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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 31,NO. 6 , DECEMBER 1990

**Position Control of dc Motors via Variable Structure Systems Control: A Chattering Alleviation Approach
**

FU-JUAY CHANG, HSIANG-JU LIAO, AND SHYANG CHANG

Abstract-Recently, variable structure systems (VSS) control bas been widely used in motor control systems. It provides attractive features such as fast response, good transient performance, insensitivity to variations in plant parameters, and external disturbances. However, the undesired phenomenon of chattering is a serious problem. In this paper, a new VSS control algorithm called chattering alleviation control (CAC) is proposed to solve this serious problem. Both analog and digital controllers using the theory of CAC are applied to the position control problem of a dc servo motor system. Comparisons of the CAC with other VSS control algorithm indicate that the chattering can be alleviated. Moreover, the input of the CAC method contains only low-frequency components, and hence, it will not excite unmodeled high-frequency plant dynamics.

I. INTRODUCTION

ECENTLY, considerable interest has arisen in the varible structure systems (VSS) control of uncertain systems, robotic manipulators, and motor control [1J - [161. One of the advantages of the VSS control is its insensitivity to the variations of plant parameters once it is in the sliding mode. Hence, in a sense, VSS control has the intrinsic nature of robustness. However, one of the difficulties with the VSS design is the “chattering” problem about its switching surface. This will in turn involve excessive control effort and further may excite high-frequency unmodeled dynamics in the system. In order to alleviate this phenomenon, many approaches have been proposed. One of them is the so-called boundary layer approach [13, [15], [16] that uses continuous control law and time-varying sliding surfaces in the state space. One of the drawbacks of this approach is that it is not accurate enough in the real-time tracking problem of robotic applications. Moreover, the time-varying sliding surfaces idea is much more difficult and costly to implement in the real data environment. Another approach proposed in [6] is to alleviate chattering by decreasing the control gain P in order to compensate for exceeding the trajectory error bound. However, in this case, very small gains imply very long reaching

Manuscript received August 29, 1989; revised April 5 , 1990. F.-J. Chang and S. Chang are with the Department of Electrical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, R.O.C. H.-J. Liao was with the Department of Electrical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, R.O.C. She is now with United Microelectronics Corporation, Hsinchu, Taiwan, R.O.C. IEEE Log Number 9040022.

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time, which will let the system be vulnerable to unpredictable causes of perturbation from the outside world. In order to alleviate the chattering phenomenon without the drawbacks mentioned above, a new VSS control algorithm called chattering alleviation control (CAC) [4], [5], [17] has been proposed to alleviate the chattering phenomenon. This algorithm consists of two important ingredients. The first one is the linear state feedback, and the second is traditional VSS control. According to the rules of the CAC algorithm, a proper combination of both will eliminate chattering almost entirely. Simulation results in [4], [5], and [17] indicate the success of the new approach. However, it has not been applied to any real systems yet. In this paper, both analog and digital controllers using the theory of CAC will be applied to the position control problem of a dc servo motor system. Comparisons of the CAC with the traditional VSS control method and the boundary layer approach indicate that not only can the chattering be alleviated, but lower frequency components are contained in the input of the CAC method as well. As a result, it will not excite unmodeled high-frequency plant dynamics. The CAC algorithm will be derived in Section II. In Section III, the dc motor system is described, and the system parameters are identified. In Section IV, the analog and digital controllers using the theory of CAC will then be implemented. The comparisons of the CAC algorithm with other VSS control algorithms are also included in this section. The final section concludes this paper.

II. CHATTERING ALLEVIATION CONTROL (CAC) ALGORITHM In traditional VSS control, chattering phenomenon is a serious problem. The upshot of it is that the representative point (RP)of the system chatters along the sliding surface. This phenomenon results from factors such as the finite switching delay, neglected small time constants, etc. It is generally undesirable in practice and may further excite high-frequency dynamics neglected in the course of system modeling. To develop the CAC algorithm, we consider a 2nth-order system x, = x2 (1) x 2 = HlX, H2X2 U

