Windows 2000 Active Directory FSMO roles

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SUMMARY MORE INFORMATION Windows 2000 Multi-Master Model Windows 2000 Single-Master Model Schema Master FSMO Role Domain Naming Master FSMO Role RID Master FSMO Role PDC Emulator FSMO Role Infrastructure FSMO Role

SUMMARY
The Microsoft Windows 2000 Active Directory is the central repository in which all objects in an enterprise and their respective attributes are stored. It is a hierarchical, multi-master enabled database, capable of storing millions of objects. Because it is multi-master, changes to the database can be processed at any given domain controller (DC) in the enterprise regardless of whether the DC is connected or disconnected from the network. Back to the top

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Windows 2000 Multi-Master Model
A multi-master enabled database, such as the Active Directory, provides the flexibility of allowing changes to occur at any DC in the enterprise, but it also introduces the possibility of conflicts that can potentially lead to problems once the data is replicated to the rest of the enterprise. One way Windows 2000 deals with conflicting updates is by having a conflict resolution algorithm handle discrepancies in values by resolving to the DC to which changes were written last (that is, "the last writer wins"), while discarding the changes in all other DCs. Although this resolution method may be acceptable in some cases, there are times when conflicts are just too difficult to resolve using the "last writer wins" approach. In such cases, it is best to prevent the conflict from occurring rather than to try to resolve it after the fact. For certain types of changes, Windows 2000 incorporates methods to prevent conflicting Active Directory updates from occurring. Back to the top

Windows 2000 Single-Master Model
To prevent conflicting updates in Windows 2000, the Active Directory performs updates to certain objects in a single-master fashion. In a single-master model, only one DC in the entire directory is allowed to process updates. This is similar to the role given to a primary domain controller (PDC) in earlier versions of Windows (such as Microsoft Windows NT 3.51 and 4.0), in which the PDC is responsible for processing all updates in a given domain. The Windows 2000 Active Directory extends the single-master model found in earlier versions of Windows to include multiple roles, and the ability to transfer roles to any domain controller (DC) in the enterprise. Because an Active Directory role is not bound to a single DC, it is referred to as a Flexible Single Master Operation (FSMO) role. Currently in Windows 2000 there are five FSMO roles: • • • • • Schema master Domain naming master RID master PDC emulator Infrastructure daemon Back to the top

Schema Master FSMO Role
The schema master FSMO role holder is the DC responsible for performing updates to the directory schema (that is, the schema naming context or LDAP://cn=schema,cn=configuration,dc=<domain>). This DC is the only one that can process updates to the directory schema. Once the Schema update is complete, it is replicated from the schema master to all other DCs in the directory. There is only one schema master per directory. Back to the top

Domain Naming Master FSMO Role
The domain naming master FSMO role holder is the DC responsible for making changes to the forestwide domain name space of the directory (that is, the Partitions\Configuration naming context or LDAP://CN=Partitions, CN=Configuration, DC=<domain>). This DC is the only one that can add or remove a domain from the directory. It can also add or remove cross references to domains in external directories. Back to the top

RID Master FSMO Role
The RID master FSMO role holder is the single DC responsible for processing RID Pool requests from all DCs within a given domain. It is also responsible for removing an object from its domain and putting it

• Account lockout is processed on the PDC emulator. When a DC creates a security principal object such as a user or group. The following information describes the changes that occur during the upgrade process: Windows 2000 clients (workstations and member servers) and down-level clients that have installed the • distributed services client package do not perform directory writes (such as password changes) preferentially at the DC that has advertised itself as the PDC. The PDC emulator performs all of the functionality that a Microsoft Windows NT 4.0-based or earlier clients. they use any DC for the domain.in another domain during an object move. All Windows 2000-based computers within an enterprise use a common time. All PDC FSMO role holders follow the hierarchy of domains in the selection of their in-bound time partner. • Windows 2000 clients (workstations and member servers) and down-level clients that have installed the . it attaches a unique Security ID (SID) to the object. member servers. the PDC emulator role holder retains the following functions: Password changes performed by other DCs in the domain are replicated preferentially to the PDC • emulator. and domain controllers that are running Windows NT 4. and a relative ID (RID) that is unique for each security principal SID created in a domain. Once backup domain controllers (BDCs) in down-level domains are upgraded to Windows 2000. When a DC's allocated RID pool falls below a threshold. The domain RID master responds to the request by retrieving RIDs from the domain's unallocated RID pool and assigns them to the pool of the requesting DC. the PDC • emulator receives no down-level replica requests.0 Server-based PDC • or earlier PDC performs for Windows NT 4. This SID consists of a domain SID (the same for all SIDs created in a domain). Back to the top PDC Emulator FSMO Role The PDC emulator is necessary to synchronize time in an enterprise. Windows 2000 includes the W32Time (Windows Time) time service that is required by the Kerberos authentication protocol. There is one RID master per domain in a directory. In a Windows 2000 domain. The PDC emulator at the root of the forest becomes authoritative for the enterprise. that DC issues a request for additional RIDs to the domain's RID master. The PDC emulator of a domain is authoritative for the domain. Each Windows 2000 DC in a domain is allocated a pool of RIDs that it is allowed to assign to the security principals it creates. and should be configured to gather the time from an external source. The PDC emulator still performs the other functions as described in a Windows 2000 environment. The purpose of the time service is to ensure that the Windows Time service uses a hierarchical relationship that controls authority and does not permit loops to ensure appropriate common time usage.0 or earlier are all upgraded to Windows 2000. This part of the PDC emulator role becomes unnecessary when all workstations. Authentication failures that occur at a given DC in a domain because of an incorrect password are • forwarded to the PDC emulator before a bad password failure message is reported to the user.

