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1. Bauxite is an ore containing hydrated aluminium oxide, iron(III) oxide and silicon dioxide.

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order to obtain a purer form of aluminium oxide, bauxite is heated with a 10% solution of
sodium hydroxide in which the aluminium oxide dissolves.

(i) Write an equation for the reaction of aluminium oxide with sodium hydroxide.

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(ii) Why does iron(III) oxide not dissolve in sodium hydroxide?

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(iii) Why does silicon dioxide not dissolve in a 10% solution of sodium hydroxide?

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(Total 4 marks)

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Iron is extracted from its oxides in a blast furnace. Carbon, in the form of coke, is one of the raw
materials mixed with the iron ore.
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(a) The reaction between iron(III) oxide and carbon monoxide to produce iron occurs in many
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stages; one stage might be represented by the equation

Fe2O3(s) +CO(g) 2FeO(s) + CO2(g)


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Write the expression for the equilibrium constant, Kp, for this reaction.
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(b) When an acidified solution of potassium dichromate(VI), K2Cr2O7, is added to a solution


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of an iron(II) compound the dichromate(VI) ions are reduced to chromium(III) ions and
the iron(II) ions are oxidised to iron(III) ions.
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(i) Write an ionic half equation for the reduction of dichromate(VI) ions in acidic
solution.

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(1)

(ii) Write an equation for the reaction between dichromate(VI) and iron(II) ions.

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NT Exampro 1
(c) A 0.204 g sample of steel was reacted with excess dilute sulphuric acid. The resulting
solution required 27.4 cm3 of 0.0220 mol dm–3 potassium dichromate(VI) solution for
complete reaction.

Calculate the percentage of iron in the sample of steel.

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(4)
(Total 8 marks)

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3. (a) Aluminium is extracted by the electrolysis of a 5% solution of aluminium oxide in molten
cryolite, Na3AlF6. The temperature of the electrolyte is maintained at around 1200 K.

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Why is pure molten aluminium oxide not used as the electrolyte?
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(ii) Write an equation for the reaction that occurs at the anode. Explain why if carbon
anodes are used, they have to be replaced regularly.

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(iii) Suggest two reasons why the extraction of aluminium requires a lot of energy.
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NT Exampro 2
(iv) Suggest two different properties of aluminium that have resulted in its economic
importance.

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(b) Aluminium/air electrochemical cells can be used to power golf trolleys and invalid
carriages One electrode is made of aluminium while the other is made by bubbling air
through an inert porous material. The electrolyte is usually sodium hydroxide solution.
The equations for the reactions taking place at the electrodes are:

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I Al(s) + 3OH–(aq) → Al(OH)3(s) + 3e–

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II O2(g) + 2H2O (1) + 4e– →4OH– (aq)

(i) Which electrode acts as the cathode of the cell?

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(ii) Write an equation for the overall cell reaction.

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(iii) Suggest one reason why the efficiency of the cell may be reduced over a period
of time.
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(Total 11 marks)

NT Exampro 3