Adivasi is an umbrella term for a heterogeneous set of ethnic and tribal groups believed to be the aboriginal population of India

.[1][2][3] They comprise a substantial indigenous minority of the population of India. Adivasi societies are particularly present in the Indian states of Kerala, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Chattisgarh, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Mizoram and other northeastern states, and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Many smaller tribal groups are quite sensitive to ecological degradation caused by modernization. Both commercial forestry and intensive agriculture have proved destructive to the forests that had endured swidden agriculture for many centuries[4]. Officially recognized by the Indian government as "Scheduled Tribes" in the Fifth Schedule of the Constitution of India, they are often grouped together with scheduled castes in the category "Scheduled Castes and Tribes", which is eligible for certain affirmative action measures. Elst, Koenraad: are also used for the tribes of India, adivasi carries the specific meaning of being the original and autochthonous inhabitants of a given region, and was specifically coined for that purpose in the 1930s.[5] Over a period of time, unlike the terms "aborigines" or "tribes", the word "adivasi" has also developed a connotation of past autonomy which was disrupted during the British colonial period in India and has not been restored.[6] Opposition to usage of the term is varied, and it has been argued that the "original inhabitant" contention is based on dubious claims and that the adivasi - non adivasi divide that is created is artificial.[7] It should also be noted that in Northeast India, the term Adivasi applies only to the Tea-tribes imported from Central India during colonial times, while all tribal groups refer collectively to themselves by using the English word "tribes".

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1 Scheduled tribes 2 Primitive tribes 3 Geographical overview 4 The peopling of India 5 Disruptions during Mughal and colonial periods 6 Tribal classification criteria and demands o 6.1 Demands for tribal classification o 6.2 Endogamy, exogamy and ethnogenesis o 6.3 Other criteria 7 Religion o 7.1 Hinduism  7.1.1 Adivasi roots of modern Hinduism  7.1.2 Adivasi Saints  7.1.3 Sages  7.1.4 Maharishis

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7.1.5 Avatars 7.1.6 Other Tribals and Hinduism o 7.2 Sarna o 7.3 Demands for a separate religion code 8 Tribal system 9 Education 10 Economy 11 Participation in Indian independence movement o 11.1 List of rebellions against British rule 12 Some notable Scheduled Tribes 13 Gallery 14 See also 15 References 16 Further reading
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17 External links

[edit] Scheduled tribes
The Constitution of India, Article 366 (25) defines Scheduled Tribes as "such tribes or tribal communities or part of or groups within such tribes or tribal communities as are deemed under Article 342 to the scheduled Tribes (STs) for the purposes of this Constitution". In Article 342, the procedure to be followed for specification of a scheduled tribe is prescribed. However, it does not contain the criterion for the specification of any community as scheduled tribe. An often used criterion is based on attributes such as:
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• •

Geographical isolation - they live in cloistered, exclusive, remote and inhospitable areas such as hills and forests. Backwardness - their livelihood is based on primitive agriculture, a low-value closed economy with a low level of technology that leads to their poverty. They have low levels of literacy and health. Distinctive culture, language and religion - communities have developed their own distinctive culture, language and religion. Shyness of contact – they have a marginal degree of contact with other cultures and people.[8]

[edit] Primitive tribes
The Scheduled Tribe groups who were identified as more backward communities among the tribal population groups have been categorised as 'Primitive Tribal Groups' (PTGs) by the Government at the Centre in 1975. So far seventy-five tribal communities have been identified as 'primitive tribal groups' in different States of India. These hunting, foodgathering, and some agricultural communities, who have been identified as more backward communities among the tribal population groups need special programmes for

has been a contentious area of research and discourse.[10] Some anthropologists hypothesize that the region was settled by multiple human migrations over tens of millennia. Sikkim. and Uttarakhand in the west. About one percent of the populations of Kerala and Tamil Nadu are tribal. in this belt. Central Indian states have the country's largest tribes.2% of the nation's total population. One concentration lives in a belt along the Himalayas stretching through Jammu and Kashmir. in western India in Gujarat and Rajasthan. which. Himachal Pradesh. which is bounded by the Narmada River to the north and the Godavari River to the southeast. to Assam. and Nagaland. Other tribals. Meghalaya. to a lesser extent. although the tribal population there accounts for only around 10% of the region's total population. roughly 75% of the total tribal population live there. Tamil Nadu. more than 90% of the population is tribal.their sustainable development. Manipur.[9] [edit] Geographical overview A girl of the Chenchu tribe playing with plastic waste in midst of Nallamala forest. Meghalaya. taken as a whole. tribal peoples form between 20 and 30% of the population. Manipur. Madhya Pradesh. There are smaller numbers of tribal people in Karnataka. live in Jharkhand and West Bengal. due to the debate on topics such as the Indo-Aryan migration hypothesis. including the Santals. However. which makes it even harder to select certain groups as being truly aboriginal. In the northeastern states of Arunachal Pradesh. [edit] The peopling of India The concept of 'original inhabitant' is directly related to the initial peopling of India. Mizoram. and Nagaland in the northeast. largely .[11] One narrative. in the remaining northeast states of Assam. The primitive tribes are awakening and demanding their rights for special reservation quota for them. over 84 million people according to the 2001 census. and in the union territories of Lakshadweep and the Andaman Islands and Nicobar Islands. whereas about six percent in Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka are members of tribes. and. Andhra Pradesh There is a substantial list of Scheduled Tribes in India recognised as tribal under the Constitution of India. tribal peoples occupy the slopes of the region's mountains. Mizoram. Orissa and. Andhra Pradesh). Arunachal Pradesh. Tripura. and Tripura. Another concentration lives in the hilly areas of central India (Chhattisgarh. Tribal peoples constitute 8. and Kerala in south India.

securing adivasi approval and support was considered crucial by local rulers. their language. depending on region. is Dravidian. and were "not only the hereditary leaders of their Gond subjects.[5] The Gond Rajas of Garha-Mandla and Chanda are examples of an adivasi aristocracy that ruled in this region. some anthropologists and geneticists theorize that Caucasoids (including both Dravidians and Indo-Aryans) and Mongoloids (Sino-Tibetans) immigrated into India: the Dravidians possibly from Iran. who were. the Santals are "gradually adopting languages of the areas inhabited.[35][36] Unlike the subjugation of the dalits. For example.[19] [20][21] the Indo-Aryans possibly from the Central Asian steppes[20][22][23] and the TibetoBurmans possibly from the Himalayan and north-eastern borders of the subcontinent. but had straight rather than kinky hair).Dravidian or Aryan) caste Hindu populations. like Oriya in Orissa.[26][27][28] The Bhils and Gonds are frequently classified as Australoid groups. the adivasi origins of Maharshi (Sanksrit: Great Sage) Valmiki. but also held sway over substantial communities of non-tribals who recognized them as their feudal lords."[29] [edit] Disruptions during Mughal and colonial periods Although considered uncivilized and primitive. called Kurukh.[17][18] Subsequent to the Australoids. which is universal among Andamanese islander adivasis and might be a genetic legacy of the postulated first Indians.[34] as were the origins of adivasi tribes such as the Grasia and Bhilala. controlling their lands as a joint patrimony of the tribe. were acknowledged. Ethnic origins and linguistic affiliations in India match only inexactly. unlike Dalits.[25] Khasis and Nicobarese are considered to be Mongoloid groups[26][27] and the Munda and Santals are Australoid groups.[12][13] 60% of all Indians share the mtDNA haplogroup M.[5][33] Thus.[31] yet Bhil languages are Indo-European and the Gondi language is Dravidian. describes Negritos.[15] Similarly. the adivasis often enjoyed autonomy and.[32][37][38] In some areas.based on genetic research. as the first humans to colonize India. evolved mixed hunter-gatherer and farming economies.[24] None of these hypotheses is free from debate and disagreement.[28][29][30] but all four speak Austro-Asiatic languages. who composed the Ramayana Hindu religious epic. and adivasi tribes such as the Irulas trace their origins to that displacement. tribal languages suffered huge setbacks with the formation of linguistic states after 1956 under the States Reorganisation Act. likely 30-65 thousand years before present (kybp).[15][16] The Oraon adivasi tribe of eastern India and the Korku tribe of western India are considered to be examples of groups of Australoid origin. in post-colonial India.[25] Also. caucasoid . under statesponsored educational pressure. which descended from mixed Rajput and Bhil marriages. similar to the Andamanese adivasis of today.[32] adivasis were usually not held to be intrinsically impure by surrounding (usually."[37][40] .[14] Some anthropologists theorize that these settlers were displaced by invading Austro-Asiatic-speaking Australoid people (who largely shared skin pigmentation and physiognomy with the Negritos. however: while the Oraon adivasis are classified as an Australoid group.[5][39] and larger adivasi groups were able to sustain their own kingdoms in central India. Hindi in Bihar and Bengali in West Bengal. Irula children are being taught Tamil and a sense of shame has begun to be associated with speaking the Irula language among some children and educated adults.

