a)

Difference between the following :Steam engine and IC engines.
1.

STEAM ENGINES
• In steam engine the combustion of fuel is external and the working fluid (steam) is generated outside the power unit. Steam engine operates at a lesser temperature (about 600 ).

IC ENGINES
• In I.C. engine the combustion is internal .The correct amount of fuel – air ratio is introduced into the cylinder and combustion takes place in it.

I.C. engine operates at temperature of (about (2300

).

• Steam engine does not require cooling of cylinder, but its cylinder is steam jacked to prevent condensation of steam

• Due to high operating temperature, I.C. engine cylinder requires cooling for efficient operation and to prevent the burning of overhead components. • I.C. engine can be put into operation instantaneously .In addition to this starting is very quick and easy.

• Steam engine cannot be put into operation instantaneously .a sufficient amount of fuel is consumed in firing the boiler and generation of steam

• The exhaust off steam engine may • The exhaust gas of I.C engine be condensed in a condenser and the is led to the atmosphere condensate may be used as feed water.

b) Four stroke and Two stroke. The ratio of weight to power is low.C engine is compact in design. • I.• The efficiency of steam engine is • The efficiency of steam engine very low is higher • Steam engine is bulky. . The ratio of weight to power is high.

• • Turning effort on crankshaft is not uniform. • • • • It produces less noise. • Less wear and tear of moving parts. • TWO STROKE • There is one power stroke for one revolution of the crankshaft. • The reciprocating piston itself acts as valves. • Number of moving parts is less. • It is heavier in weight and occupies more space for same power. • The crankcase is not made gas tight.FOUR STROKE There is one power stroke for two revolutions of crankshaft. Turning effort on crankshaft is uniform. • The crankcase is made gas tight for petrol engine. • More wear and tear of moving parts. It is lighter in weight n smaller in size for same power. . More complicated due to valve mechanism. • Number of moving parts is more. Maintenance cost is more. thus heavier flywheel is required. thus lighter flywheel is needed. • Two mechanically operated valves are provided. • Simple due absence of valve mechanism. • It produces more noise. • Maintenance cost is less.

• Mechanical efficiency is less due to more moving parts.The crown of piston is made flat or domed shaped. • Fuel consumption is less. • • • Thermal efficiency is more. • • It is efficient in scavenging. • High compression ratio is available for the same cylinder bore and piston stroke. • Thermal efficiency is less. • Low compression ratio is available for the same cylinder bore and piston stroke because of the time delay to cover ports by moving piston. Fuel consumption is more as unburnt fuel escapes through exhaust port. • It is more efficient in scavenging. number of parts is required. . • • The crown of the piston is made deflected for efficient scavenging. • Mechanical efficiency is more due to less moving parts. It is not simple in design as • It is simple in design as less large number of parts is required. Direction of rotation cannot be changed. • Direction of rotation can be changed.

• While the piston cylinder So there is more efficient engine engine there is not continuously consuming fuel. The rotor constantly its direction for each engine moves in a circular path around rotation. However. the apex the stator. • The rotary engine enjoys a strong advantage over piston • While the piston must come engines in smoothness of power to a complete stop and reverse delivery. differentiates them from other Pistons engines come with engines. • Rotary engines are notoriously poor at efficiently consuming fuel. camshaft drives the pistons into the cylinder as the engine receives fuel.c) Rotary engine and Reciprocating engine ROTARY ENGINE RECIPROCATING ENGINE • Rotary engines have some • Reciprocating engine has distinct characteristics which piston cylinder arrangement. They do not have pistons. compression and ignition system. So this engine is not more efficient than rotary. seals are more critical to the rotor's functionality than a piston's seal since there is only a single moving part. • Simplicity is one advantage of • It has not more power than . • Rotary engine has rotor shaped like a bulging triangle that rotates • This engine has a set of around an oval cylinder. creating cylinders aligned so that a three pockets.

such engine would problems for a piston engine. • Rotary engines have a major • The reciprocating engines disadvantage when it comes to gas have more gas mileage than mileage. • Piston engine also have seal problem but not more than rotaries engine. They use more gas than rotary. comparatively more oil than piston engines. It has many fewer parts than piston engines and yet has more power in comparative terms. • Rotary engines can also lose • Piston engines are more power. Seal problem occurs more frequently. They burn less amount of piston engines. They also burn oil as compared to Rotary.the rotary engine. continue to produce limited power nevertheless. although at a much lesser likely to experience catastrophic rate than the piston engine. . A even when rotary engines lose piston can fail and cause many power. • Rotaries engines tend to have more problems with seal than piston engines. rotary engine. But failures than a rotary engine.

2. Define various parts of reciprocating and rotary engines? a) For reciprocating engines Parts of reciprocating engine Cylinder. or engine block. Multiple cylinders are commonly arranged side by side in a bank. the space in which a piston travels. which is .A cylinder is the central working part of a reciprocating engine or pump.