it represents the reference by the GUID. Article : 324801 ID Last Review : December 3. all the domain controllers have the current data. How to view and transfer FSMO roles in Windows Server 2003 View products that this article applies to.5 This article was previously published under Q324801 On This Page SUMMARY FSMO Roles Transfer the Schema Master Role Register Schmmgmt. As a result.distributed services client package use the Active Directory to locate network resources. the SID (for references to security principals). The infrastructure FSMO role holder is the DC responsible for updating an object's SID and distinguished name in a cross-domain object reference.dll Transfer the Schema Master Role Transfer the Domain Naming Master Role Transfer the RID Master. If all the domain controllers in a domain also host the global catalog. They do not require the Windows NT Browser service. Back to the top Infrastructure FSMO Role When an object in one domain is referenced by another object in another domain. and it is not important which domain controller holds the infrastructure master role. 2007 Revision : 9. PDC Emulator. and Infrastructure Master Roles REFERENCES . NOTE: The Infrastructure Master (IM) role should be held by a domain controller that is not a Global Catalog server(GC). crossdomain object references in that domain will not be updated and a warning to that effect will be logged on that DC's event log. If the Infrastructure Master runs on a Global Catalog server it will stop updating object information because it does not contain any references to objects that it does not hold. This is because a Global Catalog server holds a partial replica of every object in the forest. and the DN of the object being referenced.

Infrastructure Master: The infrastructure is responsible for updating references from objects in its domain • to objects in other domains. At any one time.SUMMARY This article describes how to transfer Flexible Single Master Operations (FSMO) roles (also known as operations master roles) by using the Active Directory snap-in tools in Microsoft Management Console (MMC) in Windows Server 2003. It is also the Domain Master Browser. if the domain contains computers that are not running Microsoft • Windows XP Professional or Microsoft Windows 2000 client software. Back to the top Transfer the Schema Master Role Use the Active Directory Schema Master snap-in to transfer the schema master role. there are at least five FSMO roles that are assigned to one or more domain controllers. and domain controllers that are running earlier versions of Windows. Domain naming master: The domain naming master domain controller controls the addition or removal of • domains in the forest.dll file. there can be only one domain controller acting as the infrastructure master in each domain. There can be only one domain naming master in the whole forest. there can be only one domain controller acting as the RID master in the domain. You can transfer FSMO roles by using the Ntdsutil. the PDC emulator master acts as a Windows NT PDC. member servers. you must have access to the schema master. there can be only one domain controller acting as the PDC emulator master in each domain in the forest. To seize a role. Before you can use this snap-in. There can be only one schema master in the whole forest. and it handles password discrepancies. the role must be seized. PDC Emulator: The PDC emulator is a domain controller that advertises itself as the primary domain controller (PDC) to workstations.exe utility. use the Ntdsutil. At any one time. For example.exe command-line utility or by using an MMC snap-in tool. The five FSMO roles are: Schema Master: The schema master domain controller controls all updates and modifications to the • schema. To update the schema of a forest. . or if it contains Microsoft Windows NT backup domain controllers. Relative ID (RID) Master: The RID master is responsible for processing RID pool requests from all • domain controllers in a particular domain. At any one time. Back to the top FSMO Roles In a forest. you must register the Schmmgmt. you can use one of the following three MMC snap-in tools: Active Directory Schema snap-in Active Directory Domains and Trusts snap-in Active Directory Users and Computers snap-in If a computer no longer exists. Depending on the FSMO role that you want to transfer.

