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Why are we Logging Wells ?
Wireline logging can be used in a number of ways by a number of people to provide solutions to questions they have about a particular well. Some of the ways different people in an office will use these logs are: Geophysics look to logs for:
– – – Where are my tops (as predicted?) Does seismic interpretation agree with log data? How is my synthetic doing with this new information?
Geologists look to logs for:
– – – – – – – Where are my tops ? Do I have any reservoir ? Is there any Hydrocarbon in the well ? What type of Hydrocarbon(s) is there ? How good is my reservoir ? What kind of reserves do I have ? How does this tie in to my offsets ?
Drilling Engineers are looking for:
– – – – What is my hole volume (cement) ? What is my dog leg severity ? Where can I get a good packer seat for testing ? Where can I set up my whipstock ?
Production Engineers are looking for:
– – – – – – Where should complete this well ? What will be my expected production rates ? Will I have to deal with water ? How should I complete this well ? Do I need to stimulate this well ? How should I stimulate it ?
and then find out how to interpret the readings from these tools and combine them to evaluate your well. we will be learning a method to quickly interpret open hole wireline logs to determine if there is a potential reservoir and then how to evaluate it for hydrocarbon production. Preferably this will be a ‘clean’ (little to no shale) formation. Since clays and shales tend to accumulate radioactive materials. the gamma ray (GR) log is used as a shale indicator with a high gamma ray indicating shale (around 100 GAPI) and low gamma ray indicating clean formation (~30 GAPI in sands. To do this. The Gamma Ray Log One of the first things we need to look for when we look at a log is a suitable reservoir. The tool itself reads the natural gamma radiation in the formation adjacent to the detector. The first step along this path will be looking at open hole logs and determining if we could possibly have a reservoir. we will look at the basic tools used in open hole logging. 0 GAPI 150 Shaly Sand Shale Clean Sand Sandy Shale Limestone Volcanic Ash Dolomite Coal Anhydrite / Salt Gypsum 3 . Some typical GR values are shown below. we are going to be concentrating on reservoir characterization and quality aspect of these uses. Specifically. and about ~15 GAPI in carbonates).In this course. The Gamma Ray log can help give an indication of this.
As well. brittle shales. feldspar (mineral) that is common some sands can cause the GR to read high in a clean sand (an example of this is the granite wash around the peace river arch). and Uranium. Salt. Potassium. In some cases. 0 0 GAPI GAPI 150 150 Clean Formation Clean Formation Shale Shale Uranium Rich Clean Formation Uranium Rich Clean Formation Potassium Rich Clean Formation Potassium Rich Clean Formation Potassium Potassium Thorium Thorium Uranium Uranium 4 . but also the amount of the particular radioactive mineral is present. swelling shales. Coal. it splits the natural gamma rays into there respective energy spectrum and quantifies the three main radioactive elements. To do this. it is valuable to know not only that there are radioactive elements present in the formation. and Gypsum are typically contain little radioactive material and thus show up as clean. Anhydrite.Other materials commonly found in the well bore also affect the GR log. Thorium. This allows us to do things like minimizing the effect of feldspar (potassium) to determine a clean sand. For example. or to actually get the clay type in any particular shale (I.e. shales prone to collapse). volcanic ash can be very radioactive and thus cause an unusually high GR reading.
it is important to note that whatever is in the pore space (porosity) will also have a small affect on the porosity (for example. limestone. the next thing to look at is weather or not these formations have any storage space. Also. and then measures the time it takes to travel through the formation and back to a receiver on the tool. These are the Neutron tool. or dolomite). the Density tool.Now that we know how to identify clean formations. it is important to know rock type (sandstone. sound travels through gas at lower rates than through fluid. The Sonic Log The Sonic log. Since sound travels at different speeds through different types of rock. and the Sonic tool. therefore porosity estimates in gas will appear high). they only infer this from different properties of the rock and fluid in the rock. uses the travel time of sound through the formation to infer porosity. Porosity Logs In any reservoir. That is. Φ=(tLOG-tma)/(tff-tma) LOG ma ma Where: Φ tLOG tma tfl = porosity =sonic travel time read from the log =sonic travel time in a clean 0 porosity matrix =sonic travel time in the wellbore fluid 5 . it sends a sound pulse or a ‘click’ out from a transmitter. and typically use three basic tools to determine what porosity (Φ) might be. While all of these tools give a porosity output. By comparing how fast the ‘click’ travels through the rock to how fast it should travel if there were no porosity. we need to have a certain amount of open space so that hydrocarbons have some where to exist. We call this storage space porosity. and knowing how fast sound will travel through fluid. we can infer a liquid filled porosity. as the name implies. The equation for finding porosity (commonly we use the Wyllie Time-Average Equation which is based on laboratory measurements) is a follows.
