouns : Irom hassannas-sas "(one) oI
his Iamily" (hassatar |§83| ¹ possessive pronoun -si- "his"). one can build an Acc. Sing.
hassannas-san and a Dat.-Loc. Sing. hassannas-si.
85
213) a) A partitive apposition can be used instead oI a genitive. Thus. two obiects in the same case
depend on a verb. the Iirst one expressing a whole and the second one a part oI the whole concerned
by the action : takku A.SA-an ZAG-an kuiski parsiva "iI somebody breaks the boundary stone oI a
Iield" (lit. : the Iield (and oI it) the border ; variant with genitive : A.SA-as ZAG-an !). nu-war-us
IGI
HI.A
-wa munnanzi "one will veil their eyes" (lit. : them. (that is) the eyes). mãn ape-ma kuiski
ITTI
d
UTU
SI
wastai "iI somebody sins by these against the Sun" (lit. : iI these. somebody sins).
nu-kan ANA
d
UTU
SI
SU-i anda mivahuwantahhut "now become old under the protection oI the
Sun" (lit. : next to the Sun in the hand). nat ANA ABBA
HI.A
U ANA ABBA ABBA
HI.A
-YA UL
kuedanikki uppir "they had not send it to any oI my Iathers and ancestors". nat-mu-kan UKU
3
-az
KAxU-az sarã uizzi "and it (this word) comes out Irom my human mouth" (lit. : oI the man. oI the
mouth ; variant with genitive : antuhsas KAxU-az !).
b) 1. The use oI personal pronouns in this construction is especially important : nu-za ke KUR.KUR
LU
KUR ammedaz SU-az tar(ah)hun "now I have deIeated these enemy countries with my hand"
(lit. : by me. by the hand). UL-war-an-kan tuetaza memivanaz kuennir "they did not kill him on your
order" (lit. : by you. by the order).
2. In practice in this construction. the personal pronoun has the role oI a possessive pronoun. Thus.
one can even Iind plural Iorms oI the personal pronouns "I" and "you (Sg.)" only conceivable in the
singular : one Iinds next to ISTU
HUR.SAG
Hahruwa tuedaz assivantaza "Irom your beloved
mountain H." a Dat.-Loc. Plur. tuedas assivantas pedas "at your beloved places".
c) The indications oI measuring must also be interpreted as partitive appositions : nas
parkuwatar-set 5 IKU "and it (the track). its height (is) 5 ikû" (i.e. "and the height oI the track is
5 ikû"). gankuwar appãttava UL duqqari "also this one (§302b). the weight is not important" (i.e.
"also its weight is not important").
5. AbIative and InstrumentaI
214) a) The ablative Iirstly points out the start point oI a motion answering the question "Irom
where ?" : issaz "Irom the mouth". nepisaz "Irom heaven". wetenaz "Irom water".
b) The ablative is used Ior separation : parkuis apez linkivaz "Iree Irom this oath". sullannaz
"Iollowing an argument".
c) For the ablative oI comparison. cI. §222.
215) A Irozen usage oI the ablative probably occurs in the adverbs oI place and time such as
ZAG-az "at right" (actually "Irom right"). iskisaz "at the back. Irom the back". hantezzivaz "(Irom)
Iront ; ahead". UD.KAM-az "at daylight". GE
6
.KAM-az "at night".
216) The instrumental points out the means or the tool : nu-kan IZI wetenit kistanuwanzi "now. they
extinguish the Iire with water".
d
UTU-un IGI
HI.A
-it uskizzi "she sees the sun with her eyes".
kastita-man akten "you (Pl.) would starve to death (lit. be dead by hunger)".
LU
I.DU-ma-as-kan
lamnit halzissai "the door-keeper calls him however by the name".
217) However. Hittite also uses an ablative oI instrument : HAZZINNU-wa SU-za ep "take (Sg.) the
axe with the hand". URU-an zahhivaz katta dahhun "I have subdued the city through a Iight".
218) a) This is why the ablative or the instrumental can be Iound in the same turn. One can say
86
kunnaz kesseraz harzi and kunnit kessarta (§61) harzi "he holds with the right hand". nat-za nassu
teshit uwallu (§176) nasma-at arivasesnaz handavattaru "(the reason is) that either I want to see
thanks to a dream (Instr.). or it must be observed by an oracle (Abl.)".
b) With verbs oI motion. one can compare : GIR-it sarã pãun "I went up by Ioot". LUGAL-us
GIS
hulugannaz sarã uizzi "the king comes up with the chariot".
c) u) With a substantive in the ablative. the possessive pronoun is always in the instrumental (the
ablative oI the possessive pronoun is not used) : sarhuwandaz-set "Irom its inner". issazmit (i.e.
*
issaz-smit. §19a. 27a and b. 42c) "Irom their mouth". ZAG-az-tit "to your (Sg.) right". kartaz-mit
"Irom my heart".
þ) The same construction is also used with the demonstrative pronouns : kit pantalaz "starting Irom
this moment". However. the ablative oI the pronouns is regularly used : kez KUR-az "Irom this
country".
6. Ergative
218.1) The neuter noun has the same endings Ior the nominative and the accusative as long as it is
not used as the subiect oI a transitive verb. E.g. as the obiect oI a transitive verb : takku pahhur
ANA A.SA-SU kuiski pedai "iI someone brings Iire into his barn". and as the subiect oI an
intransitive verb : pahhur kistari "the Iire goes out".
However. when the neuter noun is used as subiect oI a transitive verb. it takes another ending :
mahhan-ta kãs tuppianza anda wemivazzi "as soon as this tablet reaches you" (as shown by the
common gender oI kãs. the noun then works as iI its gender had become the common gender).
This is the usual behavior oI the so-called absolutive-ergative languages. hence Hittite can be
considered as Iunctioning as an ergative language as long as neuter nouns are considered. The Neut.
Nom.-Acc. case can be viewed as the absolutive case. while the special endings -anza / -antes can
be viewed as the ergative case.
7. SuppIement to case syntax
219) Some verbs can be used with several cases Ior similar or diIIerent meanings :
a) watarnah- means with the accusative "to ask someone. to order someone. to make someone
responsible Ior doing something". with the dative-locative "to inIorm someone".
b) katta dãi- means with the accusative "to subdue a city". with the dative-locative "to besiege a
city".
c) nah(h)- "to Iear. to be aIraid" governs the accusative : nahmi-us "I Iear them". UL-za kuitki nahmi
"I am aIraid Ior nothing". the dative-locative : pahhuenass-a uddani mekki nahhantes estin "Iear
(Plur.) also an outbreak oI Iire" and in an isolated case : nu-za halluwavaza mekki nahhantes estin
"now be (Plur.) very aIraid oI a conIlict".
d) punus- "to ask" can be constructed in two ways. One can either say "to ask someone (Acc.) about
something (Dat.-Loc.)". e.g. nas
d
UTU
SI
ANA DI
HI.A
punusmi "and I. the Sun. will ask him about
the lawsuits". or "to ask something (Acc.) to someone (Dat.-Loc.)". e.g. nu-smas DI
HI.A
punuskiddu
"and he must ask them each time about the lawsuits".
87
220) a) About the Iormal mutual alternation between the plural nominative and accusative. cI. §63.
In the singular. the use oI the nominative in place oI the accusative occurs only sporadically :
5 GUD tãiugas 5 GUD iugas 5 GUD sawitisza pãi "he gives 5 two-year-old oxen. 5 one-year-old
oxen. 5 sucking oxen" (roots iuga-. tãiuga-. sawitist-. Ior the last one cI. §76a).
b) The Iact that the nominative Sing. kanza (oI kant- "wheat (?)") is generally used in horse-books
instead oI the accusative Sing. kantan is explained by mistakes made by the non-Hittite author oI
these texts.
C. Comparison of adjective
221) There is no comparison by means oI a characteristic suIIix. except Ior a Iew exceptions
(§94 I.) ; it is instead expressed through syntax. as it is the case in the Semitic languages. in
Egyptian and in Indo-European Armenian.
222) The dative-locative is used Ior the complement oI the comparative : nu-wa-kan ANA
ERIN
2
MES
-KA ERIN
2
MES
-YA mekki ANA ANSU.KUR.RA
MES
-·KA~-ma-wa-tta
ANSU.KUR.RA
MES
-YA mekki "now. my troops (are) more numerous than your (Sg.) troops
(lit. : more numerous by your troops). my chariots (are) more numerous than your chariots".
namma-kan anzel TI-anni UL SA BELÏNI TI-tar nakki "besides (iI) the liIe oI our lord (is) not more
precious than our liIe".
223) When hùmant- "all" is added to the plural dative-locative oI comparison. it is translated by a
superlative : DINGIR
MES
-nas hùmandas
d
Zashapunas sallis "among all the gods. Z. (is) the
greatest". Also without hùmant- : sallavas-kan DINGIR
MES
-as kuis sallis "who (is) the greatest
among the great gods".
D. Adverbs
224) Basic adverbs are Ior instance :
a) Adverbs oI location : kã "here". ket "to here". kez "Irom here ; this side". apiva "there". apeda
(apadda. apaddan) "there. to there". apez "Irom there". ediz "beyond". kuwapi "where. to where".
kuwapit "where. to where". kuwatta "to where". kuwapiva "everywhere". kuwapitta "everywhere".
dam(m)eda "elsewhere. to elsewhere". 1-eda "particularly. Ior oneselI". anda (andan) "in. inside.
into". andurza "in. inside". arahza (arahzanda) "round ; outside". arha "Iar". menahhanda "in Iront.
against". parã "outside ; ahead". piran "in Iront". ser "at the top" (also "whence. consequently").
sarã "to the top. upwards". katta "to the bottom. downwards. at the bottom". tapùsa (tapusza)
"along. next". duwan - duwan "here - there".
b) Adverbs oI time : kinun "now". apiva "then". kuwapi "when". kuwapikki "any time. ever". UL
kuwapikki "never". kuwapiva "always". karù "earlier ; already". annisan "Iormerly. in the past".
lukkatta "tomorrow morning. next morning". zilativa (ziladuwa) "in the Iuture". nùwa "again". nãwi
"not yet" (cI. §260). nùwãn (nùmãn) "never. by no means". piran parã "beIore". duwan parã "till
now". hùdak "immediately. suddenly".
88
c) Adverbs oI manner. degree. etc... : kissan "in this way". enissan "in the mentioned way".
apenissan "thus". apadda (apaddan) "in this way ; consequently". kuwat "why". kuwatqa "one way
or another. anyway ; maybe. Ior instance". UL kuwatqa "by no means". arumma "in a very
pronounced way". namma "then. besides. moreover". imma "at last (?)". katta "consequently (?)".
handa "thus (?)".
225) Derived Iorms can be used as adverbs :
a) Irozen inIlected Iorms ; cI. §§ 205. 208. 215.
b) Iorms derived Irom adiectives ; cI. below.
226) The neuter nominative-accusative oI the adiective can be simply used as an adverb :
a) In the singular : mekki "much". as adverb "very".
LU
KUR karsi zahhivaddumat "Iight (Pl.)
staunchly the enemy". mãn antuhsan kuinki assu parã huittivan harmi "iI I have well preIered some
man" (i.e. iI I have particularly well treated).
b) In the plural : hatuga "dreadIully". munnanda "secretly".
227) a) -ili is a particular adverbial suIIix (maybe originally the Nom.-Acc. Sg. Neut. oI adiectives
such that karùili- "old" ; §49b) : pittivantili "according to the type oI reIugee (pittivant-)".
karussivantili "secretly" (karussivant- "silent"). MUNUS-nili "in a Ieminine way".
LU
KUR-li "in a
hostile way".
b) -ili is also especially used as a language adverb (cI. -umnili with the ethnic suIIix -umna-. §50b) :
hattili "in Hatti (i.e. Proto-Hatti)". hurlili "in Hurrian". luwili "in Luwian". nãsili (nisili.
nesumnili ?) "in Nesian (i.e. Hittite)". palãumnili "in Palaic". kanisumnili "in Kanesian". pabili "in
Babylonian (i.e. Akkadian)".
E. Postpositions
228) a) Hittite does not use prepositions but postpositions. The boundary with adverbs and verbal
particles is partially Iormal.
b) Hittite can oIten express syntactic relations usually conveyed by our prepositions by means oI the
only declined Iorms (without postpositions) ; the Dat.-Loc. E-ri means without postposition "in the
house" and "to the house". and the ablative URU-az "out oI the city".
c) u) The same construction is usually used Ior the questions "where ?" and "where to ?" :
GIS
BANSUR-i piran means "in Iront oI the table" (where ?) and "to the Iront oI the table" (where
to ?).
þ) 1. One can Iind diIIerence only between HUR.SAG-i ser "at the top oI the mountain" and
HUR.SAG-i sarã "to the top oI the mountain".
2. The diIIerence between E-ri anda "in the house" and E-ri andan "into the house" is seldom made.
even iI it exists in the strict sense.
229) The conIusion between the notions "where ?" and "where to ?" induces that most Hittite
postpositions govern the dative-locative. Some oI them govern the ablative (to the question "where
Irom ?"). and it happens that the genitive is Ireely used with postpositions. Postpositions governing
the accusative are very rare (parivan. §233). and none occurs with the instrumental.
89
230) a) The Iollowing postpositions Ior example govern the dative-locative :
 anda (andan) "in. into" ("where ?" and "where to ?") : E-ri anda (andan) "in the house. into
the house" (cI. §228cþ2).
 piran "in Iront oI" ("where ?" and "where to ?") :
GIS
BANSUR-i piran "in Iront oI the table.
to the Iront oI the table".
 appa (appan) locally "behind". temporally "aIter" :
E
tarnui appan "behind the washhouse. to
the back oI the washhouse".
 katta (kattan) "under. underneath" ("where ?" and "where to ?") ; also "next to. with" and
"to" :
GIS
BANSUR-i katta(n) "under the table. to the underneath oI the table". ID-i katta(n)
"downstream oI the river. to the downstream direction oI the river". tuqqa katta "with you
(Sg.). to your house".
 ser "on" ("where ?") ; also "Ior. because oI" : suhhi ser "on the rooI". IR-i ser "Ior the slave".
ANA LU
MES
KUR Amurra ser "because oI the people oI Amurru".
 sarã "onto" ("where to ?") : suhhi sarã "onto the rooI".
 istarna "among. between" ("where ?" and "where to ?") : DINGIR
MES
-as istarna "among the
gods". ANA KUR
URU
Hatti istarna "to the interior oI the land Hatti".
 handas "according to. in accordance with" : nakkivanni handas "according to the esteem".
b) However. most oI these postpositions also govern the genitive : LUGAL-was piran "in Iront oI
the king". attas-mas appan "aIter my Iather". annasas katta "with his mother".
c) One can also occasionally Iind the ablative. either with a characteristic meaning : URU-az katta
"down out oI the city". or without diIIerence oI meaning : tuzzivaz appa "behind the army".
231) tapusza (tapùsa) "along. next to" uses the dative-locative : hassi tapusza "next to the herd. to
the herd".
232) a) parã "out oI" sometimes governs the ablative :
GIS
ZA.LAM.GAR-az parã "out oI the tent".
b) However. one can also Iind the genitive : KA-as parã "out oI the gate".
In the phrase
E
hili parã "in the courtyard outside". parã is an adverb.
233) parranda and pariva(n). which both mean "through" (as well as "apart Irom" and "against").
diIIer in that parranda governs the dative-locative. and pariva(n) the accusative : aruni parranda or
arunan parivan "through the sea".
234) iwar "in the way oI. like" uses the genitive : IN.NU.DA-as iwar "like straw".
mãn is also used with the meaning "like" without speciIic case.
F. Pronouns
1. PersonaI pronouns
235) For the Iorms oI the emphatic and enclitic personal pronouns. cI. §§96 to 105. About the
position oI the enclitic personal pronouns in the sequence oI the enclitic elements at the beginning
oI the sentence. cI §288.
236) The pronominal accusatives -an "eum. eam". -at "id". -us (-as) "eos. eas". -at "ea" (§102a) can
90
be omitted in the legislative language : takku GUD
HI.A
A.SA-ni pãnzi BËL A.SA wemivazi
UD.1.KAM turivazi "iI oxen run across a Iield (and) the owner oI the Iield Iinds (them). he can tie
(them) up (Ior) one day".
237) a) The pronominal accusatives can also be omitted with ta "and" (§316) even out oI the
legislative context :
LU
SILA
3
.SU.DU
8
.A GAM
AM
LUGAL-i pãi ta harzi "the cup-bearer gives the
chalice to the king and holds (him)". LUGAL-us
GIS
BANSUR-az NINDA-an dãi ta-sse pãi "the
king takes bread on the table and gives (it) to him" (variant nan-si pãi "and gives it to him").
b) However. the pronouns above can also be attached to ta "and" in the same way as nu "and" : kuit
kuit harakzi tat sarnikzi "all that decays. he replaces it" (cI. §103a).
238) The importance oI the impersonal verbs in Hittite is still unclear. Next to impersonal verbs oI
disease (§200) and tethãi "it is thundering". duggari "it seems (good)" among others. the possibility
that a deity could be considered as the subiect should be envisaged. However. cI. also akkiskittari
"(some) regularly die" (i.e. deaths always regularly occur). mãn LUGAL-i assu "iI it (seems) good
to the king".
2. RefIexive pronouns
239) The enclitic personal pronouns can be used as reIlexive pronouns : nu-nnas DUMU.NITA
MES
DUMU.MUNUS
MES
ivawen "and we conceived Ior ourselves sons (and) daughters". nu-smas
DINGIR
MES
-as ZI-ni mekki nahhantes estin "now. be (Ior yourselves) very cautious with the
mentality oI the gods" (ethical dative). warpanzi-ma-wa-smas UL "but they don't wash themselves"
(lit. : they don't do a washing on themselves ; Dat.-Loc. Plur. !). le-ta nãhi "don't Iear (Ior yourselI)"
(§206).
240) However. the usual means to express the reIlexive is the enclitic -za (-z) ; its position in the
sequence oI the enclitic elements at the beginning oI the sentence is treated in §288 and it is used
Ior all persons. Thus. next to the sentences quoted in §239 : nu-za DUMU.NITA
MES
DUMU.MUNUS
MES
DU-nun "and I have conceived Ior myselI sons (and) daughters". nu-za
DINGIR
MES
-as ZI-ni mekki nahhantes estin (same translation as above). warpanzi-ma-wa-z UL
(idem).
Further examples : nat-za-kan pidi-pat IR-ahta "and he submitted at the same place". nu-za-kan
INA KUR
URU
Hatti
d
UTU
URU
TUL-na SUM-an daista "and in the land Hatti. you have added to
yourselI the name 'Sun-goddess oI Arinna'". ta-z SU
MES
arri "and he washes his hands" (cI. French
il se lave les mains). nan-zan
LU
HADANU essesta "and he made himselI as son-in-law" (-zan
instead oI -za according to §34. 42b2). nu-za-kan 2 EN SISKUR wãtar INA SAG.DU
MES
-SUNU
sarã lahhuwanzi "and the two sacriIicers pour water on their head".
241) Some verbs change slightly oI meaning depending on whether they use -za or not :
 dã- with -za "to take with oneselI. to take Ior oneselI". without -za "to take something with a
given intent. to use".
 peda- with -za "to take away with oneselI". without -za "to remove".
 es- with -za "to sit (down)". without -za "to seat".
91
 kis- with -za "to become something". without -za "to happen".
 tarh- with -za "to deIeat someone". without -za "to triumph" or "to be able to".
 aus- with -za "to see in oneselI. to Ieel ; to admit". also "to dream". without -za "to see
something in someone else".
242) Other verbs always or nearly always use -za without any particular meaning Ior -za. e.g. :
ilaliva- "to wish". malãi- "to agree". markiva- "to disagree". dusk- "to reioice". UL mema- "to
reIuse". arkuwar iva- (arkuwar essa-. arkuwar dãi-) "to pray". They can be considered as reIlexive
verbs (cI. English to reioice ÷ French se reiouir).
243) -za is also used in nominal sentences (§195a1). but irregularly ; the exact conditions are still
unclear : nu-za ANA
d
UTU
SI
warris SU.DIM
4
-ass-a sardivas es "now. my Sun. be the helper and
the support against violence" (next to katta-ma tuel DUMU
MES
-KA NARÃRU SU.DIM
4
-as
sardivas-a asandu "thus. your sons must be the helper and the support against violence").
244) The reciprocal relations are described like this : "they see each other" ÷ "one sees the other" is
expressed by means oI SES-as SES-an auszi "the brother sees the brother" or aras aran auszi "the
Iriend sees the Iriend" or 1-as 1-an auszi "one sees the other" or kãs kùn auszi "this one sees this
one".
3. Possessive pronouns
245) ammel UKU
3
-as "my man" also means "one oI my Iamily".
246) a) The possessive pronoun oI the 3. Pers. Sing. -sis "his" is sometimes incorrectly used instead
oI the 3. Pers. Plur. -smis "their" ; the Dat.-Loc. ishi-ssi "to his master" can also mean "to their
master".
GIS
TUKUL
HI.A
-us-sus "their weapons".
b) In set phrases. the possessive meaning can completely vanish : pedi-ssi "at his place" simply
means "on the spot".
247) The postpositions piran "in Iront oI". appa(n) "behind". ser "on". katta "under. next to" and
istarna "amid" are built diIIerently according to the Iorm oI the personal pronouns :
a) They are placed aIter the independant Iorms : ammuk piran "in Iront oI me". duqqa katta "next to
you (Sg.)".
b) Instead oI enclitic personal pronouns. Hittite uses the Nom.-Acc. Neutr. oI the possessive
pronouns placed aIter piran. appa(n) and ser : piran-tet "in Iront oI you (Sg.)". piran-set (pirasset.
§36a1) "in Iront oI him". piran-semet "in Iront oI them" (instead oI
*
piran-smet. §22a. 26). appan-
samet "aIter them" (instead oI
*
appan-smet). ser-set "on him. Ior him". The postpositions are thus
built like the substantives "Iront. back. etc...".
c) In the second case. katta(n) and istarna are built like the substantives "underside" and "middle".
but in the Dat.-Loc. Sing.. the Iorms are katti and istarni ; thus katti-m(m)i "next to me". katti-t(t)i
"next to you (Sg.)". katti-s(s)i "next to him. under him" ; istarni-smi (istarni-ssumi. §22a. 26)
"among them".
92
d) The unclear word kitkar "on Ioot (?)" gives kitkar-si "him on Ioot (?)" (like katti-ssi). but kitkar-
samet "them on Ioot (?)" (like appan-samet).
e) II in-between enclitics are inserted in a group postposition-pronoun. the possessive pronouns are
replaced by enclitic personal pronouns : piran-ma-at-mu "in Iront oI me (-mu) but (-ma) it (-at)".
ser-a-ssi-ssan "and (-a) on him (-ssi)". Especially instructive : ser-sit-wa sarnikmi "I want to pay Ior
him" against the variant ser-wa-ssi sarnikmi.
248) About the use oI the instrumental oI the possessive pronouns with substantives in the ablative.
cI. §218cu.
4. Demonstrative pronouns
249) kã-. apã-. eni- and asi- correspond to Latin hic. is. ille. iste. The corresponding adverbs are
kissan and enissan (§§114c. 117b).
250) This is why one Iinds Ior instance kissan memista "he spoke as Iollows" with a Iollowing
quotation. but enissan memista "he spoke thus" with a preceding quotation.
251) One also Iinds. in addition to the meaning Iollowing - preceding. kã- in relation with the 1st
person. apã- in relation with the 2nd and 3rd persons. The expression kez KUR-az - apiz KUR-az
"Irom this country - Irom that country" is equivalent to "Irom my country - Irom your country". kã
corresponds to "here with me". apiva to "there with you" (or "there with him").
252) One can even use kã- and kissan in relation with the 1st person and the preceding context : nu
ki INA MU.1.KAM ivanun "Now. I achieved that (÷ my aIorementioned deeds) in one year". nan
punus mãn kisan mãn UL kisan "ask him whether it is like that or not like that (as I exactly said)".
5. Indefinite pronouns
253) One occasionally Iinds instead oI kuiski "someone. anyone" the simpler Iorm kuis :
a) UL kuis means "none. not the slightest" (cI. Latin non aliquis).
b) u) For "iI someone". one usually Iinds mãn kuiski. but sometimes also mãn kuis (cI. Latin si
quis).
þ) mãn kuwapikki and mãn kuwapi mean "iI ever".
c) kuis - kuis means "the one - the other" (cI. Italian chi - chi ; distributive. not reciprocal).
G. The verb
1. Voices
254) a) Many verbs coniugated in the middle voice are deponent. e.g. : ar- "to stay". kis- "to
become". ki- "to lie".
93
b) However. true middle Iorms can be Iound with a usage similar to Greek. e.g. : nãishut ""turn
(Sg.) round". unattat "she adorned herselI" ; also the reciprocal middle : zahhivawastati "we want to
Iight each other". appantat "they grabbed each other". sarrandat "they parted".
c) CI. also irhãi- Act. "to bound". Mid. "to end". handãi- Act. "to add". Mid. "to be added. to
result". zenna- Act. "to Iinish". Mid. "to end". etc...
255) Occasionally. the active and middle voices occur without any discernible diIIerence : pahs-
Act. and Mid. "to protect". sarra- Act. and Mid. "to split. to go beyond". huwa- (huva-) Act. and
Mid. "to Ilee".
256) The passive voice is uncommon. Some verbs have no passive Iorm but are replaced by other
verbs (active or deponent) oI similar meaning. Thus. ak- "to die". which also means "to be killed". is
used as the passive oI kuen- "to kill". For the passive oI dãi- "to seat. to lay". ki- "to lie" is used. Ior
the passive oI ser dãi- "to put onto" ser tiva- "to lie on top". For the passive oI iva- "to do". kis- "to
become" is used.
257) Transitive verbs sometimes have an intransitive usage : Irom maninku- "short ; near". one
builds according to §136 maninkuwahh- transitive "to shorten". intransitive "to be near".
2. Tense and mode usage
258) Hittite has neither subiunctive nor optative unlike the others I.E. languages ; it has only two
simple tenses like the Germanic languages :
a) 1. Present is also used Ior Iuture (uwami "I come" and "I will come").
2. It can replace the imperative with a Iuture meaning in prayers and orders : NINDA-an azzasteni
wãtarra ekutteni "you (Pl.) will (i.e. shall) eat only bread and drink only water".
b) 1. Preterite is used Ior all past tenses : hatrãnun can mean "I wrote". "I have written" and "I had
written".
2. Preterite can also indicate a resulting state : DINGIR
LIM
-is kisat "he has become a god (÷ he is
dead now)".
259) The verbal Iorms brieIly mentioned in §184 allow a more precise distinction :
a) 1. PerIect and pluperIect are expressed in a "modern" Iashion by means oI har(k)- "to have" with
the Nom.-Acc. Sing. Neutr. oI the participle : perIect antuhsan kuinki parã huittivan harmi "I have
preIered some man".
GIS
GIGIR turivan harweni "we have harnessed the chariot". LU
MES
URU
Gasga kuit dãn harkanzi "that the people oI Gasgas has taken". PluperIect nu-mu
d
ISTAR
kanissan harta "and Istar had honored me". 300 GUSKIN ishivan harta "he had imposed (as a
tribute) 300 (shekels) oI gold". nu-mu istamassan harkir "and they had learnt Irom me".
2. Such compositions also occur with the imperative : nu-mu stamanan lagãn har(a)k "and keep
your ears pricked up toward me". nu SA
LU
KUR kues KASKAL
HI.A
nas-za BËL MADGALTI
kappuwan hardu "and whatever roads oI the enemy (may be). the gouvernor must keep them
watched".
b) es- with the participle can express two things :
94
1. The participle oI the transitive verb with es- can express the perIect oI the passive :
DUMU.MUNUS pivanza esta "a girl has been given". hurtantes esir "they have been cursed".
lamnivan esdu "he must be appointed".
GIS
GIGIR iskivan esdu "the chariot must be anointed".
2. The participle oI the intransitive verb with es- expresses a state resulting Irom an action :
antuhsatar pãn esta "the people had leIt".
c) The expression "to start (to get ready) to do something. to consider doing something" is expressed
by means oI dãi- "to put. to set. to place". sometimes oI tiva- "to go on". with the supine in -uwan oI
a verb generally iterative : ERIN
2
MES
peskiwan tivaweni "we are ready to regularly give troops".
EZEN
HI.A
essuwan tivanzi "they prepare to celebrate the Iestival".
LU
SU.GI kisat nas
DINGIR
LIM
-is kikkissuwan dãis "he became old and started to become a god (i.e. he wasted away)".
E
MES
-SUNU karipuwan dãir "they started to pull down (lit. to devour) their houses". nu-mu asi
memivas teshaniskiwan tivat "and the thing in question began to come regularly to me in dream".
260) a) Where we use "not yet" with perIect. Hittite always uses present with nãwi "not yet" : takku
LU-as DUMU.MUNUS nãwi dãi nanza mimmai "iI a man has not yet named a girl. he can (still)
reiect her". nu-wa 5 ANSU.NITA
MES
EGIR-pa unnanzi unnanzi-ma-war-as nãwi "one will again
drive on the 5 iackasses. but no one has yet driven them on".
b) Where we use "not yet" with a pluperIect. Hittite uses the basic preterite with nãwi : kuitman-za-
kan ANA
GIS
GU.ZA ABÏYA nãwi eshat nu-mu arahzenas KUR.KUR
LU
KUR kururivahhir "as long
as I was not seated on the throne oI my Iather. the neighboring enemy countries Iought me".
261) a) In a subordinate iterative clause oI past meaning. present can be used instead oI our
preterite : kuwattas lahha-ma paizzi nu
LU
KUR-an utne kuttanit tar(ah)han harta "but where he
campaigned. he seized the enemy countries by the neck".
b) The present can also be Iound instead oI the preterite in the main clause :
1. in a clear description : azzikanzi nat-za UL ispivanzi akkuskanzi-ma nat-za UL hassikanzi "they
eat and are not satiated. they drink and don't quench their thirst" (in a text in the preterite and
parallel to the same sentence in the preterite : eter ne UL ispier ukuer-ma ne-za UL hassikkir "they
ate and were not satiated. they drank and didn't quench their thirst").
2. With the verbs meaning "to say" in vivid texts (historical present) : huhhi-ssi pãit nu-ssi tarsikizzi
"he went to his grandIather and talked to him".
262) a) In the correspondence. the sender can stand in the point oI view oI the recipient and use the
preterite instead oI the present : kãsma-tta uivanun halugatallan-min "look. I send you (lit. I sent
you) my messenger".
b) In the same way. preterite is used in the introduction oI royal decrees : LUGAL GAL Tabarna
memista "the great king Tabarna has spoken".
263) a) The imperative is used as a substitute Ior the missing optative in prayers : utne mãu sesdu
"may the country prosper and be in peace". ANA DINGIR
MES
EN
MES
-YA ZI-anza namma warasdu
"by the gods. my lords. may the spirit calm down again".
b) The 1. Pers. Sing. oI the imperative is a voluntative : piskellu "I always want to give". agallu "I
want to die". but it can also be used as an optative : teshit uwallu "may I see in dream".
c) The 1. Pers. Plur. cohortative has a Iormal usage like the corresponding Iorms oI the Indic. Pres. :
95
ehu ANA
d
U ... DI-esni tivaweni "come on now! let us take a step towards the Storm-god". kinuna-
wa ehu nu-wa zahhivawastati nu-wa-nnas
d
U BELÏYA DÏNAM hannau "but come on now! we want
to Iight each other. and the Storm-god. my lord. must rule on our dispute".
264) a) For the negative imperative. le "not!" (§280a) is used with the Ind. Pres. ; thus istamas
"listen!". but le istamasti "do not listen!".
b) ThereIore with the voluntative 1. Pers. Sing. : le saggahhi "I do not want to know".
265) To express the potential and the unreal. one uses the special particle man. which diIIers
generally. but not always. by its spelling ma-an Irom the coniunction mãn (ma-a-an) "iI". About the
lack oI nu next to man. cI. §310I.
266) man with the present means a present potential : man-war-as-mu
LU
MUTÏYA kisari "he could
become my husband".
267) man with the preterite means :
1. a past potential : man-ta-kkan E ABÏKA KUR-KA-va UL arha dãir man-at damedani kuedanikki
pier "could not they have taken away Irom you the house oI your Iather and your land (and) have
given them to another one ?"
2. an unreal : man INA
URU
Havasa pãun-pat nu-za MU.KAM-za ser tepawessanza esta "I would
have gone also (-pat. §293c) to Hayasa. but the year had become (too) short Ior that" (about
nu ÷ "but". cI. §313a). mãn-us-kan
m
Huzzivas kuenta nu uttar isduwati "Huzziya would have killed
them. but (§313a) the aIIair got out".
268) The "nearly" unreal is expressed by means oI the verb waggar- "to miss. to Iail" : nu-kan
d
Hepadus suhhaz katta maussuwanzi waqqares "the goddess Hebat nearly Iell Irom the rooI"
(cI. French : elle a failli tomber).
3. Iterative usage
269) The iterative in -sk-. sometimes in -ss- borrowed Irom Luwian (§141). still requires a thorough
study. Here are some comments in particular about it :
a) It points out an accomplished action Irequently repeated : ANA DINGIR
LIM
anda UD-at UD-at
memiskizzi nu DINGIR
LIM
walliskizzi "he talks to the deity day aIter day and he extols the deity
each time". GE
6
-ti-ma GE
6
-ti turiskizzi "night aIter night he harnesses (them)". watar-ma-ssi
KAS-si KAS-si-pat ISTU 1 UPNI peskanzi "but they give each time water to them Irom the cup oI
one hand" (beIore actions occurring once : hantezzi BAL-si uzuhrin UL pãi "the Iirst times. he does
not give grass"). nu-smas-kan
LU
SANGA ANA DI
HI.A
istarna teskiddu nu-smas DI
HI.A
punuskiddu
"and the priest must attend (in any case) each time the proceedings and must examine each time
their cases". nu nesumnili hatreski "write to me each time in Hittite". nan-za turiskizzi "he can keep
it (a Iound animal) Ior himselI (Ior several days)" (but without iterative : UD.1.KAM turivazi "he
can keep (it Ior) one day").
b) It is Iound iI a uniIorm action oI several subiects is accomplished : uskandu istamaskandu-va
"(all the gods) should look out and listen". tuk-ma-wa DUMU
MES
-KA mekkaus memiskanzi "the one
96
to whom everybody however attributes many sons". 1 LIM MUL
HI.A
hukkiskanzi "the 1000 stars
take an oath". kuis-pat-kan imma kuis DINGIR
MES
-as
GIS
kattaluzzi sarreskizzi "whoever crosses
the threshold oI the gods".
c) Or the action can apply to several obiects : NINDA
HI.A
-va kueus parsivanneskit "and the loaves
oI bread that he broke (into small pieces)". halkis-wa mahhan NAM.LU.ULU
3
GUD UDU huitarra
hùman huisnuskizzi "as the grain oI people. the ox. the sheep and the whole species come to liIe".
nu-tta kuit memiskimi nu-mu DINGIR
LUM
istamanan har(a)k nat istamaski "(all) that I say to you. ô
deity. prick up your ears and listen to it (all)".
d) The action can also be made up oI several simple actions. e.g. be achieved in several stages :
DUG
hupuwava hassi anda lahuskizzi
DUG
hupuwava-ma tuwarniskizzi "(the priestess) Iills the
hupuwava-iar (little by little) on the stove. but she breaks the hupuwava-iar (piece by piece)". kissan
hukkiskizzi "he thus takes an oath (in its various parts)". anniskimi kuin "that I achieve (in several
ritual stages)".
e) In some rare cases. the iterative can point out. not a repeated action. but an action that lasts Ior
long : GE
6
-an hùmandan uzuhrin HAD.DU.A azzikkanzi "during the whole night. they eat hay".
4. VerbaI substantives usage
a) Infinitive constructions
270) Hittite inIinitives and their usage are a Irequently studied and highly disputed subiect. The
Iollowing presentation is based on the most recent and detailed treatment by Kammenhuber.
271) a) What was Iormerly called InIinitive 1 (in -uwar) is a verbal substantive. It has an equivalent
Iormation in -atar. The two constructions are divided as Iollows : the one in -atar is mainly used by
the root verbs with ablaut oI the mi-coniugation (appatar "catching" Irom ep- "to catch". adatar
"eating" Irom ed- "to eat". akkuwatar "drinking" Irom eku- "to drink". kunatar "killing" Irom kuen-
"to kill". uwatar "visit" Irom aus- "to see"). whereas -uwar (Gen. -uwas. §185a) is used by the other
verbs oI the mi- and hi-coniugations : nahhuwar "Iear. respect" Irom nahh- "to Iear". wetummar
"building" Irom wete- "to build". gankuwar "hanging. balancing. weight" Irom gank- "to hang. to
balance". etc...
b) The verbal substantive is not a verbal but a nominal construction : ANA KARAS uwatar ivanun
"I did a visit to the army". LU
MES
KUR
URU
Mizra-ma mahhan SA KUR
URU
Amka GUL-ahhuwar
istamassanzi "but as the people oI Egypt hear the deIeat (lit. the stroke) oI the land Amka".
272) a) The two constructions oI the verbal substantive match the two constructions oI the
inIinitive. the one in -anna Ior the verbs with ablaut oI the mi-coniugation (derived Irom the verbal
substantive in -atar ; Iormerly called InIinitive 2) : adanna "to eat" Irom ed-. akuwanna "to drink"
Irom eku-. kunanna "to kill" Irom kuen-. uwanna "to see" Irom aus-. the other in -uwanzi Ior the
other verbs oI the mi- and hi-coniugations (derived Irom the verbal substantive in -uwar ; Iormerly
called Supine 1).
b) These two constructions are completely equivalent and correspond to inIinitives in the modern
meaning : 1-as 1-an kunanna le sanhanzi "the one must not try to kill the other" (next to nu-mu
97
tepnumanzi san(a)hta "and he tried to humiliate me").
LU
SANGA akuwanna wekzi "the priest
demands to drink". nu-mu-za-kan GE
6
.KAM-za walhuwanzi zikkir "they get ready to attack me by
night". AMAR
HI.A
ivauwanzi zinnahhi "I have Iinished to bring the calves".
c) Note SUSI LUGAL
MES
sivawanzi tar(a)hta "he beat 60 kings in shooting".
273) The supine in -uwan (Iormerly called Supine 2) is only Iound associated with dãi- "to put. to
set" (or with tiva- "to go Iorward") to express the notion "to start to do sth" (§259c).
274) Some other constructions with the inIinitive should also be mentioned :
a) The association oI the verb es- "to be" with the inIinitive with the meaning "something must be
done" : tuk-ma ki uttar SA-ta sivanna ishiull-a esdu "but this word should be placed in your heart
and should be a rule". NINDA.KUR
4
.RA parsivawanzi NU.GAL "there is no bread to break". INA
KUR
URU
Assuwa lahhivawanzi esun "I had to campaign in the land Assuwa" (cI. English I was to
fight).
b) kisari "it becomes" with the inIinitive means "it is possible to do sth" : mãn tuk-ma warissuwanzi
UL kisari "iI it is not possible Ior you (Sg.) to help".
275) a) An accusative can be the complement oI an inIinitive. but Hittite readily makes this
accusative depend on the inIinitive by placing it as obiect oI the main verb iI this verb is active :
apãs-ma-mu harkanna san(a)hta : "lit. : but he looked Ior me to knock down" (i.e. "he looked Ior
knocking me down").
b) II the main verb is passive or is the verb "to be". the noun or the pronoun which is interpreted as
the obiect oI the inIinitive appears in Hittite as the subiect oI the main verb :
LU
MUNABTUM
EGIR-pa pivanna UL ara (or
LU
MUNABTUM EGIR SUM-anzi UL ara) "lit. : a reIugee (is) not
right Ior an extradition" (i.e. it is not right to extradite a reIugee). nu-ssi GUD pivawanzi SIxSA-at
"lit. : and an ox was established to him to give" (i.e. it has been established Ior him to give an ox).
mãn URU
LUM
kuiski ... ANA
m
Ulmi-
d
U pivanna UL ZI-anza "lit. : iI a city is not the intention (oI
the Sun) to give to U." (i.e. iI the intention (oI the Sun) is not to give a city to U." (URU
LUM
kuiski
is a nominative !).
276) In these constructions. the inIinitive is indiIIerent :
a) to the tense ; it is used likewise Ior present and Iuture : DINGIR
LUM
-kan kuis ANA
d
UTU
SI
tarnumanzi SIxSA-at "lit : the deity who was observed to admit the 'Sun' (i.e. who was observed
that he shall be leIt Ior the 'Sun')" as well as Ior preterite : DINGIR
LUM
-ma-kan kuis arha
sarrumanzi SIxSA-at "lit : the deity (the divine picture) who was observed to break (i.e..the divine
picture who was observed that it has been broken)".
b) to the voice ; cI. the last example oI a).
c) to the diIIerence between the causative and the base verb : apãs-ma-mu harkanna san(a)hta
"lit : he looked Ior me to collapse (i.e. he aimed to knock me down)" (hark- "to collapse" instead oI
harganu- or harnink- "to throw down"). nas katta asanna kuit SIxSA-at nan katta asashun
"lit. : and since she was observed to be seated (!). then I seated her" (es- "to be seated" instead oI
ases- "to seat").
98
b) The participIe
277) a) The Hittite participle in -ant- is passive Ior transitive verbs and active-intransitive Ior
intransitive verbs. Thus the Iollowing meanings : on one hand kunant- "killed" (Irom kuen- "to
kill"). appant- "grabbed. collected" (Irom ep- "to grab"). dant- "taken" (Irom dã- "to take"). sekkant-
"known" (Irom sak- "to known"). on the other hand pãnt- "gone" (Irom pãi- "to go"). akkant- "dead"
(Irom ak- "to die"). tepawessant- "decreased" (Irom tepawes- "to decrease. to get Iewer"). huvant-
"Iled" (Irom huva- "to Ilee").
b) Exceptionally. adant- and akuwant- mean not only "eaten" and "drunk" (Irom ed- "to eat" and
eku- "to drink"). but also "having eaten" and "having drunk" (like Lat. pransus and potus.
Old-Indian bhukta- and pita-).
c) The participle has sometimes the meaning oI a verbal adiective : kappuwant- "counted" also
means "countable. Iew".
278) About the expression oI the gerund. cI. §186.
H. Negation
279) a) To negate the positive sentence. texts usually use the Akkadian UL and seldom the Hittite
natta.
b) Other negations are also used : nãwi "not yet" (§224b. 260) and nùwãn (nùwãn) "not at all ; no
more" (§224b).
280) a) The prohibitive negation is le with the indicative present. cI. §264a.
b) One can sometimes Iind :
1. le with the imperative (§264) : nu-tta LU
MES
SU.GI le memiskandu "and the elders cannot talk to
you". le-ta nãhi "do not be aIraid".
2. once le with man potential-present in Old-Hittite with the meaning oI Lat. utinam ne : le-man-se
LUGAL-us kissan tezzi "may the king not talk oI him like this".
281) The negation is placed beIore the verb. and. Ior compound verbs. between the particle and the
verbal Iorm : nu namma INA
ID
Seha UL pãun "so (§315) I did not go to the land oI the river Seha".
nu-wa BËLNI INA
URU
Havasa le pãisi "now. our lord. do not go to Hayasa". apiva-va-ta-kan anda
UL dalivami "then I will not let you down". nu-za-kan memivani ser le karussivasi "do not stay
quiet in Iront oI the thing". nu namma
d
UTU
SI