2. In the console tree. point to Administrative Tools. 6. Click Active Directory Schema. Click Start. 2.Register Schmmgmt. Click Change. 9. 3. Master. and then click Change Domain Controller.dll 1.dll in the Open box. You do not have to perform this step if you are already connected to the domain controller whose role you want to transfer. Click Start. and then click Operations 4. right-click Active Directory Domains and Trusts. Click Change. click Close. type the name of the domain controller that will be the new role holder. NOTE: You must perform this step if you are not on the domain controller to which you want to transfer the role. right-click Active Directory Schema. and then click Operations Master. click Add. 7. 3. right-click Active Directory Schema. and then click OK. . and then click Close. • 3. 5. Click OK to confirm that you want to transfer the role. Transfer the Schema Master Role 1. In the console tree. -orIn the Or. menu click Add/Remove Snap-in. Click OK when you receive the message that the operation succeeded. In the console tree. Type regsvr32 schmmgmt. click the domain controller that will be the new • role holder. 8. and then click Active Directory Domains and Trusts. 4. Back to the top Transfer the Domain Naming Master Role 1. 2. type the name of the domain controller that will be the new role holder. and then click OK. Right-click Active Directory Domains and Trusts. and then click OK. Do one of the following: In the Enter the name of another domain controller box. On the File. 5. and then click OK. select an available domain controller list. Click Specify Name. Click Add. and then click Run. click Run. and then click OK. and then click Connect to Domain Controller. and then click OK. Click Start. type mmc in the Open box.

and then click Close.microsoft. select an available domain controller list. Do one of the following: In the Enter the name of another domain controller box. and then click OK. or Infrastructure). In the console tree. Click OK to confirm that you want to transfer the role. Back to the top REFERENCES For additional information about a related topic. Click the appropriate tab for the role that you want to transfer (RID. the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation. Click OK to confirm that you want to transfer the role. • 3. point to Administrative Tools.com/kb/255690/) How to view and transfer FSMO roles in the graphical user interface Linear Tape-Open From Wikipedia. You do not have to perform this step if you are already connected to the domain controller whose role you want to transfer. 6. click the domain controller that will be the new • role holder. type the name of the domain controller that will be the new role holder. search . click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base: 255690 (http://support. and then click OK. Back to the top Transfer the RID Master. Click Start. 2. and Infrastructure Master Roles 1. PDC Emulator. and then click Active Directory Users and Computers. right-click Active Directory Users and Computers. and then 5.6. and then 4. click Operations Master. click Change. Right-click Active Directory Users and Computers. -orIn the Or. point to All Tasks. PDC. NOTE: You must perform this step if you are not on the domain controller to which you want to transfer the role. and then click Close. and then click Connect to Domain Controller.

The standard form-factor of LTO technology goes by the name "Ultrium".[1] Much of the technology is an extension of the work done by IBM at its Tucson lab during the previous 20 years. enclosed cartridge. Since 2002. especially for backup. LTO has been the best selling "super tape" format and is widely used with small and large computer systems. was acquired by Quantum Corp. Those technologies were and still are tightly controlled by their owners. • [edit] Historical context Half-inch (1/2") magnetic tape has been used for data storage for more than 50 years. Quantum's DLT and Sony's Advanced Intelligent Tape (AIT) were the leading options for high-capacity. The most recent version was released in 2007 and can hold 800 GB in the same size cartridge. their availability was fairly limited and prices were relatively high. Seagate's magnetic tape division was spun off as Seagate Removable Storage Systems. Consequently.[2] Around the time of the release of LTO-1. Hewlett-Packard. but later it was renamed DLT and sold to Quantum. [edit] Form factors . later renamed Certance which. high speed tape storage for PC servers and UNIX systems. IBM. IBM called their cartridge 3480 and DEC originally called theirs CompacTape. Seagate. and IBM initiated the LTO Consortium. which directs development and manages licensing and certification of media and mechanism manufacturers. In the late 1990s. IBM and DEC put this kind of tape into a single reel. the original version of which was released in 2000 and could hold 100 GB of data in a single cartridge. HP and Seagate sought to counter this by introducing a more open format. Its popularity can be attributed to both the innovative technology developed as well as the attractive pricing that is the result of the competitive market made possible by an open standard. soon after.LTO-2 cartridge Linear Tape-Open (or LTO) is a magnetic tape data storage technology originally developed in the late 1990s as an open standards alternative to the proprietary magnetic tape formats that were available at the time. In the mid 1980s.

An Ultrium cartridge's dimensions are 102. In common usage. Ultrium and Accelis. [edit] Ultrium LTO Ultrium was developed as a (more or less) drop-in replacement for DLT and has a similar design of 1/2" wide tape in a (slightly smaller) single reel cartridge. An Ultrium drive is expected to write data to a cartridge in its own generation and to a cartridge from the immediate prior generation in the prior generation format.6 μm 609 m 609 m 680 m 820 m 384 512 704 896 8 8 16 16 12 16 11 14 4880 7398 9638 13300? RLL 1. LTO generally refers only to the Ultrium form factor. so there was never a demand for Accelis and no drives or media were commercially produced. • • An Ultrium drive is expected to read data from a cartridge in its own generation and at least the two prior generations.9 μm 8 μm 6.5 (mm).9 μm 8. The real-world performance never exceeded that of the Ultrium tape format.0 x 105.6 TB 3. This made it easy for robotic tape library vendors to convert their DLT libraries into LTO libraries. IBM's (short-lived) 3570 Magstar MP product pioneered this concept.7 PRML PRML PRML? [edit] LTO-1 .LTO technology was designed to come in two form factors.4 x 21.2 TB 15 40 80 120 180 270 NO NO YES YES PLANNED PLANNED 8. LTO Ultrium is very popular and there are no commercially available LTO Accelis drives or media. As of 2008. [edit] Accelis Accelis was developed in 1997 for fast access to data by using a two-reel cartridge that loads at the midpoint of the 8 mm wide tape to minimize access time. [edit] Generations Generation Release Date Native Data Capacity Max Speed (MB/s) WORM Capable? Tape Thickness Tape Length Tape Tracks Write Elements Wraps per Band Linear Density (bits/mm) Encoding LTO-1 LTO-2 LTO-3 LTO-4 LTO-5 LTO-6 2000 2003 2005 2007 TBA TBA 100 GB 200 GB 400 GB 800 GB 1.