[41][42] Deprived of the forests and resources they traditionally depended on and sometimes coerced to pay taxes. and this was made the justification for their children working for the zamindar after the death of the initial borrower. was rapidly made the legal property of British-designated zamindars (landlords).[42][43] Land. often the zamindars themselves.[46][47] When they were unable to pay. many adivasis were forced to borrow at usurious rates from moneylenders.[48] Often.[51] Although these were suppressed ruthlessly by the governing British authority (the East India Company prior to 1858.[49] and it is alleged that some sections of the British government directly attempted to destroy some tribes. mere contact with outsiders was often sufficient to set off deadly epidemics in tribal populations. despite continuing and widespread dispossession.[45][52] The economic deprivation. including as labor for the emerging tea plantations in Assam.[44] Adivasi lands sometimes experienced an influx of non-local settlers. long isolated from the outside world in autonomous societies. in some cases. that forced them to become bonded laborers for the zamindars. they were unable even to offset the compounding interest.g. and the British government after 1858). such as the Santal hul (or Santal revolt) of 1855-56. triggered internal adivasi migrations within India that would continue for another century. who in turn moved to extract the maximum economic benefit possible from their newfound property and subjects without regard to historical tenure or ownership.[41] Beginning with the Permanent Settlement imposed by the British in Bengal and Bihar.This relative autonomy and collective ownership of adivasi land by adivasis was severely disrupted by the advent of the Mughals in the early 16th century. Similarly. which later became the template for a deepening of feudalism throughout India. first under the jagirdari system and then under the zamindari system. the British beginning in the 18th century added to the consolidation of feudalism in India.[48] In the case of the Andamanese adivasis. to Mankis. the older social and economic system in the country began to alter radically. from the late nineteenth century onwards. far from paying off the principal of their debt.[53] [edit] Tribal classification criteria and demands . the leaders of Munda tribes) and some leniency in tax burdens resulted in relative calm.[50] Land dispossession and subjugation by British and zamindar interests resulted in a number of adivasi revolts in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. forest and labor. both forest areas belonging to adivasis and settled farmland belonging to non-adivasi peasants. often brought from far away (as in the case of Muslims and Sikhs brought to Kol territory)[45] by the zamindars to better exploit local land. partial restoration of privileges to adivasi elites (e.

[60] In Rajasthan. even blockading the national capital of Delhi to press their demand. self-classification and perception by other groups has to be taken into account to make a categorization.[61] In several cases. these claims to tribalhood are disputed by tribes who are already listed in the schedule and fear economic losses if more powerful groups . However. who are mostly AustroAsiatic or Tibeto-Burman speakers. a traditional symbol of Great Andamanese tribal identity (1901 photo) Population complexities.[58] [edit] Demands for tribal classification An additional difficulty in deciding whether a group meets the criteria to be adivasi or not are the aspirational movements created by the federal and state benefits.[55] However. which is at best inexact and open to doubt. A combination of internal social organization. including job and educational reservations. mountain or island dwelling tribes in India and are often classified as adivasi. for a given social grouping. Haryana and other northern states.[59] In Manipur. and even ancient formulators of castediscriminatory legal codes (which usually only applied to settled populations. enjoyed by groups listed as scheduled tribes (STs). having been settled for many centuries. sometimes make the official recognition of groups as adivasis (by way of inclusion in the Scheduled Tribes list) political and contentious. to definitively decide whether it is a 'caste' or a 'tribe'. are also considered to be adivasis: this area comprises 7. for instance. and not adivasis) were unable to come up with clean distinctions. Apatani and Nagas). the Gujjar community has demanded ST status.[57] These categorizations have been diffused for thousands of years. relationship with other groups.[56] It is also difficult. regardless of their language family affiliations. Meitei commentators have pointed to the lack of scheduled tribe status as a key economic disadvantage for Meiteis competing for jobs against groups that are classified as scheduled tribes.Scarification. and the controversies surrounding ethnicity and language in India. are caste Hindus. Australoid and Negrito groups that have survived as distinct forest. not all autonomous northeastern groups are considered adivasis.5% of India's land area but 20% of its adivasi population.[56] In Assam. the Tibeto-Burman-speaking Meitei of Manipur were once tribal but.[54] The relatively autonomous Mongoloid tribal groups of Northeastern India (including Khasis. Rajbongshi representatives have demanded scheduled tribe status as well.

which is often used to contrast them with Muslim and other social groupings. English. . In other words.[60] and the Meena tribe has vigorously opposed Gujjar aspirations to be recognized as a scheduled tribe. Tribes typically consist of segmentary lineages whose extended families provide the basis for social organization and control. Indeed. these in-marriage taboos are also held ubiquitously among tribal groups. draw a distinction between tribes who have continued to be tribal and tribes that have been absorbed into caste society in terms of the breakdown of tribal (and therefore caste) boundaries. though their surrounding Muslim populations do not.increased contact among villagers began during the colonial period. in the late twentieth century. Language does not always give an accurate indicator of tribal or caste status. and has accelerated since independence in 1947. ethnogenesis (the construction of new ethnic identities) in tribes occurs through a fission process (where groups splinter-off as new tribes. the Rajbongshi demand faces resistance from the Bodo tribe. and the proliferation of new mixed caste groups. exogamy and ethnogenesis Part of the challenge is that the endogamous nature of tribes is also conformed to by the vast majority of Hindu castes.[63] Another defining feature of caste Hindu society. Any of these criteria may not apply in specific instances. this could be an ancient import from tribal society into settled Hindu castes. Tribal religion recognizes no authority outside the tribe. landuse rights traditionally derive simply from tribal membership.are recognized as scheduled tribes. [64][70] Some anthropologists. tribes such as the Muslim Gujjars of Kashmir and the Kalash of Pakistan observe these exogamous traditions in common with caste Hindus and non-Kashmiri adivasis. For most tribal people. and do not serve as reliable differentiating markers between caste and tribe.[62] [edit] Endogamy. which preserves endogamy).[64][65] However.[69] Interestingly. Tribal society tends to the egalitarian. which form part of a complex and interrelated local economic exchange system. tribes tend to form self-sufficient economic units. is lineage/clan (or gotra) and village exogamy. however. In parts of Assam . A pidgin Assamese developed while educated tribal members learned Hindi and. for instance.[66][67][68] Again.[71] [edit] Other criteria Unlike area historically divided between warring tribes and villages . whereas with settled castes it usually occurs through intermixture (in violation of strict endogamy). Especially in regions of mixed population. many historians and anthropologists believe that caste endogamy reflects the once-tribal origins of the various groups who now constitute the settled Hindu castes. many tribal groups have lost their mother tongues and simply speak local or regional languages. with its leadership based on ties of kinship and personality rather than on hereditary status.

but by 1961 some 30 million and in 1991 nearly 68 million tribal members were included. tribes cannot always be viewed as people living apart. tribal society is not always more egalitarian than the rest of the rural populace. the tribe's status when it was assimilated into the caste hierarchy would be affected. the sacrificial fire" and there was "no Atma. These gyrations of census data serve to underline the complex relationship between caste and tribe. Adivasi beliefs vary by tribe."[73] Two specific rituals held great importance and it is known that. and Bhils traditionally have dominated the regions in which they have lived. in theory.g. some of the larger tribes. no Brahma. Mitra/Mithra/Mithras). During the last two decades Adivasi from Orissa. they performed sacrifices (Vedic yajna: Avestan yasna). no idol worship in the Rig Veda. social and cultural pressures have often tended to move tribes in the direction of becoming castes over a period of years. Santals. lack of idol worship and lack of a concept of reincarnation. Madhya Pradesh. kin. with its monistic underpinnings. in reality they stand for a continuum of social groups. and family may well predominate over those of tribe. in 1941 only 10 million were counted. Greek and Roman deities. On occasion. In the case of stratified tribes. are highly stratified. The differences among the figures reflect changing census criteria and the economic incentives individuals have to maintain or reject classification as a tribal member. "when the Indo-Aryans and the Persians formed a single people.[72] The "centre of Rig Vedic religion was the Yajna. the degree of isolation of various tribes has varied tremendously. [edit] Religion Main article: Tribal religions in India The majority of Adivasi practice Hinduism and Christianity. these terms represent different ways of life and ideal types. e."[74] [edit] Hinduism [edit] Adivasi roots of modern Hinduism . Jharkhand have converted to Protestant groups. Moreover. Although. The Gonds. The apparently wide fluctuation in estimates of South Asia's tribal population through the twentieth century gives a sense of how unclear the distinction between tribal and nontribal can be. and that they already had a sacred drink (Vedic soma: Avestan haoma). the loyalties of clan. If a specific tribe engaged in practices that Hindus deemed polluting. India's 1931 census enumerated 22 million tribal people. and are usually different from the historical Vedic religion. no Moksha. In addition. such as the Gonds.Self-identification and group loyalty do not provide unfailing markers of tribal identity either. Indo-European deities (who are often cognates of ancient Iranian. Tribal peoples with ambitions for social advancement in Indian society at large have tried to gain the classification of caste for their tribes. an entire tribe or part of a tribe joined a Hindu sect and thus entered the caste system en masse. In areas of substantial contact between tribes and castes.