+

+

0278-0046/90/1200-0452$01.00 O 1990 IEEE

+ A. . . * . traditional VSS control part is defined as + a . 1) that illustrates the relationshipbetween RP( T. ~ : (+ q) ( o ) = 0.. c. and a2. Suppose the "(0) in Fig.h2m)cm . = c. * . O J.. if it is not. . ~ . of the CAC algorithm are chosen to be l a. = diag[-a.(q) = { R P .m = a m = ( P m ) 2 y P >O m I 1 am 2 ( a 2 m Pm . . and Hz are n x n matrices whose entries are the parameters of the system. = diag[h.$.. the sliding mode will exist whenever CY. x : . .. x Y ( t ) ] stands for the R P form of (4). It should be noted that c.. ."'. 0 0 0 .Gn].. . Notice that if the linear state feedback gains a.]=EW x. . : . ~ . for instance.. 1 . a two-dimensional figure (Fig.-*-. . U = A. In order to facilitate the derivation of the CAC algorithm. x. ( t ) ) ] denote the representative point of the system at time t.x.. It will be located at RP(T. ( x : ( t ) .UZ. = [ x .. . 1 is exactly on the sliding surface.]=.q n ] . The parameter values of c. hZn] and U = [ U .) and RP(0) is given below..xy x?.)}'s that are the loci of the switching line after T.a2. * unITand U. . . a.. x . and let T. = d i a g [ ~ ..) and I'L(T.'s and azm's are decided once 0. . x . hln 1 H . ."]=ERn H. ] [8 h.. J T . . (4) and then. . In other words. can now be selected so that we can guarantee the existence of the sliding regime and meet certain performance specifications.. Positive am's and negative p. ... Theorem 1 Let the control input (2) of system (1) take the : If [ ( x y ( t ) . . x . . a. The existence conditions of sliding mode with the control strategy (2) can be obtained as follows: an analytic expression for the optimal choice of c. according to (3). + *(U.CHANG et al. is difficult to obtain. h Z 2 . x... Fig. H . due to the finite switching time of the system. The following theorem will show that the set of { RP(T... xl)xl. U.) are defined as r. . The essential ingredients of our CAC algorithm are composed of two parts: the linear state feedback part and the traditional VSS control part. RP. s is still a straight line for each subsystem.* h. . . ..: POSITION CONTROL OF DC MOTORS 453 where x1 = [ x : . X m ... . . .. we will check in the algorithm if the performance is acceptable in practical applications and repeat the process with a different c. 1 Im In . . . U. = 2cm + hzm.. Let R P ( t ) = [ ( x : ( t ) .'s are determined from certain performance specifications. . ) ~ ~ .x. > 0."(T. However.'s will then be selected to alleviate the chattering phenomenon. the values of a. .hzm)cm - (ern)' - - then 1 ~m ~ n (3) .a . the control effort or other performance specifications. (2) where A . ..e.(xl"(t).a 2 . < 0. * -- The switching variables are U = [ U . $ 1 Im 5 n ..(cm)2 - (a1m - hlm) hlrn)? I( a 2 m . and U the control input. . .(t) of the mth subsystem of system ( 1 ) and the sets r..) after T. In this paper.. RP(7'') and RP(0). denote the switching time. ( t ) ) . i. > 0 and p. T denotes the transpose of vectors or matrices. The gain $ of the .. = diag [ . = (Crn)' + hlrn 15 I a2. is also a design parameter that can be chosen to minimize.aZn] and = diag[-$. A. . The difference between RP(TJ and RP(0) indicates the degree of chattering for the system. ~ ~ ~ .