Connecting rod . It consists of a platform containing the poppet valves. Piston and piston rings . Cylinders may be sleeved (lined with a harder metal) or sleeveless.In internal combustion engines. the piston also acts as a valve by covering and uncovering ports in the cylinder wall. the cylinder head sits above the cylinders on top of the cylinder block. they form a simple mechanism that converts linear motion into rotating motion Crank and crank shaft .A piston is a component of reciprocating engines.typically cast from aluminum or cast iron before receiving precision machine work.In a reciprocating piston engine. The gudgeon pin is located in a sliding crosshead that connects to the piston via a rod. In a pump. the gudgeon pin is that which connects the piston to the connecting rod and provides a bearing for the connecting rod to pivot upon as the piston moves. among other similar mechanisms. Together with the crank. spark plugs and usually part of the combustion chamber. the function is reversed and force is transferred from the crankshaft to the piston for the purpose of compressing or ejecting the fluid in the cylinder. Gudgeon pin . the connecting rod connects the piston to the crank or crankshaft. gas compressors and pneumatic cylinders. In an engine.In an internal combustion engine. its purpose is to transfer force from expanding gas in the cylinder to the crankshaft via a piston rod and/or connecting rod. with a wear-resistant coating.Crank is an integral part of crank shaft . In some engines. reciprocating pumps. Cylinder head . It is the moving component that is contained by a cylinder and is made gas-tight by piston rings.

one at each end of the crankshaft.A valve is a device that regulates the flow of a fluid (gases. both are forged together and machined to smooth finish. the part of a piston engine which translates reciprocating linear piston motion into rotation. the main bearings are the bearings on which the crankshaft rotates.In an internal combustion engine of the reciprocating type. or slurries) by opening.In a piston engine. Engine bearings . All engines have a minimum of two main bearings. closing. usually plain or journal bearings. Spark plug . or partially obstructing various passageways. and liquefied petroleum gas by means of an electric spark Carburettor . which helps steady the rotation of the shaft when a fluctuating torque is exerted on it by its power source such as a piston-based (reciprocating) engine. Crankcases have often been discrete parts.A spark plug is an electrical device that fits into the cylinder head of some internal combustion engines and ignites compressed fuels such as aerosol.Crankshaft. Flywheels resist changes in their rotational speed. the crankcase is the housing for the crankshaft.A flywheel is a mechanical device with a significant moment of inertia used as a storage device for rotational energy.The carburettor is a device which mixes air and fuel for an internal-combustion engine. The enclosure forms the largest cavity in the engine and is located below the cylinder. ethanol. but more often they are integral with the cylinder bank forming an engine block. fluidized solids. liquids. These are of two types inlet and outlet. Valves . gasoline. Carburettors are still found in small . Flywheel . Crankcase .

If you've never seen the inside of a rotary engine. It works like a spray nozzle of a pressure washer.The fuel injector is a small nozzle into which liquid fuel is injected at high pressure. b) For rotary engines Rotary engines working basic detail A rotary engine has an ignition system and a fuel-delivery system that are similar to the ones on piston engines. Fuel injector . because you won't recognize much. . be prepared for a surprise.engines and in older or specialized automobiles such as those designed for stock car racing. The placement of the injector can be in a different part of the engine depending upon the type of fuel injection system is being used. High pressure from the fuel pump feeds the fuel to the fuel injector.

allowing more space for air/fuel mixture. These teeth mate with a gear that is fixed to the housing. Output Shaft . The rotor has a set of internal gear teeth cut into the center of one side. which increases the displacement of the engine. At the apex of each face is a metal blade that forms a seal to the outside of the combustion chamber.Rotor . and the intake port connects directly to the throttle. The four sections are: * Intake * Compression * Combustion * Exhaust The intake and exhaust ports are located in the housing. forming three sealed volumes of gas.The rotor has three convex faces. Each part of the housing is dedicated to one part of the combustion process. The shape of the combustion chamber is designed so that the three tips of the rotor will always stay in contact with the wall of the chamber.The housing is roughly oval in shape. There are no valves in these ports. each of which acts like a piston. Housing . This gear mating determines the path and direction the rotor takes through the housing. There are also metal rings on each side of the rotor that seal to the sides of the combustion chamber. The exhaust port connects directly to the exhaust. Each face of the rotor has a pocket in it.

meaning that they are offset from the centerline of the shaft. Since the lobes are mounted eccentric to the output shaft. causing it to spin. As the rotor follows its path around the housing.The output shaft has round lobes mounted eccentrically. Each rotor fits over one of these lobes. it pushes on the lobes. The lobe acts sort of like the crankshaft in a piston engine. Now let's take a look at how these parts are assembled and how it produces power. the force that the rotor applies to the lobes creates torque in the shaft. .

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