91 . Gujarati of Junagadh. Saint Girnari Velnathji. tulsi (holy basil) and neem. cobras (nagas).the "Jananayak Tantya Bhil" Saint Tirumangai Alvar.[8] Saint Dhudhalinath. Gujarati. a hunter from whom Lord Shiva gladly accepted food offerings. a Bhil woman that offered Shri Rama and Shri Laxmana her halfeaten ber fruit. a 17th or 18th century devotee [77] Saint Tantya Mama (Bhil). Matanga Bhil. rather than the original Indo-Aryan faith. a 17th or 18th century devotee (P. The Brahma Dharma movement sought to unite peoples of all religions to worship God together and survives even today. Koli. a 17th or 18th century devotee [77] Saint Gurudev Kalicharan Brahma or Guru Brahma. led the Kol Insurrection (1831-1832) aimed against tax imposed on Mundas by Muslim rulers. Koli.[73][75][76] This also includes the sacred status of certain animals and plants. elephants. In fact. which they gratefully accepted when they were searching for Shri Sita Devi in the forest. led the Bhumij Revolt (1832-1833) aimed against missionaries and British colonialists. led the Tana Bhagat Movement (1914-1919) aimed against the missionaries and British colonialists Saint Sri Koya Bhagat. Kallar. idol worship practices and deities. Koli. Guru of Bhakta Shabari.Some historians and anthropologists assert that much of what constitutes popular Hinduism today is actually descended from an amalgamation of adivasi faiths. Saint Jatra Oraon. Koli. 4. a Bhil after whom a movement is named after . Gujarati. The Story of Historic People of India-The Kolis) Saint Ganga Narain.[75] [edit] Adivasi Saints • • • • • • • • • • Saint Buddhu Bhagat. Chandalas are often addressed as ‘Matanga ’in passages like Varaha Purana 1. a 17th or 18th century devotee [77] Bhakta Shabari. which may once have held totemic importance for certain adivasi tribes. Koli. peepul. Gujarati. Gujarati. a 17th or 18th century devotee [77] Bhaktaraj Valram. a Bodo whose founded the Brahma Dharma aimed against missionaries and colonialists. Gujarati. Koli. Gujarati.139. Oraon. such as monkeys. one of 63 Nayanar Shaivite saints. a 17th or 18th century devotee [77] [edit] Maharishis • Maharshi Matanga[78]. a 17th or 18th century devotee [77] Sany Kanji Swami. Koli. peacocks. composed the six Vedangas in beautiful Tamil verse[9] [edit] Sages • • • • • Bhaktaraj Bhadurdas. It is said that he poured water from his mouth on the Shivlingam and offered the Lord swine flesh. Madan Bhagat. Saint Dhira or Kannappa Nayanar[7]. cows.

Kallar (robber). People approached him as Singbonga. avatar of Lord Vishnu. Madhav Sadashiv Golwalkar said: "The tribals "can be given yajñopavîta (…) They should be given equal rights and footings in the matter of religious rights.[84] Bhakta Shabari was a Bhil woman that offered Shri Rama and Shri Laxmana 'ber' when they were searching for Shri Sita in the forest. The Badus have the most intimate contact with the deity of the temple. the supreme spirit. Kirata Bhil. were connected with Vaishnavite traditions as they were influenced by Sri Chaitanya.[83] Indian tribals were also part of royal armies in the Ramayana and in the Arthasastra.• Maharshi Valmiki. the contributors of Indian heritage have historic as well as esoteric records throughout the hoary literature of India. Refer SaptaRishis. and he had the honour to be invited to Yudhisthira's Rajasuya Yajna at Indraprastha. there are Brahmin and Badu (tribal) priests.”[81] At the Lingaraja temple in Bhubaneswar (11th century). He wanted not only political. [edit] Sarna . Vettakkorumakan.[12] Birsa was very close to the Panre brothers Vaishnavites. in temple worship.the form of Lord Shiva as a hunter. This is the only right solution for all the problems of casteism found nowadays in our Hindu society. and only they can bathe and adorn it. Kaladutaka or 'Vaikunthanatha'. Maharishi Matanga.[13] [edit] Other Tribals and Hinduism Some Hindus believe that Indian tribals are close to the romantic ideal of the ancient silvan culture[80] of the Vedic people. a Bhil became a Brahmana. and in general. considered an avatar of Khasra Kora.[34] He is considered to be an avatar in the Balmiki community. but religious freedom as well![11] He and his clan. composed the Ramayana. in all our social and religious affairs. It is mentioned in the Mahabharata. [79] [edit] Avatars • • • • Birsa Bhagwan or Birsa Munda.[82] The Bhil tribe is mentioned in the Mahabharata. the seven primordial sages. in the study of Vedas. Kerala adores Lord Shiva in this avatar and is known to be one of the oldest surviving temples in Bharat. the Mundas.[10] He was against conversions by missionaries. The Bhil boy Eklavya's teacher was Drona. Kirata . The Karppillikkavu Sree Mahadeva Temple. He converted even Christians to his own sect. the son of Lord Kirata.

only 20 Christians did so. they came to a conclusion that they would leave an arrow in the sky and wherever the arrow would target that will be the God’s house. The Jharkhand movement gave the Santals an opportunity to create a ‘great tradition’ of their own. while proclaiming the equality of all men before God. In Jharkhand.’ [86] Sarna is the Munda word for ‘Sacred Grove’ while Dhorom is the Oriya word meaning ‘religion’. Chattisgarh and Orissa states. we should have our worship at the sacred grove. where Bonga is believed to appear or express himself. they started worshiping the Sal tree and named their religion as ‘Sarna’ because it is derived from a Sal tree. [edit] Demands for a separate religion code Some adivasi organizations have demanded that a distinct religious code be listed for adivasis in the 2011 Census of India. Rituals are performed under groves of Sal trees called Jaher (or sacred grove). Often. also we should not stop eating beef.Some western authors and Indian sociologists refer to adivasi beliefs as animism and spirit worship. Christian tribals do not automatically lose their traditional tribal rules.”[90] . Christianity or Islam. Santhals consider themselves as living and doing everything in close association with these spirits. Santhal belief holds the world to be inhabited by numerous spiritual beings of different kinds. They questioned themselves that who is their God? Whether the Sun. They left an arrow in the sky. There are priests and an assistant priests called "Naikey" and "Kudam Naike" in every Santhal village. the genesis of the ‘Sarna’ religion occurred when the ‘Santhal tribals had gone to the forest for hunting and they started the discussion about their ‘Creator and Savior’ while they were taking rest under a tree. We will call our religion Sarna Dhorom. Father Haghenbeek concluded on this episode that these rules are not "pagan". and hold them to be distinct from Hinduism. “The movement is spoken of in the following terms ‘we should not leave our religion. keep your customs. According to the mythology of the Santhal community. it fell down under a Sal tree. it (inter-dining) is not required. [85] As Orans reported. Turis (bamboo workers) and other people of lower rank. refrain from eating with Lohars (blacksmiths).[88] [edit] Tribal system Tribals are not part of the caste system. Sarna religion came into existence.[citation needed]4 Thus. and many converts lost their new faith. the Wind or the Cloud? Finally. and wrote: “On the contrary. their religion is sometimes called Sarna. To become good Christians. Jaher are found in the forests. we should continue to use rice-beer. When in 1891 a missionary asked 150 Munda Christians to "inter-dine" with people of different rank. we now tell them: preserve your race pure. [87] Sarna involves belief in a great spirit called the Sing Bonga. Then.[89] and usually constitute egalitarian societies. but a sign of "national sentiment and pride".