URU
Duqqaman saruwawanzi UL tarnahhun "So
(§315) I. the Sun. let here the city Duqqama without plundering it".
282) a) However. various accentuated words can attract the negation : nu-wa BËLNI le namma
uwasi "now. our lord. do not come yet". nu-tta UL kuwatqa ammel A.SA kueri anda zahhiva tivami
"now. I will by no means come to Iight on my Iield (and my) soil".
b) The emphatic negation can be placed at the end oI short sentences : namma-ma-kan KUR
URU
Hapalla kuenta-va UL epta-va-at UL "then you did not strike the land Hapalla and you did not
seized it either". nu-war-an sannatti-va le munnãsi-va-war-an le "now do not hide him and do not
conceal him". parkunusi-ma-za UL kuit "but you do not let the least go through".
99
c) The negation is placed at the beginning oI the interrogative sentence : UL-war-an-kan tuetaza
memivanaz kuennir "did not they kill you because oI your word (cI. §213b2) ?".
d) The negation can also be doubled to strengthen the negative aspect : nu-war-an huwappi
DINGIR
LIM
-ni UL parã UL kuwapikki tarnahhun "now. I have never. never leIt him with a bad
deity".
283) A negation can act on the Iollowing sentence : hassannas DUMU-an idãlu le kuiski ivazi nu-
ssi-san GIR-an takkeski "nobody should mistreat a son oI the Iamily. nor prepare a dagger against
him". ANA BULUG
3
GIM-an hassatar-set NU.GAL UL-an A.SA-ni pedanzi nan NUMUN-an
ienzi "since there is no vitality in malt (?). it is not brought to the Iield and it is not sown".
I. Interrogation
284) a) Interrogation was expressed in speech by the tone rather than by a particle. hence it is not
directly recognizable in written texts : SES-YA-za malãsi "do you agree. my brother ?".
DINGIR
LUM
-za kidas waskuwas ser TUKU.TUKU-wanza "is the deity very angry because oI those
breaches ?".
b) The negation is placed at the beginning oI the interrogative sentence (cI. §282c).
285) a) The double interrogation uses nu and -ma in the second clause : BAL andurza kuiski
DU-vazi ... nu BAL arahza-ma kuiski DU-zi "does someone revolt inside ... or does someone revolt
outside ?". nu-war-at SES-YA ÏDE nu-war-at UL-ma ÏDE "does my brother know it or does not he
know it ?".
b) About the indirect double interrogation with mãn - mãn "iI - or else". cI. §333.
286) Abrupt questions can occur. e.g. : kuit apãt "what (is) that ?". nu namma kuit "what more ?".
J. ParticIes
1. GeneraIities
287) The Iollowing words are designated as particles in the strict sense : -wa (-war) oI quotation.
-pat "also. too. even". the positioning particles -kan and -san and the still poorly understood
particles -(a)sta and -(a)pa (-ap). maybe too the enclitic coniunctions -a (-va) "and" and -ma "but".
In a broader sense. the enclitic pronominal Iorms (§§100 and 102) as well as the reIlexive pronoun -
za (-z) (§240 - 243) can be added. All these enclitic elements are aIIixed to the Iirst accentuated
word oI the sentence and their abundance gives its peculiar character to the linking oI the Hittite
sentences. especially in Neo-Hittite.
288) II these enclitic words seem crowded. they are however aIIixed in a perIectly regular order :
1. The coniunctions -a (-va) "and" and -ma "but" (§302 - 305. 318 I.) are at the Iirst place.
2.The quotation particle -wa (-war) (§289 - 292) is at the second place.
3. The enclitic pronouns (§§100 and 102) and the reIlexive pronoun -za (§240 II.) come aIter the
100
coniunctions and aIter -wa.
4. The particles -kan. -san. -(a)sta and -(a)pa (§294 - 301) end the series.
5. a) Several enclitic pronouns come beIore ; thus. the Iorms oI the 3rd person (§102) are generally
placed beIore the Iorms oI §100 and beIore -za.
b) -za also Iollows the Iorms oI §100.
Examples (with a reIerence to the numbering oI the enclitics) : nu-mu-kan "and to me" (3. 4).
n-at-mu "and he to me" (3. 5a). n-at-si "and it (they) to him" (3. 5a). n-as-za "and he himselI"
(3. 5a). nu-mu-za-kan "and to myselI" (3. 4. 5b). kinun-as-mu-kan "now he to me" (3. 4. 5a).
mahhan-ma-mu-kan "but while to me" (1. 3. 4). n-an-za(n) "and he himselI" (3. 5a ; about -za(n).
cI. §§34. 42b). GE
6
.KAM-az-ma-at-kan "but during the night it (they)" (1. 3. 4). piran-ma-at-mu
"but it in Iront oI me" (1. 3. 5a). nu-war-an "and he" (2. 3). nu-war-as-za "and he himselI" (2. 3.
5a). ammuk-ma-wa-kan "but me" (1. 2. 4). nu-wa-mu-za "and to myselI" (2. 3. 5b). nu-wa-mu-kan
"and to me" (2. 3. 4). nu-wa-nnas-za "and we ourselves" (2. 3. 5b). nu-wa-mu-ssan "and to me" (2.
3. 4). nu-wa-smas-(s)ta "and to you (Pl.) (to them)" (2. 3. 4) (about -(s)ta Ior -(a)sta. cI. §42c).
nu-war-as-ta "and he to you (Sg.)" (2. 3. 5a). unnanzi-ma-war-as "but they bring him away"
(1. 2. 3). kinun-a-war-as "and now he" (1. 2. 3). KASKAL
HI.A
-va-wa-smas "also the roads to you
(Pl.)" (1. 2. 3). arahzenas-wa-mu-za "the neighbors themselves to me" (2. 3. 5b). mãnn-a-wa-mu
"and iI to me" (1. 2. 3). DUMU-SU-ma-wa-ssi-za-kan "but his son to himselI" (1. 2. 3. 4. 5b).
kinun-ma-wa-tu-za "but now to himselI" (1. 2. 3. 5b ; about -tu-. cI. §§40. 100).
d
UTU
SI
-wa-du-za-
kan "the Sun to yourselI" (2. 3. 4. 5b).
2. The quotation particIe
289) II a quotation is included in a narration. the enclitic particle -wa is aIIixed to the Iirst
accentuated word oI each clause oI the quotation :
m
Pihhunivas-ma-mu kissan hatrães UL-wa-tta
kuitki EGIR-pa pihhi mãnn-a-wa-mu zahhiva uwasi nu-wa-tta UL kuwatqa ammel A.SA kueri anda
zahhiva tivami ANA KUR
TI
-KA-wa-tta menahhanda uwami nu-wa-tta-kkan ANA SA KUR-KA
zahhiva tivami "but Pihhuniya wrote thus to me : I will give you nothing back. And iI you come to
Iight me. I will go by no means onto my own land (and) soil ; I will meet you in your country and I
will Iight you in your country".
290) Several enclitic words starting with a vowel can Iollow the quotation particle. such as all the
Iorms oI the pronoun -a- (§102) or the particles -asta and -apa (§301). In that case. the particle
occurs in its whole Iorm -war- (§30) : nu arahzenas KUR.KUR
LU
KUR kissan memir
ABÜSU-wa-ssi kuis LUGAL KUR Hatti esta nu-war-as UR.SAG-is LUGAL-us esta nu-wa-za
KUR.KUR
LU
KUR tarahhan harta nu-war-as-za DINGIR
LIM
-is DU-at DUMU-SU-ma-wa-ssi-za-
kan kuis ANA
GIS
GU.ZA ABÏSU esat nu-wa apãss-a karù
LU
KALA-anza esta nu-war-an
irmalivattat nu-wa-za apãss-a DINGIR
LIM
-is kisat "and the neighboring enemy countries spoke
thus : his Iather. who was king oI the land Hatti. was a heroic king and he held the enemy countries
in check ; and he became a god. But his son. who sat on the throne oI his Iather. was beIore a war
hero too ; now he Iell ill (§200b) and he became a god too".
291) It sometimes happens that the verb introducing the quotation is missing ; the sentence can be
understood by adding "with the words" beIore the quotation : nu-kan NAM.RA
MES
katta uer
nat-mu GIR
MES
-as kattan halivandat BËLÏNI-wa-nnas le harnikti "the prisoners came down. and
101
they knelt at my Ieet (with the words) : our lord. do not slaughter us !".
292) a) In the language oI mythological texts. more rarely in the other texts. the use oI the particle is
less strict : nu sarã nepisi atti-ssi halzãis ammuga EGIR-pa anda ep le-mu genzuwãisi "now. he
called his Iather towards heaven : bring me again ! do not shield me !" (next to several correct uses
oI the particle in the same text).
b) Conversely. -wa can be Iound at the wrong place in isolated cases : nu DUMU
MES
-KA
DUMU
MES

d
UTU
SI
-pat ASSUM BËLÜTIM pahsantaru nu-wa-smas HUL-lu menahhanda le
sanhateni "and your sons must respectIully get under the authority oI the sons oI the Sun. And do
not plan anything evil !". nu-wa
m
Ukkuras
LU
UGULA.10 MUNUS.LUGAL li-in-kan'-ta "and
Ukkura. the decurion oI the queen swore (!)".
c) 1. Occasionally. -wa can be Iound at the beginning oI a quotation. but not in the Iollowing part oI
the quotation.
2. -wa can also be omitted in short sentences oI a dialogue.
3. The particIe -pat "even, aIso"
293) Only the main uses oI the enclitic particle -pat (oI unsure reading. maybe -pit or -pe) can be
presented here since there is no thorough study about it :
a) it corresponds to English "even" (concerning what has already been mentioned) : iI a slave has
stolen. and takku BËLSU tezzi ser-wa-ssi sarnikmi nu sarnikzi takku mimmai-ma nu IR-an-pat
sùizzi "iI his master says : 'I want to execute his punishment Ior him'. then he must execute the
punishment. But iI he reIuses. he must even Iorsake the slave". nu-kan
m
Uhha-LU-is aruni anda
BA.UG
7
DUMU
MES
-SUNU-ma-za arha sarrandat nu-kan 1-as SA A.AB.BA-pat esta 1-as-ma-kan
arunaz arha uit "and Uhha-LU died in the sea (i.e. on an island). His (§353c) sons separated
(§254b) ; and one still stayed in the sea. but the other came back Irom the sea".
apãs-pat can be translated by "this very. it itselI" : takku IR-is huwãi nas kururi KUR-e pãizzi
kuis-an EGIR-pa uwatezzi nan-zan (§34) apãs-pat dãi "iI a slave Ilees and goes into an enemy
country. the one who brings him back can keep this very one Ior himselI".
b) -pat with a possessive pronoun has the meaning "own" : apel-pat annasas katta "with his own
mother". SAG.DU-KA-pat "your own head".
c) With a predicate. it means "also. as well" : nu-za ABÜYA kuwapi DINGIR
LIM
-is DU-at
m
Arnuwandas-ma-za-kan SES-YA ANA
GIS
GU.ZA ABÏSU esat EGIR-an-ma-as irmalivattat-pat
"and as soon as my Iather became a god. my brother Arnuwanda sat on the throne oI his Iather. But
aIter. he also Iell ill".
d) A Irequent meaning oI -pat is "only" : kappuwantes-pat-mu-kan antuhses isparter "only Iew
people (lit. countable. §277c) escaped Irom me". LUGAL-us-san hantezzivas-pat DUMU.LUGAL
kikkittaru "only the Iirst prince shall become king". nu-za IR-SU-pat dãi sarnikzil NU.GAL "he can
only take his slave. there is no compensation". In predictions. oIten aIter having determined the
reason Ior the divine wrath : mãn ki-pat namma-ma tamai NU.GAL kuitki "iI there is only this one.
then nothing else is available".
e) Less Irequently. it means "nevertheless. all the same" : nu-za mãn irmalanza-sa (§25b) esta
d
UTU
SI
-ma-tta ANA ASAR ABÏKA tittanunun-pat "and although you are ill. I have nevertheless
installed you at the place oI your Iather".
102
4. The particIes of position -kan and -san
294) The particles -kan and -san are presented together since they both imply a relation with
location ; they are mainly used with verbs oI motion. The diIIerent uses oI -kan are not yet Iully
understood.
295) -kan is especially Iound with locations. It modiIies above all the meaning oI the particle oI
verbs oI motion. II the motion is the consequence oI a previous motion. -kan is lacking. iI it is an
independant motion. -kan is present. More precisely :
 anda without -kan "again inside". with -kan "inside"
 appa without -kan "back". with -kan "away"
 arha without -kan "home". with -kan "outside. Iar"
 parã without -kan "again Iorward". with -kan "Iorward. outside"
 katta without -kan "again below". with -kan "below"
 sarã without -kan "again above". with -kan "above".
Examples : nekuz mehur-ma DINGIR
LUM
anda udanzi "in the evening however. they bring the deity
in again". nu-war-as-kan kãsma sumãs anda uit "and see! he came in your house". GIM-an-ma
URU
Neriqaza EGIR-pa uizzi "as he comes back however to Neriqqa". nan-kan EGIR-pa INA
KUR-SU pehutezzi "and he brings him away to his country". nas
URU
KU.BABBAR-si arha
udahhun "and I brought them back to my house in Hattusa". nas-kan URU-riaz arha hùdak pãiddu
"and he must immediately leave the city". lukkatta-ma parã pãun "but the Iollowing day. I went
Iorward". LU
GIS
PA-ma-kan parã aski pãizzi "but the messenger goes out through the gate". nu
nekuz mehuni hùdak GAM pãitten "and goes down again immediately at night". nu-kan ERIN
2
MES
URU-az katta udas "and he brought troops at the bottom oI the city". nas INA E DINGIR
LIM
sesuwanzi hùdak sarã uiddu "and he must go up again immediately to the temple to sleep". nu-kan
URU
Astata URU-ri sarã pãun "and I went up to the town Astata".
296) One can compare other cases : nat-kan ANA KUR
URU
Hatti istarna uda "bring that to the land
Hatti". nas-kan aruni parranda pãit "and he crossed the sea". nat-kan INA KUR Gasga kattanda
pedas "and he brought him down to the land Gasga". kuitman-as-kan INA KUR
URU
Hatti ser "as
long as he (is) above in the land Hatti". Conversely. nu-mu SES-YA
d
NIR.GAL-is EGIR-anda uit
"and my brother Muwattalli came behind me". nu-mu EN
MES
hùmantes menahhanda uer "and all
the lords came in Iront oI me".
297) -kan disappears :
a) next to the particles -san (§300) and -asta (§301a) : nasta LUGAL-us ISTU E
d
Zababa parã uizzi
"and then the king went out oI the temple oI Zababa".
b) near andan. appan and kattan : nu-ssi INA
URU
Samuha ukila kattan pãun "and I myselI went to
his house in Samuha".
c) when a verb has no particle : nan BËLUM kuiski uwateddu "and any lord must bring him back".
298) 1. -kan is also present :
a) with some adverbial phrases oI spatial meaning such as pedi daliva- "to give place". SA-ta tarna-
"to take into account". SU-i dãi- "to put in one's hand". KASKAL-si dãi- "to implement".
b) with verbs oI meaning "to inIluence someone physically or mentally" such as es- "to occupy".
103
kuen- "to strike". ishãi- "to impose". zammurãi- "to humiliate". etc...
c) with verbs oI meaning "to be inIluenced by someone" such as nahh- "to be aIraid oI". aus- "to see
something in somebody". wemiva- "to Iind something in somebody". etc...
2. But it is lacking with these verbs in legal texts aIter takku : man-kan kuenzi "and he kills him".
nan-kan kunanzi "and they kill him". but takku
LU
DAM.GAR
URU
Hatti kuiski kuenzi "iI someone
kills a merchant oI Hatti". takkus LU-is wemivazi tus kuenzi "iI a man Iinds them and kills them".
299) The particle -san never occurs next to -kan. They are mutually exclusive (§297a). The group
-za-san becomes -zan according to §42b1.
300) -san is especially Iound with verbs oI position which can also use -kan ; -san probably gives to
these verbs the special meaning "on. over". The particle ser is Irequently Iound next to -san.
Examples : ser-a-ssan SA GIS
LU
IS artari "and upon it a wooden handlebar is Iound" (on the other
hand ANA
GIS
GIGIR-va-kan kuedani apedani UD-ti arhahat "and the chariot on which I stood that
day"). nas-san SA
d
U
GIS
SU.A asãsi "and he seats her on the chair oI the Storm-god" (but nan-kan
GIS
huluganni asesanzi "but one seats him in the chariot"). nu-ssi-ssan UDU
UZU
GAB-i ser epzi
"and he holds the sheep on his chest" (next to nu-ssi-kan iskisas ser epzi "and he holds (it) on his
back"). nu-zan mãn ANA
d
UTU
SI
ser SAG.DU-KA-pat ser autti "and iI you watch the Sun (like)
your head".
5. The particIes -(a)sta and -(a)pa
301) a) The meaning oI the particles -(a)sta and -(a)pa (-ap) is not yet understood ; the latter
commonly and occasionally alternates with -(a)sta in Old-Hittite.
b) 1. About the reduction oI -asta in -sta or -ta aIter the syllables -as. -is. -us. cI. §42c1.
2. II -apa Iollows a word ending in -i. it is reduced to -pa : aki "he dies" ¹ -(a)pa ~ akipa. nu ¹ -at ¹
-si ¹ -(a)pa ~ natsepa "and it to him".
K. Conjunctions
1. -a, -ya "and, aIso"
302) a) The coniunction is aIIixed as an enclitic to the second word or the Iirst word oI the second
clause. It is written -a aIter a consonant. -va aIter a vowel or a logogram. cI. §41a.
b) It is sometimes written -a ¹ -va without any particular reason : wãtarr-a-va "and water". apãtt-a-
va "also this". and oIten kinun-a-va-war-an "and now him".
303) a) -a. -va "and" connects individual words : appanti kunanti-va mekki esta "the prisoners and
the killed were many".
m
Manapa-
d
U-an-ma-za KUR
ID
Seha-va IR-anni dahhun "but I have
enslaved Manapa-Datta and the land oI the river Seha".
d
UTU
SI
-in-pat sãk pahsi-va-an "so 'my
Sun'. recognize them and protect them".
b) However. some words are easily paired without coniunction (asyndeton) : attas annas "Iather and
104
mother" (÷ "parents"). LUGAL MUNUS.LUGAL "king and queen. the royal couple". ERIN
2
MES
ANSU.KUR.RA
MES
"Ioot-soldiers and charioteers". arahzenes antùres "Ioreigners and natives".
mallanzi harranzi "they grind and crush". adanna akuwanna "to eat and to drink".
304) a) Moreover. -a. -va connects two iuxtaposed clauses without progress oI the action : nu-mu
d
ISTAR GASAN-YA kuit kanissan harta SES-YA-va-mu
d
NIR.GAL-is assu harta "because Istar. my
lady. kept me blessed and my brother Muwattalli kept me well". nu-wa memivan ANA
d
UTU
SI
hatrãi antuhsann-a-wa ep nu-war-an ANA ABI
d
UTU
SI
uppi "write the word to the 'Sun' and arrest
the man and send him to the Iather oI the 'Sun'".
b) 1. -a ... -a (-va ... -va) means "sth ... as well as sth" : SA
m
Attarissiva-va 1 LU SIG
5
-in kuennir
anzell-a-kan 1 LU SIG
5
-in kuennir "they killed a noble man oI A. as well as a noble man oI ours".
eppirr-a mekki kuennirr-a mekki "they sheltered many as well as they killed many".
2. With a negation. it means "neither ... nor" : nu-war-an sannattiva le munnãsi-va-war-an le
"neither hide him nor conceal him".
305) a) Finally. -a. -va means "also. too" : nu-wa-za apãss-a DINGIR
LIM
-is kisat "now he has
become a god too (like his Iather beIore)". nu-za MU.KAM-za ser tepawessanza esta BËLÜ
HI.A
-
va-mu memir MU.KAM-za-wa-tta ser tepawessanza "then the year had become (too) short. Also
the lords told me : the year has become (too) short".
b) Occasionally. -a. -va is translated by "but" : karù 30 GUD
HI.A
peskir kinun-a 15 GUD
HI.A
pãi
"one Iormerly used to give 30 oxen. but now he gives 15 oxen". kissan-a le tesi "but you (Sg.) must
not speak like that".
2. nu "and"
306) a) nu is used to connect whole sentences. With the pronoun -a- (§102) and the particles -(a)sta
and -(a)pa. it becomes na- (§38a. 103a). nasta and napa (§301a).
b) nu is a word to which enclitic pronouns and particles are easily aIIixed ; examples at §288.
307) In Neo-Hittite. nu has two Iunctions :
a) It connects two coordinate clauses and corresponds to "and" ; it implies however a progress in the
action ("and then") : nu-mu-kan
m
SUM.MA.
d
KAL-an DUMU-SU menahhanda parã nãesta nas-mu
INA
ID
Astarpa ME-va tivat nan
d
UTU
SI
zahhivanun nu-mu
d
UTU
URU
Arinna DINGIR
MES
-va
hùmantes piran huer nu-za
m
SUM.MA.
d
KAL-an tarahhun nan-kan kuenun nu-kan INA KUR
URU
Arzawa parranda pãun nu-mu
m
Uhha-LU-is UL mazzasta nas-mu-kan huwãis nas-kan aruni
parranda pãit nas-kan apiva anda esta "and he dispatched his son S.. and he went Iorward to the
river Astarpa to Iight me. and I. the Sun. Iought him. And the Sun-goddess oI Arinna and all the
gods rushed beIore me. and I deIeated S. and I stroke him. Then I went into the land Arzawa and
Uhha-LU did not resist to me and he Iled beIore me and he crossed the sea to an island and he
stayed there".
b) It connects the main clause (apodosis "then ...") to the conditional subordinate clause (protasis
"iI ...") : kuitman-za-kan ANA
GIS
GU.ZA ABÏYA nãwi eshat nu-mu arahzenas KUR.KUR
MES
LU
KUR hùmantes kururivahhir "as I was not yet seated on the throne oI my Iather. all the enemy
105
neighboring countries began to attack me".
308) a) nu can also stand at the beginning oI longer sections where it can be translated by "then" :
nu tuel mahhan
m
Mashuiluwas ABÜKA ITTI
d
UTU
SI
wastas zik-ma-za
m
Kupanta-
d
KAL-as ANA
m
PIS.TUR-wa UL KUR-as esta nu-tta-kan UL E ABÏKA arha dahhun "then aIter your Iather
Mashuiluwa had sinned against the 'Sun'. Irom you. K.. who were not hostile against Mashuiluwa. I
did not take the house oI your Iather". nu kuitman ABÜYA INA KUR
URU
Mitanni esta "then while
my Iather was in the country Mitanni. (this and that happened)".
b) However. it is usually missing at the beginning oI long sections : ABÜYA-annas-za
m
Mursilis
4 DUMU
MES
hasta "my Iather Mursili begot 4 children" (at the beginning oI the autobiography oI
Hattusili).
c) 1. It is especially missing in general at the beginning oI quotations : nat-mu GIR
MES
-as kattan
halivandat BËLÏNI-wa-nnas le harnikti nu-wa-nnas-za BËLÏNI IR-anni dã "they prostrated
themselves at my Ieet (with the words) : our lord. do not slaughter us. and take us. our lord. at your
(§240) service".
2. But it sometimes stands at the beginning oI a quotation :
d
ISKUR-sa tezzi nu-war-an kuit handa
UL wemivatten "and the Storm-god says : then since you did not Iind him". It is the same with
shorts sentences : nu kuit "so what ? (i.e. what is there to say ?)".
309) In Old-Hittite. nu has a more restricted use :
a) It can occasionally stand between two coordinate clauses : takku LU-is GUD-as katta wastai
hurkil aki-as LUGAL-an aski uwatezzi "iI a man sins with an ox. (it is) an abomination. he will be
killed. He will bring him at the court oI the king (§62c)".
b) It generally stands between coordinate clauses in asyndeton in rituals : nu PÃNI
GIS
DAG-ti U
PÃNI
d
Zababa 2-SU dãi hassi 1-SU
GIS
DAG-ti 1-SU
GIS
AB-va 1-SU
GIS
hattalwas GIS-rui 1-SU
namma hassi tapusza 1-SU dãi UGULA LU
MES
MUHALDIM ispanduzzisar GESTIN LUGAL-i
parã epzi LUGAL-us QÃTAM dãi "then he sets once in Iront oI the throne and in Iront oI the god
Zababa. once in Iront oI the hearth. once on the throne. once in the window. once on the wooden
bolt. once more next to the hearth. The manager oI the cooks holds a wine ration out to the king. the
king puts his hand".
c) In legislative texts. an asyndeton should generally be understood when a protasis has several
terms : takku DUMU.MUNUS LU-ni taranza tamais-an pittenuzi "iI a girl (is) promised to a man
(and iI) another one abducts her".
d) Old-Hittite generally does not add nu to the apodosis contrary to §307b : takku IR-an KAxKAK-
set kuiski wãki 3 GIN KU.BABBAR pãi "iI someone bites oII the nose oI a slave (§213a). he will
give 3 shekels oI silver". nu GIM-an lukkutta
d
UTU-us-kan kalmaraz uit
m
Kissis suppivaz sastas (!)
arãis "then when the morning aIter the Sun-god came above the mountain (?). K. arose Irom the
pure bed" (sastas : mistake Ior sastaz ?).
310) In some cases. nu is omitted. especially in Neo-Hittite :
a) at the beginning oI a long section (cI. §308b) ;
b) with prohibitive clauses between two prohibitions. with an order and a prohibition. as well as
with a positive clause aIter a prohibition : nu-wa-kan SA
URU
Ivalanda tuel UKU
3
-an le kuinki
wemivami ziqqa-wa-za-kan EGIR-pa anda le kuinki tarnatti ammel-wa IR
MES
ukila EGIR-an
sanhmi "now I do not want to Iind any oI your people in the city I. ! Do not let any inside again ! I
106
will look aIter my suiects by myselI". apùn-wa UKU
3
-an dã le-war-an arha datti "accept this man !
You should not take him away" ;
c) 1. with emphasis. especially with emphatic and rhetorical questions : eshar INA KUR
URU
KU.BABBAR-ti ara "is the blood (crime) lawIul in the land Hatti ?". UKU
3
-as
DINGIR
MES
-ass-a ZI-anza tamais kuiski UL "is the mentality diIIerent between men and gods ?
No !" ;
2. on the other hand. nu is present with rhetorical questions aIter a subordinate clause : SES-tar kuis
kuedani hatreskizzi nu-kan UL assivantes kues nu 1-as 1-edani SES-tar hatreskizzi "those oI the
brotherhood who keep on writing. (are they) not those who (are) Iriends ? Thus. the one keeps on
writing to the other one oI the brotherhood" ;
d) in the explanatory parenthetical clauses : kãs-ma
LU
KARTAPPU kuis SA MUNUS.LUGAL-za
kuit SA MAS
TI
harzi INA KUR
URU
Hatti SA MUNUS.LUGAL MAS
TUM
mekki salli nas-mu UL
imma
LU
HADANU "but this riding master. because he has (a woman) Irom the Iamily oI the queen -
in the land Hatti. the Iamily oI the queen (is indeed) highly regarded - (is) so to speak (lit. not
completely) a brother-in-law oI mine" ;
e) in result adverbial clauses (English "in such a way that. to the point that") : namma-kan mãn
ISTU KUR
URU
Hatti kuiski idãlus memivas SA BAL sarã isparzazi KUR
TUM
kuitki arahza ANA
d
UTU
SI
kururivahzi ITTI
d
UTU
SI
-ma hùman SIG
5
-in nu AWÃT
d
UTU
SI
huski "besides. iI the bad
rumor oI a riot comes out Irom the land Hatti. in such a way that a country starts a war outside
against the Sun. all (is) Iavorable however Ior the Sun. so await the instructions oI the Sun". nu mãn
m
DU.
d
U DUMU-SU ANA PÃNI
m
Abiratta ABÏSU kuitki wastai ABASU HUL-anni sanhazi "iI now
his son D. sins against his Iather A. in such a way that he looks Ior his Iather Ior evil (i.e. that he
tries to act badly towards his Iather)". nu KUR-va andan kãsza kisati DUMU.LU.ULU
3
LU.MES
DINGIR
MES
-s-a kistantit harkivanzi "and in the country the Iamine happened. to the point that men
and gods starve to death" ;
I) next to the unreality particle man : nu-war-as-mu-kan sullãit nu-wa-mu IR
MES
-YA kattan
harnamnivat man-wa-mu menahhanda kururivahha nu-war-as-mu piran arha piddais "and he
quarreled with me and he persecuted (?) my subiects (and) he would have started to make war
against me ; and he Iled beIore me". man-kan mãn ANA
d
UTU
SI
kuwapi HUL-wanni kittat man-ta
d
UTU
SI
arha pessivanun man-ta-kkan E ABÏKA arha dahhun "iI this had ever (§253bþ) appeared
evil Ior the Sun. I. the Sun. would have reiected you and I would have taken the house oI your Iather
Irom you" (on the other hand. in the real mode : kinun-a-kan ANA
d
UTU
SI
kuit HUL-wanni UL
kittat-nu-tta arha UL pessivanun nu-tta-kan E ABÏKA arha UL dahhun "since this has not appeared
evil Ior the Sun. I have not reiected you and I have not taken the house oI your Iather Irom you").
g) in series oI clauses with kuitman "until" (§326d3).
311) a) The sentences with kuit "because" (§323) usually have nu at the beginning oI the clause with
kuit as well as at the transition with the main clause : nu-wa-mu IBILA kuit NU.GAL
m
Kupanta-
d
KAL-as-ma-mu DUMU SES-YA nu-war-an-mu EN-YA DUMU-anni pãi "since there is no
oIIspring Ior me. but K. is the son oI my brother. then give him to me. my lord. as a descendant".
b) However. the clause with kuit can also have no particle : ABÜKA-mu kuit tuel SUM-an memiskit
nu-tta apaddan EGIR-an san(a)hhun "since your Iather had told (i.e. recommended) me several
times your name. then I have taken care oI you".
c) In the same way. nu can be missing Irom the beginning oI the main clause : ANA PÃNI
107
DINGIR
MES
kuit parã handandanni ivahhahat SA DUMU.NAM.LU.ULU
3
LU
-UTTI HUL-lu uttar
UL kuwapikki ivanun "since I have walked in Iront oI the gods according to (their) rule. I have never
made the evil oI humanity (i.e. I have never acted badly as the other men usually do)".
312) The verbs uwa- "to come" and pãi- "to go" (along with the imperatives it "go! (Sg.)" and itten
"go! (Pl.)". §164 2a) are oIten Iollowed by another verb. In that case. they are placed beIore the
Iollowing verb in asyndeton and they can take. like an adverb. the particles at the beginning oI a
clause : wer-ma
m
Tettes
m
EN-urtass-a ITTI
d
UTU
SI
kururivahhir "but Tetti and E. came (and)
Iought against the Sun". nu-wa uizzi zilativa ANA KUR
TI
EN-as "then he will go (and he will be) in
the Iuture the lord in the country". it-wa-mu karsin memivan zik EGIR-pa uda "go (and) bring back
a clear inIormation !". pãiweni-war-an-kan kuennummeni "we want to go (and) kill him".
They can also be placed between a transitive verb and its preceding direct obiect : nan uwammi
LU
KUR-as iwar wal(a)hmi "and I will come (and) I will attack it (an aIorementioned city) as an
enemy".
313) a) In a sentence like "this would have happened. but Ior any reason it happened diIIerently".
Hittite usually uses nu to say "but" : man-ta-kkan kuennir nu zik isparzasta "they would have killed
you. but you escaped". man-si pãun mãn-an arha harninkun nu-mu-kan AMA-SU menahhanda
parã nãista "I would have gone against him (and) I would have thrown him down. but he sent his
mother to me (with an oIIer Ior peace)".
b) -ma "but" is sometimes used in this case : man INA KUR
URU
Azzi taninumanzi pãun mahhan-ma
LU
MES