Tape speed adjusts to available data stream. See LTO-DC below.[4] First media approved in March 2003.[3] [edit] LTO-2 • • • Doubled capacity and transfer speed Switched to PRML encoding First mechanisms approved in February 2003.7 First commercially available in September 2000.• • • Originally designed to come in 4 lengths of tape: 10. Even the minimum streaming data rate (~30–40 MB/s) is faster than many hard disk drives. Although this depends on the block size used when writing to the tape as the end of the tape could also be at the tape head when the writing is complete. Added 256-bit AES-GCM drive level encryption. 50. (eg. there is no rewind time. . mega = 2^20) Minimum and maximum reading and writing speeds are drive dependent. they assume that data will be compressed with a 2:1 ratio (IBM uses a 3:1 compression ratio in the documentation for its Mainframe tape drives.[5] [edit] LTO-3 • • • • Doubled capacity and transfer speed again Introduced WORM feature Doubled number of write elements in head First media approved in November 2004. within the minimum and maximum streaming speeds. since the last pass is a reverse pass leaving the head at the beginning of the tape. LTO-3 drives can write data faster than most hard disk drives can read.6:1 ratio for SAIT). Increase data transfer rate by 50% to 120 MB/s. 30. [edit] LTO-4 • • • • Doubled capacity again to 800 GB.[6] At the full native data rate (80 MB/s). Most manufacturers list compressed capacities on their marketing material. Capacities are often stated on tapes as double the actual value. If a tape is written to full capacity. Tape encoding is RLL 1. Sony uses a 2. The units for data capacity generally follow the (decimal) SI prefix convention. rewinding rarely takes this long.[7] First media approved in May 2007.[8] [edit] Notes • • • • • Data Capacity and Speed figures above are for uncompressed data.[citation needed] Note that due to the back and forth writing. The marketing material also uses decimal definitions for byte capacities. First mechanisms approved in April 2007. and 100 GB. mega = 10^6) The units for data transfer generally follow the binary prefix convention. (eg. [edit] Positioning times Maximum rewind time is 98 seconds.

which requires the most passes to span the entire tape. which is 50 years of use when fully writing a tape every day.750 full-tape reads and writes. total. this still amounts to an estimated tape life of 18. LTO-3 requires 44 passes. .[citation needed] Although these times vary with the type of LTO drive that you have and the overall drive performance. So the actual life of the tape is somewhat shorter than 1. [edit] Tape durability Estimated • • • 1.Average tape seek/filemark search time is 75 seconds. LTO-2 requires 64 passes. LTO requires 48 passes. [edit] Technical features [edit] Error detection and correction The tapes contain a strong error correction algorithm that makes data recovery possible when lost data is within one track or up to 32 mm of the tape medium. [edit] Leader pin Leader pin on the end of a length of LTO tape The tape inside an LTO cartridge is wound around a single reel. and LTO-4 requirs 56 passes.2 million uses. When a cartridge is not in a drive. the pin is held in place at the opening of the cartridge with a small spring.000 loads and unloads[citation needed] To fill up a tape. But even for LTO-2. The end of the tape is attached to a perpendicular leader pin that is used by an LTO drive to reliably grasp the end of the tape and mount it in a take-up reel inside the drive. This allows the drive to write a second copy of any data that fails the verify without the help of the host system.2 million passes[citation needed] 30 years of archival storage[citation needed] 20.[citation needed] When data is written to the tape it is verified by reading it back using the read heads that are positioned just 'behind' the write heads.