Among the Santals. [edit] Education Extending the system of primary education into tribal areas and reserving places for tribal children in middle and high schools and higher education institutions are central to government policy. needing them. but also observe a jâti division within the tribe. On the other hand. very few are eligible to attend institutions of higher education. buttressed by notions of social pollution. they say. often one completely unrelated to their tribal tongue. in the students' native tongue. a mythological explanation and harsh punishments. In some regions. They usually do not marry outside the tribal community. According to scholar Koenraad Elst." Inter-dining has also been prohibited by many Indian tribal peoples. Therefore. Recruitment of qualified teachers and determination of the appropriate language of instruction also remain troublesome. where the high rate of attrition continues. A Munda Catholic theologian testifies: The tribals of Chhotanagpur are an endogamous tribe. tribal children entering school must begin by learning the official regional language. while the latter is considered incestuous. it is tabooed to marry outside the tribe or inside ones clan. the trespasses which occasion the exclusion from the tribe without chance of appeal. in those parts of the northeast where tribes have generally been spared the wholesale onslaught of outsiders. caste practices and social taboos among Indian tribals date back to antiquity: "The Munda tribals not only practise tribal endogamy and commensality. just as Hindus marry inside their caste and outside their gotra. Few who enter continue up to the tenth grade. schooling has helped tribal people to secure political and economic benefits. The way to salvation is the tribe. The Adivasi Academy is located at Tejgadh in Gujarat. An academy for teaching and preserving Adivasi languages and culture was established in 1999 by the Bhasha Research and Publication Centre. at least at the primary level.However. A Santal cannot marry a non-Santal or a member of his own clan. to work in the fields. but efforts to improve a tribe's educational status have had mixed results. The education system there has provided a corps of highly trained tribal members in the professions and high-ranking administrative posts. The former is considered as a threat to the tribe's integrity. because to them the tribe is sacred. Many tribal schools are plagued by high dropout rates. the Santals have very stringent marriage laws. Members of agrarian tribes like the Gonds often are reluctant to send their children to school. are essentially those concerning endogamy and exogamy. More precisely: To protect their tribal solidarity. few manage to finish high school. only to lapse into illiteracy later. of those who do. many scholars argue that the claim that tribals are an egalitarian society in contrast to a caste-based society is a part of a larger political agenda by some to maximize any differences from tribal and urban societies. Commission after commission on the "language question" has called for instruction. . Among the Ho of Chhotanagpur. Children attend for the first three to four years of primary school and gain a smattering of knowledge.

and some land was returned to tribal peoples despite obstruction by local police and land officials. Historically. . and more frequent government intervention figured in the increased contact that tribal peoples had with outsiders. Although an important loophole in the form of land leases was left open. tribal peoples came again under intense land pressure. have managed to gain legal tribal status. Government efforts to evict nontribal members from illegal occupation have proceeded slowly. or even lobbied governments to classify them as tribal to allow them to compete with the formerly established tribes. those ejected are usually members of poor. many regions were opened by the government to settlement through a scheme by which inward migrants received ownership of land free in return for cultivating it. especially in central India.[edit] Economy Most tribes are concentrated in heavily forested areas that combine inaccessibility with limited political or economic significance. lower castes. however. large areas fell into the hands of non-tribals. A few local Hindu craftsmen might provide such items as cooking utensils. By the time tribals accepted the necessity of obtaining formal land titles. The final blow for some tribes has come when nontribals. many tribal members have been drawn deeply into debt or mortgaged their land. that is. many tribal members became landless labourers in the 1960s and 1970s. In any case. they had lost the opportunity to lay claim to lands that might rightfully have been considered theirs. tribes made some gains in the mid-twentieth century. such as salt and iron. much like indentured peons. when evictions occur at all. Since shopkeepers often sell goods on credit (demanding high interest). to be listed as a Scheduled Tribe. as tribal people lost title to their lands in many ways – lease. Other non-tribals simply squatted. Commercial highways and cash crops frequently drew non-tribal people into remote areas. Migration into tribal lands increased dramatically. Improved communications. free to whoever needed it. The colonial and post-independence regimes belatedly realized the necessity of protecting tribals from the predations of outsiders and prohibited the sale of tribal lands. the resident nontribal shopkeeper was a permanent feature of many tribal villages. the economy of most tribes was subsistence agriculture or hunting and gathering. For tribal people. Around 1900. roads with motorized traffic. which increases tribal dependence on the market for basic necessities. Tribal members traded with outsiders for the few necessities they lacked. land was often viewed as a common resource. forfeiture from debts. In the 1970s. or bribery of land registry officials. In the early 20th century. By the 1960s and 1970s. through political jockeying. Indebtedness is so extensive that although such transactions are illegal. on account of improved transportation and communications. traders sometimes 'sell' their debtors to other merchants. however. and regions that a few years earlier had been the exclusive domain of tribes had an increasingly mixed population of tribals and non-tribals. Merchants also encourage tribals to grow cash crops (such as cotton or castor-oil plants).

for example. Until the British colonial period. mainly tribals that revolted against British rule. Northeastern tribal people have thus enjoyed a certain measure of social mobility. there was little effective control by any of the empires centered in peninsular India. Bhima Naik. Intensive exploitation of forests has often meant allowing outsiders to cut large areas of trees (while the original tribal inhabitants were restricted from cutting). The northern tribes have thus been sheltered from the kind of exploitation that those elsewhere in South Asia have suffered. Instruction was begun in Assamese but was eventually changed to Hindi. protecting the Himalayan tribes as part of the strategy to secure the border with China. [edit] List of rebellions against British rule During the period of British rule. These were:[97]. India saw the rebellions of several backward-castes. Halba rebellion (1774-79) 2. Government construction projects in the region have provided tribes with a significant source of cash. some of which also participated in the Indian freedom struggle or attacked mission posts. where he also cited this as a major cause of the Naxalite unrest that has affected areas such as the Red Corridor. Nontribals have frequently bribed local officials to secure effective use of reserved forest lands. Government policies on forest reserves have affected tribal peoples profoundly. Historically. the region was populated by autonomous feuding tribes. Some tribes have made rapid progress through the education system (the role of early missionaries was significant in this regard). and ultimately replacing mixed forests capable of sustaining tribal life with single-product plantations. followed a policy dubbed the "Inner Line".[91][92][93][94][95] [edit] Participation in Indian independence movement There were tribal reform and rebellion movements during the period of the British Empire. Postindependence governments have continued the policy. their political status was always distinct from the rest of India. 1. In Arunachal Pradesh (formerly part of the NorthEast Frontier Agency). The British. tribal members control commerce and most lowerlevel administrative posts. in efforts to protect the sensitive northeast frontier. The continuing economic alienation and exploitation of many adivasis was highlighted as a "systematic failure" by the Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh in a 2009 conference of chief ministers of all 29 Indian states. Chamka rebellion (1776-1787)[98] . by the early 1980s. non tribal people were allowed into the areas only with special permission.Tribes in the Himalayan foothills have not been as hard-pressed by the intrusions of nontribal. Government efforts to reserve forests have precipitated armed (if futile) resistance on the part of the tribal peoples involved. Jantya Bhil and Rehma Vasave.[96] There were several Adivasis in the Indian independence movement including Khajya Naik. English was taught at most levels.

Koi revolt (1859) 13. Bhil rebellion (1822-1857)[101] 7. The Kuki Uprising (1917-1919)in Manipur [edit] Some notable Scheduled Tribes • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Thakur Peoples of Maharashta Andamanese Bodos Bhils Chakma Chenchu Dhodia Tribes of Gujarat Gonds Khasis indigenous people of Lakshadweep Kurichiya Kurumbar Tripuris Mizos Malhar Koli Mundaris Nagas Nicobarese Oraon Santals Saharia Todas Maldharis of Gujarat. Rani rebellion (1878-82) 16. Chuar rebellion in Bengal (1795-1800)[99] 4. Muria rebellion (1876) 15. Paralkot rebellion (1825) 8. begun by Tantya Tope in Banswara (1858)[102] 12. begun by Ramji Gond in Adilabad (1860)[103] 14.3. Khurda Rebellion in Orissa (1817)[100] 6. Bhumkal (1910) 17. Gond rebellion. Bhil rebellion. Cholanaikkan Kokana / Kokani Warli Katkari / Kathodi Kisan Tribe . Bhopalpatnam Struggle (1795) 5. Maria rebellion (1842-63) 10. Tarapur rebellion (1842-54) 9. First Freedom Struggle (1856-57) 11.

Janu Chakma Jarawa Shompen Great Andamanese Meenas .• • • • Dongria Kondh Bonda Kutia Kondh Bishapus A'Mishapus [edit] Gallery Some portraits of adivasi people. according to the constitution Scheduled castes Caste system C. K. Bhil Young Baiga women Saharia tribe tribe tribe Bhil Gondi tribe Gondi tribe Bhil tribe Gondi tribe Gondi tribe Bhil tribe Gondi tribe Bhil tribe Bhil tribe Saharia tribe [edit] See also • • • • • • • • • • Tribal religions in India List of Scheduled Tribes in India.