This chart is actually an easy way to calculate porosity from a sonic log using either method. The porosity from the Wyllie equation is then divided by this Bulk Compaction Factor (Bcp) to give a more realistic porosity. To correct for this. Use chart Por-3m and/or the equation above to find porosity in the clean zones below.Hunt transform from chart Por -3m (the red ‘field observations’ lines). The advantage to using the ‘field observations’ is that they have used a transform based on field data to eliminate bulk compaction factor from the equation. you can have formations that are not fully compacted. we look at adjacent shale beds (where sound velocity is highly effected by compaction) and divide the sonic velocity read from the log by 328 µs/m.Some common values for sonic travel times (∆t) are: Sand Limestone Dolomite Anhydrite Fresh muds ∆t = 182 µs/m ∆t = 156 µs/m ∆t = 143 µs/m ∆t = 164 µs/m ∆t = 620 µs/m In sand. 0 0 GAPI GAPI 150 150 500 500 µs/m µs/m 100 100 GR GR ∆tt ∆ 6 . Alternately. we can use the Raymer . That is. the sand grains are not perfectly packed on top of each other as they were in Wyllie’s measurements.
The neutron tool uses the amount of hydrogen in a formation to infer porosity. This fact actually benefits us by allowing us to determine how much secondary porosity there is by comparing the sonic porosity to the porosity from another tool. secondary porosity (such as vugy porosity) will not be detected by the sonic because there is always a travel path for the sound waves past the pore space. Residual gas will cause the sonic to read slightly high porosity's. These neutrons collide with the nuclei of the formation materials in what may be thought of as elastic billiard ball collisions. Borehole. either using the Bcp or field observation transform. The greater energy loss occurs when the neutron strikes a nucleus of equal (or almost equal) mass ( Hydrogen). Hydrogen. With each collision the Neutron looses some of its energy. most of the fluid seen by the sonic will be mud filtrate. Secondary porosity.Since we only infer porosity from sonic travel time measurements. Neutrons are electrically neutral particles having a mass almost identical to the mass of a hydrogen atom. High energy (fast) neutrons are continuously emitted from a radioactive source within the tool. Since water / oil has a relatively constant amount of hydrogen atoms by volume. Within a few micro seconds. – – – The Neutron Log The second porosity tool we will look at is the Neutron porosity tool. The condition of the borehole is usually corrected for with modern tools however highly rugose boreholes will affect the sonic travel time and cause unreliable sonic porosity's. the neutrons have been slowed through successive collisions to energies of about 0. The amount of energy lost per collision depends on the relative mass of the nucleus with which the neutron collides. the slowing of the neutron is largely due to the amount of Hydrogen in the formation. They then float around until they are captured by the nuclei of atoms such as Chlorine. the amount of hydrogen can be used to infer the amount of fluid in a formation. Since collisions with larger or smaller nuclei do not affect the energy of the Neutron much.025 eV. which in a clean formation is the porosity. Compaction. since the depth of investigation of the sonic log is fairly shallow. Neutron tool theory can be summed up as follows. a number of factors can affect the sonic porosity: – Fluid type. or 7 . lack of compaction will cause the porosity reading to be high unless compaction is factored in.
GAPI GAPI 0 0 150 150 60 60 % % 0 0 GR GR NPOR NPOR Limestone Limestone 8 . which is the measurement of the amount of Hydrogen per unit volume of formation. they do not affect the porosity readings. Since the amount of neutron absorbers in the formation greatly affect the porosity readings of the log. Large errors may occur if matrix selection is incorrect. Gas hydrogen concentration is much lower than that of water and therefore will give low porosity’s.) in the formation material. since liquid hydrocarbons contain similar hydrogen concentration to water. and by knowing what quantity of neutron capture elements (Chlorine.Silicon. By using a detector that measures the amount of low energy Neutrons. The Neutron log is presented in porosity units based on a particular matrix type (sandstone. Shale. we can say how much hydrogen is in the formation. limestone. or dolomite). Chart Por-13b allows you to convert between different matrices to arrive at a true porosity for the particular matrix type present. The amount of hydrogen in the formation is also known as the Hydrogen Index (HI). The presence of chemically bound water in shales causes the the neutron log to read high porosity’s in shales or shaly formations. The factors that may affect the neutron log are are: – – – Lithology. Use Chart Por-13b to convert the following to both sandstone and dolomite porosity’s . etc. A single known matrix must be present to accurately determine porosity’s. Fluid Type. it is essential that the correct matrix be used. Silicon.