URU
Azzi istamassir "I would have gone in the land Azzi to organize it (as a district). But
when the people oI Azzi heard (this) (they voluntarily surrendered)".
314) a) nu and -ma are very rarely Iound together in positive sentences : nu ammuk-ma GIM-an
nakkesta nu-mu-za hanti kuwapiki esta UL-mu-za GAM-an esta "while it was starting to be
oppressive Ior me. you were somewhere Iar away Irom me. and you were not with me".
b) The group nu ... -ma on the contrary is very Irequent in multiple interrogations (cI. §285a).
315) namma "Iurthermore. again" is tied to nu in the expression nu namma "thus. hence.
consequently" whose terms can only be separated by enclitics : nu-mu MU.KAM-za kuit ser
tepawessanza esta nu namma KUR
URU
Azzi UL daninunun "since the year had now become (too)
short Ior me. then I did not organize the land Azzi (as a district)". nu mahhan
m
Uhha-LU-is GIG-at
nas-mu namma zahhiva menahhanda UL uit "since U. has now Iallen ill. he has thereIore not come
to Iight me".
3. ta and su "and"
316) ta is used as a synonym oI nu by Old-Hittite as well as by the legislative language and the
language oI worship. It is also used :
a) to link coordinate clauses : cI. the alternation between nu. ta and the asyndeton in the ritual :
LU
MES

GIS
BANSUR-kan 2
NINDA
mitgaimius danzi tas LUGAL MUNUS.LUGAL-ri pianzi ta
parsivanzi LU
MES

GIS
BANSUR-kan 2
NINDA
mitgaimis appanzi nas-kan appa suppavas
GIS
BANSUR
HI.A
-as tianzi "the table servants take 2 loaves oI mitgaimi-bread and they give them to
the royal couple. and they break (them) (§237a). The table servants take the 2 loaves oI mitgaimi-
bread and they put them again on the pure tables". and nearly identical but with a diIIerent
distribution oI the coniunctions : LU
GIS
BANSUR ...
NINDA
mitgaimius dãi LUGAL-i pãi
108
LUGAL-us parsiva tus-kan LU
GIS
BANSUR appa suppai
GIS
BANSUR-i dãi "the table servant
takes ... the loaI oI mitgaimi-bread (and) he gives (it) to the king. (and) the king breaks (it). The
table servant puts it again on the pure table".
b) in introduction to the apodosis : takku IR
MES
-SU GEME
2
MES
-SU kuelqa hurkel ivanzi tus
arnuwanzi "iI the servant and the maid oI someone commit an abomination. then they will be
dismissed".
c) about the peculiarity that an accusative pronoun in the 3rd person cannot be expressed with ta. cI.
§237a.
317) su has the same usage as nu and ta. but is more rarely used and only in Old-Hittite texts :
uk-wa atti-mi UL assus su-wa
URU
Hattusi hingani pãun "I (am) not the Iavorite oI my Iather and I
will have to go to Hattusa to die".
m
Isputas-Inari-ma piir san-atta ISTU E.EN.NUN tarnir "they
however went to I. and they leIt him out oI prison".
4. Other coordinating conjunctions
318) -ma means "but". sometimes with a weaker meaning (like Greek o/).
a) It is generally aIIixed as enclitic to the Iirst word oI the sentence : mahhan-ma-za-kan
d
UTU
SI
ANA
GIS
GU.ZA ABÏYA eshat "but when I. the Sun. sat on the throne oI my Iather. (such thing
happened aIter)".
b) It is oIten Iound aIIixed to the second word in the protasis oI conditional sentences and in
conditional relative clauses : mãn-kan ERIN
2
MES
-ma ANSU.KUR.RA
MES
warri UL arnusi "iI you
do not bring Ioot-soldiers and chariots" (next to the sentence oI similar meaning mãn-ma-kan
ERIN
2
MES
ANSU.KUR.RA
MES
warri UL arnutti ). takku kessiras-ma wastai "but iI the hand
commits an outrage". kuis-an appa-ma uwatezzi "but who brings him back".
c) In the same case. -ma is occasionally doubled : mãn-ma-as-ta-kkan SA KUR-KA-ma uizzi "but iI
he comes to you into your country".
319) -ma has sometimes so little intensity in the apodosis that it can be leIt untranslated in English :
GIM-an-ma-za SES-YA DINGIR
LIM
-is DU-at
m
Urhi-
d
U-upan-ma DUMU SES-YA sarã dahhun
"but since my brother had become a god. (but) I took Urhi-Tessup. the son oI my brother".
320) a) nasma usually means "or" : IR-an nasma GEME
2
-an "a servant or a maid". mãn tuk-ma
kuiski
m
Targasnallin nasma DUMU-KA kunanna sanhanzi "but iI you. Targasnalli. or your son try
to kill someone".
b) nassu - nasma means "either - or" : nassu LU
URU
Hatti kuiski nasma LU
URU
Arzawa kuiski
"either a man oI the land Hatti. or a man oI the land Arzawa". nassu-wa-kan
LU
KUR apùs kuindu
nasma-wa-kan
LU
KUR apùs kunandu "either the enemy can strike these one. or these one can strike
the enemy".
321) nassu sometimes has the meaning oI the disiunctive coniunction "or" : EBUR
MES
-wa-mu-kan
piran nassu kusãta nassu KASKAL-as nasma tamai kuitki uttar "the harvest (occurs) Ior me beIore
the dowry or a trip or anything (that will require an expense oI money)".
Thus. nassu originally meant "either" as well as "or". and nasma (· nassuma) contains the multiple
interrogation particle -ma (§285a).
109
L. CIauses
1. FinaI cIause and purpose cIause
322) Hittite has no speciIic Iorms Ior the Iinal clause or the purpose clause. In order to build such
clauses. Hittite only iuxtaposes them with nu : nas UL tarnahhun nan-kan UL kuennir "and I did not
let them. and they did not kill him" (÷ I did not allow that they kill him). takku LU-an nasma
MUNUS-an ELLAM wal(a)hzi kuiski nas aki "iI someone strikes a Iree man or a (Iree) woman and
(in such a way that) he (she) dies". nu taskupãi nu URU-as dapivanzi isdammaszi "cry now. and the
whole city will hear (it)" (÷ in such a way that |or : in order that| the whole city can hear it).
2. CausaI cIause and dependant positive sentence
323) The coniunction introducing a causal clause is kuit "because". It never stands at the beginning
oI the clause. The clause introduced by kuit usually stands Iirst : nu ABÜYA genzuwalas kuit esta
nas SA MUNUS
TI
memivani kãri tivat "because my Iather was lenient. he Iavorably received the
case oI the woman". annisan-ma kuit ANA
m
Mahsuluwa IBILA NU.GAL esta nu-za tuk
m
Kupanta-
d
KAL-an DUMU SES-SU IBILA-anni sarã dãn harta "but since at that time no descendant was
born to M.. then he had taken you. K.. the son oI his brother as descendant".
About the presence or not oI nu in the causal clauses. cI. §311.
324) kuit can also mean "that" ; in this case. the clause introduced by kuit oIten stands aIter. Thus :
a) with kuit with the meaning "the Iact that" : ammel kãs-pat 1-as dammeshas kiv-an 1-an
dammeshanunun ISTU E.GAL
LIM
-pat-kan kuit katta uivanun "this (is) my only sentence : thus I
only condemned that I throw him away oI the palace" ;
b) aIter a verb oI perception : mahhan-ma LU
MES

URU
Azzi auer URU
DIDLI.HI.A
BAD-kan kuit
zahhivaz katta daskiwan tehhun "but the people oI Azzi saw that I started to subdue cities in
Iighting".
325) A nominalized participle or a noun can also depend on a verb oI perception or oI speech with
the meaning "that" : ammuk-war-an akkantan IQBI "he announced him to me as dead" (i.e. he told
me that he was dead). mahhan-ma KUR.KUR
MES

LU
KUR
m
Arnuandan SES-YA irman istamassir
"but since the enemies heard my brother Arnuwanda ill" (i.e. since they heard that he was ill).
3. TemporaI cIause
326) The temporal clauses are introduced by :
a) mahhan "while. as. when" : mahhan-ma hameshanza kisat "but as it was spring". mahhan-ma
UZU
I zevari "but while the Iat is cooking" ;
b) mãn "as. when" in Old-Hittite instead oI mahhan : mãn-san
m
Telepinus INA
GIS
GU.ZA ABÏYA
eshat "when I. Telepinu. sat on the throne oI my Iather" ;
c) kuwapi "at the time" : nu-za ABÜYA kuwapi DINGIR
LIM
-is DU-at "at the time when my Iather
became a god" ;
110
d) kuitman ÷ lat. dum. thus :
1. "as long as. while" : nu kuitman ABÜYA INA KUR
URU
Mitanni esta "as long as my Iather was in
the land Mitanni" ;
2. "until" (placed aIter the main clause) : nu E-ri-ssi anneskizzi kuitman-as SIG
5
-attari "and he
works in his house until he recovers" ;
3. Multiple clauses introduced by "until" are tied in asyndeton (§310g) : nu-wa-ssi kãs
LU
KARTAPPU pidi-si esaru kuitman-as uizzi kuitman-as apiva EGIR-pa uizzi "and this stable
master must stay at his place until he comes (and) until he goes back" ;
4. nãwi kuitman "not yet" also means "beIore" : nu ANA KUR
LU
KUR nãwi kuitman kuedanikki
pãun "beIore I leave against any enemy country".
e) kuit sometimes means "on the occasion oI. when" : nu-za KUR
URU
Arzawa kuit hùman
tar(a)hhun nu-za
d
UTU
SI
kuin NAM.RA INA E LUGAL uwatenun nas anda 1-etta 66.000
NAM.RA esta "the prisoners that I. the Sun. when I destroyed the whole land Arzawa. brought
away to the royal palace. were altogether 66.000 prisoners".
4. ConditionaI cIause
327) a) The real conditional clause is usually introduced by mãn "iI" : mãn-kan
LU
MUNABTUM
ISTU KUR-KA KUR
URU
Hatti
LU
pittivantili uizzi nan-ta EGIR-pa UL pivanzi "iI a reIugee comes
into the country Hatti as a reIugee. then he will not be expelled". mãn-kan SA KUR
TI
akkiskittari
nat mãn kururas kuiski DINGIR
LUM
ivan harzi nu kissan ivami "iI inside the country a great
mortality occurs and iI any god oI the enemy caused it. then I act as Iollows".
b) The ancient word takku "iI" is especially used in legal texts. more rarely in other kinds oI texts :
takku LU-an ELLUM sullannaza kuiski dasuwahhi 1 MA.NA KU.BABBAR pãi "iI someone blinds
a Iree man during a Iight. he will give one mina oI silver".
328) a) The coniunction is sometimes totally missing : INA ITI.12.KAM DUMU-as mivari apãs
DUMU-as
LU
SU.GI-eszi "(iI) a boy is born at the 12th month. (then) this boy will grow old".
wasdul kuelqa autti ... nu-za pankun EGIR-pa punuski "(iI) you see a crime. ... then always ask to
the community". NINDA-an-za wemivanun nanza AHÏTÏYA natta kuwapikki edun "(iI) I have Iound
bread. then I did not eat it secretly".
b) 1. nasma mainly means "or iI" : nasma ERIN
2
MES
ANSU.KUR.RA
MES
ANA
d
UTU
SI
wekti
nu-tta nassu
d
UTU
SI
ERIN
2
MES
ANSU.KUR.RA
MES
uppahhi nasma-tta KUR-eas ZAG-as EN-as
EGIR-an uizzi "or iI you want Ioot-soldiers (and) chariots Irom the Sun. either I. the Sun. will send
you Ioot-soldiers and chariots. or the lord oI the borders oI the country will help you (lit. : will come
behind you)".
2. But one also Iinds nasma mãn : nasma mãn KUR
TUM
kuitki zahhivaza LUGAL KUR
URU
Hatti
anda hatkisnuzzi "or iI the king oI the country Hatti attacks with a Iight any country".
329) In the potential conditional clause. mãn is Iound with the present. according to the only known
evidence. By analogy with the unreal conditional clauses built in the same way. this mãn should
probably be understood as the unreal particle man with omission oI the coniunction mãn "iI".
Evidence : mãn-wa-mu 1-an DUMU-KA paisti man-war-as-mu
LU
MUTÏYA kisari "iI you gave me
one oI your sons. he could become my husband".
111
330) a) 1. In the unreal conditional clause. one usually Iinds mãn "iI" and the unreal particle man
(§265II.) in the expression man mãn with the preterite : man-kan mãn ANA
d
UTU
SI
kuwapi
HUL-wanni kittat man-ta
d
UTU
SI
arha pessivanun "iI this had been done with an evil intent
towards the Sun. I. the Sun. could have driven you away". man-kan mãn ANA
m
Attarsiva
huiswetenn-a kastita-man akten "even iI you were gone to A. alive. you would however have
starved to death".
2. With the spelling mãn instead oI man : mãn-kan mãn ANA
m
Pittaggatalli-pat warpa tehhun
man-mu
LU
aurivalus kuit SA
m
Pittaggatalli auer mãn-mu piran arha tarnas "since. iI I had led the
march (?) directly towards P.. the guards oI P. would have seen me. he would have leIt in Iront oI
me".
b) However. the coniunction can here again vanish. in such a way that the protasis only contains the
particle man. eventually written mãn : EGIR-an-man kuwapi apedas ANA NAM.RA
MES
tivanun
man
d
UTU
SI
EGIR-an tivanun "iI I had ever bothered about these prisoners. I. the Sun. would have
looked aIter them (i.e. I would have looked aIter them personally)". ammuk-man-wa kuwapi
DUMU-YA esta ammuk-man-wa ammel RAMÃNÏYA ammell-a KUR-eas tepnumar tametani
KUR-e hatrãnun "would I have. (iI) I already had a son. written to another country the humiliation
oI myselI and oI my country ?".
331) a) An unreal or potential protasis can sometimes be Iollowed by a real apodosis : man-ma-za
DAM-YA ANA MUNUS.LUGAL isivahhiskattallas kisat nu idãlu kuitki ivat "should my wiIe have
become an investigator against the queen iI she did something wrong ?".
b) The apodosis can sometimes be understood in curses and oaths : nasma-kan mãn
d
UTU
SI
kuedani anda idãlu istamasti nat-mu-kan mãn sannatti nat-mu UL mematti apùnn-a-mu antuhsan
UL tekkussanusi nan anda imma munnãsi "or iI you hear evil Irom someone against the Sun. (then
woe betide you) iI you conceal it Irom me and you do not tell it to me. iI you do not either show me
these men and you hide them Irom me". mãn-ma-wa
GIS
KARA
2
iskallahhun nasma-wa
NA4
KISIB
duwarnahhun nasma-wa-za dahhun kuitki "(I be cursed) iI I cut the lace or iI I broke the seal or iI I
took something Ior myselI".
5. Concessive cIause
332) a) The concessive clause is generally introduced by mãn-a "although" :
m
Urhi-
d
U-upas-ma-mu
mãn HUL-luss-a esta ammuk-ma UL karussivanun "but although Urhi-Tessup was ill-disposed
towards me. I did not stay quietly watching him". nu-za mãn irmalanza-sa (§25b) esta
d
UTU
SI
-ma-tta ANA ASAR ABÏKA tittanunun-pat "and although you were ill. I nevertheless (§293e)
installed you at the place oI your Iather".
b) mãn "iI" alone can also be used as a concessive coniunction : zik-ma-za
m
Kupanta-
d
KAL-as ANA
m
PIS.TUR-wa kuit DUMU-SU esta mãn-za UL manga wasdulas esta man-ta-kkan E ABÏKA
KUR-KA-va UL arha dãir "since you. K.. were however the son oI Mashuiluwa. could not someone
take Irom you. although you were absolutely not guilty. the house oI your Iather and your country?".
6. Indirect interrogative cIause
333) The indirect interrogative clause which is not introduced by an interrogative pronoun (kuis
112
"who ?". masiwant- "what size ?". etc...) or by an interrogative adverb (kuwapi "where ? when ?".
kuwat "why ?". etc...) starts with mãn "iI" (also Ior the double interrogation mãn - mãn "iI - or
else") : nu
m
Urhi-
d
U-upas kuit apiva nan punus mãn kisan mãn UL kisan "since Urhi-Tessub (is)
there now. then ask him iI it is like this (or) iI it is not like this".
7. ReIative cIause
334) a) Hittite does not build the relative clause the same way as English does. e.g. "the man whom
you have seen is my Iather". but instead "you have seen this man. this is my Iather". The relative
clause also stands beIore the main clause in most cases. The relative pronoun is oIten. though not
necessarily. at the second place in the clause it belongs to. Hittite pulls the noun that the relative
clause depends on (that would stand in the main clause in English) into the relative clause. and
usually mentions it again in the Iollowing main clause : nu-za
d
UTU
SI
kuin NAM.RA INA E
LUGAL uwatenun nas 15.500 NAM.RA esta "and the prisoners whom I. the Sun. drove to the royal
palace. were 15.500 prisoners". nasma-tta
URU
KU.BABBAR-sas ZAG-as kuis BËLU maninkuwan
nu ERIN
2
MES
ANSU.KUR.RA
MES
apedani wekti "or the lord oI the borders oI Hattusa who (is)
near you. (iI) you ask him Ior Ioot-soldiers (and) chariots". pedi-ma-kan kue KUR.KUR
MES
dalivanun nu-smas ZAG
HI.A
-us tehhun "but the countries that I leIt in place. I set their borders". nu
kuis tãn pedas DUMU
RU
nu LUGAL-us apãs kisaru "the one who is a second-rank son. that one
must become king". nu-mu arahzenas KUR.KUR
LU
KUR kues kururivahhir nu ANA KUR
LU
KUR
nãwi kuitman kuedanikki pãun "these neighboring countries that had started to attack me. beIore I
went into one oI these countries".
b) Example oI nested relative clauses :
d
U-as kuedani UD-ti hatuga tethiskit ...
TUG
NIG.LAM
MES
kue apedani UD-ti wassan harkun ANA
GIS
GIGIR-va-kan kuedani apedani UD-ti arhahat nu ke
TUG
NIG.LAM
MES
...
GIS
GIGIR-va tùrivan apãtt-a dãir "that day when the storm-god had terribly
thundered several times ... these clothes that I had worn that day. and the chariot I stood on that day.
they have taken (Ior themselves) these clothes ... and this harnessed chariot".
c) Other examples oI relative clauses : IR
MES
-YA-wa-za kues dãs nu-war-as-kan kattanta pehutet
nu-war-as-mu arha uppi "my subiects that you have taken and brought away. bring them back to
me !". NAM.RA
HI.A
kues ABÜYA arnut ammuqq-at arnunun nu-mu-kan mãn apel kuiski SA
NAM.RA
MES
huwãizzi "these prisoners whom my Iather drove away and whom I drove away. iI
one oI these prisoners runs away Irom me".
113

ANA emmet DAM

2

Contents

Chapter

1

Introduction A. Foreword B. Presentation 7 8

Chapter

2

Writing and Phonetics A. Writing B. Phonetics 1. Vowels 2. Consonants 3. Liaisons 9 12 12 13 17

Chapter

3

The noun 20 A. Derivation B. Declension 1. Outline 2. Vocalic stems a. a/a-stems b. i-stems c. u-stems 3. Consonant stems a. tt-stems b. nt-stems c. n-stems d. i-stems e. r-stems f. r/n-stems g. Miscellaneous stems h. Irregular stems C. Adjective comparison 23 23 24 24 26 29 30 30 31 31 32 32 33 35 35 37 3

mi-conjugation 1. Vocalic stems 3. Numbers 38 40 41 42 43 44 Chapter 5 The verb A. Stems with infix -nin6. Causatives in -nub. Derivation B. Blend of mi. Vocalic stems 3. Compound forms 4. Demonstrative pronouns D. Iteratives in -sk7. hi-conjugation 1. Consonant stems 2. Agreement 81 4 . Consonant stems 2. iya-stems 5. Indefinite pronouns F. Personal pronouns B. Possessive pronouns and adjectives C. Inflection of the medio-passive voice 1. Inflection of the active voice a. The infinitive 46 47 50 50 50 57 59 61 63 64 66 67 67 69 73 74 76 76 77 79 79 80 Chapter 6 Syntax A. Consonant stems 2. Interrogative and relative pronouns E.and hi-conjugations 2. The verbal substantive 5. Vocalic stems 3.Chapter 4 Pronouns and numbers A. Irregular stems c. ai-stems 4. Inflection 1.

B. Postpositions F. The verb 1. Iterative usage 4. Clauses 1. Supplement C. Case usage 1. The quotation particle 3. Verbal substantives usage H. Reflexive pronouns 3. Particles 1. The particle -pat "even. nu "and" 3. Conjunctions 1. also" 83 83 83 84 85 86 87 87 88 88 89 90 90 91 92 93 93 93 93 94 96 97 99 100 100 100 101 102 103 104 104 104 105 108 109 110 110 2. ta and su "and" 4. Voices 2. Dative-Locative and Allative 4. Personal pronouns 2. -ya "and. Generalities 2. Ergative 7. -a. Possessive pronouns 4. Interrogation 1. Demonstrative pronouns 5. Tense and mode usage 3. Final clause and purpose clause 5 . Comparison of adjective D. Indefinite pronouns G. Adverbs E. Ablative and Instrumental 6. Negation 1. The particles -(a)sta and -(a)pa K. Genitive 5. also" 4. Vocative 2. Pronouns 1. The particles of position -kan and -san 5. Accusative 3. Other coordinating conjunctions L.

Concessive clause 6. Relative clause 110 110 111 112 112 113 6 . Temporal clause 4. Indirect interrogative clause 7.2. Causal clause and dependant positive sentence 3. Conditional clause 5.

Chapter 1 Introduction A. Moreover. the grammar presented here does not take into account discoveries that have been made since. This replacement only takes place for the the transcription of whole Hittite words. pi-es-ta is replaced by pe-es-ta. For the numbering of paragraphs. one will find for instance 'wa-as-ta = wasta'. I have deviated from the usual rules of transcription of Hittite by replacing the sign s by the letter's'. the lexicon and the texts. I have also replaced the symbols II and i used in the grammar of Friedrich by the common letters w and y (excepted for the cuneiform sign noted ia by Friedrich that I have transcribed ia. according to the correspondence Hittite cuneiform s = phonetic lsi. Finally. I have used instead the phonetic values recognized nowadays that match. his tables of the different paradigms and his numbering of the classes of verbs (referenced in the lexicon). I have used the same one as the grammar of Friedrich.has been replaced by the simple h. I have nevertheless used his examples. For example. Foreword The outline of grammar presented here is inspired from the Hethitisches Elementarbuch by Johannes Friedrich. the owners of the grammar of Friedrich will be able to find directly the paragraphs. in order to simplify the typing and since there is no ambiguity. this grammar is based on the second edition of the grammar of Friedrich that goes back to 1960. However. it is not an exact translation of this book. Moreover. which allows me to cross-reference data more easily inside the grammar. and among the grammar. not when transcribing cuneiform signs. 7 . I have modified the transcriptions of Friedrich when the vowels of two consecutive signs do not match. according to the most frequent transcription today). Furthermore. the letter b. Hence.

.E. families. 1::)..E.E. The Anatolian family includes several well-attested languages: Hittite. The Anatolian family exhibits a lot of peculiar features compared with the other I. The name "Hittite" comes from Hatti. This former stage is then called Proto-Indo-European (P. The discovered tablets range from 1600 to 1200 BC. II.) language. Pisidic.E. the peoples around used a writing of "hieroglyphic" type which was already in use in parallel with the cuneiform writing. The name that Hittites gave to themselves was "Nesumna" (inhabitants of the town of Nesa). Palaic. the capital of the Hittite empire. 8 . or whose membership with the Anatolian family is not quite certain: Lydian. (Brugmannian). or since Hittites employed Luwian priests and a lot of Luwian-speaking people were living in the Hittite realm. It has been deciphered from cuneiform tablets discovered in the 20th century in Anatolia. and their tongue "Nesili". In particular. Carian. but whose partial deciphering showed that it was Luwian.) or I.E. (I. Hittite texts sometimes include Luwian words (preceded by a special sign : .E.I.. III). name of the country and the language (non I. but of an earlier stage than the "classical" I. After the fall of the Hittite empire. Sidetian. in opposition to the later I. It is more probable that the Anatolian languages are part of I. where once stood Hattusa.4. and several languages more poorly attested.E.I.) of the people present before the Hittites.. and which for a long time was believed to be Hittite.E. member of the Anatolian language family. phonemes (laryngeals) that vanished in the other I.B. the Anatolian languages still used P.E.E. Lycian. more precisely at Bogazk6y..E. with both descending from a hypothetical "Indo-Hittite". languages. so much so that some thought of it as a sister family of I. Presentation Hittite is an Indo-European (I. The Hittite kings called themselves "kings of the land of Hatti". Luwian.E..

the signs . etc . these readings are numbered according to the frequency of the signs. Some scholars have posited that Sumerian was a tonal language. the reading of a sign is "filtered" through the different phonetic system of Akkadian. 4jT.has the number 13 in the list of Labat. Sumerologists tend to use only indices and avoid more and more the use of accents. "to run". either to select among the various readings of one sign. 2 This apparent homophony may be an illusion caused by our incomplete knowledge of the phonetic system of Sumerian. non-native speakers of Sumerian such as Akkadians or Hittites were naturally inclined to make a widespread use of the phonetic writing since there was no more relation between the logographic meaning of a sign and its phonetic reading in their respective languages. Actually.. the Sumerian scribes had the idea to use a sign for its phonetic value instead of its logo graphic value. 9 . Traditionally. In order to distinguish between the readings of homophonic signs. the sign >+t. the first index is not written. For example. Lt. independently of their pronunciation. b) The cuneiform writing was invented by the Sumerians and was originally an ideographic writing. and the writing became logographic : a sign was used to represent a precise word of the language rather than an idea. Hence. U4. a peculiar feature of the Sumerian language is its apparent high level of homophony'. It can be read AN "sky" or DINGIR "god". This phonetic use was somehow restricted to complement the logo graphic signs. 4" are transcribed u. and are thus written with a different sign. e) The third stage of evolution of the cuneiform writing was the invention of the phonetic use of signs. As a result. Writing 1) a) The Hittite scribes borrowed the cuneiform writing in use in Mesopotamia.Chapter 2 Writing and Phonetics A. it. or that it had more vowels than supposed. Assyriologists and Hittitologists still abide by the use of accents. but these theories are fundamentally unprovable. As a result. the Sumerian reading of the signs is known to us thanks to the Akkadian scribes spelling them out. the signs are numbered according to their shape in various sign lists. A sign was drawn as a little picture and represented a notion in relation with the pictogram. However. A lot of different Sumerian words have the same pronunciation but a different meaning. d) The signs are represented by their Sumerian reading. as a result. the original meaning of the signs became less and less clear. the second and third indices are replaced respectively by an acute and a grave accent on the vowel of monosyllabic words" For example. "to bring". For example. When the drawing of the signs got simplified over the years.. c) Furthermore. However. or to specify grammatical features such as declension or conjugation which could not be written down with a pure ideographic writing. Another peculiar feature of the Sumerian language is the fact that a great proportion of its words are monosyllabic. the sign representing a foot was used to mean "to stand".. it is necessary for the modem scholar to distinguish between the shape of the sign and its pronunciations (and meanings).(. "to walk". ~. the signs remained polysemous since they kept the several meanings that they had already acquired.

ab. but also by an Akkadian one : for example DUMURU "son" (Akkad. b) Hittite phonetic complements are seldom found after akkadograms : for example. c) A logogram can be followed by a Hittite phonetic complement.g. or half-logographically GUL-hu-un or GUL-un. GIsKA-AN-NU-UM-it "by means of ajar-stand". a Nom.. ru). dUTUS>I my Sun" (title of the Hittite kings. BE-LuMES.g. eni. These words are often called akkadograms as they seem to be used logo graphically."lord" the Akkadian belutm) "lord" written: Nom. There are no sign for lone consonants. the sign for "god" >+t-is read dingir in Sumerian. MUNUS-za "woman" '" IR-is "slave" GUD-us "ox" I-as "one". Nom. For example. Composite logograms are composed of several signs. is different: Nom.in Hittite.~ ~ 8['. They can represent a group consonant + vowel (e. " Samsi). Sg.. etc .in Hurrian. ba. Thus. the verb walh.2) The Hittite cuneiform writing uses all three modes of cuneiform writing: phonetic. the sign for "land" ~ is read kur in Sumerian. Russian. etc .RA "horse". Sg.in Hurrian..KUR. it is faster to write DINGIR >+t-instead of si-u-ni-is 4.-Loc. with the signs separated by a dash. As another example. etc . siuna. In transcriptions. so that we do not know their Pronunciation . like the Akkadian ones.("lord") (logogram EN) has a Nom. SUM-an for Hittite ldman "name". lum). utne. mdrui. atti-mi "to my father". ishes written is-he-e-eS or ENMES_eS(or simply ENMES. ebani. ilum in Akkadian. a Dat. EL-LAM-as Gen.. ilum. Sg. French. d) Sumerian conjugated forms such as BA. Signs of the third kind can also be expressed by the use of two signs of the first and second kinds : bar can be written ba + ar. ishds that can be written phonetically is-ha-a-as or half-logographically EN-as. BE-LAM. KLLAL. Sg. Sg. kid. The Hittite scribes.g. b) There exist signs for the lone vowels. Sg. especially in order to exhibit its declension. Sg ishdn written is-ha-a-an or EN-an. "of a free". ir. Gen. be it English. etc .UG7 "he is dead" (root UG7 + prefix BA)... logographic and determinative. uk) or consonant + vowel + consonant (e.. For example.-Acc. b) Some words were written only as logograms by Hittites. isten). those words will be written in italic capital. kid ki + id and lum lu + um. ilim). kept on using logograms as short cuts in order to save their energy and space on tablet . for example. Akkad. 10 . For the Hittite Dat. one can find for Hittite isha. etc . It also happens that a logogram is followed by a phonetic complement. 4) a) A word can be written either phonetically or logo graphically : the Hittite word for "god" can be written si-u-na or DINGIR. They can be read in any language. 3) Logograms are non-phonetic signs representing a whole word.in Hittite. cf §6d). ishi written is-hi-i or EN-i. Ace. an Ace. PI. Sg. The case of the Akkadian monosyllabic word in construct state SUM "name". Pi.... KUR. 5) a) Hittites also used to insert Akkadian words amid Hittite texts.("to strike") (logogram GUL) has a form walhun ("I struck") that can be written phonetically wa-al-huun. umini. they are transcribed separated by a dot: ANSE. Sg. DINGIRLUM or DINGIRLIM "god" (Akkad. mi. a) The phonetic signs are syllabic. vowel + consonant (e. for example DUMU-as "son" . one can find an Akkadian word preceded by the Akkadian preposition ana "to" : A-NA A-BI-IA "to my father".BI "its weight" are rare in the Hittite context. Sg. bar. used as a logogram with a Hittite phonetic complement. the sign is transcribed by its Sumerian reading in capital : DINGIR. In this case. It sometimes happens that the Hittite reading is unknown. The substantive isha.in Urartean. mdtum in Akkadian. BE-LU (older: BE-LUM). lEN "one" (Akkad.-Loc. Nom.