Jaipal Singh . ^ Acharya. http://books. . ^ Govind Sadashiv Ghurye (1980).. no. The tribals are the Gonds. Democratic Research Service.... colonialist. 5. ". The Selected Works of Mahatma Gandhi : Satyagraha in South Africa.. ^ a b c d Robert Harrison Barnes.. India. the Bhils. pp 440.' Hardiman continues to argue that the term adivasi is preferable in India as it evokes a shared history of relative freedom in precolonial times .. Jaipal Singh to tribal problems." 7... The Concept of the Adivasi: According to the political activists who coined the word in the 1930s. or cultural agendas . ^ Minocheher Rustom Masani and Ramaswamy Srinivasan (1985).. ^ [1] Labour Bureau. Navajivan Publishing House. http://books.. ^ Lok Sabha Debates ser.. ^ Edwin Bryant and Laurie L. the Nagas and a hundred more... retrieved 2008-11-25. The Indo-Aryan Controversy. retrieved 2008-11-25.." 3." . which means 'original id=EaRXAAAAMAAJ." 8. ISBN 0878556923. The Adivasis are the original inhabitants of India.. Deepak and Shrivastava Anshu (2008): Indigenous Herbal Medicines: Tribal Formulations and Traditional Herbal Practices. ". Freedom and Dissent: Essays in Honour of Minoo Masani on His Eigthtieth Birthday. Lok Sabha Secretariat. the Murias... ". retrieved 2008-11-25. ISBN 073910876X. http://books. ".google. retrieved 2008-11-25. ^ Louise Waite (2006). 1995." 4.10 Jun 41-42 1995 v. http://books. ".. ISBN 0924304146. No issue is more illustrative of this impasse than the debate about Aryan origins .google. Aavishkar Publishers Distributor. Lexington Books.India. retrieved 2008-11-25. ISBN 0700714626. http://books.. That is what Adivasi means: the original inhabitant. I have stated above. Government of India (from here) 9.[edit] References 1..41-42. Andrew Gray and Benedict Kingsbury (1995). while ascertaining the general attitude of Mr. ". the "adivasis" are the original inhabitants of South Asia . Adivasis are the aborigines of India . myself I claim to an Adivasi and an original inhabitant of the country as Mr. ".." 2. They were the people who were there before the Dravidians.. Transaction id=gLm6WmbFsA0C.." 6. http://books.. we now exist in an era where one's use of evidence is inevitably suspect of being linked to nationalist. http://books. ^ New Book: Anthropology of Primitive Tribes in India 10. The scheduled tribes themselves tend to refer to their ethnic grouping as adivasis. a pseudo-ethnohistorical substantiation for the term 'Adivasi' Embodied Working Lives: Work and Life in Maharashtra.. Association for Asian Studies. Patton (2005) ^ Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (1968). his inisistence on the term 'Adivasi' being used for Schedule Tribes . The Adivasis are the original inhabitants retrieved Indigenous Peoples of Asia.. The Scheduled Tribes of India. ISBN 978-81-7910-252-7. Parliament of India. retrieved

. ". ^ Jim Mason (2005).. An Unnatural Order: The Roots of Our Destruction of Nature. ^ S.. . Irulas and Panyans of south India have a Negrito strain. Lantern Books... Allelic variation at 15 microsatellite loci in one important Australoid and two Indocaucasoid groups of ISSN too.. DNA has given us a glimpse of the voyage. Princeton University Press. Thereafter the Austro-Asiatic peoples came .)" 16. ethnically Australoid. This being the state of our knowledge regarding the peopling of India.. Among the studied population groups. ". http://books..... At the end of the Ice Age." the Indo Aryans came and settled in India. http://www.. O.. Journal of Forensic Sciences. The Proto-Australoids who followed them had their type more or less fixed in India and therefore may be considered to be the true aborigines... Outlines of Sociology. They are confined to the small villages and do not prefer to marry outside their community maintaining the genetic make-up without any the population of south-east Asia prior to 6000 years ago was composed largely of groups of hunter-gatherers very similar to modern Negritos . ISBN 1590560817.... retrieved 2008-11-25. ^ Stephen Fuchs (1974). retrieved 2008-11-25. into the low jungles of the Nilgiris (such movement might have been instigated eg by the advancing Australoids pushing out an earlier pre-Australoid . ^ Spencer Wells (2002)." .. 5:26 doi:10. The Irula language. Transaction Publishers. Zvelebil (1982).11." 17. The Journey of Man: A Genetic Odyssey. http://books. so. ^ Ludwig Gumplowicz and Irving Louis Horowitz (1980). Issue 1).V.astm. conventionally agriculture-based. The Aboriginal Tribes of The Negritos were the earliest inhabitants of India .. did the Dravidians ." 14. ^ Revathi Rajkumar et al... even though he admits that they are not pure Negritos . which almost certainly followed a coastal route va India . Macmillan India.. So. Australia's "aboriginal" peoples are another case in point. Phylogeny and antiquity of M macrohaplogroup inferred from complete mt DNA sequence of Indian specific lineages. these pre-Australoid forager people moved farther southward to New Guinea and Australia.. India. Oraon is a tribal Neeta and V. http://books.1186/1471-2148-5-26 15. . http://books. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2005. their homeland stretched from the middle of India eastward into southeast Asia and as far south as Indonesia and nearby id=JbbKfaEJvm4C. He believes that the Kadar. ". and onward to Australia .. "." 12.htm.. ISBN 0878556931. ISBN 3447022477. ^ a b K.. ISBN 069111532X.. both the Y-chromosome and the mtDNA paint a clear picture of a coastal leap from Africa to south-east Asia... ". Volume 49. Kashyap (January 2004.. ". it would be hazardous to look upon one particular section of the population as the aborigines of India . Guha thinks that the Negritos were the earliest racial element in India. As agriculture spread from its centers in southeast Asia.

Hgr9 and Hgr3 provides interesting data (Quintan-Murci et al. when agriculture developed in the Fertile Crescent region that extends from Israel through northern Syria to western Iran. 2001).springerlink. ISBN 9780521376952. http://content." 21. High-resolution analysis of Ychromosomal polymorphisms reveals signatures of population movements from central Asia and West Asia into India.. "High-resolution analysis of Ychromosomal polymorphisms reveals signatures of population movements from central Asia and West Asia into India" (PDF). Harmatta 1992) . ^ Tamil Literature Society (1963.."" 19. ^ a b Namita Mukherjee.. ". retrieved 2008-11-25.. . Tamil Culture. Pakistanis and Indians indicate an expansion of populations to around 9000 YBP in Iran and then to 6. No.. about 15. Vol..pdf. Majumder (December 2001. retrieved 2008-11-25... Renfrew 1987). ^ Dhavendra Kumar (2004). The Archaeology of Early Historic South Asia: The Emergence of Cities and States.000-3. Springer. ". 5). ". and may have been associated with the spread of Dravidian languages from south-west Iran (Quintan-Murci et al. A sample of 102 individuals from the Korkus tribe. was studied for the distribution of haemoglobin and ten red cell enzyme types .asp? Aktion=ShowAbstract&ArtikelNr=000153717&Ausgabe=237568&ProduktNr=2 24250. ". http://books.. retrieved 2008-11-25. Microsatellite variation of Hgr9 among Iranians. there was another eastward wave of human migration (Cavalli-Sforza et al.. 10). ^ Frank Raymond Allchin and George Erdosy (1995). http://books. retrieved Cambridge University Press. Genetic Disorders of the Indian Subcontinent. 2001).com/?id=cNUgAAAAMAAJ. ^ Hermann Kulke.. Journal of Genetics (Springer India). During . Ariella Oppenheim and Partha P... This migration originated in wha was historically termed Elam in south-west Iran to the Indus valley. This wave has been postulated to have brought the Dravidian languages into India (Renfrew 1987). the Indo-European (Aryan) language family was introduced into India about 4. Some Blood Genetic Markers in the Korkus of Central India.. an Australoid race inhabiting Central India. a part of which also appears to have entered ". The analysis of two Y chromosome variants." 22. ISBN 0415154820... 80. Almut Nebel. Saha and H. retrieved 2008-11-25. together with the evidence of archaeology would seem to suggest that the original Dravidian-speakers entered India from Iran in the fourth millennium BC . Academy of Tamil Culture. into Iran and India-Pakistan (Burrow 1973. ". http://books.000 YBP in India. No.. ^ N. More recently. and perhaps the Caucasus. There has also been a fairly general agreement that the Proto-Indoaryan speakers at one time lived on the steppes of Central Asia and that at a certain time they moved southwards through Bactria and Afghanistan. Goswami (1987. retrieved 2008-11-25.karger.000 years before present (ybp).000-10. Dietmar Rothermund (1998).18. ISBN 1402012152. Subsequently.. Routledge.. http://www. 3). Vol..000 ybp ." 20. 1994. International Journal of Human and Medical Genetics.