MP3. also called Streaming Lossless Data Compression (SLDC)[10]. the algorithm compares the "compressed" data block to the raw data block in memory and writes the smaller of the two to tape. but similar to lzop and the high speed algorithms built into other tape drives. It is very similar to the algorithm ALDC[11] which is a variation of LZS (a patent-encumbered algorithm controlled by Hi/Fn[12]). it saves a copy of the raw data. LTO-DC achieves an approximately 2:1 compression ratio when applied to the Calgary Corpus. data that is already compressed or sufficiently random to defeat the compression algorithm). Every data compression algorithm will end up increasing the size of some inputs. both built into tape libraries and handheld. via a non contacting passive RF interface.) would normally increase in . Every LTO drive has a CM Reader in it. DBF. It is made up of 128 blocks of memory.e. The plastic slot where the pin is normally held is deformed by the drop and the leader pin is no longer in the position that the drive expects it to be. This memory is used to identify tapes and to help drives discriminate between the different generations of the technology. where each block is 32 Bytes for a total of 4096 Bytes. MPEG. The extra bit used by SLDC to differentiate between raw and compressed blocks effectively places an upper bound on this data expansion. encrypted data and pre-compressed data (PGP. Some 9 track tape drives used a burst of air against the spinning reel to automatically separate and grasp the loose end of the tape. and database files (TXT. BMP. In contrast. This is inferior to slower algorithms such as gzip. After applying the compression function to the data. ZIP. The primary difference between ALDC and SLDC is that SLDC does not apply the compression algorithm to uncompressible data (i.[9] [edit] LTO-DC The LTO specification describes a Data Compression method LTO-DC. raw images. The non-contact interface has a range of 20 mm. External readers are available. For each block of data that the algorithm works on. [edit] LTO-CM LTO-CM Every LTO cartridge has a Cartridge Memory chip inside it. Older tape technologies used different means to load tape onto a take-up reel. It should be noted that plain text. 1 block at a time. etc. Every block of data written to tape has a header bit indicating whether the block is compressed or raw.A common reason for a cartridge failing to load into a drive is the misplacement of the leader pin as a result of the cartridge having been dropped. JPEG.) typically compress much better than other types of data stored on computer systems. This memory can be read and/or written. DLT tapes have a hole punched in the end of the tape that a drive can use to grasp the end of the tape. This worked without a leader pin. ASCII. etc.

All of the write elements in the head write simultaneously as the head passes over the data band from the physical start of the tape to the physical end. also called wraps. It takes several wraps to completely fill a data band. but will read it. The formats for LTO-2 and LTO-3 are similar. this significant expansion is avoided. There is nothing different about the tape medium in a WORM cartridge. There is an internal mechanism that also handles cleaning tasks based on error rate criteria and time. It is now ready to make a reverse wrap. an LTO-2 tape requires 64 passes.1. [edit] Caution [edit] Cleaning Normal cleaning cartridges are abrasive and frequent use will shorten the drive's lifespan. The servo bands are used to keep the head precisely aligned within the data band. This leads to a set of serpentine patterns in each data band. in numeric order. At the end. [edit] Erasing . [edit] Tape layout LTO Ultrium tape is laid out with 4 wide data bands sandwiched between 5 narrow servo bands. The data bands are numbered 3.size. [edit] WORM New for LTO-3 is Write Once Read Many (WORM) capability. In LTO-1 this logical structure has CRC codes and compression added to create blocks of 403884 bytes. Finally error correction bytes are added to bring the total size of the dataset to 491520 bytes before it is written in a specific format across the eight heads. An LTO-3 WORM Cartridge is identical to a normal LTO-3 tape cartridge except its LTO-CM chip identifies it to the drive as WORM. Data tracks are written in forward and reverse passes. With the SLDC algorithm.0. Typically the WORM cartridges have a different color packaging. The block structure of the tape is logical so inter block gaps. The head unit straddles the 2 servo bands that border the data band that is being written or read. tape marks and so forth take only a few bytes each. This is normally only useful for legal record keeping. For example. To determine the number of passes required to fill up a tape. HP LTO drives have a cleaning strategy[13] that will prevent the drive from actually using the cleaning tape if it is not needed. Another chunk of 468 bytes of information (including statistics and information about the drive that wrote the data and when it was written) is then added to create a 'dataset'. The internal tape head cleaner is also activated when the cleaning cartridge is loaded. An LTO-3 drive will not erase or overwrite data on a WORM cartridge. divide the total number of tracks by the number of write elements. This makes one forward wrap. In some cases this data expansion could be as much as 15%.2 across the tape and are filled individually. the head shifts to line up the write elements with a new set of tracks within the same data band. if data compression was applied. All tracks written by the same write element in the same direction are grouped together. file marks.

and Sony. UCC LTO-1 LTO-2 LTO-3 LTO-4 EMTEC Black Black Purple FujiFilm Black Purple Slate-Blue Green HP Orange Blue Dark Red Yellow Green IBM Black Purple Slate Blue Green Imation Black Purple Blue-Gray Teal Maxell Gray Black Purple Blue-Gray Teal Overland Teal Quantum Black Black Purple Blue RPS Black Purple . HP is the notable exception. Verbatim[15] and Quantegy[16] both licensed LTO technology. [edit] Cartridges LTO-2 Cartridge with the top shell removed.[14] All other brands of media are manufactured by these companies under contract. TDK. Since its bankruptcy in 2003. EMTEC no longer manufactures LTO media products. Fujifilm. Using a bulk eraser (or otherwise exposing the cartridge to a strong magnetic field) will erase the servo tracks along with the data tracks and make the cartridge unusable.The magnetic servo tracks on the tape are factory encoded. EMTEC. Imation. showing the internal components Compliance-Verified licensed manufacturers of LTO technology media are Maxell. [edit] Colors HP's Dark Red LTO-2 cartridge The colors of LTO Ultrium cartridge shells are somewhat standardized. but never manufactured their own compliance-verified media.