etc . kardnu. etc . enS "wood" points out the name of a tree or objects made originally of wood and by extension of other materials: CTISHASHUR"apple tree". can be written with the sign DINGIR (Akk. Sing. KUR A.A "foot-soldiers". The ending -iii of royal names such as mMursili.. thus. whereas the only reading in Hittite . more rarely DIDLI (i.. or KI "place" (as well as URU. but rather as a substantive. ERIN2 MES. c) Determinatives following their noun are fewer: MUSEN "bird" for names of birds : hara_MUSEN "eagle". b) Some readings come from a logographic game. for example KUR URU Hatti "the land Hatti".)". fPutuhepa. sui is read zul in Hittite (also written zu-ul).ULU3. The Akkadian sign si (with emphatic s) is also read ze. ili(m)) . 7) a) When writing out Hittite texts. URU Halpa "Alep".A or DIDLI. The Akkadian sign sui. 8) a) A few signs have values specific to Hittite.. mHa-at-tu-si-DINGIRLIM = mHa-at-tu-si-ILI(M)."shepherd". LU "man" points out a profession or an inhabitant : LUwestara. whereas it is read wi in Hittite (transcribed wi5). se. They are not pronounced. ze.HI.AS) or MES. suo While za. ERIN2 MESANSU. Most of the determinatives are placed before the word they complement.e. SU are used for the Hittite syllables sa. G1Shattalu. ha ttu "sceptre" (logogram G1SGIDRU). The name of the country Hatti sounds like the Akkad. one can find inscriptions such that mMu-ur-si-DINGIRLIM = mMuur-si-Il. wiyana-). LUanniniyami. dISTAR. ilu(m) "god". b) However.LU-an ELLAM.A"foot-soldiers and charioteers". LUSU.is ze. emSTIN is used in Akkadian only as a logogram for "wine" (Akk. Thus.HI.GISGIDRU-si-DINGIRLIM. zu are used to denote the voiced spirant z in Akkadian.L[_.GA. the Hittite reading is in fact different and it should be remembered that the cuneiform signs sa.which has no emphatics . mSuppiluliuma. KUR URU Arzawa "the land Arzawa" should be understood as an Akkadian genitive "the land of Hatti". The logogram DINGIR "god" is also used as a determinative for all divine names (it is transcribed d for DINGIR): dTelepinu.KI "place of the town") for names of place: URU HalpaKJ "Alep". fSU."cousin (m.KUR.LU-an ELLUM next to correct 6) a) Determinatives are ideograms used to define the category of a word to which they are attached. zi. se. This is a nice example of derivation of a phonetic value from the first syllable of the reading of a logo graphic sign.A "towns". LU. Gen. Hit. dU or dISKUR "storm-god". LUKUR "enemy".ULU3. the royal name mHattusili is sometimes written m.I/M). phonetic signs are transcribed by their Akkadian values."lock". especially for proper nouns.DEKJ "land of Akkad".HI. The logogram DIS points out a proper name (it is transcribed ill for male or I since DIS also represents the number 1) : mMursili.e) Akkadian declensions are not always respected LlJ.GI "the Elder" (a priestess). URU "town" points the name of a town: URU Hattusa. they are used to denote the affricate ts in Hittite.RA HI. MUNUS "woman" points out a woman's profession or a woman's name (it is transcribed f for female) : fanniniyami. The Akkadian sign as can be read tas in Hittite texts.)".HI. URUDIDLI.NIES "lords"."cousin (f. The Akkadian mes is also read eS in Hittite (transcribed eS 17). AS. 11 .A.A : ENMES or BE. thus. si. mHattusili. b) KUR "land" for country names is not considered as a determinative. si.GI "elder". d) An important subclass of determinatives following their noun is composed of the plural markers MES and HI..

next to u-un-nu-me-en "we pushed her"."nail". kappuwdizzi and kappuizzi "he checks".. ni. 12) There are sometimes variations between u and a-pu-u-un and a-pu-u-un "this" (Ace. from ak.(-i-) : paista and pesta "he gave". one can find paiwani and paittani . b) Next to iskiyazi and iskizzi "he anoints".sometimes occurs: pdisi and occasionally pdsi "you go (Sg)". instead of piskir "they regularly gave". one finds the Gen. ne. Sg.can be contracted to -e. instead of daskitteni "you regularly take (Pl. also es-he . pe-es-si-ia-zi "he threw". but akir and ekir "they died" . pe-si-ia-az-zi . asdsi "he sits". asasta and asesta "he sat". 2. but the signs for re. u: 12 . sankuis next to the neighboring form sankuwayas (and sankuwas). Sg. a verb makkeszi "he does much". tiezzi and tizzi "he enters". akkanzi "they die"."tall" sallayas and sallas. u-i-ia-at-tin and u-e-ia-at-tin "send! (Pl. The reason for this alternation is not well understood. asesir "they sat". It is probable that the pronunciation of the Hittite e was very closed. Abl. one also find written is-har .: Gen."to die". 14) a) 1.)".)". -titya. da-a-u and da-a-u "he should take". naisut and nesut "tum! (Sg. From sankuwai.can be contracted to -a. pi-is-ta . next to ekuzi "he drinks". paitteni "you go (Pl. eS differ from those of the syllables mi.."this"). watar "water" has a Gen.)". tekan "earth" a Gen. b) The existence of a vowel 0 differentiated from u in writing is unclear. next to mekki. The signs of the syllables me. sakti and sekti "you know (Sg. Sg. iz. is. daskatteni . are also used for ri.."much". and from asas. c) An alternation between -iii. 11) There exists an alternation between e (i) and a in the Hittite paradigms : from sak. widdr. li.)". aki "he dies". one finds the poorly understood form iskiydizzi. PI. wemiyat and wemit "he found".)". of apd. next to -si "to him". close to that of i. of suppi1 This reduction depends on the period where the text has been written. next to pe-es-ta "he gave".and -a. also u-un-nu-um-mi-in.. tiyantes "those who are sitting" (from ddi.. 13) a) The diphtongue -ai. etc . etc .can be reduced to -e. kappuwdit and kappuet "he checked". etc . b) A reverse diphtongation sometimes occurs by analogical correction where e is written ai : instead of epta "he grabs". both vowels are often found. also -se ."to sit". 10) Even when Hittite can differentiate in writing between e and i. next to pe-es-si-ia-mi "I threw". el.(-i-)' : memiyani and memini "for the word". but asesanzi "they sit".)". le.. sekteni "you know (Pl. sakta and sekta "he knew" . one finds a-ip-ta . one finds asanzi "they are" . one also finds pe-es-se-ia-mi. instead of megga us "much"."to sit") and tintes. Sg. 15) a) -aya. Instead of paiweni "we go". il. akuwanzi "they drink" and the iterative akkusk. ez. sekkanzi "they know". Sg."to know" are derived the forms saggai "I know". sakki "he knows".B. Next to esmi "I am" and eszi "he is". taknas.. Phonetics 1. piskar. Sg."to drink copiously" . of salli. ma-iq-qa-us. Next to e-eS-har "blood". Vowels 9) a) It is not always possible to read with certainty the vowel e (as in Akkadian). next to is-hi-i "to the lord". wetenas and a Nom-Ace.

isdammasti. -uwa.-Loc. zahhdis "battle" to Gen.(ui-) and -ue.-Loc. Sg. the initial u. asawar "enclosure" to Dar. (u)wa. as well as tekan "earth" to Gen. innarawani."old". 16) The diphtongs ue. tarnatti "you let (Sg. tarnati. Some examples: damai.and adda.)".-Loc. Sg.and tamai. The ablaut also connects ddi "he sits" to tiyanzi "they sit"."pure" suppayaz(a) and suppaz(a). 2. atraweni and atrauni "we write"."to leave". ki. Sg. iyattari "he goes". of kuiski "someone" kuelka. For example. waranu and uranu "he should bum down". memiyani "word (Dat. ap-pa-tar = /apadar/. kanes. Sg.)".-Loc.-A. b) The difference between simple consonant and doubled consonnant corresponds to an opposition between fortis consonant and lenis consonant. 18) The variations of the previous forms should not be confused with the regular I.)". sanuwant.and auri. Stops are supposed to be always fortis in initial position and lenis in final position: genu "knee" = / kenu/ and sipant "libation" = /spand/. E.(ue-) : kappuwanzi and kappuenzi "they check". Consonants a) Consonants groups 19) a) There is no rule to discriminate in the writing between simple and doubled consonants. di.)" (also lauwai and laui "he pours"). LVpatili. 17) a) In the same way.and -di. kinu. 20) a) The choice between a voiced or unvoiced cuneiform sign seems completely arbitrary: da.: uwarkant.can be reduced to u.)". ais "mouth" to Dat. uwanzi and uenzi "they come". hannesnas (§84).(a priest). ablaut that connects kuenzi "he strikes" to kunanzi "they strike" and kuerzi "he cuts" to kuranzi "they cut". Kuskursa_ and KUSgursa_ "skin". ofwatar "water").: antuwas and antuas "man".and ganes. It is probable that the scribes were inclined to omit complex cuneiform signs when they felt that they were not necessary. uwartas and urtas "he cursed".)". hannessar "business" to Gen.and -tutwa. gu instead of ka.and -u. Sg."to discover".)". the Nom."fat". whereas a sequence VC-CV points out a fortis consonant. 13 . tu .(uwa-) is contracted to -ue. attas "father" is pronounced /atas/.(sui-) can be contracted to u."father". whereas apez "consequently" is pronounced /abez/. ba instead of pa.)".: ueter and uter "they brought ". issi (§87). ga (qa). parkueszi and sometimes parkuszi "he becomes pure".and LV batili. Sg. the sequence of cuneiform signs V -CV points out a lenis consonant. The "law of Sturtevant" explains that in median position. esdu and estu "he must be". uinut and sometimes unut "let leave! (Sg. Sg.g. ku . uwitar for widdr (N. Gen.E. gi. lauwatin and lautin "pour! (Pl. b) More rarely. ti. Sg."border post". karuili. du can be found instead of ta.and -u.and sanunt. memiyanni.and karuli. uwasta."other"."roasted"). daskatten.and ginu. taggasta and takkista "he gathers". asauni (§85)."entrance". kuelga and kuelqa. istamasti "you hear (Sg. zahhiyas (§69). taknas (§78). Next to the forms pessiyazi "he throws". innarawanni "vigor (?) (Dat."your (Sg. one also finds pisiyazzi. dasqaten and daskiten "take! (Pl. iyatari. atta. This opposition probably results for stops in an opposition unvoiced / voiced.and kura.for warkant.can be lengthened to uw. sanuwanzi and sanunzi "they roast" (Part.for wasta. -ti."to sin". c) At the opposite of a). awari. kuera.

This could explain why the Hittite writing system did not differentiate between the voiced and the unvoiced consonants. it is neither possible to write a group of two initial or final consonants. can be found. etc . etc . *hat-s-t(a)).e.45 contains at line 11 : sa-pa-du (for the Akkadian verb ~abatu) = ap-pa-tar. b) Initial forms are less clear like az-zi-ik-kan-zi "they adore" for *at-sk-anzi (iterative of ed."to hold in check" (tar-ah-zi). §141b). *karp-zi "he lifts" (median). one finds written gi(-e)nu "knee" (and not *ki-e-nu-). in classical Akkadian cuneiform writing. *tar-sk-izzi) and tar-as-sa-as-ki-id-du "he must repeat" (i.. 22) a) The interpretation in median position is generally easy: forms such as sa-an-ah-zi "he searches" have an incorrect spelling in "usual" cuneiform writing (with a final consonant and an initial vowel following)."to say" : tar-as-si-ki-iz-zi "he repeated" (i.e. k. Indeed. 14 .. for example parh. for example *tri. which indicates that the pronunciation is not *sanahzi which would be written *sa-na-ah-zi.. one finds hi-in-ik-zi. Many verbs are similar to sanh-. Furthermore. is-par-za-as-ta "he escaped" (i. matching the Old-Akkadian writing of the sibilants."to eat" ."to strike" (wa-al-ah-zi).)" (final)."to lift" (kar-ap-zi "he lifts"). a form such as sa-an-hu-un "I searched" points out a root sanh-. for linkt(a) "he swore" (root link-) li-in-ik-ta.e. d. is-par-za-zi "he escapes"."to escape". wa-ar-pa-zi "he bathes". warp. (i. g will not be separated from the unvoiced p. One also finds unclear iterative forms of tar. * (i)spart-er). the voiced b. walh. hi-in-ga-zi and hi-ik-zi (with a reduced n . li-in-ik and kar-ap-zi. Broken written forms can occur in Akkadian. *link "swear! (Sg. As an example of the difference in the writing of the stops between Hittite and Akkadian.g. The Hittite writing system was thus different from the one in usage at the same time in Mesopotamia. One finds even less clear forms : from * (iispart."to hunt" (par-ah-zi "he hunts"). unclear forms such as sa-an-ha-zi "he searches". one finds ha-az-ta and ha. One should always keep in memory that the writing always exhibits more vowels than the spoken language. si-pa-an-za-ki-iz-zi "he makes several sacrifices" for *spant-sk-izzi. However. the last phoneme of a phonetic sign must be in harmony with the first phoneme of the following phonetic sign in such a way that a (non-initial) sign starting with a vowel must be preceded by a sign ending with a vowel (CV-VC but not CV-CVy. From hat. li-in-kat-ta and li-ik-ta (§157). the Akkadian-Hittite lexical list KBo 1. *tar-sk-iddu!) 23) a) These extra vowels sometimes occur even though they are not necessary in the writing: e. However.. Moreover. which brings to a spoken form *sanhzi "he searches". t. * (i)spart-s-t) next to is-par-te-er "they escaped" (i. vowel + consonant (VC) and consonant + vowel + consonant (CVC). karp. * (itspart-s-zi with z = /ts/.(azt-za-as-ta "it dried" (i.e. b) The Hittites apparently borrowed the cuneiform writing from the Hurrians who themselves had borrowed it from the Old-Akkadians. tarh. The Hittite scribes overcame this limitation by inserting an extra vowel. §27a). iterative forms such as a-ar-as-ki-it for *ar-sk-it "he came several times" (root ar-). For example.Some words are however always written in the same manner."to bathe" (wa-ar-ap-zii.e. or a glottal stop such as is-al for is'al. but tiyanzi "they sit". Hence. along with the usage of s for the phoneme lsi. §31a). but they either represent a morphemic writing such as as-pur-am for the ventive aspuram. for hinkzi "he presents" (root hink-). ddi "he sits". especially at positions normally forbidden by the rules of cuneiform writing : te-ri-. nor to write a group of three consonants. hater "they dried"). it is not always easy to know whether a vowel is real or not.e. 21) A limitation of the cuneiform writing comes from the fact that cuneiform signs can only represent syllables of the kind consonant + vowel (CV). In the lexicon."three" (initial)."to dry" (hati "it dries".

24) The interpretation of the writing at the initial position is mainly based on assumptions.g. to place")."to hear".and ist. mar-mar-as "bush (??)" next to Dat-Loc."vigor" (Ace. In fact. Sg. e. of verbs with consonant ending such as es. is not written simply -an-za. dla-ar-is next to dI-ia-ar-ri-is. wa-al-ah-ta "he stroke") represents in fact a (spoken) ending -t (i.. likewise for sa-u-i-ti-is-za "baby" interpreted as *sawitist-s.of the root ddi. *(i)stamast. in -t of verbs with vocalic ending such as iya. kastan) as a form *kast-s.) are in fact pronounced sp. LUap-pa-an-za-as-sa "and the prisoner". 15 .."to hear" walh..e.)" next to su-up-pi-ia-ah.and st-. hatrdi."to do "."to put.s.. ir-ma-Ia-an-za "ill". ispdi. mar-mar-ri. §I57). This allows to interpret the Nom.(e. Sg. *est. Sg. is-ta-ma-as-ta "he heard" .)". the ending. 25) a) 1. The written forms Nom. 3 Sg. one can find correct transcriptions according to syllable splitting. lat. whereas the form te-ri-ia-al-la (a liquid) has a variant 3-ia-al-la which lets assume a pronunciation *triyalla (§I29b3). §22b) allows to posit the form *t-sk-anzi (with a reduction t. hatrdit "he wrote") that the written ending -ta of Pret.. or in the case of the alternation hlhh two different consonants (§28). or really express a phonetically double consonant *sanhhun. sealas > fro echellei. Sg. Ace. Sg."to become ill". For example. ir-ma-la-an-za-sa "ill too". istark. when the particle -a "and. istap. *pro allows to assume a pronunciation *pra. The interpretation of the finals is not always as clear as the imperatives li-in-ik "swear! (Sg. istamas. It is probable that the very frequent (written) initials isp. to -an-za = *-ants is added the smallest phonetic unit ending the group *-antsa. the transcription a-ar-ah-hu-un next to a-ar-hu-un can be found."to write" (iyat "he did". even if it is also possible that it could be a prothetic vowel (cf. 3 Sg. *walht). c) Finally. adant-) are interpreted as spoken forms *hiimant. *walhher.E.sa-an-hu-un and sa-an-ah-hu-un "I searched" (root sanh-). root link-). ispart. The ending -an-za-as-sa is also used: LUap-pa-an-za "the prisoner". For zi-ik-kan-zi "they put". LUhi-ip-par-as ("prisoner"). ispant "night". spoken as *-ants-a.)" (for *walh-si)."to hesitate". istanddi. even though the vowel does not actually exist: sa-na-ah-ti "you searches (Sg. *walF)her. forward". hu-u-ma-an-za "whole" and participles a-da-an-za "eaten" (roots humant-. For pa-ra-a "ahead. 2. the analogy with az-zi-ik-kan-zi "they adore" (= *at-sk-anzi. §157). more rarely ma-a-ah-an next to ma-ah-ha-an "as". su-up-ia-ah "clean! (Sg. Sg. etc . Sg. §27a).g.."to be content ". also" is added to the Nom... ka-as-za "hunger" (root kast.)" (root walh-). but rather -an-za-sa."to strike" te-es-ta "he was" . aniyattan). For arhun "I arrived" (root ar-). that is the sign sa = *sa (§27b)."to be" " istamas. wa-al-ah-zi "he stroke". it can be analogical to forms such that sa-an-ah-ta "he searched".. wa-al-hi-ir and wa-al-ah-hi-ir "they stroke" (root walh-). *adant-s.)" (for *sanh-ti) and wa-la-ah-si "you strikes (Sg. etc . the etymological link with I. or indicate a mute vowel *sanF)hun. etc . wa-al-ah "strike! (Sg. of a participle in -an-za = *-ant-s. The reason for this phenomenon is unclear . the analogy brings to postulate from the ending of Pret. b) An incorrect spelling of syllables is not always caused by an extra vowel.)" (next to li-in-ki. The form kis-an "as follows" is often found next to ki-is-sa-an. si-is-at-ti for *si-is-sa-at-ti "you destroy (Sg. the vowel can be real with a simplified spelling of the word. a-ni-ia-az (§76a) is interpreted as a form *aniyat-s (with z = Itsl . The same phenomenon occurs for the substantive: from aniyatit). root sanh. the Nom. sa-an-ha "search! (Sg)" (next to sa-a-ha. kar-pa-an-zi and kar-ap-pa-an-zi "they lift" (root karp. b) However."to escape"."to lock".

e. the extent of the difference between sand z is not well known for Proto-Hatti (e.I. e.and zazhi."to carve". esnas). hant "face" < *H2ent. the name of the town URU Lihsina next to URU Lihzina) and Palaic. These laryngealist theories have built to explain some particular phenomena in I. The laryngeal HI had no coloration effect. kar-as-nu."to eat"). one finds close written forms like gimra.. For example.g."to take") and azzikkizzi = *at-sk-izzi "he adores" (iterative of ed.and gimmara. one finds close forms such as sakkar and zakkar "excrements". as well as the comparison of the forms da-sk-izzi and azzikkizzi = *at-sk-izzi. kussani and kusni "as a reward" (also kussansit. even for Hittite. aniyattan (root aniyat(t)-). c) The Hittite h comes from Proto-Indo-European phonemes called "laryngeals" that vanished I. and conversely uzuishisa. tuhs."to prepare". Indeed. as well as the isolated forms ida lawa tti and tannattauwanzi for the neighboring form idalawahti "you act badly (Sg.26) It seems that the groups of consonants could be split by inserting vowels really pronounced.. eshanas) next to the rarer essar (Gen.I. noted HI. Thus. danattahhuwanzi "to devastate". The letter s is used. Sg.) is not always clear: from taks. had three laryngeals.E."dream". the isolated forms tetkissar. s.E."back". happ-in-ant "rich" < *H3ep-. Sg."to miss". assanu. Hittite only uses sand z. while the letter z denotes the sound Its/. in all exist been their In the most common theory. close to k. the fricative resulting from a laryngeal can be lenis (written between two vowels by 'h') or fortis (written between two vowels by 'hh '). kar-sa-nu-. but tak-ke-e-eS-sa-an-zi "they link" . It should be noted that the theory described here is 16 . tar-ah-ha-an (root tarh.sum. P.E. language families.g. the laryngeal HI vanished and the laryngeal H3 was retained only in initial position. 28) It is possible that the Hittite h had two different pronunciations : a) a (less attested) stronger pronunciation. Sg."to link" is derived the Part.and kar-as-sa-nu. b) s = lsi can be demonstrated by Egyptian incriptions like Mrsr for mMursili. b) a (well attested) weaker pronunciation (maybe only a breath)..)". kussanissit and kussasset "his reward" §31a). but the later discovery of Hittite has proved validity. as in Assyrian. except the Anatolian family.E. c) On the other hand. In median position. eshar "blood" < *esll-er. etc . In Hittite. ~ of the Akkadian cuneiform writing. hameshanza "spring". aniyaz = *aniyat(t)-s "vigor" compared with the Ace."to defeat") < *terH2-.mi. b) Isolated consonants 27) From the four sibilants z. zashi. Sg. to denote the sound lsi.and tuhhus.and asnu. Htsr for mHattusili. as well as the Nom. H2 and H3 that could "color" a neighboring vowel 'e'. the laryngeal H2 colored in 'a' and the laryngeal H3 colored in '0'. a) z = Itsl can be demonstrated by comparing forms like da-sk-izzi "he takes several times" (iterative of dd. as indicated by the variants eshar "blood" (Gen.it "their blood". (the Egyptian writing differenciates sand s). The distinction with the case of unspoken vowels (§22ff. s. nasma and nassuma "or". Many variants of the theory of laryngeals that vary on the quality and the number of P. laryngeals. zamangur "beard" and samankurwant"bearded".eS-har. tak-sa-an-za "linked". hameskanza instead of the neighboring forms tethessar "storm". The woman's Hurrian name fGiluhepa is written Krgp in Egyptian."field".instead of uzuiskisa.

Examples in final position : paprdta instead of paprdtar "impurity"."inhabitant of Zalpa". haratni. 2. iddlawannas. very rarely with abstracts in -dtar : hardtar "scandal". menuddu. mSuppiumni. The group -mn. iddlawes but the Ace. I hatrawanzi and the verbal substantive hatrawar. PI. of hiimant. Gen. and it is not sure whether the form hilannas is the Gen. hatressa instead of hatressar "sending" .incomplete: it does not explain cases where Hittite displays a 'h' where there is no laryngeal. but from arnu. an isolated form li-in-kan-ta for *linkt "he swore" can be found. is-ta-ta-a-it next to istanddit "he stayed". From hatrdi. Sg.instead of artarti."mushroom (?)". an extra n letter is sometimes written though it does not exist : nepisanza instead of nepisaz "from the sky" (Abi. According to Kortlandt. miyata instead of miyatar "prosperity".is sometimes found instead of -wu. Gen. 1. The group -tn.: from kistanu. TUGkuessar instead of TUGkuressar "scarf'. Sg. URU Luiumna "Luwian" ."to bring" arnummeni. one finds 1. Sg. from *mernu.often becomes m. r is weakly pronounced. arnummanzi and arnummar. 31) In the same way. LU uRuHalpuma."to let" tarnummeni. and conversely cases where Hittite does not display a 'h' where a laryngeal occured."to fail (?)".is less clear. -annas < -atnas) : hadduldtar "health". Gen. one finds from zashdi.is regularly transformed to -nn-. kar-pa-zi next to karpanzi "they lift". Sg. b) In median and final position. The group -tn. mernun. URU Paldumna.can be assimilated to -m. PI. one also finds forms such as LU uRuZalpuma.) "fat".> harp.(§169) and verbs in -u(m). to such a point that it is sometimes omitted in writing. artati. initial H2 and H3 remain in front of an 'e' but vanish in front of an '0': *Hserbh. 3. one finds the Nom."to separate" but *H30rgh-ey. 2."each"). 33) The group -nunu. b) 1. iddlamus. Sg.can apparently be shortened to -nu. 17 .: from iddlu. especially in the declension of abstracts in dtar (§83 . PI. Sg. b) Conversely. Sg. huitnas. for example. zashimus.-Loc. Sg. from *menunu. n in median position is weakly pronounced and is often omitted : hu-u-ma-da-az next to hiimandaz (Abi. Pret. Ace.remains without change in the following form: huitar "animal life".: next to the ethnic names URU Hattusumna"inhabitant of Hattusa" . tarnummanzi and tarnummar."dream" the Ace. 32) a) 1. Sg."to write" hatraweni "we write" are constructed the Inf. in median position: waggantes instead of wargantes (Nom. ne-e-a-za next to neyanza "driven". iddlawdtar "nastiness".of the group -uw. Sg.into -nn."to mount". of hilamnar "gate". PI."Palaian" . 30) a) Hittite has no initial r. Imp. Sg."to delete".(§ 174). Sg.> ark. Com. Likewise. me-mi-ia-u-a-zi next to memiyawanzi "to speak". Dat-Loc. The transformation of -mn.). pian instead of piran "in front of'."to make disappear". b) -mu. hassannanza for hassannaz "out of the family". kistanun (for *kistanunun). Gen. haddulannas. especially with verbs in -nu. mSuppiuman next to Dar. Com. li-ik-ta next to li-in-katta (both = *linkt) "he swore" (root link-). 29) a) The -w. It is possible that the vowel was nasalized. Pret."inhabitant of Alep"."nasty". u-e-eS-sa-ta for wessanta "they dress". from tarna.

Sg. b) Phenomena of false cut sometimes occur: nassan (nu "and" + -as "he" + particle -san) can be written nansan.) > istamanassan. c) In the same conditions. -war-an. -at "id". -war-us. nu "and" + -at "it" + particle -san usually becomes natsan. *ta-an > tan.)" and enclitic particles such as -a (-ya) "and". -e "ei. or instead use an extra vowel (§26) kussanissit. but sometimes also tasse. nanza (i. *su-an > san. *nu-apa > napa. ldman-smiti > SUM-asmit. -watr) (quotation). and for the rarer and older particle su "and" : *su-as > sas. -an "eum (eam)". 39) When a simple consonant stands between two vowels between a word and an enclitic (the consonant being either the final of the word or the initial of the enclitic). ea". man "if' + particle wa of quotation (§289) > mdwa. 38) a) When the particle nu "and" is followed by the pronoun -as "is (ea)" .34) The group -nza sometimes changes for unknown reason to -nzan : hanza ep.: -war-as. A final -n. 36) a) 1. Liaisons 35) Hittite words are normally written separately. *nu-at> nat.) envoy" > halugatallat-tin. -ta "to you (Sg. b) The same phenomenon occurs for the older particle ta "and" : *ta-as > tas. -za (reflexive). -an "him".and more rarely hanzan ep. *nu-us> nus ( *nu-as > nas). human "all" + particle -san (§300) > hiimassan. 37) Phenomena of liaison especially occur at the beginning of enclitic pronouns such as -mu "to me".)" + -kan > ULwa(t)ta(k)kan. -us (-as) "eos. apds "this" + -a "and" > apatstsa (also the Ace. UL (negation) + -wa (quotation) + -ta "to you (Sg. A variant with liaison such as hal-ki-im pi-an-zi for halkin pianzi "give (PI. man "if' + -a "also" > manna. *-war-e). -as "he" was replaced by the Ace. SUM-an-smit "their name" (i. and liaisons are not visible in writing.) grain" is a rare exception. wastul "sin" + -ma "but" + -za (reflexive) + -kan > wastulma(z)zakan. -wari (i. *ta-at > tat.) > tuzziman. -si "to him". it is often (but not always) doubled: nu + -san > nu(s)-san. *nu-asta > nasta. 18 . -war-asta. -asta "then".e.. 2.e. the u of nu is replaced by the following vowel: *nu-as > nas. For example. nu "and" + -an "him" + -za "self') and nanzan. eae. *ta-asta > tasta. *ta-us > tus. eas" or the particle -asta or -apa (both = "then (?)"). c) A similar assimilation occurs more rarely with t : ta "and" + -at "it" + -si "to him" usually becomes tatsi. ta. * tuzzin-man "my army" (Acc. -ma "but". etc . as if the Nom. apiin + -a > apu(n)na).)".)". *nu-an > nan.is generally assimilated with the initial consonant of a following enclitic particle (with or without redoubling of this consonant) : *istamanan-san "his ear" (Ace. -as "he"."to give a friendly welcome (?)". Sg. the particle of quotation -watr). -kan and -san (location) after an accentuated word or a particle nu. nu "and" + -wa (quotation) + -nas "us" > nuwa(n)nas.. kussan-set "his salary" can be assimilated to kussasset and stay like that.takes the whole form -war. but also sometimes nassan. *halugatallan-tin "your (Sg. *su-us > sus. -at "it (Neut. -war-at. appizziyan-ma-at "but him after" > appizziyamat. -an "him (Acc.e. *nu-e > ne. 3. sumas "to him" + -an "him" > sumdssan.

kez kezziya "from here and there". -us. b) After words ending in -z and after all words in the ablative.) weapons" (Ace. PI. to them" > -masmas which can be shortened to -mas. ape-ya "and these". -is. the form -tu (-du) : nu "and" + -wa (quotation) + -ta + -za + -kan > nuwaduzakan. 2. the initial -(a)s can vanish and the particle is reduced to -ta : nu "and" + -wa (quotation) + -smas "to them" + -(a)sta > nuwasmasta.). apdssa « apds-a . b) 1. ke-e-ez-za-at-ta. 2.)" takes. Also after -z : nu "and" + -za (reflexive) + -(a)sta > nuzata (pronounced *nu-ts-sta). URU Kargamis-ya "and Kargamis". 42) Phenomena of simplification of doubled syllables can be observed: a) -ma "but" + -smas "to you (Pl. Following §34. 19 . the form -ya is preceded by a liaison vowel i : tamedazziya « tamedaz-ya) "and from another". The particle -a/sya "and" that connects two isolated words takes the form -a after a consonant and -ya after a vowel: dTelipinusa « dTelipinus-a) "and Telipinu". Ul-ya "and not". When the particle -(a)sta "then (?)" follows the syllables -as. but kd-ya "and here". kez "here" + -(a)sta > kez-sta (written ke-e-ez-ta. 2. c) 1. §39) "and this". when placed before the reflexive particle -za. 41) a) 1. It is generally written -ya after logograms. ke-e-ez-za-as-tai.) + -(a)sta > CTISTUKULLA_ H H ussusta. CTISTUKUL LA_us_sus "your (PI. Akkadian words and foreign names: ENMES_ya "and the lords". When the particle -za follows the particle -san. nanza « nu "and" + -an "him" + -za reflexive) can also be written nanzan.40) The enclitic pronoun -ta "to you (Sg. they become simplified in -zan (pronounced *-ts-san ).

death" (hink."to thunder")."anger" (kartimmiya."to curse"). nahsaratt. wastul "sin" (wasta"to sin")."oath" (lenk."basket bearer". ekunima."old")."to achieve").Chapter 3 The noun A. nahhan "fear" (nah."to argue"). e) -zel : sarnikzel "indemnity."to fear") . lahhiydtar "expedition" (lahhiya. d) -asti (rarely) : palhasti "width" (palhi."to graze")."to assign").(declension according to §76) : kartimmiyatt. fence". wastdi."to achieve") .: tethima. hostility"."sleep. maybe also kurur "hostile."to swear")."wide").: arsanatalla."to link")."sin" (wasta. palhdtar "width" (palhi. declension according to §85) : asawar "enclosure."good"). karuiliyatt. replacement" (sarnink. sulldtar "argument" (sullai."old age" (karuili. g) -ul (declension according to §79) : assul "happiness" (assu. hannessar "lawsuit" (hanna."destiny. c) -essar (declension according to §84) : asessar "hearing" (es.partawar 45) The action nouns end in : a) -iii. "damage". maybe also tesha. b) -talla. GISirhuitalla. maybe also kussan "salary" and sahhan "fief'. b) -dtar (declension according to §83) : iddlawdtar "nastiness" (idalu. f. dalugasti "length" (daluki."envious" (arsaniya."to campaign"). h) -ur (declension according to §80) : aniur "(religious) task" (aniya.(declension according to §69) : lengdi."to sit")."to be afraid"). c) -sha."to replace. 46) The actor nouns are built with: a) -tara."long"). i) -(u)war (non verbal. Derivation 44) The formation of abstract nouns uses the following suffixes: a) -an (declension according to §78) : henkan. f) -ima. contract" (ishiya. unuwasha"ornament" tunuwdi- "wing"."cold" (ekuna. to pay")."to judge")."to envy"). dream"."cold").: wastara. e) -att."thunder" (tethai."to strike")."wide"). hurtdi. "observer" (uskisk."to be angry"). b) -ul (declension according to §79) : ishiul "link."to sin"). aniyatt"achievement" (aniya. uskiskatallaobserve"). weritema"fear" (werites."to 20 . palhessar "width" (palhi. epidemic."shepherd" (wesiya."fight" (zah."evil")."wide")."to be afraid")."curse" (hurta."fear" (nahsariya.(of Hurrian origin ?) : dammeshadecorate"). "to d) -el (declension according to §79) : hurkel "disgust" (next to the concrete noun sue! "thread"). zahhdi.

: auriyala.and assuwant.and irmalant. perunant. kartimmiyawant. "far") ."good". b) 1."saliva" (aisliss. Supposedly collectives : utne. also §46c."to buckle")."mass of troops". d) The element -sepa can be broadly interpreted as a way to personify abstract notions: daganzipa"(genie of the) earth". harsanalli."word. 2. uttar and uddanant."gate".has several uses not yet clarified: a) It builds substantives such as : 1.: kariiili."mouth"). karimndla.(next to auriyatalla-) "border guard" (auri."rib."such" from apenissan "thus". kistuwant. §32a1) "population" ."grand-father"."old" (karii adv. huhha."lip")."to sieve").and hameshant. lahhurnuzzi (kind of altar). puriyalli."priest". irmala. dMiyatanzipa."army" and tuzziyant.with the meaning "that owns.« *antuhsatnant-. c) The suffix -alli.: genzuwala."nightly" (ispant. "previously"). 48) The suffix -ant. sankuwai."hungry" (kast"hunger") ."pure". ispantuzzi. b) -uzzi : ishuzzi "belt" (ishiya. Inside this group. hilammar and hilamnant."head"). speech"."faraway" (tuwa adv. issalli."wine dealer" (ispantuzzi.and synonymous with the root word: assu.and sankuwayant."temple employee" (Ekarimmi."hunger". cf."crown" (harsan."finger nail"."average" (istarn.and huhhant."ill". tuwala. dapiya. hastdi. In many cases."thirst". istarniya. side". tuzzi."gag" (from puri."land (as a whole). b) -ili."land" and utneyant.in order to designate the belonging : ispantiya. A particular group about time."genie of the growth of plants"."angry" (kartimmiya. 47) The instrument nouns end in : a) -ul (declension according to §79) : sesarul "sieve" (sesariya.and kistant. One can also find adjectives extended by the suffix -ant."thirsty" from kanint. there is no difference between the base noun and the one modified by -ant.and kalulupant"finger"."to be angry")."wine barrel".and tapuwassant.and suppiyant.and sankunniyant. suppi.c) -ala.'. tapuwas. d) with -want."winter"."border post")."blood". one can find several words about parts of body : kalulupa."night"). antuhsatar "humanity" and antuhsannant. somehow different: esharwant."bearded" (zamankur "beard")."spring". 21 . especially season names: gim."temple"). apenissuwant. dKamrusepa "health goddess"."center")."fondness"). c) isolated with -ya."rock"."bone". 49) Some derived adjectives are built with the following suffixes: a) -ala."scarlet" (eshar "blood").and gimmant. Ispanzasepa. provided with" : samankurwant.: sankunni. 2."genie of the night"."rocky" from peruna."friendly" (genzu.can be added in order to build concrete nouns relative to a part of the body : kuttanalli. Some adjectives are maybe built from substantives: kaninant.and hastiyant. eshar and eshanant. hameshta). kast. 3."wine barrel"). ispantuzziyala."necklace" (kuttar "neck").and dapiyant "all".