google. http://books. central and south Asia. B....... The Nicobarese speak different languages of the Nicobarese group.1093/molbev/msh151. The Khasis are one of the Indo-Mongoloid tribes in Northeast India. which belongs to the Austro-Asiatic group (Das. retrieved 2008-11-25. http://books. State Formation Among Tribals: A Quest for Santal Identity. retrieved 2008-1125.. Vol.. 122..0 m.. ".oxfordjournals. retrieved 2008-11-25. Tribal Heritage: A Study of the Santals. 1978) . id=BxDKhOnWwOsC.. They speak the Monkhmer language. Gunter Weiss. "The Northeast Indian Passageway: A Barrier or Corridor for Human Migrations?". ". Assam as also in Bangladesh .google. retrieved 2008-11-25.." 29.. Anthropologist. http://mbe. ISBN 0761934235. Issue 2).interscience. ^ a b A.. Lutterworth Press. . Bilingual Education. ^ a b" 26. ^ Richard Cordaux ..5 million." 25. ^ A." 24.pdf. The Santal is a large ProtoAustraloid tribe found in West Bengal. "Growth and nutritional status of Khasi boys in Northeast India relating to exogamous marriages and socioeconomic classes"..wiley. they are proto-australoid and speak Mundari dialect of AustroAsiatic .. Khongsdier. ISBN 0792348060. Nandita Mukherjee (2003. ^ a b Malini Srivastava (2007).google. The Car Nicobarese are of Mongoloid stock .3 million .the last decades intensive archaeological research in Russia and the Central Asian Republics of the former Soviet Union as well as in Pakistan and northern India has considerably enlarged our knowledge about the potential ancestors of the Indo-Aryans and their relationship with cultures in PMID 15128876.. ISBN 8121204224. Our coalescence analysis suggests that the expansion of Tibeto-Burman speakers to northeast India most likely took place within the past over one million speakers each: Bhili (Indo-Aryan) 4. ".. the Santals are gradually adopting languages of the areas Molecular Biology and Evolution (Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution) 21 (8): 1525–33. which belongs to an Austro-Asiatic language sub-family ...krepublishers. The solidarity having been broken." 30.. ^ a b Govinda Chandra Rath (2006). and Kurukh (Dravidian) 1. Bihar.. Hindi in Bihar and Bengali in West Bengal and Bangladesh . Gyan Publishing House. doi:10. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. Excavations in southern Russia and Central Asia convinced the international community of archaeologists that the Eurasian steppes had once been the original home of the speakers of Indo-European language . Springer.. http://www3. retrieved 2008-11-25.. SAGE. Tribal Development in India: The Contemporary Debate. Santali (Austric) 4. Chaudhuri (1949). northern Orissa. Nilmani Saha and Mark Stoneking (2004).. http://books. Chaudhuri (1993).200 years .. "The Sacred Complex of Munda Tribe" (PDF). http://www. retrieved 2008-11-25." 27.. ".. ^ a b Jim Cummins and David Corson (1999).com/? id=rhMXAAAAIAAJ. retrieved 2008-11-25. like Oriya in Orissa.2 m. B. "." 28.. ". Gondi (Dravidian) 2. ".

uncivilised . from whose pen this great epic had its birth. the Grasia is of mixed Bhil and Rajput descent. "The Adivasis of India . retrieved 2008-11-26.. Adivasis are not. was himself a Bhil named Valia. Anmol Publications Pvt. India). ^ C. The Munda Parha was known as 'Manki'. The Gond rajas of Chanda and Garha Mandla were not only the hereditary leaders of their Gond . Racially they were classified as Gondids. ".org/Topics/Dalit-tribal/2003/adivasi... Tribal retrieved Santals belong to his second "main race". These forests and land territories assume a territorial identity precisely because they are the extension of the Adivasis' collective personality ." 35. Shankarkumar (1(2): 91-94 (2003)). ^ R. ^ a b Thakorlal Bharabhai Naik (1956). Malids or" 31. "A Correlative Study of HLA. http://books..K. ".." 36... Practices and Insurrections.. http://www.krepublishers.." 37. Studies of Tribes and Tribals. retrieved 2008-11-26. The Bhilala of Malwa." id=MBduAAAAMAAJ. ^ a b Aloysius Irudayam and Jayshree P. http://books. The Bhils are one of the largest tribes concentrated mainly in Western Madhya Pradesh. the Bhilala are commonly considered to be a mixed group who sprung from the marriage alliances of the immigrant male Rajputs and the Bhil women of the central India . ^ a b R. ISBN 8187380780.. Conflict. while his Oraon counterpart was called 'Parha Raja. ^ U. Maharastra" (PDF).' The lands these adivasis occupied were regarded to be the village's patrimony .. ^ Edward Balfour (1885). India Village Reconstruction & Development Project (2004). Adivasis Speak Out: Atrocities Against Adivasis in Tamil Nadu. Rajasthan. PUCL Bulletin (People's Union for Civil Liberties.. Ltd. In Mewar.. they are socially distanced and often face violence from society .htm. retrieved 2008-11-25. as a general retrieved id=MWbenCIeK6oC.. ".pdf.. ". The Bhils: A Study. the Proto-Australoid. Mangubhai.. according to the traditional accounts of his life . But they continue to face prejudice (as lesser humans). ". Singh (2000)..R." 33. and Resistance". but their social history is still a mystery (Bhatia and Rao.. Bijoy.. ISBN 8126105046. Bernard Quaritch. which he considers arrived in India soon after the Negritos . Anthropological survey of %20T/T%20&%20T-01-0-000-000-2003-Web/T%20&%20T-01-2-091-1742003-Abst-PDF/T%20&%20T-01-2-091-094-2003-Shankar/T%20&%20T-01-2091-094-2003-Shankar.. http://www... The Cyclopædia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia. Valmiki.. regarded as unclean by caste Hindus in the same way as Dalits Dhule. http://books. Bharatiya Adimjati Sevak Sangh. retrieved 200811-25.A History of Discrimination.pucl.. Sinha (1995)... ". Sickle Cell Gene and G6PD Deficiency with Splenomegaly and Malaria Incidence Among Bhils and Pawra Tribes from Dhadgon. ISBN 9788185579085." ". http://books.. Eastern Gujarat and Northern Maharastra.. retrieved 2008-11-26. 1986) .. Core Committee of the All India Coordinating Forum of Adivasis/Indigenous Peoples (February 2003).google. Books for Change.. paying tribute to the Rana of Udaipur . http://books.

The Encyclopedia Britannica Co. The way in which and the extent to which tribal support had been crucial in establishing a royal dynasty have been made quite clear . and Seoni on the Satpura highlands .subjects. was given impetus by British policies that established both zamindari and ryotwari systems of land revenue administration. retrieved 2008-11-26.. The Encyclopedia Britannica. in motion since the mideighteenth century.. "." 39. ISBN and Post/colonial Politics on an Indian Plantation. ISBN 8170740142.P. Because of Mughal retrieved 2008-11-26.. The 16th century saw the establishment of a powerful Gond kingdom by Sangram Sah. who again started .. ^ a b Ulrich van der Heyden and Holger Stoecker (2005). ISBN Bagchi & Co.. Tribal polities and state systems in pre-colonial eastern and north eastern India. ISBN 0822326744.... http://books. The process of dispossession and land alienation. branched from corporate ownership. Now... ^ Hugh Chisholm (1910)." 42. http://books. Offbeat Tracks in Maharashtra: A Travel Guide.. ".. nonJharkhandis began to dominate the agrarian landscape. Popular Prakashan. Among the Munda. retrieved 2008-1126." They also have a temple and extended his dominions to include Saugor and Damoh on the Vindhyan plateau. Mission und macht im Wandel politischer Orientierungen: Europäische Missionsgesellschaften in politischen Spannungsfeldern in Afrika und Asien zwischen 1800 und 1945. ".. The permanent settlement Act had an adverse effect upon the fate of the Adivasis for.. Duke University Press. Colonial efforts toward efficient revenue collection hinged on determining legally who had proprietal rights to the land . K. The Navegaon is one of the forests in Maharashtra where the natives of this land still live and earn their livelihood by carrying out age old activities like hunting. help and support were essential in establishing a ruling family by a stroke of pen. declared to be the property of the Raja (king) and the Jagirdars.. ^ Surajit Sinha. http://books. ^ a b Piya Chatterjee (2001). http://books. Jubbulpore and Narsinghpur in the Nerbudda valley. Franz Steiner Verlag. which is home to adivasis." 38.. but also held sway over substantial communities of non-tribals who recognized them as their feudal lords .. customary forms of land tenure known as khuntkatti stipulated that land belonged communally to the village. and customary rights of cultivation." 41.. who succeeded in 1480 as the 47th of the petty Gond rajas of tribal loyalty.' The alien became the Zamindars (Landlords) while the sons of the soil got reduced to mere tenants. it was the turn of the Jagirdars-turned-Zamindars who further started leasing out land to the new comers. the shrine of Lord Waghdev . A Time for Tea: Women. retrieved 2008-11-26. produce and occupancy began to retrieved 2008-11-26. gathering forest produce and ancient methods of farming.. ^ Milind Gunaji (2005). Labor. ".com/?id=g8Xtkt1Qw3oC. and the finely wrought system of customary sharing of labor. 'the land which the aboriginals had rested from the jungle and cultivated as free men from generation was. http://books.. Centre for Studies in Social Sciences (1987). Beyond the Kamkazari lake is the Dhaavalghat. ".