the porosity of the formation. and having a porosity (Φ) that contains a fluid of density (ρf). 9 . as its name implies.The Density Log The third common type of porosity tool is the Density tool. uses the electron density of the formation to infer a porosity. we can use: ΦD = ρma .ρb / ρma . for a clean formation of known matrix density (ρma). the formation bulk density (ρb) will be: ρb = Φρf + (1-Φ)ρma Φρ or. As well. So. Chart Por-5 may be used to calculate porosity from bulk density. The density tool. It makes use of a radioactive source which emits medium energy gamma rays into the formation. This density that the tool reads is a combination of the density of the matrix (solid portion of the formation). re writing this for porosity.ρfl Where:ΦD = Density porosity ρma = density of matrix material ρb = measured by density tool ρfl = density of fluid in the borehole Some common Densities ( ρ ) are: Sandstone 2650 Kg/m3 Limestone 2710 Kg/m3 Dolomite 2870 Kg/m3 Fresh Water 1000 Kg/m3 Oil 850 Kg/m3 Appendix B in the Chart book has density values for various rocks. and the density of the fluid in the pore space. The amount of number of gamma rays that are received at the detector indicates the formation density.
1 RHOB ~ 2710 Kg/m3 Dolomite PEF ~ 3. Appendix B in the chart book gives different values of bulk density and PEF values. Assume fluid density of 1000 Kg/m3. The photoelectric absorption factor is presented on the log as a PEF curve and can be used in conjunction with the bulk density to indicate the matrix type. 0 0 GAPI GAPI 150 150 2000 2000 K/m3 K/m3 3000 3000 GR GR rhob rhob Typically. Fluid is fresh water. check the lithology and determine the proper porosity readings. Calculate for sandstone. the toll also measures the photoelectric absorption index. In addition to the bulk density measurement.Convert the following bulk densities to porosity. the bulk density will be converted to porosity and presented with the neutron porosity log.1 RHOB ~ 2850 Kg/m3 On the following log. and dolomite. The matrix density used for the porosity calculation should be noted on the bottom and top of the logs. The values for the common matrix types are: Sandstone PEF ~ 1.8 RHOB ~ 2650 Kg/m3 Limestone PEF ~ 5. 10 . limestone. which can be related to lithology.
it will have the following effect. the correct matrix density must be known to get a correct porosity. the density of shale ranges from 2200 to 2650 Kg/m3 but is usually close to 2650. (Density porosity will be high) – – 11 . Shale. the fluid generally seen is the mud filtrate. Borehole effect. If residual fluid is in the area of investigation. • Oil. This means the shale appears as matrix to the density tool and it gives a good indication of effective porosity Fluid type. since the depth of investigation of the density tool is shallow. residual gas will drive the porosity reading high. the density tool may lift off the formation wall causing incorrect bulk density readings. residual oil will drive the density porosity high. • Salt water will drive the density porosity low • Gas. in very rough boreholes.0 0 GAPI GAPI 0 0 150 150 60 60 PEF PEF 10 10 % % 0 0 MDEN=2650 MDEN=2650 GR GR PEF PEF DPHI DPHI Factors that may effect the Density Log are: – – Lithology.
gas vs. etc. Gamma Ray Gamma Ray GAPI GAPI 0 0 150 150 Total Porosity Total Porosity Neutron Porosity Neutron Porosity 60 60 Uncompacted Uncompacted Shale Shale Uncompacted Uncompacted Clean Clean Sand Sand Compacted Compacted Shaly Shaly Sand Sand Compacted Compacted Clean Clean Sand Sand Compacted Shale Compacted Shale % % Density Porosity Density Porosity Sonic Porosity Sonic Porosity 0 0 Gas Gas Oil // Water Oil Water Gas Gas Oil // Water Oil Water Gas Gas Oil // Water Oil Water Intercrystaline Intercrystaline Gas Gas Oil // Water Oil Water Gas Gas Carbonate Carbonate Vugy Vugy Oil // Water Oil Water 12 . no shale present) The porosity is filled with fluid If any one of these conditions are not met.Total Porosity Determination We have now seen that the basic porosity measurements are inferred from measurements of bulk density. The matrix type is known and constant The rock is clean (I. hydrogen concentration. liquid filled porosity.e. and acoustic travel time. primary/secondary porosity. the porosity measurements will disagree in one fashion or another. not fractured or secondary. The following is a table of the responses of the basic tools in various situations. This difference can be used to determine a number of factors including: lithology. These porosity’s are valid under the following conditions: – – – – The porosity type is intergranular.