"before"). dWasdulassi."moon"). 51) The following suffixes of Luwian origin are used for Luwian but also Hittite adj ectives : a) -alli.)"). 22 . para handanddtar "divine justice".. etc . (?) muwa. one-year-old"). IR "slave" and GEME2-assara."small (statuette of the goddess) Ninatta".E."eye").and -talli. dNinattani."to grind").."man from Alep"."grand-father (huhha-) and grand-mother (hanna-). cases of reduplication occur. harsiharsi."strength"). hiru(n)t.("relating to sin (wastul)").(probably inherited. * "lady". as well as the bird name pittar-palhi."god of the eyes" (sakuwa.("relating to the court (hila. LUMES uRuNesumenes "people ofNesa". c) -imi. e. sarazzi."yearly. pittiyalli.'. LU uRuHalpuma."forerunner" (piran "ahead"."relating to an oath" (Luw."storm".: hirutalli.g. halhaltumari.(antiyant-) "married son-in-law" (anda iyant-) "got in (the house of the father-in-law)"."lord" and ishassara. behind")."strong" (Luw. b) Ethnic nouns use the suffix -umna."superior" (sara "up"). Hittite has very few compound nouns: dd-yuga "twoyear-old" (next to yuga. titita"pupil". first" (hant. and not borrowed from Proto-Hatti) : isha.(-uma. c) -tamni. uRuPalaumna "man from Palau". but the language has a suffix -sara."future" ("after-day"). nominal constructs made of a verb and a particle occur : piran huyatalla. b) Though not strictly compound nouns."god of the ears" (istamana."Luwian"."to run"). huya.e. 52) Occasionally."boundary stone"."small crescent moon" (arma."oath"). kattakurant.."slave". andayant."man from Hattusa". armanni.(in fact the suffix of the Luwian past participle) in names such as dSarlaimi. Less certain: huhha-hanna. muwatalli. Plur. dSarrumanni-) "young Sarruma".("the High One"). dIstamanassa."frog (?)". appa-siwatt. 50) Miscellaneous constructs: a) The feminine is not differenciated from the masculine in the grammar. salla-kartdtar "pride (?)". akuwakuwa. appezzi.("wing-wide").in constructs of comparative type: hantezzi. uRuLuiumna."groats" (mall.e) -zi."ahead. dSakuwassa."deaf'."to run").(-assa-) in names such as dHilassi. duddumi."fast" tpidddi. b) -ass i. dAlawaimi-. : memal.(a "container cut (kuer."back" (appa "back.(i. 53) a) Unlike the other ancient I.seems to be the diminutive suffix : dLUGAL-manni."to cut") at the bottom (katta)" = with a flat bottom ?). languages. §32b1) : URUHattusumna."ear").

-us. -as 57) a) The ending of the Nom. Sg.E. dKumarbi. comm. m Appu. -s . Voc. allative. This case. 23 . Instr. : isha-mi "my lord". 56) Outline of declension: Singular Nom. The dual has disappeared and has been replaced by the plural. called ergative. into a masculine and a feminine gender) and the neuter gender (already declining). All. Dat. Ace. -n -anza -as (never -s!) -i -a -az(a) -it -us -. and -za after a consonant (while pronounced -z = -t-s . -a. dUTU-ue "6 Sun-god". Old-H. -i -antes -as. N.E. b) There are two numbers : the singular and the plural. N. this gender will later split up in I. heu-s "rain". can be used as Voc. For u-stems.-Acc. zahhdi-s "battle". b) 1.. Abl. while Old-Hittite allative was replaced by dative-locative in Neo-Hittite. comm. comm. b) Hittite also uses a special ending for neuter nouns subjects of a transitive verb. Declension 1. dative-locative. genitive. ablative and instrumental. The isolated root is used as Voc. the forms of Nom. In all cases. §25a2) : hu-u-ma-an-za = *humant-s "this".B. Gen. Outline 54) a) Hittite has two genders: the common gender (comprising the masculine and the feminine genders. Stems in -t produce a group of consonants -t-s written -z after a vowel : kar-tim-mi-ia-az = *kartimmiyatt-s "anger". 3. N. vocative. is always pronounced =S: It is written -s for vocalic stems: atta-s "father". ka-a-a-as-za = *kast-s "hunger". transfers the neuter noun to the common gender. Vocative is poorly attested. 2. accusative. Sg.(-e) -n -. cases: nominative. Erg. also -an -as -as -az(a) -it Plural -es. 55) a) Hittite has eight cases derived from the I.Loc. vocative forms in -ue also occur: LUGAL-ue "6 king".

Common Sg. as well as the isolated form sankuwais "of the nail" can be explained by §14a2 as *mNunnuwas. §31b) : luttanza "from the window". cf. « -ai < I. e. aruni "in the sea". in =S: There is no form of Gen. siunas "of the gods" and Dat-Loc.g. istamanta "with the ear" . ends in -as. aruna "to the b) 1. siunas "with the gods". the ending -as of the Dat-Loc. c) The ancient ending -ai (a stage former to -a. Sg. hassannai "to the family" (from hassatar). PI. cf. i-stems use for the Dat-Loc. *sankuwayas. PI. in -as : Gen. PI. is used as accusative: pargawes "the great ones".58) The Gen. as was once believed. allative was replaced by the dative-locative in -i : aruni "to the sea.). in -i : All. nepisanza "from the sky". Dat. "Labarnan "of Labarn a". and the Gen. nepis "in heaven". has been applied to the Gen. In N eo-Hittite. : LUGAL-an "of the king". huprushes "the elders". Some a-stems borrow forms from the i-stems (especially the Nom. and Pl. and conversely some i-stems borrow forms from the a-stems (especially the cases complementary to the previous alternation: all the Neuter cases and the oblique Common cases. Loc. hulukanniya (next to hulukanni) "in the chariot". *-om) was distinct from the Dat-Loc. 60) The ablative Sg. Sg. §67b).E. 24 .E. Sg. Sg. The old genitive in -an is only found in formal speech. *"Taruhsuwas. b) The Ace. the old ending -an is sometimes used for the Gen. sarku "to the hero" can be explained as a Dat-Loc. the ending -(y)a of the old allative : tuzziya : "to the army. without ending. PI. PI. This is caused by the influence of Luwian. PI. and Ace. 63b) Many nouns in Neo-Hittite exhibit an alternation between a-stems and i-stems. being the same in Neo-Hittite. 61) The instrumental Sg. mTaruhsus in Old-Hittite. siunas "with the gods". consonant stems use a Dat-Loc. *-oi) and a Loc. 63) The nominative and the accusative PI. UD-at "in the day". nekur mehur "evening" is not a genitive form "time of the night" but rather an apposition "night-time". also wedanda and wetenit "with water". The genitives mNunnus. and never. c) The endings -as of the Gen. Sg. 2. without ending: E-ir "in the house". siunan "of the gods". or according to §17a. hassannanza "out of the family (hassatar)". dagan "on the ground". 62) a) In Old-Hittite. is used as nominative: parhandus "the stressed ones". 2. SA-ir "in the heart". PI. UD-az (= UD-at-s) "of the day" . 59) a) Old-Hittite had an All. also ends in -ta : kissarit "with the hand". In some cases. at the sea". in the army". Sg. dalugaes "the long ones". Sg. : Gen. IRMEs-amman "of my slaves" (according to §36a1 < IRMEs-an-man). in -a sea". kessar-ta "in your (Sg. d) 1. b) In Neo-Hittite. in -an « I. sometimes ends in -anza rather than -az (cf. PI.) hand". PI. The isolated form of Dat-Loc. the Gen. tend to be used one for the other: a) The Nom. PI.-Loc. §59a) is sometimes found: "Labarnai "at Labarna".

ishd. kessera."empty". • dannatta. Gen.2. All. Abl. Instr. Sg.-Loc.(ZAG-(n)a-) "right". Neuter. 65) a-stems b) Adjectives pedan pedas pedi (Pidi) pedaz (petaz) Plural pedas They are inflected exactly like the substantive. 25 .-A."lord". Vocalic stems 64) a (and a)-stems a) Substantives • Common: antuhsa "man". aruna. Dat. Gen."place" Singular antuhsas antuhsan antuhsas antuhsi antuhsaz annas anni annaz annas arunas arunan arunas aruni aruna arunaz(a) kissaraz(a) kisserit Plural kesseras kisseran isha kissaras kissiri ishi (eshe) isha ishds Common Dat. antuhses (antuhsus) antuhsus antuhsas antuhsas annis annus arunus kisserus ishes ishds Neuter Singular N. No rule has been found for the alternation between the endings -an and -a in Nom."sea". Neuter: peda. • Nom.-Loc.-Loc."mother". anna. kunna. Abl. Ace.-Acc."neighboring"."hand". Voc. Dat. arahzena. Nom. Ace. Instr. Gen.

§63a) tuzzius (tuzziyas) halhaltummariyas halhaltumariyas halhaltumaraza halhal tumares halkis halkin halkiyas tuzzis (tuzziyas) tuzzin tuzzias tuzziya tuzziyaz GIS hulukannis GIS hulukannin GIS hulugannas GIS huluganni (ya) GIS huluganniyaz (GIS hulugannaza) GIS hulukannit halhaltumari (halhaldummariya) 26 . Gen. Ace. "cereal". comm."wine barrel".-A. halkis halkius (halkes. halhaltumari- • Neuter: NA4huwasi.-L.Singular Nom. N. Dat. Gen. ZAG-na) ZAG-nas kunni (ZAG-ni) kunnaz (ZAG-(n)az(a)) ZAG-(n)it arahzenes (arahzenas) arahzenus (arahzenas) arahzena arahzenan ZAG-nis ZAG-nus kunna tuzzi- "army". Common Singular Nom. Gen. halkiyaza halkit Plural Nom.-Loc.-L.-A. Abl. 66) i-stems a) Substantives • Common : halki"cornerstone" . D. Instr. n. Abl. Ace. DUGispantuzzi. tannattas dannatta dannatti dannattan dannattan (dannatta) arahzenas arahzinan arahzenas arahzeni arahzena arahzenaza kunnas ZAG-an kunnan (ZAG-an. Plural Nom. GIShulukanni- "chariot".-Loc. N. Dat. All."grindstone". Gen. Ace. comm. n. D. Instr. Ace. comm. Abl. comm.

69) • Common: zahhai.Neuter Singular N. Common Singular Nom. zahhin built from the Gen. D. Sg. but Gen. Plural Nom. Abi. Abi. cf §59b2."bone". Ace. b) The Gen.-L.-Loc. Sg. tuzziyas is an analogical construct on the ya-stem. NA4huwasi NA4huwasiyas NA4 huwasi DUG ispantuzzi DUG ispantuzziyas DUG ispantuzzi pUG DUG ispantuzziaz DUG ispantuzzit (ya) ispantuzziya) NA4huwasiyaz Plural N. Sg. zashai. tuzziya. Ace. Sg. halhaltumaraza are analogical constructs on the a-stem. • Neuter: hastai. D.. and the Ace. NA4 huwiisiHLA 67) a) The Nom. lengain. Ace. lengayas built from the Nom.-A. Sg. Sg. linkiyas."dream" . G1Shulugannas."battle". Gen..-L. NA4huwasiya. etc . Sg. lengai. PI..-A. Sg. the Abi. b) One sometimes finds analogical constructs such as Gen.. Instr.. 68) Substantives in aia) They are inflected with ablaut (§18) : lengais "oath". Gen. Sg. etc ."oath". lingais lingaus zashimus (§29b) zahhais zahhain (zahhin) zahhias zahhiya zahhiyaz(a) lingain linkiyas (lingayas) linkiya (lingai) linkiyaz(a) zashiya zashiyaz zashit zashain 27 .. c) For the Dat. Instr. Sg. G1Shulugannaza and the Abi. or conversely the Ace.

Gen. sallayas suppayas (suppiyas) suppayaza sa lla es sallaus (sallius) salla suppaes (suppis) suppaus suppa meggaes (mekkes) meggaus (mekkus) meggaya meqqayas kariiiliyas kariiila kariiiles (kariiiliyas) kariiilias suppi mekki suppis mekkis kariiilis kariiilin karuili kariiiles (kariiiliyas) b) Forms without an i like the Gen. especially for kariiili. Abi. b) The occasional forms without this a are analogical constructs on the substantive.-L. D. hastai hastiyas hastai hastit 70) i-stems adjectives a) The declension of the adj ectival stems in -i and -u differ from the substantive by the apparition of an a before the thematic vowel in all cases except the Nom. comm. N. the Ace. kariiili. n. Singular Nom. utne (utni) utneyas (utniyas) utni (utniya) utneaz 28 KUR-eas Plural utne . Gen. salla. n. n. D.-A. D. suppi. Sg.-A. N.-L. "land" is close to the i-stems with the following declension: Singular N. suppaz(a). N.-L. Instr. the Abl. Gen.. comm."much". Gen. sallis sallin salli GAL-Ii sallaiyas (sallas) sallai sallayaz suppayas suppai (suppaya. Ace. comm. suppa) suppayaz(a) ~uppaz(a)) meqqayaz suppit Plural Nom. suppa are explained by §15a."old". D. Abi. Instr. comm. sallas.Neuter N. mekki. Abi. suppi. 71) a) salli.-A."big". and the Instr Sg. Ace. 72) The root utne (KUR-e) n.-L.-A. PI."pure".-A. Sg. Voc."old".

• Neuter: genu. Ace. D. heyawas. Sg. §62c) LUGAL-i LUGAL-waz b) The forms of heu. Ace. iddlu. 29 .-A. PI. genu genuwas genuwa welluwas Singular Plural genuwa genuwas genuwas ginuwaz hewes (heyawes) heus (heamus. Gen. heawit. PI. harnawas harnawi welli welluwaz heawit Plural Nom. 75) assu. LUGAL-u "king" . wellu. heyawes.-L.before the thematic vowel (Gen. this a is caused by analogy with the substantive. Instr. parku. this analogy is clear because the neuter assu has been substantivized with the meaning "good. Abl. property"."rain" with -(y)a. 74) u-stems b) Adjectives a) Like adjectival i-stems."knee" Common Singular Nom.73) u-stems a) Substantives • Common: harnau. Sg. b) Occasionally. heu. one finds a vowel a before the thematic vowel.-L. All."chair". Neuter N. §29b) hewas (heyawas) harnaus harnaun wellus wellun heus heun LUGAL-us LUGAL-un LUGAL-ue LUGAL-was (LUGAL-an."meadow". Instr."high"."good". Abl."good"."nasty". Gen. For assu. Nom. Voc. heamus) are built by analogy with the adjective. Ace."rain". D.

KAM-az MU."tide".-A. N."hunger". Nom. n.KAM-an) UD-at UD-as siwatti (siwat. siwatt. Instr. comm.-L. n.KAM)) .Singular Nom.-A."day" (logogr. Gen. Instr. n. kar(a)itt. Abl. §63b) pargamus (§29b) (pargaus) pargawa idiilawes iddlamus (§29b) iddlawa iddlawas iddlawas iddlawaza parkus parkun parku parkuwas pargawe pargawaz iddlus iddlun iddlu HUL-uwas iddlawi iddlawaz (iddlazl) HUL-it 3. Ace. Ace."performance". D. D. comm. N. Gen.-L. Ace. wett.KAM-az 30 ."year" (logogr. comm. Gen.KAM-za MU-an MU. assawet pargawas assawes assam us (§29b) assawa pargawes (pargaus.KAM-as witti MU.TUG-atti aniyattas aniyatti kartimmiyaz (§25a2 27a) kartimmiyattan aniyaz (§25a2 27a) aniyattan UD-az UD-an (UD. kast. comm.-L. • Common and neuter: aniyatt. D. Abl. "anger". Consonant stems 76) tt (t)-stems • Common: kartimmiyattMU(.-A. kastita karaitti kasti kar(a)iz (girez) kasza (§25a2) kastan TUG. Instr. Singular Nom. assus ass un assu assawas assawi assawaza assawet Plural Nom. Abl.KAM)). Gen. comm.-L. comm. UD(. §59d) UD. D. comm. Ace. Abl. comm. N.

huiswant. comm. §18) : sahhan "fief'. GE6(. D. "night" (logogr."woman" Singular Nom. Ace. tekan (tagn-) "earth" • Common: MUNUS-n. D. n. laman "name". Gen.-L.-L.-A. Ace. N.KAM)-anza ispandan humanza (§2Sa2) humandan human humandas humanti humandaz Plural Nom.(KAM)HLA-as MUHLA_US MUHLA_us wittan (§62a) (MUHLA_as) MU. D. comm. comm. 77) nt-stems kartimmiyaddus aniyatta aniyattas garittes (karittiyas) UD .-A.-A.-L. N."alive". sahhan sahhanas sahhani lamni laman tekan tagnas tagni MUNUS-nas MUNUS-ni 31 MUNUS-za MUNUS-nan humantes (humandus. comm. Nom.-L. 78) n-stems • Mainly neuters (partly with ablaut. Ace.KAMHLA-us UDHLA_us UD . all". N. comm. comm. n. comm. §63a) humanda humandas humandas appanti huiswantes huiswandus TI-antas huiswanti appanza appantan huiswanza huiswandan . Gen.KAMHLA-as • Substantive: ispant. N.Plural Nom."recovered". comm. Gen. GE6-andas ispanti ispandaz GE6( . Ace. comm. D. • Participles: appant. n. n. D. N.-A. §63b) appantes humandus (humantes.c.-A.-L. Ace. • Adjective: humant. Singular Nom.KAM))."each. Abl. comm. n.

Instr.-A. "hostility") Singular Nom. "tureen" • Adjectives: sakuwassar "true". Instr. comm. D. suppal • Adjective: taksul "accustomed". Singular Nom. Gen. Gen.-L. N. Abl. D. Ace. Abl.-A. kurur. Abl. 80) r-stems a) without ablaut • Substantive: huppar. comm. sahhanaz(a) sahhanit lamnit Plural Nom. n.c.c. Gen.-L. n. wasdulit Plural N.-A./n. sakuwassarus kurur 32 kurur kururas kururi kurur wastul(HLA) ishiuliHLA taksul suppala suppalan (§62a) wastul wasdulas wasduli ishiullaza tawal(lJit ishiul ishiul(l)as taksul taksul taksulas taksuli tawal tawalas tawali supli (§26) suppal ."hostile" (also substantive n.All. comm. ishiul "contract". n. N. Instr. tawal (a drink). lamnas tagnd tagnaz(a) (tagndz) MUNUSMES_US MUNUSMES-as (mainly neuters) : wastul "sin". comm. D. huppar hupparas huppari hupparaza (JIS)hupparit DUGhupparas sakuwassaras sakuwassaran sakuwassar sakuwassaras sakuwassari sakuwassaraza sakuwassarit Plural Nom. 79) I-stems • Substantives "animal".-L.

7[arp-6~) : Singular N. Gen. lammar "hour" " watar "water" pahhuar (pahhur) "fire" .-L. Nom. Gen. kessaras. kessar kisri (kessar. Gen. iidhnas "udder". §59d) kisrd ki-is-sar-at Sg.-L. Erg. this word is of common gender and is inflected like an a-stem: Ace.E. Singular N.-A. etc . §60) uddanit (uddanta.. mehur "time". §16) mehunas mehueni (mehuni. It is however well alive and productive in Hittite. Abl. §16) mehur lamni lammar .-A. udddr uddanas uddanas widdr AHLA_as mehunas 33 uttar uddanas uddani uddanaz(a) (uddananza.-L. (§64).-A. DUG huppiiriHLA sakuwassarus kurur (kururiHLA) kururas b) The neuter kessar. n.-A.E. §28b) eshani eshanaz(a) (esnaza. For more clarity. partly with and partly without ablaut uttar "word " speech" eshar "blood" . witenas weteni wetena wetenaz(a) wetenit (wedanda. kisseran. §28b) eshanta (§61) pahhuwar (pahhur. kisras kisras Plural In Neo-Hittite. these stems have been grouped into miscellaneous sub-groups : 82) a) Particular substantives. 81) rln-stems This group corresponds to the I. languages (Old-Indian iidhar. All. D.. Lat.-A.jeminis "thigh"). §28b) eshanas (esnas. Instr. Instr. All. N. §61) watar eshar (essar. N.-L. Instr. D. §61) pahhuenaz (pahhunaz(a)) pahhuenit Plural N. Gen. D.Ace. heteroclitic inflection that left some traces in the other I. §17a) pahhuenanza pahhuenas pahhueni (pahhuni. All stems are neuter.jemur. Abl. D."hand" is inflected in Old-Hittite with ablaut (like Greek 7rar~p. comm.

fence". §10.-L. 84) c) Abstracts in -essar hannessar "business". Plural N. 26) hannesni (hannassani. Instr. Abl. Nom-Ace. §11. Instr. only in the singular. D. This group identical. Singular N.-A. till now. 60) hannesnit uppesni hannessar uppessar Plural uppessarHLA uppesnantes lahh iya tar zankilatal1LA (zankilatarriHLA) paprdtar paprannas papranni paprannaz(a) huitnit lahhiyanni zankilanni zankilatar huitar huitnas (§32a2) "sorrow". D. Erg. Abl.-L. Here too. Abl. uppessar "sending" (with ablaut) Singular N. IS asawar asauni asaunaz partawar partaunas partaunaz partaunit close to the inflection of the verbal substantive in -war. Gen. hannesnas (hannissanas. D. Ehilammar (E)hilamnas (hilannas? . only in the singular: asawar "enclosure. §32b2) (E)hilamni hilamna (E)hilamnaz 34 . 26) hannesnaz (hannisnanza. partawar "handle".does not transform into -nn-). Nom-Ace.-A.83) b) Abstracts in -dtar and -tar paprdtar "dirtiness". Abl. without being strictly 86) e) Words in -mar hilammar "gate". §10.-A.-L.-L. D. Gen. lahhiyatar "countryside". All. zankilatar ablaut. huitar "faun" (partly with 85) d) Words in -war All with ablaut. Instr. Gen. -tn. Gen.

kutruenes. D. Gen. Abl."word. Gen. §17a. memiyanus (memiyanes. SA) and pam."branch (?)". haratn). • s-stem : nepis "sky". "witness" can be interpreted in the same way: Singular Nom.-L. Sg built by lengthening the vowel of the roots *ker and *per : E) have their N. kutrus.This group is close to the inflection of the verbal substantive in -mar. §59dl) nepisa nepisaz(a) (nepisanza. memiyas memiyan memiyanas memiyani (memini."house" (logogr. Ace. 88) Blend of n-stems and vocalic stems a) Some substantives are inflected partly as a-stems and partly as n-stems. kutruwanes. 35 ."grape fruit" (all of common gender).comm. §17b) kutruas 89) Irregular inflection a) The two neuter roots kard."heart" (logogr.-L. arkammatn). D."eagle". without being strictly identical. §63a. All. kutruwas kutrui Plural kutrues (kutruwas. §60) arkammas arkamman arkammanas (lIS)alkistas harasMUSEN haran (hdranan) alkistanan haranas mures murinit muriyanus alkistan us (murius) b) The very variable inflection of kutrutwan). Abl. §14al) memiyanaz (meminaza.-L. speech". memiyas) arkammus (argamanus) hiiranisMUSEN G' ISv isgaruh "container" ais issas issi (aissi) issaz issit isgaruhit isqaruhi isqaruh (iskarih) nepis nepisas nepisi (nepis. 87) Miscellaneous consonant stems Always neuter and attested only in the singular.-A."tribute". ais "mouth" (with ablaut) • guttural-stem: N. alkistatn). Ace. Instr. Thus for example memiyatn). Singular Nom.-A. Instr. §14al) meminit (§14al) Plural Nom. murityan). D.

Instr.-L. D. hassa hanzassa hassa hanzassa hassi hanzassi has sit hanzassit Plural hasses hanzasses hassus hanzassus hassas-sas hanzassas-sas 36 . Ace. D. Abl. §59dl) parna parnaza Plural kir B-ir parnas b) The unusual inflection of the expression hassa hanzassa "grand-son and grand-grand-son (?)" is not well understood : Singular Nom. All. Gen. SA-ir kardiyas (stem in -i) kardi karta kartaz kardit pir parnas parni (B-i. Instr.-A.Singular N.-L.

"last". the others as substantives in -i with some variations like ya-stems: Singular Nom. D. Adjective comparison 93) Hittite does not form the adjective comparative by means of a suffix as it is the case in other I. Abl. languages. Comparison is expressed by the only adjective.-L. one can recogmze a suffix -zi"superior" and sanezzi. and it can be detected only thanks to the context. but with a similar function. sarazzi- b) kattera.-L. Instr. comm."inferior" is constructed differently. Gen. Plural Nom. hantezziyas hantezzes (hantezzius. comm.is inflected as an a-stem. 95) kattera."sweet". n. comm. D.-A. III hantezzi. Ace. hantezziyas) appizzes UGU-azzis (UGU-azzius) sanizzius katteres (katterrus) hantezzis (hantezziyas) hantezzin (hantezziyan) hantezzi hantezziyas hantezzi hantezziyaz appizziya appizziyaz sarazzi sarazziyaz sanizziyaz sanizzit katteri appizzis (appizziyas) appizzin (appizziyan) appizzi sarazzis sarazziyan sarazzi sanezzis sanezzin sanezzi katterras katteran kattera 37 .E."first".c. comm. Ace. appezzi. 94) a) However. N.

only) zikila "yourself'. the nominative form uga moved toward the dative. nu-smas "and to you (Pl. Ace. 38 . to you (Sg. uk (ugga. nu-mu-asta "and then (?) to me" becomes numasta (§38a). 99) The suffix -il(a) expresses reflexion : ukila (uke!) "myself'. Neo-Hittite borrowed the accusative for the nominative. ammuk) ammuk (ammugga) ammel ammuk (uga) ammedazta) "you" (Sg. nu-nnas "and to us". Gen. apdsila.-L. On the opposite. wes and sumes only for nominative. Nom. zik and tuk have not merged.) sumes (sumas) sumas (sumes) sumel (sumenzan) sumas (sumes) sumedaz 97) a) Old-Hittite uses the forms uk.)" -smas "to them" (Dat. and the forms uk and wes have nearly vanished. to you (Pl. Personal pronouns 96) Independant forms of the 1st and 2nd persons "I" Nom. D.Chapter 4 Pronouns and numbers A. 98) The pronoun apd. sumdsila b) Examples with nu "and" : nu-mu "and to me". The use of the nominative sumes for the accusative is explained by a borrowing of the nominative (§63a). to us" -smas "you. ammuk. The identity of the forms for accusative and dative such as sumes shows a glide toward the dative. apdsila "himself' (PI. anzds and sumas are used only for dative and accusative. §40) "you. and to them". nu-ssi "and to him". apdsilust). 100) Enclitics for dative and accusative a) -mu "me. Ace.). cf.)" -si "to him" (Dat. nu-tta "and to you (Sg.) zig (zigga) tuk (tugga) tuel tuk (tugga) tuedazta) "we" wes (anzds) anzas anzel anzas anzedaz "you" (PI. §111ff. Abl.is used as an independant pronoun of the 3rd person. b) Old-Hittite has a form sumenzan "your (Pl. sumel and anzel are more recent forms. to me" -ta (-du before -za. "yourselves".)" . Also.)" (§39). only) -nas "us.

§9a 102a). Sg. n-at. form of the pronoun Nom. t-at "and it". nu-war-an "and him" (Ace. -as -an -at Plural old -e. comm. The pronominal enclitic root -a. neo -at This enclitic -a. she. s-e. Sg."this" (§116). n-at "and they". there is no nominative or accusative form coming from a root sa-. with -si "to him" and -smas "to them". D. san and PI. PI. patricular forms of the root -a. n-e. b) On the other hand. b) For the Nom. s-as "and he".are used.. it becomes: nu-war-as "and he". natsiyat « nassiyas *nu-at-si-at) next to natsi « « *nu-as-si-as) next to nassi *nu-at-si) "and it for him". Ace. comm. b) Attached to nu and the particle -wair)..Reflexive pronouns 101) The reflexive pronouns are expressed by the corresponding personal pronouns or by means of the particle -za (-z). Nom. neo -as old -e.-L.-A. t-us (t-as).). sus of Old-Hittite.-A. PI. n. c) It is not sure whether the neuter -it "it" in the expression netta "and it for you (Sg. Abl. n-an. n-us (n-as). nu-war-i "and they" (Nom. oblique forms are built from a root si. Nom. 103) a) nu "and" and the older words ta "and" and su "and" combine with these forms according to §38a and b to give n-as.. comm. of the neuter -at. td « *ta-e). nu-war-at "and it"."he". comm. PI. are in fact built from the ancient and rare word su "and" and the enclitic pronoun -a.. 104) -as. she. s-an "and him" (Ace.."he" (§103a) like nas < *nu-as.Pl. comm. neo -at old -us. PI. -i instead of -e. s-us (s-as) "and them" (Acc. Old-Hittite has kept the I. -e < *-oi.).E. it" 102) a) For the nominative and the accusative of the pronoun of the 3rd person. they form a whole paradigm : Singular Nom. sas. comm. that have been understood for long as irreducible forms."he. are sometimes doubled: "and he for him". etc . 39 .)" « *nu-it-ta ?) comes from a root -i.comes probably from a weakened form of the accentuated demonstrative a. set setani sez The dative enclitics -si "to him" and -smas "to them" (§100a) maybe come from the same root. Ace. t-an. The forms Sg. Ace."he. t-as. n.) with a semantic change "and he for you" > "and it for you".of quotation. « *nu-as-si) Isolated pronouns of the 3rd person 105) a) The following Sg.). it" : Gen. se. It could be a form nu-e-ta (N. comm. -at. whereas Neo-Hittite has used the form at first Sg. then PI. N.

"his border". Ace. Instr. aresmes < *ares-smes (§19a) "your (PI. n. Gen. Voc. b) For a possible use of the personal pronouns instead of the possessive pronouns.) heart". tuel anni "to your (Sg. -simit. Ace. D. Ace."your (Sg.)" -si.B.) friends"."my" -ti. istarn ismi "in their center". The final -n of the Ace. -smet (-semet) . .~ -samet. -mis -mus (-mis. Sg."your (Pl. comm. without assimilation). D. N. PI. comm. All. 108) These adjectives are inflected as a blend of a. comm. the possessive : Ace. n.-A.and i-stems: Singular Nom.-L. They are always enclitic: -mi. Nom.) envoy" (next to envoy". kissari-mi "in my hand". etc . halugatallattin < *halugatallan-tin "your (Sg. tuzzi-man < *tuzzin-man "my army". Gen.-L. comm. person is not attested. cf §213b2.-L. 107) Old-Hittite still has independent possessive adjectives that are sometimes found in Neo-Hittite in set phrases. kardiyas-tas "of your (Sg. 40 .. -summzt 109) a) The possessive adjective agrees in case and number with the substantive : Gen.-A. PI. Possessive pronouns and adjectives 106) a) Neo-Hittite has borrowed its possessive pronouns from the gemtrve of the personal pronouns: ammel attas "my father".. of the substantive is assimilated according to §36a1 with the initial of Sg.. Sg."their" The possessive adjective of the 1st PI. sarhuwandus-sus "her unborn children". §63a) -mit (-met) man (§62a) -tas -smas -tis (-tes) -tus (-dus) -ses (-sis) -sus -set -smes -smus -smi -smi (-summi) -sma -smit -tis (-tes) -tin -tit -sis -sin (-san) -sit (-set) -smis -smes -sman -smet {-smit. N.) mother". -mis -min (-man) -mit (-met) -mi -mas -mi -ma -tas -ti (-di) -ta -tit -sas -si -sa -set (-sit) Plural Nom.)" -smi."his" -smi. D. atti-ssi "to his father". -semet. halugatallan-min "my arha-ssan < *arhan-san Sg.

b) In the Neo-Hittite era, the separation between the two elements is less and less felt. Following constructions like attas-sis "his father" (Nom. Sg.) : attassin < *attan-sin "his father" (Ace. Sg.), one builds the Nom. Sg. attas-mis "my father", but the Ace. Sg. attasmin and attasman "my father", as well as attastin "your (Sg.) father", as if the inflection only affected the end of the group.

c. Demonstrative
Nom. comm. Ace. comm. N.-A. n. Gen. D.-L. Abl. Instr.

pronouns
Singular -s -n -t, -el (-edas) -edani (-edi) -ez (-edaz) -(i)t Plural -e, -es, -us -us -e, -enzan (-el) -edas -ez

110) The declension of the following pronouns is clearer than those already seen. The endings are:

111) The most important pronouns are kii- "this, hic'' and apd- "that, is". apd- is also used as a pronoun for the 3rd person with the meaning "he, she". For apdsila "himself', cf. §99. 112) Nom. comm. Ace. comm. N.-A. n. Gen. D.-L. Abl. Instr. kiis
kiin (kdn)

Singular apas apiin (apdn) apdt apel apedani (apeti) apez (apizza) apit (apedanda) §10) ke, kiis (keus)
kiis (ke; §63a)

Plural ape, apus apiis (ape; §63a) ape apenzan (apedas) apedas

ta (ke;
kel

ke

aa.

§10)

kenzan (kedas) kedas kizza

kedani (keti) kez (kezza) ket (kedanda)

113) a) In Nom. PI., the Old-Hittite forms ke and ape, coming from the I.E. era, are replaced in NeoHittite by the inflected forms kiis and apiis coming from an analogical construction with the noun, or, according to §63b from a borrowing of the Ace. PI. b) The occasional form ke of the Ace. PI. comes, according to §63a, from a borrowing of the nominative form. c) The unique form keus of the Nom. PI. comes from the form ke to which has been added the pleonastic nominative ending -us. 114) From kii- and apd- are derived several adverbs: a) kd "here" , apiya "there : then" . ket "to here" apeda "over there" , kez "from here" , apez "from . '" there". b) apidda "over there", apidda (apiddan, apeda : also apidda(n) ser) "therefore". 41

c) kissan "thus, consequently", slightly different apenissan "thus". d) From the root kii- is derived the interjections kdsa "look!" and kdsma "look!". 115) Two pronominal adjectives are built from kissan and apenissan with the meaning "such" (also "so much") : kissuwant- "TOlOa-Dc" and penissuwant "TOwill TO~". Their declension is like humant(§77). 116) A defective demonstrative root a- with the meaning "here" gives the following forms: Singular Nom. comm. D.-L. Abi. edani ediz (etez, edaza) Plural

*e in es-ta (= *e-sta "thus them ?")
edas

117) The roots eni-, uni- and anni-, all meaning "that (afore mentioned)" are designated as "halfinflected". They are maybe already deictic particles. a) One finds from uni- an Ace. Sg. comm. unin, a Nom-Ace. and a Nom. and Ace. PI. comm. unius. Sg n. uni (also with a plural meaning)

b) One finds from eni- the Nom. Sg. comm. enis, the N.-A. Sg. n. eni (also with a plural meaning) and an Ace. PI. comm. enius. As for kissan, one finds an adverb enissan "as afore mentioned". c) One finds from anni- only a Nom. Sg. comm. annis. From this root are derived the adverbs annaz and annisan "formerly". 118) One finds in texts the word often uninflected asi- "the previous", used in the Nom. and the Ace. Sg. at all genders. One also finds the Nom. Sg. comm. asis.

D. Interrogative and relative pronouns
119) Nearly only the root kui- produces alive paradigms. It is used to form interrogative and relative substantives and adjectives. Singular Nom. comm. Ace. comm. N.-A. n. Gen. D.-L. Abi. kuis kuin kuit kuel kuedani kuez (kuezza) kuedas Plural kues (kueus; §63b) kueus (kues, kuis, kue; §63a) kue

120) a) The general relatives are kuis kuis, kuis-as kuis "whoever", kuis imma, kuis imma kuis, kuisas imma, kuis-as imma kuis "whoever else".

42

Singular N.-A. n. Gen. D.-L. Abl. kuel imma kuedani (imma) kuedani kuez imma kuez

Plural kue kue kuedas kuedas

b) kuissa "that" (§125a) can also be used with the meaning "whatever". 121) A pronoun derived from kui- is built with the ethnic suffix: from". kuenzumna- "he who comes

122) A parallel stem kua- « I.E. *kwo-) has been used to build an adverb from the original form of the N.-A. Sg. n. kuwat "why?" (phonetically < kWod) as well as other adverbs like kuwapi "where" and its derivatives, and kuwatta(n) "where, to where" (kuwattan ser "why"). 123) a) From an unattested interrogative-relative following forms : Singular Nom. comm. Ace. comm. N.-A. n. masin mase stem ma- is built masi- "how much" with the Plural mases

b) From masi- are built masiyant- and masiwant-, both meaning "as much as", with an inflection close to hiimant- "whole" (§77).