Sales since then have dominated other "super" formats (SDLT.000 . HewlettPackard. This has led to attractive prices for customers and subsequently.[14] [edit] Sales figures The presence of 5 certified media manufacturers and 4 certified mechanism manufacturers has produced a competitive market. LTO out-shipped SDLT by nearly 2 to 1. and the bottom half of the shell is a light gray. SAIT).8M-1993 ANSI Barcode specification. In 2002. Different manufactures use different names for the same color sometimes. [edit] Mechanisms HP Half-Height LTO drive in an enclosure for desktop use Current Compliance-Verified licensed manufacturers of LTO technology mechanisms are IBM. Total Cartridges Total Drives sold Year drives sold sold cartridges sold this year [17] (as of Sept.) [18] 2001 1.) [18] this year (as of Sept.Sony StorageTek Tandberg Grey TDK Gray Verbatim • • • Black Purple Purple Black Purple Black Purple Black Purple Gray Blue-Gray Blue-Gray Blue-Green Blue-Gray UCC means Universal Cleaning Cartridge. the top half of the shell is the normal color of that generation for that manufacturer. WORM (Write Once. Read Many) cartridges are two-tone. The names in the table above come from each manufacturers' own documentation. which works with all drives. Quantum.000. and Tandberg Storage. high sales volumes for manufacturers. [edit] Labels The LTO cartridge label uses the bar code symbology of USS-39. A description and definition is available from the Automatic Identification Manufacturers (AIM) specification Uniform Symbol Specification (USS-39) and the ANSI MH10.

4. "Linear Tape-Open Program Ships One Million Ultrium Tapes in First 12 Months of Availability". ^ LTO (October 21.000.000 1. "EMTEC. 5. ^ HP cleaning strategy 14. ^ Fujitsu Cartridge Memory documentation 10. ^ LTO (February 12.000 80. "Fujifilm.000 (July) 1.000 2004 354. ^ Patent claim by Hi/Fn 13. "HP. 16. Press release. Press release.000 2006 [19] 2007 [20] 350.000.000.000 50. 2. ^ Freeman Reports 18. Imation. Maxell. 1998). 2003). Press release.000 Cartridges Shipped". and VERBATIM License Linear Tape-Open Technology". Maxell. IBM Pass LTO Ultrium Format Generation 2 Mechanism Compliance". IMATION. ^ IBM storage history 3. ^ LTO (May 7. "HP And IBM Pass Mechanism Compliance Testing For LTO Ultrium Format Generation 4 Tape Drives". ^ IBM ALDC documentation 12.000 30. 2007). Sony. ^ LTO (September 5. Imation. "HP. Retrieved on 2007-10-15. 2001). Press release. 2007). "Linear Tape-Open (LTO) Technology Continues Licensee Momentum with Signing of Fujitsu and Quantegy". ^ LTO (November 08.000 Cartridges Shipped". "More than 2. 2006). And SEAGATE Agree To Establish Open Format Specifications For Enterprise And Network Storage". Press release. Press release. IBM. ^ LTO (March 27. ^ LTO (September 25. Retrieved on 2007-1015. 2007).000 2. 9. 6.000. 17. Press release. 7. ^ ECMA 321 – Specification of SLDC 11. Sony and TDK Pass LTO Ultrium Generation 4 Data Interchange Compliance Testing". 8. ^ LTO (August 3. [edit] External links • IBM's LTO Redbook – IBM System Storage Tape Library Guide for Open Systems . Press release. 20. ^ a b LTO Compliance-Verified Licencees 15.000. ^ a b LTO consortium press releases 19.000.000. Press release. Retrieved on 2007-10-15. Retrieved on 2008-03-13. TDK Pass LTO Ultrium Generation 3 Data Interchange Compliance Testing". 1997).2002 175.000 [edit] References 1.500. 1998). "Fujifilm.000 2003 262. 2004).000. Press release.500. ^ LTO (November 4. "LTO Program Announces LTO Ultrium Generation 2 ComplianceVerified Licenses". ^ LTO (November 05.000 2005 461.000 LTO Ultrium Format Tape Drives and 80. ^ LTO (April 11. "LTO Ultrium Format Maintains Momentum With More Than 1. Press release. 2003).000 Tape Drives And 50.