use ΦTotal = ΦN If only ΦN and ∆t are available. The difference between the mud filtrate resistivity and the formation fluid resistivity will affect the amount and direction of the SP deflection. use ΦTotal = ΦS + Estimated ΦVugs So now we can pick a clean formation and we can determine weather or not the formation has any pore space to contain hydrocarbon.So. we use the following. for initial computations: – – If ΦD is available. either directly. Although there are quantitative ways to determine an actual number for permeability. then use ΦTotal = (ΦN+ΦD)/2 Φ Φ If only ∆t is available. Because Ion movement must occur. The greater the permeability. Now. how do we tell if the formation fluid can actually move? Permeability Indicators Permeability is the measurement of how well fluid moves through a formation. use ΦTotal = ΦS with compaction corrections. or through a permeable membrane such as a shale. we will only deal with relative permeability in this course. the easier it is for fluid to move in the formation. In a carbonate. In a sand shale sequence. 13 . for initial computations: – – If ΦN and ΦD are available. Ion transfer between the fluids causes a electric potential to be created at the boundary. Spontaneous Potential One of the first indicators of permeability we look at is the Spontaneous Potential (SP) curve. this becomes a good indicator of permeable zones. which porosity measurement should be used? Depending on the formation and the tools available. A spontaneous potential is created when fluids of different salinity come in contact with each other.
the borehole should be constricted where a permeable formation is. 14 . Caliper Another good indicator of permeability is the caliper device. then compares them to indicate permeability. some other common logs can be used for permeability indication. Microlog The Microlog tool measures resistivity at two depths. than that zone is most likely permeable. So if we look at the caliper curve and it is smaller than the bit size in a porous zone. then mudcake should build up. Therefore. the shallow reading on the microlog (Microinverse) will read the mud cake (generally lower) and the deeper reading (Micronormal) will read the invaded formation (generally higher) producing a positive curve separation.Shale Shale Sand Sand Shale Shale Rmf = Rw Rmf = Rw Rmf < Rw Rmf < Rw Salt mud Salt mud Rmf > Rw Rmf > Rw Fresh mud Fresh mud (most common) (most common) As well as the SP. Since permeability produces mudcake. If there is permeability.
to begin looking at what it is in the pore space. the water saturation or Sw. pick the apparently permeable zones. All we have to do now is find out what will come out of it. we now have a clean. porous.On the following logs. we need to look at what we can measure. Water Saturation Calculations To find out weather pore space will contain water or hydrocarbon. We measure it using the Archie equation. permeable formation. OHMm OHMm 0 0 Micorinverse Micorinverse SP SP GR GR Micronormal Micronormal 20 20 Caliper Caliper Bit Size Bit Size So. 1) Rock does not conduct electricity 2) Hydrocarbon does not conduct electricity 3) Water does conduct electricity So. we need to look at a few of the physical properties of the formation and the fluids it may contain. It can be derived as follows: 15 .
Since rock is an insulator. a decrease in Sw will increase Rt. Rt α 1/Φ If we replace some of the fluid with hydrocarbon (an insulator) we are effectively decreasing Sw. Since rock is an insulator. Rt α 1/Sw So if we combine these equations. as we add rock (decrease Φ) we increase the total resistivity. If we vary the resistivity of the water in the cube.Consider a cube of water (Φ = 100%. Rt a Rw * 1/Φ * 1/Sw Φ or re-writing it for Sw Sw α Rw / Φ Rt 16 . we get a resistivity we will call Rt. If we measure the resistance across it. the total resistivity of the cube will vary proportionately. we get. Rt α Rw Now. Sw = 100%). take the cube and put some rock in it.
62 m = 2.Archie did some laboratory work and placed a few constants in the equation to remove the proportionality and provide a solvable formula. For sands a = . Depending on the formation. and tools that induce current to flow in the formation are called Induction tools. The more conductive.81 m=2 For carbonates a=1 m=2 So. The primary constraint for using one or the other is the mud fluid type. we need to have a conductive mud. we know how to find Φ for this equation. Tools that measure this directly are generally called Laterolog tools. the 17 .15 or a = . Swn = a * Rw // Φm * Rt Swn = a * Rw Φm * Rt Where: Sw = water saturation Rw = water resistivity Rt = total resistivity F = porosity m = cementation factor n = saturation exponent a = constant of proportionality For basic interpretation. In order to carry current directly to the formation. we use different values for a & m. Resistivty Tools Resistivity tools are tools that directly or indirectly measure the resistivity of a formation. what we need to find is Rt and Rw. we use a n of 2.