E. Indefinite pronouns
124) kuiski comm., kuitki n. is used for the substantive "someone, something" and the adjective "a, an". UL kuiski comm., UL kuitki n. is used for the substantive "no one, nothing" and the adjective "no, not any". 125) a) kuissa (kuisa), made of kuis and -a "and", means "each one" (and also "whoever" ; §120b). b) kuis - kuis means "the one - the other". 126) Inflection of kuiski and kuis(s)a : Singular Nom. c. kuiski Ace. c. Gen. D.-L. Abl. kuinki kuelqa (kuelga, kuelka, kuelki) kuedanikki (kuedanikka) kuezqa N.-A. n. kuitki kuissa (kuisa) kuinna kuitta kuella kuedaniya kuezziiya) kuedasqa kuesqa kuiusga kueqa (kueqqa, kuekki) Plural kuesa kuiussa

43

and is found in several inflected forms written phonetically. The I. comm. l-eaz) 44 .(tariyalla-). but from the Luwian mauwa "four". dammeli). Inflection: Singular Nom. The word meu.-L. The I. 3."different" (Sg.E."other" are built : a) an adjective dameli. The reading of the number "one" is still contested: siya-. 2. damelin. half as a noun. b) Only a few forms of numbers are known: 1. comm.E. D. All. comm. D. 4. comm. I-as (I-is) I-an I-an l-el l-edani l-edaz (I-edaza."two-year-old". root *tri."each. Ace. Ace.127) tamai. Numbers 129) a) The pronunciation of most numbers is unknown since numbers are generally written with cuneiform logograms. 5. N."four" does not come from I. *sipta(m) "seven" appears in the name ofliquid siptamiya. damais damain tamai dammel (tamedas) dam edan i tamatta (tameda) tamedaz (damedaza) dapiza (dapidaz) dapiyan (dapin. Gen. dapiya. N.-A. D. 130) "one" is inflected half as a pronoun and half as an adjective: Nom.-A.-L. Ace. The I. n. in LUtarriyanalli. n.E. all" is also used to build isolated pronominal forms.-L."three" appears in the genitive te-ri-ya-as (§ 132a). comm.E. root dd appears in the ordinal dan (§ 133) and the composition dd-yuga. Gen.(§ 133b) and in the name of liquid teriyalla. F. Abl."other" is inflected half as a pronoun. b) an adverb dameda "elsewhere". §14al) dapias dapi damedas Plural damaus (§63b) damaus tamdi dapidas dapias 128) From damai. Abl.

"seventh".e. D. Gen. • 5-anki "five times". From "two" : 2-an (i.-L. b) Inflection of meu. (4-in) "fourth". Ace. *tres) 3-us (3-e) te-ri-ia-as (i. "third". From "one" : I-eda "at a precise place. "sixth". • 3-is "three times (?)"."four" : Nom. • 2-anki "twice".-L.. comm. b) Hittite builds its ordinals with the suffix -anna : • • • • • • 2-anna 3-anna 4-anna 5-anna 6-anna 7-anna (= *danna?) "second". for oneself'. together". • 4-is "four times (?)". "fifth". comm. right"). c) Cf. Ace. • dan "second" (uninflected). 2-el) 2-etas expressed by 2-pat or more simply by 2-el (with the particle -pat 132) a) Inflection of "three" : Nom. D. 2.e.. comm. Ace.e.131) a) Inflection of "two" : Nom. comm. etc . to an only (?) .. b) It is possible that a construction with -is also exists : • 2-is "twice (?)". I-etta "in an only (?). meyawas (mewas) meus (4-as?) mi-i-u-wa<-as?> 4-tas 3-es (i. IS 2-us (2-el) 2-e (2-ela.. *taksan) "halfway (?)". §94). b) The expression "both" "accurate. 134) a) The numeral adverbs usually end with -anki : • I-anki "once". etc ."first" (etymologically "ahead" . 45 . also the following adverbial constructions : 1. comm. *triyas) 133) a) The first ordinals are known by their reading: • hantezzi. Gen. comm.

sallanu.is used.:pahs. 141) a) One can build for each verbal root a form with the suffix -sk-. hark."to stay" arnu. 140) a) The suffix -nu."to lengthen. 3-yahh. parkunu."to weaken" (malisku"weak"). like the more frequent suffix -nu. to grow" (mekki. 138) -es."to rain" hewannesk."to become pure" (parkui. hewai.(i.(§ 140)."to strike" walhannesk."to make bloody" (eshar. sipand."to ask" punusk."to stay several times" (§22). eku. even though its use is a bit more complex: da."to make a 46 ."to chase continuously"."to send"."nasty"). link."to protect"."to bum" warnu. to quarrel" (idiilu."to throw down". 136) -ahh."to quadruple" ."to become nasty. makkes. parkues. to increase" (salli."nasty")."to collapse" harganu."to drink several times"."to chase" parhanndi."to grow."to make war" (kurur "hostility").expresses a persistence."to be ill" istarn ink. punus. §19a) "to ask several times".e."to throw down".(§136) in order to build verbs from nouns with the meaning "to act according to the base word by modifying a former state" : maliskunu."to strengthen" (dassu. hatrdi. salles.« *punus-sk-. b) Some peculiar forms : ar.is a denominative with the meaning "to do what the base word means" and "to bring to a (natural and continuous) state" : sarazziyahh."to become many. paramount")."tall"). in order to build the causative of some verbs: hark."to take" dask. to march" iyanndi. nakkiyahh."to write several times"."to put right on top" (sarazzi."to strike continuously". walh."to tum over"."to strike unceasingly"."to grab several times"."to collapse" harnink."to set on fire"."to make ill" ."strong"). ep."blood")."to grab" appisk. c) Occasionally. war. with a meaning close to the iterative."to strike" walhanndi."to stay" ar(a)sk."to give several times"."pure")."to administer the oath"."tall"). 137) -anndi. weh. to stretch" (salli."few")."superior. 139) The infix -nin."to tum" wahnu.is a denominative with the meaning "to become what the base word means" : idiilawes. parh."pure"). istark."difficult")."to act badly" (idiilu."to take several times". 4-iyahh."to go ."much"). somehow like a durative : iya. The durative is often used with the iterative in -sk."to march continuously"."to make difficult" (nakki. tepnu. *triyahh-) "to triple".(§ 141) : walh.and pahsanu. b) There is sometimes no difference between a verb and the one with -nu.is the usual way to build the causative of verbe : ar. kururiyahh. Derivation 135) The derivation of verbs thanks to suffixes constitutes the biggest part of the chapter."to cleanse" (parkui."to write" hatresk.Chapter 5 The verb A."to rain unceasingly the whole day"."to lessen" (tepu. esharnu.is used like -ahh."to swear" linganu. dassanu. pdi"to give" pesk. -nu. iddlawahh."to drink" akkusk.

g.and kikkis."to put several times" (§24)."here" and pe. sara pdi. 47 ."to put" zikk. *sipand-sk-. peya."to throw down several times"."to do"). arha "away" katta (kattan) "downwards· in addition with" para "forward : out" piran "ahead" ."to see several times"."to take away".borrowed from Luwian instead of -sk. kururiyahhesk. §22) "to make libations several times". arha pdi. 31a) "to strike several times" (next to kuennisk-)."to bring several times". wariwarant.(§11. The particle awan is used only with another particle. ed. A verb can have several particles at the same time: appa(n) anda pdi."to make snort". 2. uiya. again". aus."to become"."to always strike continuously". 142) Occasionally. named from the ending of the 1st pers. katkattenu. """ sara "upwards. 144) a) Unlike the isolated particles. -sk."to judge several times" (§22. kuen.: walh"to strike" walhannesk. the prefixes u."to go after". pdi."to keep on making war". d) One seldom finds the suffix -ss."to wish. to take.and wewak. hanna."to take up."to go" anda pdi."to go on . B."to take" appa(n) dd."to send" is less clear. peda. halzessa.(§137) is often followed by the iterative suffix -sk. awan arha "away"."to take out"."to do several times" (iya. 31a)."to eat" azzikk."to bring" and pehute. also pappars"to spring". para pdi. penna. para dd. it happens that the particle pe.e.: essa. c) 1."to bring". to go out". : the mi-conjugation and the hi-conjugation."to push". a phenomenon of reduplication of the verbal root occurs : wek."to break one after the other"."to go up" . Hittite uses particles to modify the meaning of verbal roots.(ueda-) "to bring". unna. kis. asas. b) The most important particles are: anda (andan) "to the inside". cf."to strike" kuask. to ask". The relation between uizzi "he comes" and pdizzi "he goes" as well as between the pair uwate. up". and that particles are inserted between it and the verb: pe harzi "he produces". Because of its frequent use."to judge"."to hold").E. In particular. appa pdi.and hassik. dd.g. to catch". the replacement of wewakkinun "I demanded immediatly" in KBo III 4 II 11 by the iterative wekiskinun in the copy 888/c III 9."to go into again". ser "above" . sara dd."to call")."to sit". It is difficult to define its precise meaning. the durative in -anndi."to adore" (§22). e."burning"."to go back"."to break" parsiyannesk."to take back"."to take up again"."to send" .= warant. 143) a) As in the other I. 2. appan pdi. For an iterative meaning of the forms with reduplication. pe-pat harkanzi "they also produce"."to take up away"."to take down". appa (appan) "back.libation" sipanzak."to call several times" thalzdi. Sg. Pres. Hittite exhibits here an archaic side since particles are always written as independant words and small words can be placed between the particle and the verb. katta(n) dd."to pull". languages. Inflection 145) The Hittite verb has two conjugations. awan katta "downwards"."(to lie =) to start" .is often used along with other suffixes : arnusk. c) 1. cf. e."there" occurs as isolated (especially as a complement of hark. kikki. arha dd. b) However. ddi."there" are indissociably attached to the verb : uda. pars."to go away".instead of ki."to go into"."to see" usk."to send" . harninkisk. hannesk. appa sara dd. ser arha dd.(i.

1. PI. for the passive and for the deponent verbs (i. of passive meaning for transitive verbs and active meaning for intansitive verbs. Some compound tenses are built with auxiliary verbs (§ 184. 149) Outline of the endings : Active mi-conj. hi-conj. 48 . namely the infinitives I and II. 148) There are some verbal nouns. The second one is used for the middle. -hi (-ahhi) -ti -i -weni -teni -anzi -hahari (-hari. verbs with an active meaning conjugated at the medio-passive voice). indicative and imperative. 2. 3. -sta) -wen -ten (-tin) -er (-ir) -hahat(i) (-hat(i)) -tat(i) (-ta) -tat(i) (-ta) -wastat -dumat -antat(i) Imperative -hahat(i) (-hat(i)) -at(i) (-tat) -at(i) -dumat -antat(i) -s (-t. Indicative Present Sg. -teni 3.(-i. Medio-passive hi-conj. b) The verb is conjugated with two numbers. -t) -du -weni -ten (-tin) -andu -allu . -(a)llu . PI. 1. -hun -s (-ta. 147) a) The inflection system of the verb is very simple : there are two simple tenses. -ta) -t (-ta) -ten (-tin) -er (-ir) 3. and two modes. present (also used for future) and preterite. -un (-nun) 2. singular and plural. -wen 3. 1. -ha) -tati (-ta) -tari (-ta) -wastati (-wasta) -duma (-dumari) -antari (-anta) Indicative Preterite -hahari (-hari) -tati (-ta) -ari (-a) -wastati (-wasta) -duma -antari (-anta) -si 3. 1. -zi PI.e. -weni 2. as in Greek or Indo-Iranian. -mi 2. the supine and the verbal substantive. as well as a participle. 1. -sta) -s (-ta. Sg. 2. 1. 2. 259). There is no dual. -anzi Sg.146) There are two voices : the active voice and the medio-passive voice.(-i) -u -weni -ten (-tin) -andu -haharu (-haru) -hut(i) -taru -dumat(i) -antaru -haharu (-haru) -hut(i) -aru -dumat(i) -antaru 3. mi-conj.

-wanzi II. -anna Supine -wan Participle -ant- 150) In Neo-Hittite. Pret. c) At the 1. b) Neo-Hittite often builds the 2. A lot of verbs exhibit small irregularities that cannot all be listed in this grammar. Pers.)" (same as iyat "he did"). sallanus "you made larger (Sg. Sg. Pres. tittanut "you put (Sg. that are conjugated according to the mi-conjugation. Pers. Also at the 3. can build their 3. Pers. -antat. -tati.)". of the hi-conjugation has sometimes an ending -ai instead of -i : sipandi "he sacrifices" and rarely sippandai.)". Sg. 151) Particularities of the mi-conjugation : a) The 2. -ati. the form of the 3. huittiyazi and huittiyai. Old-H."to drag". Pret. Pers.. istamasti "you hear (Sg. Pres. The ending -ti of the 2. Pers. -huti and -dumati) correspond to the forms without -i of Neo-Hittite (-(ha)hat. -hut and -dumat). Sg. and Imp. wastai (root wasta.)".)" and "he put". Pers.)". from the 3.)". 153) At the Pret. Pres. c) At the 3. : normaly b) 1. 152) Particularities of the hi-conjugation: a) 1. one finds parsiya "he breaks" (§178) with -a instead of -i. Pres.Verbal substantive -war Infinitive 1. -at.)". Pers. 49 . the forms with an ending -i of Old-Hittite (-(ha)hati. Pres. the irregular forms eslut and eslit "I want to be". Sg. aku and akdu "he must die". Old-H. and Pret. rarely ends in -zi : istamaszi "you hear (Sg. -tat. Pers. the inflection of the 3.)". c) Conversely. Pers. More rarely.+ ending -i) of the verb wasta"to sin" is also written wasti.. the following tendencies develop: a) 1. 3. Neo-H. Sg. The lexicon should be used instead. 2. The 3. Sg. Pers. es. -antati. Pres.)" sallanut "he made larger". The verbs in -ahh. for huittiya."to be" has. 2. Several examples can be found at §178. arri "he washes" and sometimes arrai. Pers. PI. b) Conversely. according to the hi-conjugation: dasuwahzi and dasuwahhi "he dazzles". isiyahta and isiyahhis "he searched". 2. karussiyasi and karussiyatti "you keep silent (Sg. Sg. : sipantir "they sacrificed" and the isolated form sippantair. Imp. Consequently. Sg.)". harsi and harti "you hold (Sg. istamassi Neo-H. of the medio-passive. of the mi-conjugation can be used in the hi-conjugation: akis and akta "he is dead". Sg. along with the regular form asallu "I want to be". Sg. probably by dissimilation of the preceding -i-.(§ 136). : Old-H. Pres. the ending -si of the same person can be found in the hi-conjugation wastatti and rarely wastasi "you sin (Sg. d) Some verbs are conjugated with both conjugations : dalahhi and daliyami "I let". of the hi-conjugation sneaks into the mi-conjugation : epsi and epti "you grab (Sg. maniyahti "you handle (Sg. and Imp. Pret. iyat "you did (Sg. Sg. iyasNeo-H. harnikti "you ruin (Sg.

e. eku."to drink" (i. 2. 3. 50 . 1. 2.1. Consonant stems 154) a) Monosyllabic stems with one final consonant: es. sesmi seszi sesueni sesanzi (sasanzi) wekmi wekti (§150al) wekzi Plural ekumi ekussi ekuzi (ekuzazzi."to sleep". ezzazi. asanzi appanzi Singular 1. 1. 2. Active voice a. ep. 3. esmi essi eszi epmi epsi (epti. §150al) epzi Plural eppueni epteni (apteni."to be"."to fear". §155) akueni ekutteni 3. mi-Conjugation 1. ses. wek. 2."to require"."to grab". 2. iis"to stay". esun esta esta esuen esten esir eppun epta (ipta) Plural eppuen (appuen) epten eppir nah(h)un dsta nahta 3. wek(k)anzi Indicative Preterite Singular akuwanzi (ekuwanzi) 1. §11) nahmi nahti (§150al) dszi 3. 1. 2. *ekW-): Indicative Present Singular 1. nah. nahteni dssanzi 3.

between the root and the ending: ed. nahhuwas dssuwanzi nahhantdssantsesuwar wekuwar sesuwanzi akuwanna sasantwekantakuwant- 3. ekun ekutta ekuen ekuer asallu (eslut. ses sesdu wek Plural eku 3. I Inf. 3. §150b2) 51 . sesten ekutten akuwandu esuwar eppuwanzi appanna asantappantGen. Verbal subst. 2. with the insertion of an -s. II Participe 155) b) Similar. §150b2) eduwani (atueni) ezzatteni (azzasteni) adanzi mazatti mazzazzi (mazzi) Plural isparzazzi (isparzizi. mat. 2."to support". eslit) es esdu esten asandu ep epdu (eptu) Plural epten appandu Singular ndhi iisdu 3. 3. 2. 3. 3. 1. sessir sesun sesta wekun wekta Plural wekuewen (!) wekir Imperative Singular 1.Singular 1. 1. ispart. edmi ezzassi ezzazzi (ezzai. 2. 2. isparzai. Inf."to eat"."to escape" : Indicative Present Singular 1. 3. 2.

Indicative Preterite Singular 1. hukanzi 1. 3. huek. 2.) isparzasta isparzas (isparzasta) isparter (isparzir) 3. §150al) kuenzi kuennummeni kuenatteni kunanzi (kuennanzi) kuranzi Indicative Preterite Singular kuerzi (kuirri) Plural hukmi huekzi (hukzi) 3. 2."to throw down") : Indicative Present Singular 1.2 3. 3. 2."to swear" (and huek. to kill". kuenun (kuenunun) kuinnesta kuenta kueun (§31a) (kuinnummen) kuenten kuennir kuerir 52 kuerta Plural huekta hugawen 3. edun mazzasta ezta eter Imperative Singular mazzasta Plural isparzahhun (hi-conj."to strike. et (ezza. 1. 3. 156) c) Similar. . . with ablaut (§ 18) : kuen. 2. kuemi (§31a) kuesi (§31a) (kuenti. II Part. 2. 1. 2. ezzazza) ezzaddu Plural ezzatten (ezzasten) adandu (ezzandu) adanna adantisparzant- Inf. 3.

sa-an-ha-ti. 2.wa-an-ni I) 3. 2. sanh. kart-ap )-pi-an-zi li-in-kan-zi kar-ap-zi (karpizzi. 3."to swear". 2. wa-al-ah-mi wa-Ial-ah-si (§23c) wa-al-ah-zi wa-al-hu-wa-ni (wa-al-ah-hu-e-ni) wa-al-ah-ta-ni wa-al-ha-an-zi (wa-al-ah-ha-an-zi) sa-an-ah-te-ni (sa-an-ha-at-te-ni) sa-an-ha-an-zi Singular 1. karp. 3. Verbal subst. cf. §23c. II Part. 3. I Inf. 157) d) Monosyllabic with two final consonants. kar-ap-pi-iz-zi) Plural li-in-ga-zi (li-ik-zi) li-in-ku-e-ni (li-ku. sa-an-ah-mi (sa-an-ha-mi) sa-an-ah-ti (sa-nal-ah-ti."to strike"."to search". sa-an-ha-st) sa-an-ah-zi (sa-an-ha-zi) Plural kar-ap-mi har-ak-ti har-ak-zi har-ku-e-ni har-ak-te-ni har-ki-ia-an-zi kart-ap )-pa-an-zi.(kuenniyant-) kuranna kuranthiikannahiigantkurandu huikdu 3. 2. 2. 3. kuen(n)i kuendu Plural kuenten kunandu Gen.Imperative Singular 2. kuennumas kuennummanzi kunanna kunant. 1. hark. Indicative Present Singular 1. Inf. link. 1. 53 ."to collapse". §22 and 23a : walh."to lift".

sa-ah-hu-un) sa-an-ah-ta (ia-an-ha-ta.2 3. sa-ah-ta) Plural sa-an-ah-tin sa-an-hi-ir Singular 1. 3. wa-al-hu-un (wa-al-ah-hu-un) wa-al-ah-ta wa-al-ah-tin wa-al-hi-ir sa-an-hu-un (sa-an-ah-hu-un. 2.wa-ar wa-al-hu. I Inf. 2. 3. li-en-ik-tin li-in-kan-du Verbal subst. wa-al-ah-tin wa-al-ah sa-an-ha (sa-a-ah) sa-ah-du Plural sa-an-ha-at-tin (sa-a-ah-te-en) sa-an-ha-an-du Singular 2. 3. kar-pi (-e)-ir Imperative Singular 2. li-in-kanlta [§ 31 b]. 2. 3. Inf."to hold. 3. har-ak-ta kar-ap-pu-un kar-ap-ta Plural 1.Indicative Preterite Singular 1. li-in-ku-un li-in-ik-ta (li-in-kat-ta. to have" is special in that it drops its k before an ending starting with a consonant whereas it keeps it before an ending starting with a vowel : 54 .wa-an-zi sanhantsa-an-hu. .wa-an-zi kar-pu-wa-ar har-kan-na harkantkart-api-pa-an-tli-in-kim-t- 158) The root hark. II Part. li-ik-ta) li-in-ku-en (li-in-ga-u-en) kar-ap (kar-ap-pi-ia) har-ak-du kar-ap-du Plural kar-ap-tin (kar-ap-pi-ia-at-tin) li-in-ik (li-in-ki) 3. wa-al-hu.

"to attach". Indicative Preterite Singular harkun harta Participe Plural harwen harten harkir Plural harweni (harwani) harteni harkanzi Imperative Plural harten harkandu harmi harsi (harti) harzi Singular 3. Indicative Present 1. 55 . 3. istamasten istamassir punussir Imperative Singular haminkir 3. harkant- 159) e) Polysyllabic stems: istamas. 2. istamaszi) istamaszi Singular punusmi punuszi Plural punussueni istamasteni (istamastani) istamassanzi punussanzi Indicative Preterite Singular 1. 1. ha-ma-na-ak-ta) 3."to ask". 2. 2. hamenk. hamangazi) istamassun istamasta punussun punusta punusta Plural punussuen ha-mi-ik-ta (ha-ma-ak-ta. 1. ha-ma-an-ga-mi ha-ma-an-ki hamankanzi (haminkanzi. 3. punus."to hear". istamasmi istamassi (istamasti. 2. 2. 2.Indicative Present Singular 1. 2. istamas istamasdu istamasten istamassandu punus punusdu Plural punusten punussandu hamankandu 3. 3. har-ak hardu 3. ha-ma-ankat-ta. 2.

"to behave badly". 3. 1. idalawahmi idalawesti idalaweszi idalawesteni idalawessanzi idalawahhanzi Singular idalawahti (idalawatti. 2."to give back". 2. idalawahh. suppiyahmi suppiyahhi (§lS0b1) suppiyahhanzi maniyahmi maniyahti maniyahzi (maniyahhi) Plural maniyahhanzi Indicative Preterite Singular 3. 1. 3. maniyahh. 2. §28b) idalawahzi Plural 3. I Participe istamassuwar istamassuwanzi istamassant- punussuwar hamenkuwar hamenkant. idalawahhun idalawesta HUL-ahta Plural idalawahhuen HUL-ahten HUL MES -sir Singular 3. Inf. 56 . 2.: idalawes."to clean". 1. 3. verbs in -es."to become evil" . 2.Verbal subst. Indicative Present Singular 1.and -ahh. 3. 1. suppiyahhun suppiyahhas maniyahhun maniyahta maniyahda (maniyahhis) Plural maniyahhir 3.(hamankant-) 160) f) Polysyllabic stems. suppiyahh.

"to build"."to Indicative Present Singular 1. watku. . 2. Part. uwatummeni) uwatetteni (uwatettani) pehutetteni uwadanzi pehudanzi wedanzi Indicative Preterite Singular wetenun (wedahhun.Imperative Singular 2. 2. 1. uwatet) uwateddu pehute Plural 3. uwateweni (uwatewani. uwatetten (uwatatten) uwadandu pehutetten pehudandu wedandu 57 3. wete. 3. pehute. uwatenun uwatet uwatet uwatewen uwater pehutenun pehutet pehutet (pehutes) 3. Vocalic stems 161) a) Polysyllabic stems jump". 2. 2. uwatemi uwatesi uwatezzi (uwadazzi) pehutemi pehutesi pehutezzi Plural wedahhi wedasi wetezzi watkuz(z)i 3."to supply"."to bring". wetun) wetet (wedas) Plural wetummen pehuter Imperative Singular weter watkut watkuwanzi 3. 1. uwate. 2. 1. uwate (uwati. 2. suppiyah maniyah Plural maniyahten suppiyahhuwar idalawahhantmaniyahhant- Verbal subst. 2.

I Part. Singular 1. to trust". 3. 2."to speak" : Indicative Present Sg. 1. lai Plural latten sawar lanthiintsdnthanun hdis sdit Plural lawen Verbal subst. 164) d) The very frequent verbs pdi. tarweni tarteni taranzi PI. ten un PI."to be angry". 163) c) The monosyllabic root te. tet teddu 3. Indicative Preterite PI. Inf. 2. tarantSg."to believe.: 58 ."to speak" shares its paradigm with tar. tetten darandu tet Part. hd. 2. Plural hami hdsi ldnzi Indicative Preterite sdnzi ldmi ldsi lai 3. pehudant- wetummar wetummanzi watkuwar watkuwant- 162) b) Monosyllabic stems: la. temi tesi tezzi (and Luw. 2. Indicative Present Singular 1."to go" and uwa. sa.Verbal subst. ldun (Ianun) ldis ldit Imperative Singular 2."to come" are special in that they make the transition with the verbs in -ai."to detach". tardi) Imperative Sg. 3. Part.

pdimi pdisi (pdsi. pditti) Plural uwami (uwammi) uwasi uizzi paiweni (paiwani) paitteni (paittani) pdnzi uwaweni uwatteni uwanzi (uenzi) 3. b) for uwa."to go" an independant and more frequent root i. handdi."to come" are not commonly used (uwat "come!" is only found once). The 2."to write"."to go" and uwa.Indicative Present Singular 1. § 17b) kapuesi (§ 17b) kappuwdizi (kappuezzi. 3. Indicative Present Singular 1. 2.) of the Imperative of pdi. Sg. to examine". 1. kattan ehu. Pers."to count. I Part. Pers. 3. Plural uwatten (uitten) wuiddu (uwadu) pdndu (piintu) pawar pdwanzi pantuwandu uwawar uwawanzi uwant- 3. paiddu Verbal subst. kappuwdi. Inf. itten "go!" . Instead. ai-stems 165) hatrdi. it "go!" and a PI."to go" with the Imperative 2. 2. 2. para ehu. §16) kappuwatteni kappuwanzi (kappuenzi. 2. Sg. the following locutions are used: a) for pdi. pdit (paitta) Singular 2. 2. hatrdmi hatrdsi hatrdizzi hatrdweni (hatrauni. pdun (pan un) Plural uwanun (uwanunun) uwas uit (uitti) pdiwen (piiwen) pair Imperative uwawen uwatten uer 3. pdizzi Indicative Preterite Singular 1. §13a) Plural 59 . (and partly PI."to tighten"."to add". sarkuwdi. ehu can also be used with a particle: andu ehu. 3."to come" the interjection ehu "here!" > "come!".

hatrdi hatrdu hatratten kappuwdi (kappui. handiii) handanzi Indicative Preterite Singular sarkuezzi (sarkuizzi) Plural 1. 60 . 3. 3. sarkutta) Plural 2. handanun handdit handduen handdir Imperative Singular sarkuit (and Luw. handdi handaiddu sarkui(sarku. §13a) kappuwdiddu (kappuiddi. 3. Inf. 3. 2. handdmi handdsi handdizzi (hantezzi. § 13 a) Plural kappuwatten kappuwandu Singular 2. 2. 3. 3. 3. 2. 3. § 13a. 3. I Part. 1. hatrdnun hatrdes hatrdit (hatrdes) hatrdir kappuwanun kappuit (§ 13 a) kappuwdit (kappuet. Plural §16) handandu kappuwawar hatrantkappuwanthanddwar handawanzi handantsarkuwant- Verbal subst. 3.Singular 1. § 13 a) Plural Singular 1.

2. iyanun (iyaun) iyas (iyat.ya-stems 166) a) iya. §151b) iyat (iet) iyawen iyatten ier tiyanun tiyat tiyat (tiet) Plural tiyawen tier Singular 3. 1. 3. wemiya.2 3. 2. tiyazzi. 1."to pull".4. 2. wemiyanun wemiyat (wemit) wemiyawen wemiyer huittiyanun huittiyat (huittit) Plural huittiyawen 61 . 3. ."to find"."to move forward". 2. wemiyami wemiyasi wemiyaz(z)i (wemiezi) wemiyaweni huittiyami huittiyasi huittiazi (huittiezzi. 2. 1. 1. iyami (iyammi) iyasi iyazi (iyazzi. wemiyanzi huittiyanzi Indicative Preterite Singular 1. tiya. 1. huitiya. Indicative Present Singular 1. §14b) Plural tiyaweni tiyatteni tiyanzi (tienzi) Singular 3. huittiyai) Plural huittiyatteni 3. iezi) iyaweni (iyawani) iyatteni iyanzi tiyami tiyasi tiyazi (tiez(z)i. . 1."to do". 3. 3.

2.(huya-) "to run. Part. 3. ninik. hiiyaweni Sg. Stems with infix -nin."to mobilize". Indicative Present 62 . huyanun PI. Gen. II Part. 2."to replace".Imperative Singular 1. 2. 3. 1. huyami huyasi (hueyasi) huwdi (huwdizzi) hiiyanzi (huwanzi) huwais (huwas) huwair (huer) Indicative Preterite PI. to flee" oscillates between iii-stem and iya-stem : Indicative Present Sg. huittiyawar wemiyawanzi huittiyawanzi huittiyant- tiyant. 3.(§139) 167) harnink. wemiyandu iyawar iyawanzi iyanttiyawar tiyawanzi tiyanna huitti Plural Verbal subst. Verbal subst.(tint-.(huwayant-) 5. iyallu iya iyadu (iedu) iyatten iyandu (iendu) tiya tiyaddu Plural tiyatten tiyandu Singular 3. 2. sarnink."to destroy". Inf. § 141 a1) b) The verb huwdi. huyawas huyant. I Inf.

I Part. 3. Inf. harnik sarnikdu Plural harnikten harninkandu harninkuwar harninkuwanzi harninkantsarninkuwanzi sarninkant- ninik nininkandu Gen.Singular 1. 63 . sarninkueni harnikteni harninkanzi sarnikteni sarninkanzi Indicative Preterite Singular 1. 3. nininkuwas nininkant- Verbal subst. 2. 2. 2. 3. 3. harnikmi harnikti harnikti sarnikzi Plural 1. 3. 2. 3. harninkun harnikta harnikta harninkir Imperative Singular sarnikta Plural ninikta nininkir sarninkun nininkun ninikteni nininkanzi ninikzi sarnikmi 2.

dasganun daskes daskit peskit Plural 1.(§141) 168) a) dask. Iteratives in -sk. Supine Part. daskatten daskandu (daiskandu) piskatten piskandu uskatten uskandu uskiyawar daskiwan peskiwan uskantakkuskitten (akkuskatten) akkuskandu uski uskiddu akkuski akkuskiddu akkuskir usgawen uskit akkuskit peskinun uskinun akkuskinun uskatteni uskanzi akkuskittani akkuskanzi uskisi (uskatti) uskizzi akkuskizzi 3."to adore". Indicative Present Singular 1. 2."to say several times" (§22b. daskiwani (dasgaweni. tarsikk. §11) Imperative Singular 1. 2. 2. peskatten daskir peskir (piskar."to see often" (from aus-. 2. pesk. 24) 64 . Verbal subst. 3. 3. akkusk. 3. §176). 3. 20) pisgaweni daskitteni (daskatteni) daskanzi piskatteni peskanzi (paiskanzi) Indicative Preterite Singular 1. b) azzikk. usk."to drink a lot". 3."to put several times". daskimi daskisi daskizzi peskimi peskisi peskizzi Plural 1."to give several times". §11."to take several times". 2. zikk.6. piskellu peski daskiddu Plural 2.

1. §26) "to insure". 1. §26) "to prepare. 2. tarsikkanzi (tar-as-kan-zi) 1."to bring"."to tum". zikkimi zikkisi azzikizzi zikkizzi Plural zikkiuwani azzikkittani azzikkanzi zik(k)anzi Indicative Preterite Singular tars ikkim i tarsik(k)isi tarsikizzi (tar-as-ki-iz-zi) 3. 2. wahnu. 3.Indicative Present Singular 1. 3. Causatives in -nu169) arnu.(asnu-. 3. 2. 3. to obtain".tpahhasnu-. Indicative Present 65 . azzikkinun zikkes zikkit Plural tar-as-ki-u-en (tar-si-ga-u-en) azzik(k)ir zikkir Imperative Singular tar-as-ki-it 3. 2. 2. azzikki azzikkiddu azzikkitten (azzikkatten) azzikkandu zikki zikkiddu Plural zikkant- 7. Part. pahsanu. assanu.

pahhassanuwant-) pahsanummar asnut assanuddu 3. 2. Verbal subst. arnum(m)i arnusi arnuz(z)i arnummeni arnutteni arnu(w)anzi wahnumi wahnusi wahnuz(z)i pahsanumi assanumi assanusi (asnusi) assanuz(z)i (asnuzi) 3. Inf. Plural wahnummeni wahnutteni wahnuwanzi pahsanutteni (pahhasnutteni) pahsanuwanzi Indicative Preterite Singular 1. arnunun arnut wahnunun wahnut Plural 1. I Part. wahnum(m)en arnuir (arnuer) wahnuir (wahnuer) pahsanuir Imperative Singular 1. Gen. 3. 2. assanuir assanullu (asnullu) arnut arnuddu arnutten arnu(w)andu wahnumar (wahnuwar) wahnummanzi arnuwantwahnuwantpahhassanut pahsanuddu Plural pahhasnutten pahhasnuandu assanuwawar (!. 2. 3. I hh assanumanzi ) assanummanzi tpa pahsanuwant(pahhasnuwant-. 2.Singular 1. arnummar 66 . 1. 3. as (sa)num(m)as) pahsanummanzi . assanuanzi (asnuwanzi) assanunun assanut 3.

ar. wdkit) wakuen asashun asasta (asesta) Plural asesir (aseser) 67 . hi-Conjugation 1. saggahhun sakta sakkis (sakta. 2. asashi (asashe. wakkis (waqas. 3."to know" (sek-. sak. 1. 1. 3."to bite". 3."to arrive"."to place". ak. 2. sekta) sekkuen sekkir ekir (akir) Singular ak(k)is (akta) Plural arhun (a-ar-ah-hu-un. 1. 1. §11) . §10) asasti waki asdsi Plural asesanzi (asisanzi. §23a) a-or-as erwen erir 3.(ek-) "to die". 2. 1. 3. asas.b. §10) Indicative Preterite Singular 3. 2. 1. Consonant stems 170) a) With one final consonant: wak. Indicative Present Singular 1. 3. saggahhi (sdkhi) sakti (sekti) sakki sekkueni sekteni sekkanzi akti aki Plural akkueni akteni akkanzi Singular arhi arti ari erweni erteni (arteni) aranzi 3.