http://books. ". retrieved 2008-11-26. Hermann Michael Kisch.. who was holder of one of the maintenance grants which comprised Sonpur...." 46. retrieved 2008-11-26. to certain Muhammadans. There was a wholesale destruction of 'the national V. Andrew Wallace Mackie. Shipra Publications. Gender and Tribe: Women. By the year 1832 about 6. http://books. ".. Sameeksha Trust. retrieved 2008-11-26. retrieved 2008-11-26.... The Permanent Settlement was 'nothing short of the confiscation of raiyat lands in favor of the ISBN 1856490351. even their children are forced to work for considerable parts of their lives to pay off debts . http://books. Anmol Publications Pvt. Kali for Women. ISBN 8185604738. ^ Govind Kelkar and Dev Nathan (1991).com/?id=cTluAAAAMAAJ.. Ltd. ^ O. Forests were the property of the zamindar or the state . who has obtained his favour .. a pargana in the southern portion of the estate. ^ Radhakanta Barik (2006).. in some cases..." 47. Land and Forests in Jharkhand.. As usually the zamindars were the moneylenders.The brother of the it was ...6-8. In retrieved 2008-11-26.411 Adivasi villages were alienated in this process .. Development and Ethnocide: Colonial Practices in the Andaman Islands. ISBN 8175413050.. Encyclopaedia of Political Parties. ". The Kol insurrection of was fanned into flame by the following episode:." 45. only the bursting forth of a fire that had long been smouldering.' . The land grabbing thus went on unabated. http://books. the raiyats who form 11/12ths of the whole Indian population have been wretchedly pauperised.. no doubt.... ^ Shashank Shekhar Sinha (2005). IWGIA. Sikhs and others. many tribals were forced to pay private taxes .. Trübner.. ". they could pressurize the tenants to concede to high rent . ISBN in Bengal as in Madras and Bombay.. 1974. "..9... Land and Caste Politics in Bihar. ISBN 8174888659." 49... ".google. http://books.. Restless Mothers and Turbulent Daughters: Situating Tribes in Gender Studies. ^ a b Economic and Political Weekly. Charles James O'Donnell and Herbert Hope Risley (1877).... http://books.. had abducted and dishonoured the Munda's wife" 43. Khasias etc. but two of his sisters were seduced or ravished by these hated foreigners .' To this may be added the inroads made by the Company's Government upon the village community of the tribals (the Santhals. No. Kols..." 44. Marx says '. retrieved 2008-11-26. ^ Sita Venkateswar (2004).. under the zamindari as under the' Marx observes: 'England has broken down the entire framework of Indian society ... . one of them .) . A Statistical Account of Bengal. of the features of the adivasi land systems. ^ a b William Wilson Hunter. gave farms of some of the villages over the heads of the Mankis and Mundas. The Adivasis spend their life-times working for the landlord-moneylenders and. Ralhan (2002)." 48. These laws also showed that British colonial rule had passed on to a new stage of exploitation . id=lGNuAAAAMAAJ. not only was the Manki dispossessed. Stree. http://books.encroaching Adivasi land.

the most popular workers with the planters .google.. India. ISBN and the British in particular. Tea. 1956. "... Zamindars. traders and government officials exploited them ruthlessly. retrieved 2008-11-26.. observed: 'planters. Khasi . brute force. Contact with whites. ^ The Indian Journal of Social Work. Insurrection to Agitation: The Naxalite Movement in Punjab. Monpas .. retrieved of the geographical area of India. Revolts rose with unfailing regularity and were suppressed with treachery.the '1st class jungley.. retrieved 2008-11-25. ISBN 8171545270.. ^ Paramjit S.. ^ James Minahan and Leonard W.. http://books...." 52. http://books. http://books. the region is home to 20% of India's Adivasis (tribal people). Nations Without States: A Historical Dictionary of Contemporary National Movements. He succeeded completely with one group... Judge (1992). has virtually destroyed them. Apatani & Adi .com/? id=Fk8FQa2ZSFQC. resulting in a marked reduction of their population." 55.. http://books." 54..59. Popular Prakashan. As I have suggested ". in a rough and ready way. Although the northeast states make up just ". http://books. it is probable that some disease was introduced among the coastal groups by Lieutenant Colebrooke and Blair's first settlement in 1789.' As one of the planters. Greenwood Press. judge the worth of a coolie by the darkness of the skin. The four years that the British occupied their initial site on the southeast of South Andaman were sufficient to have decimated the coastal populations of the groups referred to as Jarawa by the Aka-bea-da . Lonely id=HvYpVtBXw5kC." 51. v. The Great Human Diasporas: The History of Diversity and Evolution. The others reacted violently .." 53." ... retrieved coolies went from Chota Nagpur to Assam . ^ Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza. Tata Institute of Social Sciences. ISBN The following are the main tribes . ^ Sarina Singh. Francesco Cavalli-Sforza (1995). Illness. ^ Roy Moxham (2003). many of the labourers came from Chota Nagpur District . The Santhal insurrection in 1855-56 was a consequence of the establishment of the permanent Zamindari Settlement introduced by the British in 1793 as a result of which the Santhals had been dispossesed of the land that they had been cultivating for centuries. tact.. moneylenders. The consequence was a violent revolt by the Santhals which could only be suppressed by the army . "... alcohol. ". Carroll & Graf Publishers. Paul Clammer and Janine Eberle (2005) Basic Books. home to the Adivasis. "." 50. cooption and some reforms ..' In the last two decades of the nineteenth century 350.. ISBN 1740596943.. Doob (1996). Department of Publications. retrieved 2008-11-25.. David The Adivasi tribes encompass the pre-Dravidian holdovers from ancient India .... ISBN the British governor of the time mentions in his diary that he received instructions to destroy them with alcohol and opium. "... Nagas . and the will of the colonials all played their part. Joe Bindloss..

retrieved 2008-11-26. It is in their inability to relate these two aspects of the social phenomenon through a model of social reality that most behavioural exercises come to grief . ". retrieved 2008-11-26.rediff." 58. Guwahati." 62.." 60.7.htm. religious belief and the designation of the Meiteis as caste Hindus in the Constitution of India. The Times of and the Bodos are stoutly opposed to it ... http://books." id=AJccAAAAMAAJ.. The policy of reservations for the scheduled castes and tribes in key posts began to play havoc .. for that matter. As preferences were extended to backward castes. Social boundaries must be defined in each case (community or regional society) with reference to the modes of social classification. Rediff. Religion and Culture of on the one hand.. People's Publishing House. ^ "What the Meena-Gujjar conflict is about". the 'forward' castes have . From Independence to Statehood: Managing Ethnic Conflict in Five African and Asian States. ^ Debiprasad Chattopadhyaya (1959) id=doQeAAAAMAAJ. retrieved the outsider from the rest of India in matters of trade. and processes of social interaction.." 57. is in support of the community's demand for Scheduled Tribe status in Rajasthan . The NCR agitation. Encyclopaedia of North-east India. demanding ST status for the KRs . 2008-05-29. 2007-06-01. Lōkayata: A Study in Ancient Indian Materialism. http://books... ^ Man. http://books. ^ a b Moirangthem Kirti Singh (1988)... on the other. ISBN 0861873548. retrieved 2008-1126. commerce. ". An angry mob of Koch-Rajbongshis (KRs) ransacked 4-8-03 the BJP office. Atlantic Publishers & Distributors. http://books.. Vol# 2. and as more benefits were given to scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. ^ "Gujjars enforce blockade. The Meiteis began to think that root cause of their present unrest was their contact with the http://books. the demand for preferences becomes a device for political mobilisation. Nor. http://www. Gujjars on Thursday blocked road and rail traffic in the capital and adjoining areas as part of their 'NCR rasta roko' agitation .google. called by All India Gujjar Mahasabha. Jeyaratnam Wilson (1984).... ". .google. does a traits approach to drawing distinctions between tribe and caste lead to any meaningful interpretation of social or civilizational Manas Publications. http://timesofindia.. Because the question of what groups are to be given preferences is constitutionally and politically open. Politicians can mobilise members of their caste. retrieved 2008-11-26.. Ved Prakash (2006). retrieved 2008-11-26. ".. ".. ". ^ a b Even the authors of our traditional law-codes and other works did not know whether to call a particular group of backward people a caste or a tribe . v. religious or linguistic community around the demand for inclusion on the list of those to be given preferences ... ^ Robert Goldmann and A. Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. ISBN 8170490219. Pinter.." 61... Delhi tense".cms.. retrieved 2008-11-26. ISBN 8126907045. the KRs have been demanding the ST status for long.. ".56.