) than we need to read the resistivity in another fashion. To do this. foam. Since the basic principle of the laterolog (direct current device) is fairly simple (you measure the resistivity between two electrodes) we will skip to the Induction device. First go to the bottom and mark a vertical line at 25C. These ground loops in turn create a magnetic field that causes current to flow in a receiver coil in the tool. etc.better the readings. and then use the location to find the Rw. This is a compilation of water resistivities from formations all over the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin. The resistivity of the formation. the formation water resistivity (Rw) Formation Water Resistivity One of the keys to identifying hydrocarbon in the formation is knowing the correct water resistivity (Rw). gas. we use the deepest reading of the induction or laterolog tool to estimate Rt. then. Then mark your 18 . The magnetic field created from current passing through this coil causes current to flow in the formation in ground loops. invert mud system. If there is not a good conductive path (fresh water. we can get the resistivity of the formation. The last step. Generally. is to find the last piece of the Archie equation. if read deep enough to eliminate any effects of the borehole and invasion. The induction device uses a coil to create a magnetic field. Since the strength of the current in the receiver coil is directly related to how much current is flowing in the formation. turn to the page that the formation is mapped on. Chart Gen-9 is helpful. You then need to correct the Rw to the temperature of the formation you are looking at. There are a number of ways to find this number. you find the formation you want an Rw for. is then the Rt in the Archie equation. To use this. One of the most common ways (in Western Canada) is to use the Formation Water Resistivities Catalogue. and we know how strong a current was used to create the current flow in the formation.
Mark another point on the bottom where your formation temperature is (I. As seen through the beginning of this course. is that this is only a quick look method. In other words. 100% wet zone present nearby.e. The next page summarizes a method of performing quick look evaluations in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin. If you prefer to use a calculator. Even so. One more method can be used if there is a clean. 19 .5)] where R2 = Rw at formation temperature R1 = Rw from the water catalogue T1 = Temperature in water catalogue T2 = Formation temperature Another method of finding Rw is by using actual water sample from the well.5)/(T2+21. you can use the equation R2 = R1 [(T1+21. many things can affect the logs and throw the interpretation off. Now take your point from the Rw catalogue and follow it down the blue lines (constant salinity) until it intersects the formation temperature line (vertical). check for porosity and permeability.resistivity from the catalogue on the left hand side (careful with the scales). we now can start do quick look evaluations of Open Hole logs. Take this point a draw a line straight to the left edge and read the Rw at your formation temperature. In this case (using the Archie equation) Rw = Φm * Rt We now know how to pick a clean zone. you now have a place to start from. Be careful that this reading is at the correct temperature as well. We use salinity because it is fixed for a given water despite temperature. 40C) and draw a vertical line. The point at which they intersect will be the salinity of the formation. One thing to remember. and evaluate it for Hydrocarbon content. however.
pick the zones that are permeable using the SP (and / or any of the other methods) 4) From the zones left from step 3.Quick Look Method for Evaluating Wireline Logs in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin 1) Pick out all the zones that are not shale using the GR 2) Use the porosity log to pick the zones in step 1 that are porous Sandstone .eliminate all zones with <9% porosity Carbonate .use the neutron and density porosity's . 5) We now have our zones of interest. These should be your Hydrocarbon bearing zones.62 * Rw)/(Φ2. pick out the zones with high resistivity.15 * Rt) Φ for carbonates Sw = (1 * Rw) / (Φ2 * Rt) Φ 20 . The Neutron and Density (or neutron/sonic) logs can be used to identify gas zones (cross over).use the density log if possible .eliminate all zones with <3% porosity 3) For zones left from step 2. 6) Water Saturation Calculations for sands Sw = (.
21 . only hydrocarbon. The Zone will produce only water.1 The zone will produce only hydrocarbon.35 Usually no water will be produced.1. In Carbonates with Intergranular or Intercrystaline porosity If Sw < 0.Will it Produce ?? In Sandstones If Sw > 0.35 . If Sw = 0.6 .0 In Carbonates with Vugy Porosity If Sw = 0.1.0 The zone will produce only water.0 The zone will produce only water. only hydrocarbon. If Sw = 0. If Sw = 0.60 .35 Usually no water will be produced.1.
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