3. 2."to bestow a libation". Verbal subst. pahhasta pahsir takkista (taggasta) Plural takser Imperative Singular 2. 3. pahsueni pahhasteni pahsanzi takkesteni (taggasteni) takkessanzi Indicative Preterite Singular 3. 3. 1."to protect". Indicative Present Singular 1. takkizzi) Plural sipandahhi sipandi (sippantai. I Part. sipand. II Part. Inf. Inf. 2. §IS2al) sipanduwani 3. pahsanttaksuwanzi taksantpahsi Plural pahhasten pahsandu sipandahhun sippandas sippanter (sippantair) sippanduar sip (p)anduwanzi sipantant68 ."to gather". 3. 2. sipandanzi (sippantinzi) 1. I Inf. Verbal subst.Imperative Singular 1. pahhashi (pahhasmi) pahhasti taggashi takkissi takkeszi (taggassi. 2. 171) b) With two final consonants : pahs. taks. seggallu siik sakdu sekten (sikten) aggallu ak aku (akdu) Plural aru arten akkandu asesuwar arawanzi waganna sekkantakkantarantasesantasesuwanzi 3.

halziyasi) halzdi Plural halziyaweni (halziwani) halziyatteni halziyanzi 3. 2."to place". Singular 1."to call". Inf. tehhi dditti (tditti) diii tiyaweni tditteni (tdisteni) tiyanzi (tienzi) pihhi paisti (pesti) pdi nehhi nditti (neyat(t)i) ndi 3. ddwas dii danna dant- dahhun dds dds 3."to give". I Inf."to exceed". 2. Sing. Vocalic stems 172) a) dd. halzihhi (halziyami) zditti (zdsi) zdi halzditti (halzesti. Plural ddweni (dawani. 2.2. ndi. 3. Indicative Present Singular 1. Gen. halzdi. 3. 2. Plural ddwen datten ddir Imperative Verbal subst. 2. halziyatti. 2. 69 . dummeni) datteni (tatteni) danzi Indicative Preterite dahhi datti diii 3. 1."to guide". Indicative Present Singular 1. datten dandu 173) b) ddi. 1. pdi. dii ddu (daddu) Plur. II Part. 2."to take". zdi. neyaweni ndisteni (naistani) neyanzi 3. Plural piyaweni (piweni) pesteni (pisteni) piyanzi Singular 1.

and for Infinitive: "to separate"."to let". II Part. 3."to bring". 2. uda. ddir) pehhun (pihhun) pditta pais (pesta) Plural piyawen (piwen) pier Singular nehhun (neyahhun) ndis (naista. halziyawas halziyawanzi neyant- halziyanttarna. I Inf. Inf.Indicative Preterite Singular 1. 1. 2. zihhun zdis zdiwen halzihhun halzdit halzdis Plural halziyawen (halziwen) halzier Imperative 3. 2.. Indicative Present Singular 1."to sin". sarra- 174) c) With -u(m). 3. wasta. piyawar piyawanzi piyanna piyant- neyawar Gen. pau pesten piandu tiyawar tiyawanzi tiyanna tiyant- nau Plural ndisten (neyatten) zditten halzisten 3. 2. tehhun (tehun) dais (ddista) tiyawen (daiwen) daier (tiir. 70 . 2. naesta) neyawen nair (neier) 3. tarnahhi tarnatti (tarndsi) tarndi (tarndizzi) tarnummeni (tarnummani) tarnatteni tarnanzi sarratti sarrai (sarri."to transfer". 1. 1. Verbal subst. for Verbal subst. 1. aa: dau dais ten tiyandu Singular pdi ndi (neya) halzdi 3. sarriyazi. PI. 3. peda.for the 1st Pers. sarrezzi) Plural sarraweni sarratteni sarranzi wastahhi wastatti (wastasi) wastai (wasti) 3. 2.

3. 1. 2. 3. 2. wasdumar wastant- 71 . 2.Singular 1. 3. 3. 1. 1. 2. tarnahhun tarnas tarnas (tarnesta) tarnum(m)en (tarnuen) tarnatten tarnir sarrahhun sarras (sarret) Plural sarrummen sarrer Singular wastahhun wastas wastas 3. I Part. Inf. 3. waster 1. 1. udahhun udas utummen uter (utir) pedahhun(pidahhun) pedas Plural petummen peter (piter) Imperative Singular 2. tarna (tarni) tarndu (tarnesdu) sarri Plural uda udau udatten udandu peda pedau pedatten (pidesten) pedandu utummar utummanzi udantpetummar pedummanzi tarnatten (tarnisten) tarnandu tarnummar tarnummanzi tarnantsarrumar sarrumanzi sarrant- Verbal subst. 3. udahhi udatti uddi utummeni udatteni udanzi (utinzi) pedahhi (pitahhi) pedatti pedai Plural pedum(m)eni pedatteni pedanzi (pitenzi) Indicative Preterite Singular 3. 2.

PI. 2. 1. §141d).penna. uppa."to send". 3. 2. Present built on the model of the verbs in -ya : essa. essahhi (issahhi) essatti essai essueni essatteni essanzi memahhi (memahhe) mematti memai (memmai) Plural memaweni (memiyaweni) mematteni memanzi (memiyanzi) Singular unnahhi unnatti unnai 3. mema. unnatteni (unnisteni) unnanzi (un(n)iyanzi) 3. 2. 1."to speak". pennahhun pennis (pennesta) uppahhun uppesta uppesta (uppas) Plural uppiwen 3. 2. 2. 1. pennahhi pennatti pennai uppahhi uppai Plural uppiweni uppatteni 3."to push"."to pull". 1. pennir uppir 72 ."to do". essahhun es(s)esta essuen memahhun memista (me(m)mas) Plural unahhun unnes unnes (unnesta) unnummen 3. 2."to act" (iterative ofiya. 1. 1. unna.175) d) With the 3rd Pers. memisten esser (isser) memir Singular 3. 3. 2. pennanzi (penniyanzi) uppanzi (uppianzi) Indicative Preterite Singular 1. Indicative Present Singular 1.

1. uhhi autti auszi Plur. 3. 2. I Supine Part. Indicative Present Sing.Imperative Singular 1. essa (essi. aummeni (umeni) autteni (austeni. Indicative Preterite Sing. 3. 2. Irregular 176) au. 2. 3. usteni) uwanzi Imperative Sing. 73 . austen uwandu Inf.(aus-) "to see". penniyawanzi) memallu memi memau (me-ma-at-tu) Plural memisten memandu unni unnau penni uppi uppau Verbal subst. issa) essau issatten essandu (issandu) essuwar memiyawanzi (memiuwanzi) essuwan memantuppantpennumanzi (pennuanzi. 2. uhhun austa austa auer Plur. Inf. II uwanna uwallu au ausdu 3. 1. aumen Plur. 3.

but also from the regular conjugation.c. siyanun siyait parsiyahhi (parsiyami) parsdizzi (parsiyazi.(pars i-) "to break". 3."to fill". sunnahhi (suniyami) sunnai (sun(n)iyazi.and hi-conjugations. 3. sunizzi) sunnatteni sunnanzi (sun(n)iyanzi) parsiyanzi (parsdnzi) Indicative Preterite Singular 1. 3."to link"."to open" (probably ancient like ddi.and siyai.and daliya. par-as-si-ia. 178) dala. Indicative Present Singular 1."to let". ishezzi) Plural 1. 3.and sun(n)iya. sunnas (sunnista. parsdi. parsiya [§152c].and hi-conjugations 177) The previous paradigms already exhibited many variants of the Hittite verb. 2. pa-ar-si) Plural 2. sunet) sunnir parsiyat Plural 74 . siyanzi ishdi (ishiyazzi. dalahhi (daliyami) dalatti (daliyasi) ddldi (daldizzi."to place"). siyaweni siyaizzi (siezzi) 3. 2. 3. sunna. 3. ishdi. The following verbs exhibit forms of both conjugations (partly because of a change in the formation of the root) so variable that it is impossible to affect them to a precise conjugation. daliyazi) daliyaweni dalesteni daliyanzi ishiyatteni ishiyanzi Singular 1. daliyat) daliyawen daliyatten ddlir ishier Singular siydir ishih(h)un (ishiyanun) ishiya t Plural 1.and parsiya.and ishiya. 3. dalahhun (daliyanun) ddlis (dalesta. Blend of mi. with pecular forms that not only diverged from the regular model. sdi. There is not enough room here to treat all the variations between the mi. 2.

3. daliyantish iyan tdala (dali) tdlesdu Plural dalesten ishiyandu dalumar (taliyawar) ishiyawar siyawanzi siyanna siyantsunniyantparsiyantsdisten siyandu sunnumar sunnumanzi parsiyawanzi siinisten sdi (siya) sunni sunniddu 75 . 3. Inf. 2. Verbal subst. I Inf.Imperative Singular 2. II Part.

tarup. 3. kis. pahs. It is not taken into account in the following paradigms. ishahat) estat esat (esati. eshati. 1."to be placed". Indicative Present Singular 1."to be sat". esantat 76 . estat) 3. 2. kishahari kistati (kista) kisari (kissari."to get together". 1. 3. arhahari artati (artari) artari (arta) arwasta arantari (aranta) taruppantari Singular tarupta(ri) Plural eshahari estari esari (esa) esuwasta(ri) esanta(ri) (asanta) 3."to protect" (deponent). es. 1. Medio-passive voice 179) The difference between mi. 1."to become". 2. 2.2.and hi-conjugations has no importance for medio-passive (cf. the outline of endings at §149). Consonant stems 180) ar. 2. arhahat artat artat arwastat arantat (arandati) taruppantari taruptat Plural eshahat (eshat. kisa) pahhasha pahhasta pahsari Plural pahsuwasta pahhasduma 3. 1. kisandari (kisanta) pahsantari Indicative Preterite Singular 1. 3.

iyahhari iyattati (iyattari) iyattari (iyatta) neyahhari neyattati (naista(ri)) neyari (neya. 2. 3.Singular 1. kishati) kisat (kistat) kisat (kisati) kisdummat kisantat(i) Imperative Singular 1. 2. 1."to tum out. kianta) 77 . to march". 2. zahhiya. 3."to go. to appear" (middle of au(s). 2. ndi. Indicative Present Singular 1. Verbal subst. uwa. uwaitta(ri) kittari (kitta) Plural kiyantari (kiyanta. next to ausdeponent "to see"). 3. 2. 2.deponent "to fight" (or middle "to fight one another"). §176 . pahhashahat (pahhashat) pahhastat Plural arhaharu arhut artaru ardumat arantaru taruppantaru taruppuwar asanna taruppantasantkisantpahsanttaruptaru eshut esaru Plural esdum(m)at kishut kasaru kisdumat kisandaru pahsaru pahhasdumat pahsandaru 3. 3. 3. iyadduma iyantari (iyanta) neyantari (neyanta) Singular zahhiyadduma 3. Vocalic stems 181) iya. 2.(neya-) "to speak to"."to happen". niya(ri)) Plural zahhiyahha(ri) zahhiyattari zahhiyawastati 3. Inf."to see". kishahat (kishat. II Part. ki.

3. 3. uwahharu kittaru Plural kiddumati uwandaru neyawar zahhiyauwanzi uwanna iyantneyantzahhiyant- 3. 182) The medio-passive of war.Indicative Preterite Singular 1. 3. Inf. 2. zahhiyaddumat 3. Imper.) exhibits a dissimilation of the final r with the r of the root: the 3rd Pers. Sg. iyahhut iyattaru iyaddumat iyantaru naishut (neshut) neyaru Plural naisdumat neyandaru Singular zahhiyahhut 3. neyat) Plural ne(y)antat (neyantati) Singular zahhiyahhat zahhiyattat (zahhiyatta) 3. Sg. I Inf. 1. wardnu < *wardru "it must bum". is regular: warandari) and the 3rd Pers. 1."to bum" (intr. Present is pronounced wariini < *wariiri "it bums" (the 3rd Pers. PI. uwahhat (aushahat) uwaittat (austat) uwantat kittat (kittati) Plural kiyantati Imperative Singular 2. iyahhahat (iyahhat) iyattati iyattat iyantat neyahhat neyat(tJat (neyaddat. 2. II Part. 3. 2. 78 . Verbal subst.

Gen. tiyawar "sitting" (from dai-). arkuwarriHLA .MUNUS piyanza esta "a girl has been given". Instr.-A.: pdwar "going". Abl. Abl.(-un-) : a) With change: huittiyawar "pulling". minumarriHLA (minuma~LA). More frequently from the whole root in -war. to put" with the supine in -uwan of a verb generally iterative: ERIN2 MES peskiwan ddir (tier) "they prepared to regularly give troops". PI. D. The verbal substantive 185) The verbal substantive in -war can be inflected according to its function: a) The genitive is especially frequent. wekuwarraz . it is not built like the stem in -war but like a shortened stem in -u. Compound forms 184) Hittite also has several compound verbal forms oddly similar to those of some modem languages. arnummar (§29a) "bringing". N. Neuter: iyan harmi "I have done". hanessuwar "plastering".e. a) The participle with es. Abl. nininkuwar "quantity". c) The expression "to begin to do something" is expressed by means of ddi. Gen. "as atonement to be done" one finds the plural IKRIBIHLA kues sarninkues "which prayers (are) to be done as atonement". b) The other cases are not very frequent and are built differently: 1.-A. 186) The genitive of the verbal substantive looks like the Latin gerund : memiyas kuis iyawas "which thing (is the one) of the making" means finally "which thing (is) to be made". assiyawar "love". the passive of transitive verbs: DUMU."to place. tarnummas. arnummas . They can also be built for plural nominatives: next to kuis IKRIBU sarninkuwas "which prayer (is the one) of the atoning" i. Gen. Instr. Either from the shortened root in -u. tarnummar "leaving". iyan harkun "I had done". Gen. turiyawas . miumar "prosperity". Thus. b) The perfect and pluperfect can be expressed. 79 . ~) Without change (with preservation of the r in the whole paradigm) : wekuwar "demand".-A. Sg. "impregnation". huittiyani . turiyawar "harnessing". these genitives of substantives can be interpretated as singular nominatives of adjectives.(very rarely) : armahhuwar armahhuwaza .-L."to have" (§158) with the participle at the N. by means of har(k). 4. hanessuwaz. nininkuwas . tiyawas . pdwas . assiyawannit . Gen. kuis arha tarnummas "who (is the one) of the leaving" means "who (is) to be left". 2. 2. N. minumar "enriching".3. as in modem languages. Gen. miumnit.is used to express: 1. PI. a state for intransitive verbs: antuhsatar pan esta "the population was gone". arkuwar "prayer". with or without the change -war/-wan.

from ep."to walk"). harkanna (from hark. to split"). from tiya."to bite"). unuwanna (next to unuwanzi . from han. from tuhs. from unuwai. tiyanna (next to tiyawanzi ."to cut. the infinitive of all the other verbs of the mi.and hi-conjugations. akuwanna (from eku. kuen(n)ummanzi (next to kunanna ."to take")."to collapse"). 80 . tuhsanna (next to tuhsuwanzi . some isolated forms such as eppuwanzi (next to appanna ."to take")."to kill") which are also verbs with ablaut.'). 3. b) -uwanzi builds : 1."to kill"). 2."to give") . the root verbs with ablaut of the mi-conjugation : adanna (from ed. hukanna (from huek"to swear"). 2."to decorate"). The infinitive 187) The difference between the infinitives in -uwanzi and in -anna can be summed up that way: a) -anna builds the infinitive for all verbs with ablaut: 1."to eat"). the verbs with ablaut of the hi-conjugation: tiyanna (from ddi. appanna (from ep"to take"). from kuen. hananna (next to hanumanzi . secondarily and without a clear rule for some other verbs: waganna (from wak."to drink")."to put"). Both forms of the infinitive are completely equivalent at the syntactic level (§272b). piyanna (from pdi. also in this category danna (from dd. kunanna (from kuen.5."to draw (water).

RAMES kuin "this crowd of prisoners". the plurals "soldiers" and "prisoners" or the singulars "army" and "crowd of prisoners" can be hidden.RA MES kues "these prisoners".e. MES "these foot-soldiers and chariot "a period of rain occurs"). kedani pidi "at this place". b) Examples for the pronouns: apds-pat memias "also each word".RAMES. hassatar-set "his power". Behind logograms tagged as plural such as ERIN2 MES and NAM. aresmes (i.HLA BAD ECJIR-pa eppir "the whole country took (PI. or between the common and neutral gender : KARAS-za-kan kues tepawes isparter apdt-ma-kan human arha haspir-pat "of the few troops that escaped. Agreement 189) The adjective and the pronoun agree with the noun in gender. That is why one sometimes finds the plurals kues ERIN 2MES "these soldiers". sarhuwandus-sus "her unborn children". tuzziyas-mis "my army". NAM. was) 1000". *ares-smesi "your (PI. kardiyas-tas "of your (Sg.)". the inhabitants) took fright".KUR. and sometimes the singulars kds 6 ME ERIN2MES "this troop of 600 (men)". they (i. ki ishiul "this obligation".e. a) Examples for the adjective and the participle: arranza halkis "washed grain". Thus. ke arkuwarri HLA"those prayers". Conversly.) heart". a plural can be understood as a collective singular: hewes kisa "the rains occur" (lit.) the fortified cities".) comrades". 2. NAM. especially for the agreement of the number: a) 1.RA MES kuin uwater nas 1 LIM esta "the prisoners that they brought were (lit. tarpallius wassandus "dressed idols". apdt ERIN2 MES ANSU. A collective singular can be understood as a plural: KUR-eanza humanza URUDIDLI. KUR "country" can stand for the neuter utne and the common utneyant-. Thus. NAM.Chapter 6 Syntax A. 190) However. sometimes with the common possessive pronoun : 81 . kues auriyalus "which outposts". apez linkiyaz "from this oath". 191) True disagreements can be observed for gender: a) For parts of body. c) 1. nan GIM-an KUR-eanza austa nat nahsarriyandari "and when the country saw him. they were all destroyed too". number and case. kiin MUNUS-an "this woman (Acc.RA drivers". the neuter genu "knee" sometimes agrees correctly with the neutral possessive pronoun : genu-ssit "his knee". b) The point of view of Hittite can vary in the same sentence between singular and plural. It should also be underlined that a logogram can conceal several pronunciations and grammatical forms. arahzenes utneantes humantes "all the neighboring countries". 2. Hittite often agrees according to the meaning. damain wdtar "foul water".

. the corresponding forms in the singular can or must be used: a) Optional for the adjective : EZENHLA SISKUR2 HLA ..2.. kessera.(c.. decorated with gold (and) silver". Next to the correct form GE6-an hiimandan "the whole night". kue kallar iddlu udddr "which charming.KAMHLA "2 old trays". Neut. be friendly towards me". b) Occasionally elsewhere in poorly known cases: man antuwahhas (comm.). the 194) Substantives with a numeral can be in the singular or the plural : 2 huprushes "2 huprushi-containers" next to 2 huprushin. The same construction is also possible in the imperative (e. §264. Plur.) "if a man (is) pure".. nu-za MU. zik-ma-mu-za kurur es "but you (Sg. it is common to build pure nominal sentences with a subject and an attributive substantive without verbal phrase : attas assus "the father (is) good". §25b). comm.) and kessar (n. n. MU. 2."much".genus-sus "his knee". Example of mixed construction: nu-wa-za damedaza KUR-eza kurur es ammetaza-ma-wa-za-kan KUR-eza arha Ie kurur "now be hostile towards another country. kues kurur esir "who were friendly". 7 DUGpurpuris .g. 193) The Nom-Ace. Example of comparison present-preterite: dandukisnasa DUMU-as ukturi natta huiswanza "and the 82 . 280a) : nu-war-as ammuk LVMUD!YA "thus he (must be) my husband". Hence.) suppi (n. tiiwaza-ma taksul-pat esir "but they were however faithful far away". In the present. 192) c) Some adjectives like mekki. kurur.GI-eszi nu-za DUMUMES mekki iyazi "the mentioned boy becomes old and begets many children"."hostile". ABUYA genzuwalas esta "my father was helpful". neut. UL hardtar "(it is) not a blow". of the adjective is weak and the possessive pronoun does not use this inflection. Very short nominal sentences can be made of the only attribute without subject: hurkel "(it is) an abomination". EMES DINGIRMES . kariiila DUB. Cf. comm. + poss. The two forms for "hand". for example kunanzassa mekki LVappanzassa mekki "the killed as well as the prisoners (are) many" (literally "the killed as well as the prisoners (is) many" . instead of the plural. Plur. warpuwanzi "(it is time) to bathe".).. with the prohibitive Ie + Ind.KAM-za-wa-ta ser tepawessanza "hence the year (is becoming) short for you (Sg.)". do not (be) hostile towards my country"."friendly" are only partially inflected .). apds DUMU-as SU. taksul. the verbal phrase cannot be omitted : attas assus esta "the father was good". neut. kurur and taksul have no Nom.) seem to exhibit almost an inversion of the gender of the possessive: on one hand SU-as-set "his hand" (i. b) In the preterite. Pres.BABBAR GUSKIN unuwanda "high temples. ANA dUTUS>I-ma-as anniniyamis "but the Sun (is) a cousin". BUBUTANUM SA NIM. 3. sakuwa-sset "his eyes". subst. kesseras-set . nasty words". 195) a) 1. udddr-mit "my words".LAL "(it is) a famine of the bees".. on the other hand kessar-sis "his hand" (subst. + poss. b) Mandatory for the possessive pronoun: paradigms at §108. one finds several times GE6-an human (adj. suwan "7 filled purpuris-containers".KAM-za ser tepawessanza esta "and then the year became short".). comm. parkui suppi piskanzi "they give celebrations (and) sacrifices as pure (and) saint". kunanzassa and appanzassa = kunanza and appanza + -a "and" .e. I-as l-edani menahhanda Ie iddlus "the one (must not be) nasty towards the other". 7 NA4passiian "7 flints". parku ISTU KU.

196) When the subject of a sentence is a plural neuter.child (is) not alive for ever" next to miimman danduskinasa DUMU-as ukturi huiswanza esta "if the child was alive for ever". Akkadian dinam ddnum. even if it is not isolated : ke. b) In these texts. Vocative 197) a) The vocative Sing. also : ke-ya-kan E DINGIRLIM . ape-ya udddr QATAMMA lagdru "thus these words must bow as well". 6 Sun".) badly at all". and they must be steady"."to take an oath". purussdm pariisum)."to set up a plan". Case usage 1."to dispatch a sending".g.. usmg accusative for an "internal object" will be especially a) The use consisting in adding to a verb a noun of the same root or meaning at the accusative (Lat... the predicate is in the singular: a) This rule. is notably used in prayers and mythological texts: dUTU-e isha-mi "6 Sun...ma tuppaHLA . Accusative 199) The Hittite constructions emphasized. 2. the forms of nominative are used instead of vocative : zik-pat genzuwalas dUTU-us "you are obliging... heroic king". hoc te rego. acerrimam pugnam pugnare.. kupiyatin kup.) thus break the oath". kiyan I-an dammeshanunun "I only punished her with this". were written". dUTU-e sarkui (variant sarku) LUGAL-e "6 Sun. and even more in more recent texts or texts of other kinds. E.. kitta "which 2 images . the attribute is generally in the singular too. ukturi QATAMMA assu esdu "so these temples . kue 2 ALAM . b) Unlike the Greek usage. is regular with a verbal phrase : uiddr ANA SAPAL MUL HLA seszi "the rations of water stay under the stars". but also: DAM-SU fTatizuli tamai UD-at seshas "his wife Tatizuli decided herself another day". Greek tovto Xaipw) : tuk UL kuitki idalawahhun "I did not treat you (Sg. uppessar uppa... also exists in Hittite (cognate accusative) : hannessar hanna. kururiHLA meggaya nininkan esta "many enemy troops were mobilized". 200) a) Verbs related to illness can be built in two ways: 83 .. longam viam ire. my lord". find themselves". appiitaya NIS DINGIRLIM sarratti "so you (Sg.. B. 198) The base root of the noun (that looks like the vocative) can be used in order to introduce a new name in a narration: MUNUS-as SUM-set fSintalimeni "the name of a woman (is) Sintalimeni". hukmais hu(e)k. the same as the Greek usage.. aniyan esta "but those tablets . b) The neuter accusatives of pronouns and numerals associated to intransitive and transitive verbs (in addition to the external object) must also be understood as internal objects (Lat."to solve a dispute". must be steady as well as good" with the variant ke-ya-wa E DINGIRLIM QATAMMA pahhasnuwanda esdu nu-war-at-san . It is not easy to estimate the influence of the Akkadian writing here. ukturi esdu "so these temples must also be safe.

207) The dative-locative gets the following uses from its locative meaning: 84 . for ways is different : man-kan HUR. allative and locative have merged in a single dative-locative form in -i that answers the questions "to whom ?". KUR 1DSeha IR-anni dahhun "I reduced the land of the river Seha in slavery". 206) The dative-locative can be used in an apparently pleonastic way: nu-smas uzuhrin adanzi "they eat (for themselves) grass".SAG-an parhanzi "and they will chase you (PI.) fell ill". URU Hattusi gimmandarinun "I passed the winter at Hattusa".) (for yourselves) very cautious with the mentality of the gods". in dream). nekuz mehur "in the evening".1. The allative aruna thus means "to the sea". le-ta ndhi "do not be afraid (for yourself)" .'. b) The accusative Mount T.BABBAR-si uwanun "I went to Hattusa". 201) a) Very rarely (and formerly?). Dative-Locative and Allative 203) Old-Hittite still makes the difference between the allative in -a for the questions "to whom ?" and "where to ?" and the locative in -i for the question "where ?". 204) In Neo-Hittite. for example in hantezzi "firstly. the locative aruni "at sea". at the first opportunity". b) It is the same for indications of measurement wasanna (the track) is 6 iku high". fGassuliyawiyas istarkiat "G. as in English: ill". assiyannas-wa-nnas IRMEs esuen "we were (for ourselves) beloved subjects (lit. Or the illness is subject and the concerned person is object in the accusative: HUL-lu GIG GIG-at "the bad illness stroke the young boy". ECJIR-ma-as irmaliyattat "but he fell ill". my brother has nothing)". "where ?" and "where to ?". for allative : URuKU. Either the ill person is the intransitive subject. b) The illness is often omitted in construction 2.) to the rock".e.".) to the mountain". previously belonged to my grandfather". the accusative answers the question "where to ?" : nu-smas HUR.GAL kuitki "nothing (is) to my brother (i. so that it looks like an impersonal construction with the person as object in the accusative : istarkiyazzi kuinki "someone fell ill". 3. the dative in Old-Hittite and the dative-locative in NeoHittite are used to answer the question "where to ?". nu-smas DINGIRMES-as ZI-ni mekki nahhantes estin "be (PI. Examples for locative: URU-an sasti walhun "I attacked the city in bed (i.e. Usually. slaves of love)". fell kappin DUMU-an 2. nepisi "in heaven". nu-smas-kan peruni parhanzi "and they will hunt you (PI. tuk-ma irmaliyattat "but you (Sg. likewise nepisa "to heaven". : ANA wasanni-ma pargater-set 6 IKU "the c) Hittite also uses a possessive genitive with the present meaning "to belong" : URU Iyaruwaddas URU-as annaz ammel SA ABI AB!YA esta "the city 1. karuwariwar "in the morning".SAGTehsinan sara pdun "I climbed 202) The accusative can be used as is as an adverb. GO-SU GIS APIN-an ser tizzi "his neck goes onto a plough". 205) a) The verb "to be" can have a possessive dative: ANA ~mS-YA Nu.

Cf. French demander a quelqu'un). LU-nas wastul "crime of the man".. kuis arha tarnummas "who (is one) of the leaving" = "who (can be) exempted (of the military service)". the partitive genitive." to describe another substantive: from wastul "sin". Sing. one finds wastulas for "(the man) of the sin" = "sinner" (next to wastulas UKU3-as). INIM kunannas "an affair of murder".. b) Whence the Akkadian : SA MAMETI "he of the oath" = "suzerain". TI-annas "(he) of the life (huiswatar)" = "with a long life" . kuit-ma DI-sar sumel UL tar(ah)huwas "what business (is) however (that) of your inability" = "what business that you cannot settle by yourselves". b) The genitive stands after the indefinite pronoun: suppala-sset kuelqa "the animals of someone". 4. cf. hassannas-si.. Sing."his").a) Dative of purpose : nu-kan kuin ANA mNuwanza haluki para nehhun "and whom I sent to N. nekuz mehuni "in the evening" (§58). §222. also genitives of infinitives (§ 185a) : nahhuwas "(he) of the respect" = "reverential". 211) Hittite also uses the genitive as other classical languages with the objective genitive. b) The opposite can happen when the complemented noun is a logogram : LU taksulas "man of peace" (next to taksulas URU "city of the peace"). from tayazil "theft" tayazilas "(he) of the theft" = "thief' and "(that) of the theft" = "penalty for the theft"."good"). etc. mdn-as harkannas "ifhe (is guilty) of the decease". PI "under all")". hiimandas-pat ECJIR-izzis DUMU-as esun "I was the last child of all (lit. : SU.DIM4-as sardiyas "help against an agression". with the object of an embassy".. It is especially popular in laws (and elsewhere in Old-Hittite) : GUD-as IGI-SU "the eye of the ox". MUNUS-as ELL! sarhuwandus-sus "the unborn child of a free woman".) and me (are we) born from a mother ?". attasas E-ri "in the house of his father". 85 . c) Sometimes.. 212) a) A very popular construction is the expression "he of . SA KASKAL NIM "that of the trip" = "supply". such genitives are inflected like independant nouns: from hassannas-sas "(one) of his family" (hassatar [§83] + possessive pronoun -si. 208) One finds the adverb assuli "for the good" from the dative-locative of assul "happiness" (it is not an adverb in -Ii from assu. Genitive 209) a) The genitive generally stands before the noun it complements: parnas ishas "the man of the house". b) Dative of the actor of passive : zik-za-kan ammuqqa l-edani AMA-ni hassantes "you (Sg. hassannas-san and a Dat-Loc. kardiyas-tas "(that) of your heart (kard-)" = "your desire". dUTU-i-kan kuis assiyattari "he who is loved by the Sun". dISTAR uRuSamuha ANA AB!YA wekta "and Istar ofSamuha demanded me from my father" (cf. Dat-Loc. one can build an Ace. kel mene-ssit "the face of this one". also §205c. More examples: assawas memiyanas "(he) of good relations" = "in good relations". d) Temporal dative: apedani UD-ti "this day".. 210) a) A more clumsy use of the genitive occurs with the simultaneous use of the possessive pronoun ("of the man his head"). c) Comparative dative. e) Dative of the person from whom one demands: nu-mu .

SA-an ZAG-an kuiski parsiya "if somebody breaks the boundary stone of a field" (lit. iskisaz "at the back. somebody sins). : if these. Thus. gankuwar appdttaya UL duqqari "also this one (§302b). 2. nat-mu-kan UKU3-az KAxU-az sara uizzi "and it (this word) comes out from my human mouth" (lit. : of the man. b) 1. the personal pronoun has the role of a possessive pronoun. nu-war-us IGIHLA_wa munnanzi "one will veil their eyes" (lit. : by you. 5. In practice in this construction.e. : by me. variant with genitive: A. "also its weight is not important"). variant with genitive: antuhsas KAxU-az !).213) a) A partitive apposition can be used instead of a genitive. : next to the Sun in the hand).KAM-az "at night". UD. sullannaz "following an argument". 215) A frozen usage of the ablative probably occurs in the adverbs of place and time such as ZAG-az "at right" (actually "from right"). ANA ABBA ABBAHLA_YA UL kuedanikki uppir "they had not send it to any of my fathers and ancestors". LUtnu-ma-as-kan lamnit halzissai "the door-keeper calls him however by the name". UL-war-an-kan tuetaza memiyanaz kuennir "they did not kill him on your order" (lit.KAM-az "at daylight". 216) The instrumental points out the means or the tool: nu-kan IZI wetenit kistanuwanzi "now. kastita-man akten "you (PI. its height (is) 5 iku" (i. : the field (and of it) the border.)" only conceivable in the singular : one finds next to ISTU HUR. wetenaz "from water". 217) However.KUR LUKUR ammedaz SU-az tar(ah)hun "now I have defeated these enemy countries with my hand" (lit.SAGHahruwa tuedaz assiyantaza "from your beloved mountain H. "and the height of the track is 5 ikti''). (that is) the eyes). Ablative and Instrumental 214) a) The ablative firstly points out the start point of a motion answering the question "from where ?" : issaz "from the mouth".e. nu-kan ANA dUTUSI SU-i anda miyahuwantahhut "now become old under the protection of the Sun" (lit. nepisaz "from heaven". : them.) would starve to death (lit. b) The ablative is used for separation : parkuis apez linkiyaz "free from this oath". the first one expressing a whole and the second one a part of the whole concerned by the action: takku A. be dead by hunger)". nat ANA ABBAHLA (. dUTU-un IGIHLA_it uskizzi "she sees the sun with her eyes". Plur. Hittite also uses an ablative of instrument : HAZZINNU-wa SU-za ep "take (Sg. The use of personal pronouns in this construction is especially important: nu-za ke KUR.-Loc. 218) a) This is why the ablative or the instrumental can be found in the same tum. they extinguish the fire with water". by the hand).SA-as ZAG-an !). two objects in the same case depend on a verb. one can even find plural forms of the personal pronouns "I" and "you (Sg. One can say 86 . c) The indications of measuring must also be interpreted as partitive appositions : nas parkuwatar-set 5 IKU "and it (the track). ahead". cf. hantezziyaz "(from) front. man ape-ma kuiski ITT! dUTUS>Iwastai "if somebody sins by these against the Sun" (lit. tuedas assiyantas pedas "at your beloved places". by the order). c) For the ablative of comparison. the weight is not important" (i. GE6." a Dat. URU -an zahhiyaz katta dahhun "I have subdued the city through a fight". Thus.) the axe with the hand". §222. from the back". of the mouth.