• • • • • • Linear Tape Open – Consortium Homepage www.9 Wafadrive (1984) mm) Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.81 mm) Commodore Datassette (1977) · DECtapeII (1979) Stringy Exatron Stringy Floppy (1979) · ZX Microdrive (1983) · Rotronics (1. Revision 3 An online generator for LTO barcode labels [edit] See also Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Linear Tape-Open • • • • Magnetic tape Tape drive Tape library Data compression [hide] v•d•e Magnetic tape data storage formats Linear Helical Three Sony DIR (19xx) · Quarter Inch LINCtape (1962) · DECtape (1963) Ampex DST (1992) (19 mm) UNISERVO (1951) · IBM 7 track (1952) · 9 track (1964) · IBM Redwood SD-3 (1995) · Half Inch 3480 (1984) · DLT (1984) · IBM 3590 (1995) · T9840 (1998) · DTF (19xx) · SAIT (12.pdf Tandberg drive manual with lots of generic details (link inactive as of 2008-05-18) TDK brochure with a diagram of tape and cartridge construction ECMA 319 – Specification of Ultrium 1 IBM LTO Ultrium Cartridge Label Specification.35 mm) Eighth Inch KC Standard. Compact Cassette (1975) · HP DC100 (1976) · DDS/DAT (1989) (3.org/wiki/Linear_Tape-Open" Categories: Computer storage tape media | Computer storage devices .65 mm) T9940 (2000) · LTO Ultrium (2000) · IBM 3592 (2003) · T10000 (2003) (2006) Eight Data8 (1987) · Mammoth Millimeter Travan (1995) · IBM 3570 MP (1997) · ADR (1999) (1994) · AIT (1996) · (8 mm) VXA (1999) Quarter Inch QIC (1972) · SLR (1986) · Ditto (1992) (6.tandbergdatacorp.58–1.com/support/LTO1_2TapeUsersGuideFeb2.

and other business processes after a natural or humaninduced disaster. policies and procedures of restoring operations critical to the resumption of business. the focus of which is data protection. outgoing. For societal disaster recovery. [1] A disaster recovery plan (DRP) should also include plans for coping with the unexpected or sudden loss of communications and/or key personnel. fax. For other uses.). software. including regaining access to data (records. see emergency management. This task requires the cooperation of a wellorganized committee led by an experienced chairperson.Hidden categories: All articles with unsourced statements | Articles with unsourced statements since March 2008 Disaster recovery From Wikipedia. To increase the opportunity for a successful recovery of valuable records. etc. although these are not covered in this article. hardware. workspace. Disaster recovery is the process. Contents [hide] • • • • • • 1 Introduction 2 Disaster Recovery Strategies 3 References 4 See also 5 Further reading 6 External links [edit] Introduction . the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation. etc. Disaster recovery planning is part of a larger process known as business continuity planning (BCP).). communications (incoming. a well-established and thoroughly tested disaster recovery plan must be developed. toll-free. search This article is about business continuity planning. see DRP.

• • • • Backups made to tape and sent off-site at regular intervals (preferably daily) Backups made to disk on-site and automatically copied to off-site disk. organizations must also implement precautionary measures with an objective of preventing a disaster situation in the first place. generate an order. This generally makes use of Storage Area Network (SAN) technology High availability systems which keep both the data and system replicated off-site. the DR planner can determine the most suitable recovery strategy for each system. An important note here however is that the business ultimately sets the IT budget and therefore the RTO and RPO metrics need to fit with the available budget. Once the RTO and RPO metrics have been mapped to IT infrastructure. enabling continuous access to systems and data In many cases. an organization may elect to use an outsourced disaster recovery provider to provide a stand-by site and systems rather than using their own remote facilities. etc). the Disaster Recovery planner should refer to their organization's business continuity plan which should indicate the key metrics of Recovery Point Objective (RPO) and Recovery Time Objective (RTO) for various business processes (such as the process to run payroll. with most companies relying on their computer systems as critical infrastructure in their business. This is especially evident in information technology. 51% close within two years. the shift presents opportunities for companies that specialize in business continuity planning and offsite data protection. which overcomes the need to restore the data (only the systems then need to be restored or synced). These may include some of the following: • Local mirrors of systems and/or data and use of disk protection technology such as RAID . Of companies that had a major loss of computerized data. As a result. With the rise of information technology and the reliance on business-critical information the importance of protecting irreplaceable data has become a business priority in recent years.As the disaster recovery market continues to undergo significant structural changes. and only 6% will survive long-term. the cost associated with that level of protection may make the desired high availability solutions impractical. While most business unit heads would like zero data loss and zero time loss. this is intended to avoid larger losses. In addition to preparing for the need to recover systems. 43% never reopen.[2] [edit] Disaster Recovery Strategies Prior to selecting a Disaster Recovery strategy. most companies are aware that they need to backup their digital information to limit data loss and to aid data recovery. The following is a list of the most common strategies for data protection. or made directly to off-site disk Replication of data to an off-site location. The metrics specified for the business processes must then be mapped to the underlying IT systems and infrastructure that support those processes. Most large companies spend between 2% and 4% of their IT budget on disaster recovery planning.