Weekes (1984) endogamy is basic to the morphology of caste but for its origin and sustenance one has to see beyond ." 63.. retrieved 2008-11-26. Anmol Publications Pvt. high caste Hindus regard the village as an exogamous unit." "." 64.... ^ Richard V. ^ Georg Pfeffer (1982). retrieved 2008-11-26." 65. Lineage exogamy also exists among the Muslim Gujjars of Jammu and Kashmir .com/? id=HwUNAAAAIAAJ.. Totemism in India. Steiner. Khel is the name given to the residents of the particular place. "..... Among many Indian tribes it is the recognized custom to marry outside the village.. Atlantic Publishers & Distributors." 67. Sharma (2004). Scheduled Castes in India: a Comprehensive Study. ISBN 8126121300.. Ltd." 69.. retrieved 2008-11-26.. not a single one broke the rule of village exogamy .. D. F. Girls born within the village are called 'village daughters' and they do not cover their faces before local men.. ^ Lalita Prasad Vidyarthi (2004).google.. ".. the elementary or nuclear family is the exogamous unit..Rajasthan is sitting on a potential caste war between the Gujjars and Meenas with the former demanding their entry into the Schedule Tribes list while the Meenas are looking to keep their turf intact by resisting any tampering with the ST quota . ". there . Oxford University This restriction is prevalent in the Munda and other tribes of Chhota Nagpur of Madhya Pradesh . Greenwood Press... ^ Mamta Rajawat (2003). Anmol Publications Pvt.. which means marrying outside the totemic division of a tribe . Elwin documents the strict observance of this rule: Out of 300 marriages recorded. Outside of it marriages are possible . Muslim Peoples: A World Ethnographic Survey.. South Asian Culture: An Anthropological ISBN retrieved 2008-11-26. ISBN 3515039139. ^ Rajendra K. whereas girls who come into the village by marriage do so ... http://books. Irfan Habib concurs. http://books.. The tribal communities. retrieved 2008-11-26. The preference for in-marriage produces the reticulated kinship system characteristic of Punjabi Muslim society.. by and large.." 66. Institutions and Change: Institutions and Change. ". the Naga tribe of Assam is divided into With Christians and id=p2wbt1QDTEgC. http://books. ISBN 0313246408. ISBN 8171566650. as opposed to Hindu lineage exogamy and preference for marriage outside one's natal village .google... Kosambi says that the fusion of tribal elements into society at large lies at the foundation of the caste system.. ".D. ^ a b Mohammad Abbas Khan (2005). http://books. ". Social Development in Twenty First Century. Oriental Publishers & Distributors. Ltd. and people of one Khel cannot marry each other . ^ John Vincent Ferreira (1965). retrieved 2008-11-26. in North India. Status and Affinity in Middle India. also practise clan exogamy. retrieved http://books. suggesting that when tribal people were absorbed they brought with them their endogamous customs . http://books. Indian Society.

is every reason to believe that the inspiration leading to the formation of exogamous gotras came from the aborigines .... ^ Hajime Nakamura and Ronald Burr (1975)" 70. Trautmann (1997)." 72. ^ Thomas R. http://books. retrieved 2008-11-25." .com/?id=LRErAAAAMAAJ. ^ Kumar Suresh Singh (1985). no Brahma.. Sardesai (1986)... even in the prehistoric period when the Indo-Aryans and the Persians formed a single people. retrieved 2008-12-12. in contrast to the nonexogamous 'sliding lineages' (Bacon 1956) of surrounding Muslims . retrieved 2008-11-26. People's Publishing House. the Vedic Aryan was not particularly eager to enter Kalasha kinship is indeed orchestrated through a rigorous system of patrilineal descent defined by lineage exogamy . Aryans and British India. ISBN 1571819126. Kodansha. the sacrificial fire.Madison. University of California Press. ISBN 9780870112720.. rather than the radiating segmentary structure of ethnogenesis by fission or descent . retrieved and Procreation: Concepts of Kinship in South Asian Practice. University of Wisconsin ... ^ a b S. http://books. he was too much this-worldly oriented. retrieved 2008-12-12 76. and that they already had a sacred drink (Vedic soma: Avestan haoma) .com/?id=kscNAAAAIAAJ. ". http://books. Shiva was a "tribal deity" to begin with and forest-dwelling communities.. no idol worship in the Rig Veda . ISBN 0520205464. Aspects of Death and Bereavement Among Indian Hindus and American Christians: A Survey and Cross-cultural Comparison. and secondary and tertiary intermixtures of the original Creation. Berghahn Books.. Sarup & Sons. Progress and Conservatism in Ancient ^ Monika Böck and Aparna Rao (2000) Culture. ^ Todd Scudiere (1997) id=Fu5h2T7dZFEC. ". Manohar... Parallel Developments: A Comparative History of Ideas. no Moksha. ". ".. Lineage exogamy thus distinguishes Kalasha descent groups as discretely bounded corporations." 71. including those who have ceased to be tribals and those who are tribals today . A notion of reincarnation was not introduced until id=gQVlAAAAMAAJ. retrieved The centre of Rig Vedic religion was the Yajna.." 74. there was a concept of a universal force . leading to a multitude of units... Tribal Roots of Hinduism. However.The radiating.. retrieved 2008-12-12.. . we have in the Dharmasastra doctrine of jatis a theory of ethnogenesis through intermixture or marriage of persons of different varnas. ". http://books. ". http://books. ISBN 8176252999.... http://books.... ^ a b Shiv Kumar Tiwari (2002). There is no Atma." idea of an underlying monistic reality that was later called Brahman . Tribal Society in India: An Anthropo-historical Perspective. segmentary character of the underlying genealogical figure requires that the specifications be unilineal .." 75. they performed sacrifices (Vedic yajna: Avestan yasna).

1229 Economic and Political Weekly 100. p. ^ Kautilya: The Arthashastra 9:2:13-20. Retrieved 2010-04-23.97. reviewed after a century”. 1916 (E book) Elst.47. Elst 2001 97. II. http://news. Kulke and Tripathi.stm. ^ Page 63 Tagore Without Illusions by Hitendra Mitra 99.: Cult of Jagannath.31-54) (II. ^ P. 32 Social and Political Awakening Among the Tribals of Rajasthan By Gopi Nath Sharma 103. p. Manohar Publishers & Distributors.21) Elst 2001 84. ^ P. 80. 86.37. ^ P. archived from the original on 87. 30-32. by R. ^ "Tribal Protests and Rebellions' 98. ^ Shaap to Delhi 1994. The Story of Historic People of India-The Kolis) 78. http://www. Retrieved 2009-11-04. 2000. ^ [3] 79. P. 82. BBC News. Russell. Golwalkar: Bunch of Thoughts. 685. Sevartham 1991. Paris 1993.wikipedia. Atul Chandra Pradhan 101. ^ Sameeksha Trust. ^ [4] 94. 90. ^ "Plight of India's tribal peoples". Van Exem: “The Mistake. Elst 2001 85. ^ http://en. Eschmann. Elst 2001 91.479. p. ^ Troisi. Elst 2001 ^ Thomas Parkhill: The Forest Setting in Hindu Epics. Girilal: The Hindu Phenomenon. M: “The Santal A Tribe in Search of a Great Tradition”. http://news. UBSPD. eds. ^ [2] 89.webcitation. Penguin edition. BBC News.77. ^ M. Koenraad. 4. 88.stm. ^ Troisi. esp. 111 The Freedom Struggle in Hyderabad: A Connected Account By Hyderabad (India : State) 102. Manohar Publishers & Distributors.S.V. Tirkey: “Evangelization among the Uraons”. ^ JAIN. J: “Tribal Religion”. ^ A. 81. Gérard: Où Va l’Inde Moderne? L’Harmattan. Who is a Hindu? (2001) ISBN 81-85990-74-3 ^ a b c d e f (P. ^ Mahabharata (I. June 1997. ^ HEUZE. page 106. ^ P. ^ Orans. 2004-12-10. p. 93. ^ [5] 95. page 420 Who's who of Freedom Struggle in Andhra Pradesh By Sarojini Regani [edit] Further reading • • The Tribes and Castes of the Central Provinces of India. ^ "Indian PM reaches out to tribes". J: Tribal Religion. page 259. A. 2000. Indian Missiological Review. ^ [6] 96. Wayne State University Press. 4 “Freedom Movement in Khurda” Dr.

R. by Kumar Suresh Singh. Indian Council of Social Science Research. Anthropological Survey of India. Published by Manohar. . Indian Institute of Advanced Study. by Kumar Suresh Singh. Tribal Society in India: An Anthropo-historical Perspective. House. 1998) (1955) Tribal Heritage of India.• • • • • Raj. 1982. Published by Manohar. Tribal Movements in India. ISBN 0-7069-0531-8. Aditya & Papia Raj (2004) “Linguistic Deculturation and the Importance of Popular Education among the Gonds in India” Adult Education and Development 62: 55-61 Vindicated by Time: The Niyogi Committee Report (edited by S. 1977. 1985. Published by Vikas Pub. by Shyama Charan Dube. Goel.

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