Nom-Ace. issazmit (i. 6. with the dative-locative "to inform someone". 87 . LUGAL-us cas hulugannaz sara uizzi "the king comes up with the chariot". However. and as the subject of an intransitive verb : pahhur kistari "the fire goes out"."to ask" can be constructed in two ways.). the possessive pronoun is always in the instrumental (the ablative of the possessive pronoun is not used) : sarhuwandaz-set "from its inner". to make someone responsible for doing something".g.) very afraid of a conflict". §19a.means with the accusative "to subdue a city". nas dUTUS>I NA DIHLA punusmi "and I. d) pun us. or "to ask something (Acc.-Loc. This is the usual behavior of the so-called absolutive-ergative languages.'.means with the accusative "to ask someone. ZAG-az-tit "to your (Sg. b) With verbs of motion.) right". to order someone. when the neuter noun is used as subject of a transitive verb.1) The neuter noun has the same endings for the nominative and the accusative as long as it is not used as the subject of a transitive verb.)".) also an outbreak of fire" and in an isolated case: nu-za halluwayaza mekki nahhantes estin "now be (Plur."to fear.)". the Sun. the dative-locative : pahhuenass-a uddani mekki nahhantes estin "fear (Plur. it takes another ending: mahhan-ta kds tuppianza anda wemiyazzi "as soon as this tablet reaches you" (as shown by the common gender of kds. UL-za kuitki nahmi "I am afraid for nothing". Supplement to case syntax 219) Some verbs can be used with several cases for similar or different meanings : a) watarnah. the ablative of the pronouns is regularly used: kez KUR-az "from this country". case can be viewed as the absolutive case. e. nu-smas DIHLA punuskiddu "and he must ask them each time about the lawsuits". with the dative-locative "to besiege a city".g. The Neut. hence Hittite can be considered as functioning as an ergative language as long as neuter nouns are considered.sA-su kuiski pedai "if someone brings fire into his bam". while the special endings -anza / -antes can be viewed as the ergative case. as the object of a transitive verb: takku pahhur ANA A. b) katta ddi. E. nat-za nassu teshit uwallu (§ 176) nasma-at ariyasesnaz handayattaru "(the reason is) that either I want to see thanks to a dream (Instr.).-Loc. e. to be afraid" governs the accusative: nahmi-us "I fear them". *issaz-smit. One can either say "to ask someone (Acc. 7. c) a) With a substantive in the ablative. kartaz-mit "from my heart".) about something (Dat. However. 42c) "from their mouth". Ergative 218.kunnaz kesseraz harzi and kunnit kessarta (§61) harzi "he holds with the right hand". will ask him about A the lawsuits". c) nah(h). 27a and b. one can compare: aIR-it sara pdun "I went up by foot".e.g.) to someone (Dat. or it must be observed by an oracle (Ab1. the noun then works as if its gender had become the common gender). ~) The same construction is also used with the demonstrative pronouns: kit pantalaz "starting from this moment".

duwan para "till now". into". kanza (of kant. by no means". niiwdn (niimdn) "never. inside".RAMES-YA mekki "now. hiidak "immediately. 88 . (is) the greatest". 1-eda "particularly. apeda (apadda. anda (andan) "in. it is translated by a superlative : DINGIRMES-nas hiimandas dZashapunas sallis "among all the gods. arha "far". except for a few exceptions (§94 f). In the singular. kuwapi "where. kez "from here. kuwapi "when". inside."wheat (?)") is generally used in horse-books instead of the accusative Sing. ke: "to here". in the past". ser "at the top" (also "whence. sawitist-. apaddan) "there.5 sucking oxen" (roots iuga-. ndwi "not yet" (cf §260). UL kuwapikki "never".: sallayas-kan DINGIRMES-as kuis sallis "who (is) the greatest among the great gods". next". apez "from there". 222) The dative-locative is ysed for the complement ERIN MES_KA ERIN MES_YA mekki ANA 2 2 of the comparative : nu-wa-kan ANA ANSU. against". C. piran "in front". menahhanda "in front. 223) When hiimant. zilatiya (ziladuwa) "in the future". ahead". for the last one cf §76a). for oneself'. Adverbs 224) Basic adverbs are for instance : a) Adverbs of location: kd "here". next morning". katta "to the bottom.there". kuwapit "where. kuwapitta "everywhere". duwan . lukkatta "tomorrow morning. Z.220) a) About the formal mutual alternation between the plural nominative and accusative. karii "earlier. tapiisa (tapusza) "along. my chariots (are) more numerous than your chariots". para "outside. annisan "formerly. kuwapiya "everywhere". kuwatta "to where". it is instead expressed through syntax. apiya "then". D. kantan is explained by mistakes made by the non-Hittite author of these texts. downwards. ever". to where". the use of the nominative in place of the accusative occurs only sporadically : 5 GUD tdiugas 5 GUD iugas 5 GUD sawitisza pdi "he gives 5 two-year-old oxen. my troops (are) more numerous than your (Sg. ediz "beyond". sara "to the top. this side". kuwapiya "always". to where"."all" is added to the plural dative-locative of comparison. already".duwan "here . namma-kan anzel TI-anni UL SA BELIN! TI-tar nakki "besides (if) the life of our lord (is) not more precious than our life". at the bottom". : more numerous by your troops). consequently"). apiya "there".) troops (lit. b) Adverbs of time : kinun "now". to elsewhere". upwards". Also without hiimant. kuwapikki "any time. suddenly". in Egyptian and in Indo-European Armenian. cf §63. andurza "in. piran para "before". tdiuga-. outside". b) The fact that the nominative Sing. 5 one-year-old oxen.KUR. arahza (arahzanda) "round. to there". damtmieda "elsewhere. niiwa "again".KUR.RAMES-<KA>-ma-wa-tta ANSU. as it is the case in the Semitic languages. Comparison of adjective 221) There is no comparison by means of a characteristic suffix.

kuwatqa "one way or another. below. degree. katta "consequently (?)". : kissan "in this way". consequently". kanisumnili "in Kanesian".e. hurlili "in Hurrian". even if it exists in the strict sense. E. Proto-Hatti)". imma "at last (?)".e. LUKUR karsi zahhiyaddumat "fight (PI. man antuhsan kuinki assu para huittiyan harmi "if I have well prefered some man" (i.e. munnanda "secretly". Akkadian)". cf. for instance". paldumnili "in Palaic". The difference between E-ri anda "in the house" and E-ri andan "into the house" is seldom made.) staunchly the enemy". §233). Neut. karussiyantili "secretly" (karussiyant.. nesumnili ?) "in Nesian (i.-Acc. MUNUS-nili "in a feminine way". Postpositions 228) a) Hittite does not use prepositions but postpositions. etc. -umnili with the ethnic suffix -umna-. apadda (apaddan) "in this way. arumma "in a very pronounced way".c) Adverbs of manner. §49b) : pittiyantili "according to the type of refugee (pittiyant-)". b) forms derived from adjectives. namma "then. apenissan "thus". §§ 205. of adjectives such that kariiili. 225) Derived forms can be used as adverbs : a) frozen inflected forms. as adverb "very". pabili "in Babylonian (i. c) a) The same construction is usually used for the questions "where ?" and "where to ?" : G1SBANSUR-i piran means "in front of the table" (where ?) and "to the front of the table" (where to ?). 215. moreover". kuwat "why". anyway.e. and none occurs with the instrumental. Hittite)". ndsili (nisiii..SAG-i ser "at the top of the mountain" and HUR. Some of them govern the ablative (to the question "where from ?"). §50b) : hattili "in Hatti (i. 229) The confusion between the notions "where ?" and "where to ?" induces that most Hittite postpositions govern the dative-locative. and the ablative URU-az "out of the city". the Dat. ~) 1. handa "thus (?)". b) In the plural: hatuga "dreadfully".-Loc. besides."old" . enissan "in the mentioned way". 227) a) -iii is a particular adverbial suffix (maybe originally the Nom. luwili "in Luwian". b) -iii is also especially used as a language adverb (cf. The boundary with adverbs and verbal particles is partially formal.SAG-i sara "to the top of the mountain". Postpositions governing the accusative are very rare (pariyan. and it happens that the genitive is freely used with postpositions. cf."silent"). E-ri means without postposition "in the house" and "to the house". Sg. 89 . UL kuwatqa "by no means". if! have particularly well treated). LUKUR-li "in a hostile way". 208. 2. 226) The neuter nominative-accusative of the adj ective can be simply used as an adverb : a) In the singular: mekki "much". b) Hittite can often express syntactic relations usually conveyed by our prepositions by means of the only declined forms (without postpositions) . One can find difference only between HUR. maybe.

ANA LUMES KUR Amurra ser "because of the people of Amurru". tuqqa katta "with you (Sg. also "next to. which both mean "through" (as well as "apart from" and "against"). in accordance with" : nakkiyanni handas "according to the esteem".). between" ("where?" and "where to ?") : DINGIRMES-as istarna "among the gods". eas". -at "id". §228c~2). annasas katta "with his mother". underneath" ("where ?" and "where to ?") . -at "ea" (§102a) can 90 . c) One can also occasionally find the ablative. F. • piran "in front of' ("where ?" and "where to ?") : G1SBANSUR-i piran "in front of the table. • appa (appan) locally "behind". or without difference of meaning : tuzziyaz appa "behind the army". one can also find the genitive: KA-as para "out of the gate". IR-i ser "for the slave". into the house" (cf. to the downstream direction of the river". to your house". In the phrase EMii para "in the courtyard outside". to the underneath of the table". 231) tapusza (tapiisa) "along. • ser "on" ("where ?") . man is also used with the meaning "like" without specific case. • handas "according to. Pronouns 1. like" uses the genitive: IN. with" and "to" : GISBANSUR-i katta(n) "under the table.LAM. most of these postpositions also govern the genitive: LUGAL-was piran "in front of the king". temporally "after" : Etarnui appan "behind the washhouse. 236) The pronominal accusatives -an "eum. earn". 232) a) para "out of' sometimes governs the ablative: G1sZA. b) However. About the position of the enclitic personal pronouns in the sequence of the enclitic elements at the beginning of the sentence. • katta (kattan) "under. also "for. into" ("where ?" and "where to ?") : E-ri anda (andan) "in the house. differ in that parranda governs the dative-locative. • istarna "among. next to" uses the dative-locative : hassi tapusza "next to the herd. to the front of the table". either with a characteristic meaning: URU-az katta "down out of the city". §§96 to 105. cf. ANA KUR URU Hatti istarna "to the interior of the land Hatti". para is an adverb. 234) iwar "in the way of. and pariya(n) the accusative: aruni parranda or arunan pariyan "through the sea".GAR-az para "out of the tent". to the herd". Personal pronouns 235) For the forms of the emphatic and enclitic personal pronouns. attas-mas appan "after my father". ID-i katta(n) "downstream of the river.NU. b) However.230) a) The following postpositions for example govern the dative-locative: • anda (andan) "in. cf §288.DA-as iwar "like straw". 233) parranda and pariya(n). to the back of the washhouse". because of' : suhhi ser "on the roof'. -us (-as) "eos. • sara "onto" ("where to ?") : suhhi sara "onto the roof'.

the possibility that a deity could be considered as the subject should be envisaged. 238) The importance of the impersonal verbs in Hittite is still unclear. its position in the sequence of the enclitic elements at the beginning of the sentence is treated in §288 and it is used for all persons.SU. to use".DUs. also akkiskittari "(some) regularly die" (i. 42b2). !). warpanzi-ma-wa-smas UL "but they don't wash themselves" (lit. • peda. ta-z SUMES arri "and he washes his hands" (cf. : they don't do a washing on themselves. b) However.-Loc.with -za "to take away with oneself'.be omitted in the legislative language : takku GUDHI. nu-za-kan 2 EN SISKUR wdtar INA SAG. le-ta ndhi "don't fear (for yourself)" (§206). Dat. LUGAL-us CTISBANSUR-az NINDA-an ddi ta-sse pdi "the king takes bread on the table and gives (it) to him" (variant nan-si pdi "and gives it to him"). Next to impersonal verbs of disease (§200) and tethdi "it is thundering". Thus.A GAMAM LUGAL-i pdi ta harzi "the cup-bearer gives the chalice to the king and holds (him)". 91 . next to the sentences quoted in §239 : nu-za DUMU. • es. nu-smas DINGIRMES-as ZI-ni mekki nahhantes estin "now. nu-za-kan INA KUR URU Hatti dUTU uRuTUL-na SUM-an daista "and in the land Hatti. without -za "to remove".A A. man LUGAL-i assu "if it (seems) good to the king". without -za "to seat". nu-za DINGIRMES-as ZI-ni mekki nahhantes estin (same translation as above). deaths always regularly occur).with -za "to sit (down)".NITAMES DUMU. warpanzi-ma-wa-z UL (idem). 241) Some verbs change slightly of meaning depending on whether they use -za or not: • dd. the usual means to express the reflexive is the enclitic -za (-z) . the pronouns above can also be attached to ta "and" in the same way as nu "and" : kuit kuit harakzi tat sarnikzi "all that decays.NITAMES DUMU.e. he replaces it" (cf. 2. 240) However.with -za "to take with oneself.KAM turiyazi "if oxen run across a field (and) the owner of the field finds (them).1. to take for oneself'. duggari "it seems (good)" among others. nan-zan LV HADANU essesta "and he made himself as son-in-law" (-zan instead of -za according to §34. However. Further examples: nat-za-kan pidi-pat IR-ahta "and he submitted at the same place".SA-ni pdnzi BEL A.MUNUSMES iyawen "and we conceived for ourselves sons (and) daughters". 237) a) The pronominal accusatives can also be omitted with ta "and" (§316) even out of the legislative context: LVSILA3. you have added to yourself the name 'Sun-goddess of Arinna"'.MUNUSMES nO-nun "and I have conceived for myself sons (and) daughters". without -za "to take something with a given intent. French il se lave les mains). §103a).SA wemiyazi UD. he can tie (them) up (for) one day". be (for yourselves) very cautious with the mentality of the gods" (ethical dative). Plur. cf.DUMES-SUNU sara lahhuwanzi "and the two sacrificers pour water on their head". Reflexive pronouns 239) The enclitic personal pronouns can be used as reflexive pronouns: nu-nnas DUMU.

"to refuse". • aus. b) Instead of enclitic personal pronouns.)". piran-semet "in front of them" (instead of *piran-smet. -sis "his" is sometimes incorrectly used instead of the 3. 243) -za is also used in nominal sentences (§I95aI). Pers. maldi. katti-sts)i "next to him. e. arkuwar ddi-) "to pray". of the possessive pronouns placed after piran. English to rejoice = French se rejouiri. c) In the second case. §22a. but irregularly.with -za "to see in oneself. 92 . under him" . ser "on". the Dat-Loc.(arkuwar essa-. katti-tit)i "next to you (Sg. katta "under. dusk. 244) The reciprocal relations are described like this: "they see each other" = "one sees the other" is expressed by means of SES-as SES-an auszi "the brother sees the brother" or aras aran auszi "the friend sees the friend" or I-as I-an auszi "one sees the other" or kds kiln auszi "this one sees this one". my Sun. Hittite uses the Nom-Ace. §22a. ilaliya.DIM4-ass-a sardiyas es "now.)". • tarh. back. katta(n) and istarna are built like the substantives "underside" and "middle". 246) a) The possessive pronoun of the 3. istarni-smi (istarni-ssumi. b) In set phrases."to wish".with -za "to defeat someone". Sing. Neutr. the exact conditions are still unclear: nu-za ANA dUTUS>I arris SU. etc . the forms are katti and istarni . 26) "among them". G1STUKULHLA -us-sus "their weapons". your sons must be the helper and the support against violence"). markiya.g. the possessive meaning can completely vanish : pedi-ssi "at his place" simply means "on the spot". appa(n) and ser : piran-tet "in front of you (Sg. to feel . to admit". be the helper and w the support against violence" (next to katta-ma tuel DUMUMES_KA NARARU SU.. UL mema."to agree". Sing. Possessive pronouns 245) ammel UKU3-as "my man" also means "one of my family".DIM4-as sardiyas-a asandu "thus. ser-set "on him. thus katti-m(m)i "next to me". §36aI) "in front of him".• kis. They can be considered as reflexive verbs (cf. -smis "their" . piran-set (pirasset. 242) Other verbs always or nearly always use -za without any particular meaning for -za."to rejoice". but in the Dat-Loc.)". The postpositions are thus built like the substantives "front. ishi-ssi "to his master" can also mean "to their master". 26). for him". appansamet "after them" (instead of *appan-smet).with -za "to become something". also "to dream". duqqa katta "next to you (Sg.. Plur. next to" and istarna "amid" are built differently according to the form of the personal pronouns: a) They are placed after the independant forms: ammuk piran "in front of me". Pers. arkuwar iya.. without -za "to triumph" or "to be able to"."to disagree". without -za "to see something in someone else". without -za "to happen". 3.". appa(n) "behind". 247) The postpositions piran "in front of'.

but kitkarsamet "them on foot (?)" (like appan-samet). iste. The corresponding adverbs are kissan and enissan (§§114c. 5."to stay". apiya to "there with you" (or "there with him"). is. the possessive pronouns are replaced by enclitic personal pronouns : piran-ma-at-mu "in front of me {-mu} but {-ma} it {-at}". Especially instructive: ser-sit-wa sarnikmi "I want to pay for him" against the variant ser-wa-ssi sarnikmi. Indefinite pronouns 253) One occasionally finds instead of kuiski "someone. The expression kez KUR-az . Latin si quis). ki. 248) About the use of the instrumental of the possessive pronouns with substantives in the ablative. but sometimes also man kuis (cf. 250) This is why one finds for instance kissan memista "he spoke as follows" with a following quotation. Latin non aliquis). not reciprocal). e) If in-between enclitics are inserted in a group postposition-pronoun. The verb 1. c) kuis .correspond to Latin hie. apd-.and kissan in relation with the 1st person and the preceding context: nu ki INA MU. apd.and asi. 251) One also finds. cf.chi. not the slightest" (cf. but enissan memista "he spoke thus" with a preceding quotation.g."to 93 . Voices 254) a) Many verbs conjugated in the middle voice are deponent. I achieved that (= my aforementioned deeds) in one year". ser-a-ssi-ssan "and {-a} on him (-ssi}". nan punus man kisan man UL kisan "ask him whether it is like that or not like that (as I exactly said)".1. eni.the other" (cf.kuis means "the one . ~) man kuwapikki and man kuwapi mean "if ever". anyone" the simpler form kuis : a) UL kuis means "none. in addition to the meaning following .in relation with the 2nd and 3rd persons. §218ca. ille. kd corresponds to "here with me". kis. Italian chi . ka. 252) One can even use ka. 117b)."to lie".from your country".apiz KUR-az "from this country . G. b) a) For "if someone". e.preceding.in relation with the 1st person. ar. 4. become". distributive. Demonstrative pronouns 249) kd-. one usually finds man kuiski.from that country" is equivalent to "from my country .d) The unclear word kitkar "on foot (?)" gives kitkar-si "him on foot (?)" (like katti-ssi).KAM iyanun "Now.

256) The passive voice is uncommon. etc . LUMES URUGasga kuit ddn harkanzi "that the people of Gasgas has taken". for the passive of ser ddi.) round"."to lie" is used. 255) Occasionally. also irhdi. shall) eat only bread and drink only water". 2.Act.."to lie on top". ak. Some verbs have no passive form but are replaced by other verbs (active or deponent) of similar meaning.with the participle can express two things : 94 . the active and middle voices occur without any discernible difference : pahsAct. sarrandat "they parted". nu-mu istamassan harkir "and they had learnt from me". and Mid. It can replace the imperative with a future meaning in prayers and orders: NINDA-an wdtarra ekutteni "you (PI. b) es. Perfect and pluperfect are expressed in a "modem" fashion by means of hartk). one builds according to §136 maninkuwahh. unattat "she adorned herself' . Mid. also the reciprocal middle: zahhiyawastati "we want to fight each other". "I have written" and "I had written". Tense and mode usage 258) Hittite has neither subjunctive nor optative unlike the others I. appantat "they grabbed each other".E. Thus. handdi. e. 2. Neutr. of the participle: perfect antuhsan kuinki pard huittiyan harmi "I have prefered some man". to go beyond". 257) Transitive verbs sometimes have an intransitive usage: from maninku. 300 GUSKIN ishiyan harta "he had imposed (as a tribute) 300 (shekels) of gold". Sing. sarra. "to flee". "to bound". nu SA LUKUR kues KASKAL HLA nas-za BEL MADGALTI kappuwan hardu "and whatever roads of the enemy (may be). 2. true middle forms can be found with a usage similar to Greek. c) Cf. For the passive of iya. Such compositions also occur with the imperative: nu-mu stamanan lagdn har(a)k "and keep your ears pricked up toward me".Act.."to put onto" ser tiya. "to add". 259) The verbal forms briefly mentioned in §184 allow a more precise distinction: a) 1. ki.g. Preterite can also indicate a resulting state: DINGIRLIM_is kisat "he has become a god (= he is dead now)"."to kill"."to die". Mid.b) However. to lay". "to be added. languages.transitive "to shorten".) will (i. the gouvernor must keep them watched". "to finish". CTIsGIGIR turiyan harweni "we have harnessed the chariot". simple tenses like the Germanic languages : a) 1. Mid. is used as the passive of kuen. which also means "to be killed". huwa."short. Pluperfect nu-mu dISTAR kanissan harta "and Istar had honored me". near"."to do". "to end"."to have" with the Nom-Ace. Preterite is used for all past tenses: hatrdnun can mean "I wrote".e. to result".Act. 2. "to split. and Mid.(huya-) Act. azzasteni it has only two b) 1. "to protect". Present is also used for future (uwami "I come" and "I will come"). "to end"."to seat. : ndishut ""tum (Sg."to become" is used. For the passive of ddi. zenna. and Mid. kis.Act. intransitive "to be near".

Pers. the sender can stand in the point of view of the recipient and use the preterite instead of the present : kdsma-tta uiyanun halugatallan-min "look. b) Where we use "not yet" with a pluperfect.can express the perfect of the passive DUMU. he seized the enemy countries by the neck". : 95 . 261) a) In a subordinate iterative clause of past meaning.NITAMES ECJIR-pa unnanzi unnanzi-ma-war-as ndwi "one will again drive on the 5 jackasses. b) The present can also be found instead of the preterite in the main clause : 1. my lords. the neighboring enemy countries fought me". but it can also be used as an optative: teshit uwallu "may I see in dream". EZENHLA essuwan tiyanzi "they prepare to celebrate the festival". Hittite uses the basic preterite with ndwi : kuitman-zakan ANA G1SGU.expresses a state resulting from an action : antuhsatar pan esta "the people had left". 263) a) The imperative is used as a substitute for the missing optative in prayers: utne mdu sesdu "may the country prosper and be in peace".MUNUS piyanza esta "a girl has been given". he can (still) reject her". With the verbs meaning "to say" in vivid texts (historical present) : huhhi-ssi pdit nu-ssi tarsikizzi "he went to his grandfather and talked to him". may the spirit calm down again". they drank and didn't quench their thirst"). sometimes of tiya. present can be used instead of our preterite: kuwattas lahha-ma paizzi nu LUKUR-an utne kuttanit tar(ah)han harta "but where he campaigned. of the imperative is a voluntative : piskellu "I always want to give". agallu "I want to die". Pres."to put. 2. lamniyan esdu "he must be appointed". hurtantes esir "they have been cursed"."to go on". with the supine in -uwan of a verb generally iterative: ERIN2 MESpeskiwan tiyaweni "we are ready to regularly give troops". Hittite always uses present with ndwi "not yet" : takku LU-as DUMU.ZA AB!YA ndwi eshat nu-mu arahzenas KUR. but no one has yet driven them on". Plur. G1sGIGIR iskiyan esdu "the chariot must be anointed". they drink and don't quench their thirst" (in a text in the preterite and parallel to the same sentence in the preterite : eter ne UL ispier ukuer-ma ne-za UL hassikkir "they ate and were not satiated.e. to consider doing something" is expressed by means of ddi. 2. he wasted away)". The participle of the intransitive verb with es. to devour) their houses". 260) a) Where we use "not yet" with perfect. Pers. Sing. in a clear description : azzikanzi nat-za UL ispiyanzi akkuskanzi-ma nat-za UL hassikanzi "they eat and are not satiated. to set. ANA DINGIRMES ENMES_YA ZI-anza namma warasdu "by the gods. LUSU. preterite is used in the introduction of royal decrees : LUGAL GAL Tabarna memista "the great king Tabama has spoken". EMEs_SUNU karipuwan ddir "they started to pull down (lit. I send you (lit. nu-mu asi memiyas teshaniskiwan tiyat "and the thing in question began to come regularly to me in dream". cohortative has a formal usage like the corresponding forms of the Indic. The participle of the transitive verb with es.1. c) The 1. nu-wa 5 ANSU.GI kisat nas DINGIRLIM_is kikkissuwan dais "he became old and started to become a god (i. c) The expression "to start (to get ready) to do something. 262) a) In the correspondence.MUNUS ndwi ddi nanza mimmai "if a man has not yet named a girl. I sent you) my messenger".KUR LUKUR kururiyahhir "as long as I was not seated on the throne of my father. b) In the same way. b) The 1. to place".

ehu ANA dU ... DI-esni tiyaweni "come on now! let us take a step towards the Storm-god", kinunawa ehu nu-wa zahhiyawastati nu-wa-nnas dU BELIYA DINAM hannau "but come on now! we want to fight each other, and the Storm-god, my lord, must rule on our dispute". 264) a) For the negative imperative, le "not!" (§280a) is used with the Ind. Pres. ; thus istamas "listen!", but le istamasti "do not listen!". b) Therefore with the voluntative 1. Pers. Sing. : le saggahhi "I do not want to know". 265) To express the potential and the unreal, one uses the special particle man, which differs generally, but not always, by its spelling ma-an from the conjunction man (ma-a-an) "if'. About the lack of nu next to man, cf. §310f. 266) man with the present means a present potential: become my husband". 267) man with the preterite means: 1. a past potential: man-ta-kkan E ABIKA KUR-KA-ya UL arha ddir man-at damedani kuedanikki pier "could not they have taken away from you the house of your father and your land (and) have given them to another one ?" 2. an unreal: man INA URU Hayasa pdun-pat nu-za MU.KAM-za ser tepawessanza esta "I would have gone also (-pat, §293c) to Hayasa, but the year had become (too) short for that" (about nu = "but", cf. §313a), mdn-us-kan mHuzziyas kuenta nu uttar isduwati "Huzziya would have killed them, but (§313a) the affair got out". 268) The "nearly" unreal is expressed by means of the verb waggar- "to miss, to fail" : nu-kan dHepadus suhhaz katta maussuwanzi waqqares "the goddess Hebat nearly fell from the roof' (cf. French: elle afailli tamber). man-war-as-mu LV MUTIYA kisari "he could

3. Iterative usage
269) The iterative in -sk-, sometimes in -ss- borrowed from Luwian (§ 141), still requires a thorough study. Here are some comments in particular about it : a) It points out an accomplished action frequently repeated: ANA DINGIRLIM anda UD-at UD-at memiskizzi nu DINGIRLIM walliskizzi "he talks to the deity day after day and he extols the deity each time", GE6-ti-ma GE6-ti turiskizzi "night after night he harnesses (them)", watar-ma-ssi KAS-si KAS-si-pat ISTU 1 UPNI peskanzi "but they give each time water to them from the cup of one hand" (before actions occurring once : hantezzi BAL-si uzuhrin UL pdi "the first times, he does not give grass"), nu-smas-kan LVSANGA ANA DIHI.A istarna teskiddu nu-smas DIHI.Apunuskiddu "and the priest must attend (in any case) each time the proceedings and must examine each time their cases", nu nesumnili hatreski "write to me each time in Hittite", nan-za turiskizzi "he can keep it (a found animal) for himself (for several days)" (but without iterative: UD.1.KAM turiyazi "he can keep (it for) one day"). b) It is found if a uniform action of several subjects is accomplished: uskandu istamaskandu-ya "(all the gods) should look out and listen", tuk-ma-wa DUMUMES_KA mekkaus memiskanzi "the one

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to whom everybody however attributes many sons", 1 LIM MUL HLA hukkiskanzi "the 1000 stars take an oath", kuis-pat-kan imma kuis DINGIRMES-as G1Skattaluzzi sarreskizzi "whoever crosses the threshold of the gods". c) Or the action can apply to several objects: NINDAHLA_ya kueus parsiyanneskit "and the loaves of bread that he broke (into small pieces)", halkis-wa mahhan NAM.LU.ULU3 GUD UDU huitarra human huisnuskizzi "as the grain of people, the ox, the sheep and the whole species come to life", nu-tta kuit memiskimi nu-mu DINGIRLUM istamanan har(a)k nat istamaski "(all) that I say to you, 6 deity, prick up your ears and listen to it (all)". d) The action can also be made up of several simple actions, e.g. be achieved in several stages: DUGhupuwaya hassi anda lahuskizzi DUGhupuwaya-ma tuwarniskizzi "(the priestess) fills the hupuwaya-jar (little by little) on the stove, but she breaks the hupuwaya-jar (piece by piece)", kissan hukkiskizzi "he thus takes an oath (in its various parts)", anniskimi kuin "that I achieve (in several ritual stages)". e) In some rare cases, the iterative can point out, not a repeated action, but an action that lasts for long: GE6-an hiimandan uzuhrin HAD.DU.A azzikkanzi "during the whole night, they eat hay".

4. Verbal substantives usage
a) Infinitive constructions 270) Hittite infinitives and their usage are a frequently studied and highly disputed subject. The following presentation is based on the most recent and detailed treatment by Kammenhuber. 271) a) What was formerly called Infinitive 1 (in -uwar) is a verbal substantive. It has an equivalent formation in -atar. The two constructions are divided as follows: the one in -atar is mainly used by the root verbs with ablaut of the mi-conjugation (appatar "catching" from ep- "to catch", adatar "eating" from ed- "to eat", akkuwatar "drinking" from eku- "to drink", kunatar "killing" from kuen"to kill", uwatar "visit" from aus- "to see"), whereas -uwar (Gen. -uwas, §I85a) is used by the other verbs of the mi- and hi-conjugations : nahhuwar "fear, respect" from nahh- "to fear", wetummar "building" from wete- "to build", gankuwar "hanging, balancing, weight" from gank- "to hang, to balance", etc ... b) The verbal substantive is not a verbal but a nominal construction : ANA KARAS uwatar iyanun "I did a visit to the army", LUMES KUR URU Mizra-ma mahhan SA KUR URU Amka GUL-ahhuwar istamassanzi "but as the people of Egypt hear the defeat (lit. the stroke) of the land Amka". 272) a) The two constructions of the verbal substantive match the two constructions of the infinitive, the one in -anna for the verbs with ablaut of the mi-conjugation (derived from the verbal substantive in -atar ; formerly called Infinitive 2) : adanna "to eat" from ed-, akuwanna "to drink" from eku-, kunanna "to kill" from kuen-, uwanna "to see" from aus-, the other in -uwanzi for the other verbs of the mi- and hi-conjugations (derived from the verbal substantive in -uwar ; formerly called Supine 1). b) These two constructions are completely equivalent and correspond to infinitives in the modem meaning: I-as I-an kunanna Ie sanhanzi "the one must not try to kill the other" (next to nu-mu

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tepnumanzi san(a)hta "and he tried to humiliate me"), LVSANGA akuwanna wekzi "the priest demands to drink", nu-mu-za-kan GE6.IZAM-za walhuwanzi zikkir "they get ready to attack me by night", AMARHLA iyauwanzi zinnahhi "I have finished to bring the calves". c) Note SUSI LUGAL MES siyawanzi tar(a)hta "he beat 60 kings in shooting". 273) The supine in -uwan (formerly called Supine 2) is only found associated with ddi- "to put, to set" (or with tiya- "to go forward") to express the notion "to start to do sth" (§259c). 274) Some other constructions with the infinitive should also be mentioned: a) The association of the verb es- "to be" with the infinitive with the meaning "something must be done" : tuk-ma ki uttar SA-ta siyanna ishiull-a esdu "but this word should be placed in your heart and should be a rule", NINDA.KUR4.RAparsiyawanzi Nu.GAL "there is no bread to break", INA KUR fight).
URU

Assuwa lahhiyawanzi esun "I had to campaign in the land Assuwa" (cf. English I was to

b) kisari "it becomes" with the infinitive means "it is possible to do sth" : man tuk-ma warissuwanzi UL kisari "ifit is not possible for you (Sg.) to help". 275) a) An accusative can be the complement of an infinitive, but Hittite readily makes this accusative depend on the infinitive by placing it as object of the main verb if this verb is active: apds-ma-mu harkanna san(a)hta : "lit. : but he looked for me to knock down" (i.e. "he looked for knocking me down"). b) If the main verb is passive or is the verb "to be", the noun or the pronoun which is interpreted as the object of the infinitive appears in Hittite as the subject of the main verb : LV MUNABTUM EGIR-pa piyanna UL ara (or LVMUNABTUM EGIR SUM-anzi UL ara) "lit. : a refugee (is) not right for an extradition" (i.e. it is not right to extradite a refugee), nu-ssi GUD piyawanzi SIxSA-at "lit. : and an ox was established to him to give" (i.e. it has been established for him to give an ox), man URULUM kuiski ... ANA mUlmi-dU piyanna UL ZI-anza "lit. : if a city is not the intention (of the Sun) to give to U." (i.e. if the intention (of the Sun) is not to give a city to U." (URULUM kuiski is a nominative !). 276) In these constructions, the infinitive is indifferent: a) to the tense; it is used likewise for present and future: DINGIRLUM-kan kuis ANA dUTUS>I tarnumanzi SIxSA-at "lit: the deity who was observed to admit the 'Sun' (i.e. who was observed that he shall be left for the 'Sun')" as well as for preterite : DINGIRLUM-ma-kan kuis arha sarrumanzi SIxSA-at "lit: the deity (the divine picture) who was observed to break (i.e ..the divine picture who was observed that it has been broken)". b) to the voice; cf. the last example of a). c) to the difference between the "lit: he looked for me to collapse harganu- or harnink- "to throw "lit. : and since she was observed ases- "to seat"). causative and the base verb : apds-ma-mu harkanna san(a)hta (i.e. he aimed to knock me down)" (hark- "to collapse" instead of down"), nas katta asanna kuit SIxSA-at nan katta asashun to be seated (!), then I seated her" (es- "to be seated" instead of

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huyant"fled" (from huya. pransus and potus. "now.GI Ie memiskandu "and the elders cannot talk to 2. to get fewer"). nu-war-an sannatti-ya Ie munndsi-ya-war-an Ie "now do not hide him and do not conceal him". §186. on the other hand pdnt. 99 . the Sun. cf. kappuwant. 281) The negation is placed before the verb. tepawessant. few". between the particle and the verbal form: nu namma INA 1DSeha UL pdun "so (§3IS) I did not go to the land of the river Seha". adant. dant.and pita-i. various accentuated words can attract the negation uwasi "now. appant."gone" (from pdi."killed" (from kuen. le-ta ndhi "do not be afraid"."to grab")."counted" also H. 282) a) However."to die"). nu-tta UL kuwatqa ammel A. Negation 279) a) To negate the positive sentence. I will by no means come to fight on my field (and my) soil". apiya-ya-ta-kan anda UL daliyami "then I will not let you down". our lord."to known")."decreased" (from tepawes. b) Other negations are also used: ndwi "not yet" (§224b. LUMES SU. b) Exceptionally."dead" (from ak."to drink"). and. for compound verbs. c) The participle has sometimes the meaning of a verbal adjective: means "countable. Ie with the imperative (§264) : nu-tta you". do not go to Hayasa". no more" (§224b). utinam ne : le-man-se LUGAL-us kissan tezzi "may the king not talk of him like this"."to kill"). nu-wa BELNI INA URU Hayasa Ie pdisi "now. but also "having eaten" and "having drunk" (like Lat."to eat" and eku. b) One can sometimes find : 1. cf. texts usually use the Akkadian UL and seldom the Hittite natta."to decrease. sekkant"known" (from sak. parkunusi-ma-za UL kuit "but you do not let the least go through". collected" (from ep. nu namma dUTUS>IURU Duqqaman saruwawanzi UL tarnahhun "So (§3IS) I.b) The participle 277) a) The Hittite participle in -ant."grabbed. §264a. akkant.and akuwant. nu-za-kan memiyani ser Ie karussiyasi "do not stay quiet in front of the thing". 278) About the expression of the gerund. 260) and niiwdn (niiwdn) "not at all ."to flee"). Old-Indian bhukta.is passive for transitive verbs and active-intransitive for intransitive verbs. 280) a) The prohibitive negation is Ie with the indicative present."taken" (from dd. once Ie with man potential-present in Old-Hittite with the meaning of Lat.mean not only "eaten" and "drunk" (from ed. our lord. let here the city Duqqama without plundering it". URU Hapalla sA kueri anda zahhiya nu-wa BELNI Ie namma tiyami b) The emphatic negation can be placed at the end of short sentences : namma-ma-kan KUR kuenta-ya UL epta-ya-at UL "then you did not strike the land Hapalla and you did not seized it either". Thus the following meanings: on one hand kunant. do not come yet"."to go")."to take").

nu-war-at SES-YA IDE nu-war-at Ul-ma IDE "does my brother know it or does not he know it ?". Generalities 287) The following words are designated as particles in the strict sense: -wa (-war) of quotation. it is not brought to the field and it is not sown". The conjunctions -a (-ya) "and" and -ma "but" (§302 . Interrogation 284) a) Interrogation was expressed in speech by the tone rather than by a particle.318 f) are at the first place. the enclitic pronominal forms (§§100 and 102) as well as the reflexive pronounza (-z) (§240 . too.. b) About the indirect double interrogation with man .. cf §333.The quotation particle -wa (-war) (§289 .c) The negation is placed at the beginning of the interrogative sentence: Ul. my brother ?". 285) a) The double interrogation uses nu and -ma in the second clause: BAL andurza kuiski nO-yazi . 3. 2. 283) A negation can act on the following sentence: hassannas DUMU-an iddlu Ie kuiski iyazi nussi-san aiR-an takkeski "nobody should mistreat a son of the family. the positioning particles -kan and -san and the still poorly understood particles -(a)sta and -(a)pa (-ap).-war-an-kan tuetaza memiyanaz kuennir "did not they kill you because of your word (cf §213b2) ?".. In a broader sense. I. The enclitic pronouns (§§100 and 102) and the reflexive pronoun -za (§240 ff) come after the 100 .or else". All these enclitic elements are affixed to the first accentuated word of the sentence and their abundance gives its peculiar character to the linking of the Hittite sentences. : kuit apdt "what (is) that ?". especially in Neo-Hittite. never left him with a bad deity". d) The negation can also be doubled to strengthen the negative aspect: nu-war-an huwappi DINGIRLIM-ni UL para UL kuwapikki tarnahhun "now.305.aAL UL-an A.243) can be added. hence it is not directly recognizable in written texts : SES-YA-za maldsi "do you agree.g. -pat "also. I have never. maybe too the enclitic conjunctions -a (-ya) "and" and -ma "but". nu namma kuit "what more ?". nor prepare a dagger against him". Particles 1..292) is at the second place. DINGIRLUM-za kidas waskuwas ser TUKU.TUKU-wanza "is the deity very angry because of those breaches ?".man "if . 286) Abrupt questions can occur. J. 288) If these enclitic words seem crowded. even". b) The negation is placed at the beginning of the interrogative sentence (cf §282c).SA-ni pedanzi nan NUMUN-an ienzi "since there is no vitality in malt (?). nu BAL arahza-ma kuiski nO-zi "does someone revolt inside . they are however affixed in a perfectly regular order: 1. ANA BULua3 GIM-an hassatar-set Nu. e. or does someone revolt outside ?".

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              .

                                                                                                                                                                                                          .

                                                                                                                                                            .

                                                                                            .

                                                                                                                                         .

                                                                                                      .

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          .

                                                                                                                                                                                                                       .

                                                                                                                                                                     .

                                                                                                            .

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  .

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       .

                                                                                                                  .

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