Coping with Disasters. Inc. E. "Emergency preparedness. Tennant.• • • • Surge Protectors — to minimize the effect of power surges on delicate electronic equipment Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) and/or Backup Generator to keep systems going in the event of a power failure Fire Preventions — more alarms. Disaster Recovery Journal. Texas State University. S. Chicago: American Library Association. (2008). Gatlin. Heather. Benton. Peter H. 159-165. accessible fire extinguishers Anti-virus software and other security measures [edit] References 1. McGraw-Hill Ryerson Higher Education. Roy. ^ Hoffer.Industry Trend or Event. Jim.edu/arp/125/ [edit] External links • Disaster Recovery World . Preservation Issues and Planning. http://ecommons. IT Disaster Recovery Planning for Dummies. Wiley Publishing. ^ Buchanan." Health Management Technology. 2006. 2000. Haag. The Search for a Theoretical Framework for Long-Term Disaster Recovery: A Normative Application of Jane Addams Social Democratic Theory and Ethics. Jan 2001 [1] [edit] See also • • • • • • • • • • • Backup site Business Continuity Planning (BCP) Continuous data protection IBM Global Mirror Recovery Point Objective (RPO) Recovery Time Objective (RTO) Remote backup services Secure Virtual Office Seven tiers of disaster recovery Virtual Tape Library Civil Air Patrol [edit] Further reading • • • • Gregory. Dick (2007). (2005).” Library Journal. Disaster Recovery: A Pragmatist's Viewpoint. “Digital Libraries.txstate. 15 November 2001. "Backing Up Business .. Sally.. Applied Research Project. & McCubbrey D. ISBN 978-0-83890776-4 2." from Paul Banks and Roberta Pilette. Management Information Systems for the Information Age. Cummings.

..htm The ability to recover from the loss of a complete site. www.region-s. data centers and other facilities to ensure that a business can continue operations ..de/technik/glossary. a Disaster Recovery site (DR site) can be set up to ensure that operations will continue no matter what disaster strikes the company.k12.html See: IT Service Continuity Management www.southportllc.mitial.michigan.mspx The operation of restoring record collections and related operations after a disaster secint33. www.com/windowsserversystem/storage/storgloss...aspx A disaster recovery plan describes how an organization is to deal with potential disasters.00.htm The documented process for protecting and restoring critical information during emergency or disaster conditions.us/Records/records_def.unimelb. recovering IT/business operations using alternate equipment. www.html (DR) is a coordinated activity to enable the recovery of IT/business systems due to a disruption. support.nm. including the immediate aftermath and the priorities for the critical business functions which need to be resumed.edu.org/preserve/records/recordsguidelines/guidelinesglossary.com/index.org/unarms/en/unrecordsmgmt/unrecordsresources/glossaryofrecordkp.gov. www.nmsbvi..mnhs. www. As it is true in all aspects of the technical world. www.previser.com/Glossary. www.. The recovery process includes repairing buildings and restoring an agency's critical business functions.microsoft.storsoftcorp.htm The use of alternative network circuits to re-establish communications channels in the event that the primary channels are disconnected or malfunctioning. DR can be achieved by restoring IT/business operations at an alternate location.htm Also referred to as Business Continuity. software.cabinetoffice. .au/knowledgebase/itservices/a-z/d.7-217-34415---. and/or performing some or all of the affected business . such as the loss of a computer .com/documentation/UsingPreviser/Appendixes/techgloss_entries...html Preventative measures using redundant hardware. this is a pre-planned and often rehearsed process intended to provide keep the organisation operating in the event of up to serious or catastrophic events such as floods.gov/cybersecurity/0.com/glossary. there • • • • • • • • . fire or terrorist activity.uk/csia/ia_governance/content/glossary..un.org/wiki/Disaster_recovery" Definitions of Disaster recovery on the Web: • • • • • A plan for re-establishing or reproducing computer operations after a catastrophic event. such as a fire or earthquake.• • • • Continuity Central .infodiv. www.php In mission critical operations. whether due to natural disaster or malicious intent. Just as a disaster is an event that makes the . www.wikipedia.html the process of recovering from an emergency.htm The retrieval and preservation of records damaged or distressed by an unexpected catastrophic occurrence such as fire or flooding. ...1607.IT Disaster Recovery related articles The Disaster Recovery Guide Disaster Recovery Institute International Federal Emergency Management Agency Retrieved from "http://en.

com/index_files/Page507. en.. nightanddaydba.htm Disaster Recovery is the process. including regaining .wikipedia.... policies and procedures of restoring operations critical to the resumption of business.• are many levels of DR. .org/wiki/Disaster recovery .

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