454 E E E TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS. VOL. Geomeuic relation between the lines 7: = 0 and 7. = 0. and they can function. The functional block diaStep 3) Solve the following equations for positive p.. where T is e and tan (e). where g . = 0 and III. are the as follows. i. and g . The functional and circuit dia(7) grams are shown in Figs. In particular.. = 0. then. THEDC MOTOR SYSTEMDESCRIFTION y. In discrete-time computer of the chattering regions within which the state trajectories control. and = 0 and y L ( x y . . 1 Im In . respectively.) is denoted Notice that 0 and U denote the Laplace transforms of 8 and by MCE and tan 6 by MCfl. a so-called voltage preprocessing unit (VPU). + + + + + + . the CAC algorithm is still applicable. tan (Of)). Similarly. motor approximates a linear system and can avoid the adverse effects of nonlinearity.) and U2 = rL(T. Based on Theorem 1. where Us(. = U x UJU) ( u d ) and uo2 = The two nonlinear equations (5) and (6) can be solved U x U. input (2) and condition (4). w 2 W1 t Fig. and a2.( T. 8. the dc servo and then select a and p. DECEMBER 1990 Controller -1 t Fig. MC is called the measure or in radians per volt second. ..in these figures are the minimum Step 4) Revise c. The angle 0. and the output position is measured by output position unit in voltage form. that will satisfy .= . we can obtain level of chattering MC. respectively. The dc motor used in this paper is the feedback dc modular Step2) Set a.of it [3]. 4 and 5 . tan (6911.. 2. servo system [18]. Owing to the addition of the VPU. U . 2). 6. the maximum chattering will happen when the states will remain. tan (0.).(-U) ( u d .. [19] MS 150. = g.). 3. k is the gain (et)). Fig. tan the motor time constant with units in seconds. Given the switching time T. the switching F i ( T. U Proof: See the Appendix.)are the boundaries actually be calculated beforehand.) and are exactly on the sliding surface. find a VSS control law that will meet the following state-space representation: the chattering requirements. lently. which is connected to the servo amplifier. The voltage of the input signal for servo amplifier must overcome friction in order to drive the motor. 4. = 2c.* = 0. tan () U S(1 7s) Definition: Let MC = [(tan (e. = $x2 ing would be under MC. the transfer function 7. = (c.e or equiva. can be quantified by using the values 8 and . The values ud and ud .).the CAC j 6s is designed as follows. Functional block diagram of the MS 150 control system. and go back to Step 2 if the perforarmature voltages that will overcome friction in each direcmance is not acceptable for practical applications.“(T. tion.)can be characterized by the straight lines rz(XI”.. 37.. + - A . () : n The chattering alleviation problem can now be formulated Let x . both I’. and U is the applied armature voltage in volts. . According to Theorem 1. Hence. x?) time T. and gram of the dc motor control system is shown in Fig.e. 3. the chattering phenomenon 0 k .). is the angle between U.r.(tan (e. (tan (e. x?) = 0. . In this case. = 0 and For an armature-controlled dc motor. we have U. According to this theorem. The Qm: motor speed is measured by the tachometer. respectively. hZm.) denotes the unit step quickly via the Newton-Raphson algorithm.)’ h . will be needed. respectively (see Fig. and the tolerance gains of the angle and speed transducers. The input voltages to the servo amplifier are denoted by uol and urn.” In order to apply our CAC algorithm. CAC Algorithm for System ( I ) Step 1) Pick c.B and x2 = gsB. 8 is the motor’s angle position in * the level of chattering for system (1) subject to the control radians. This nonlinear phenomenon is called the effect of “dead zone. [ 181 is described by . NO. . Functional diagram of VPU. The sets U2 = . is the angle between the lines U. . in Theorem 1 is the computer processing time. for 1 I m I . the resulted level of chatter[x.

g s = 0.Y(x. and m. we have m. Let m. the slopes of o ( x .CHANG et 01. the slope of the relative sliding line a ( x .-. istics of their transducers. respectively. = .S a and m 2 = .) = 0 in the x3-x. a2. determined..) = 0 (or yf(x. (11 = and a.8 V/rad.. identification in [20] and E211 are applied.c . be the slopes of the lines yP(xl. x. in (7): gs system (9). x. x.) = 0 and y f ( x . . = gs 4. plane will take value A c . the transformed dynamics of (8) will take the gs gs gs 1 + (:)2Sac' 1 + ( :)2s@c = [ (RMF. Their values are as follows: g..661 V * s/rad. plane.a2x3 - *XI) (10) * (2~) rem 1.. a suitable transformation is needed. the corresponding transformed values of c and MC can true applied armature voltage in the original systems (3) and g be obtained as follows.IMPLEMENTATIONEXPERIMENTAL AND RESULTS The state equation (8) of the dc motor is not in the standard form of the CAC algorithm. + . and 7 of the dc servo system. it is necessary to find the angle between the sliding line u ( x .x 2 ..) = 0 be c. the techniques of system gs g. To determine the relative MC for (4) can be obtained by taking x . : POSITION CONTROL OF DC MOTORS 455 " U * Fig. ga 1 Let the slope of the sliding line a ( x . and r = 0.) = 0) in the x3-xI phase plane. . = . let the tolerance level of chattering be MC = [(MP. = 2 . 5 .) = 0 in the x2-x. where gak x .. x. The parameter values of g .. . x. then.x 2 .) = 0 in x3-xI plane are now -c. and are the control parameters to be CAC algorithm. According to Theou= 7 (-. and RMf)l. To estimate the values k ga ga and y f ( x . Using the gs where a. respectively.185 s. Finally.) = 0. g x. the gs 7 Mf)].57 rad/s.u7 (9) and the transformed control law will be In addition.y.) = 0 and yP(xl. In order to apply the theory derived before. The values that ga and -m2. -m. . and g s indicate the characterga x . x. . = - l~~c~al= - . Circuit diagram of VPU. x.XI gak .) = 0. x. the relative MC can be will be used in the CAC algorithm are obtained as follows: gs k = 3. we c y obtain the values of 9 from [(RM. Let ga x . = A x . . Hence. obtained via simple trigonometry as follows: N. x. R M f ) ] following form: XI = x3 {x3= -.

16x2. u2 = . if xlu < 0.0. Given MC = [tan (lo). the MS 150 the switching device. The 1 . Analog controller. VOL. 1 ~-~0. 6 . respectively. 6.( t) and x. 8.four steps of CAC algorithm in Section 1 1 are applied in this system is connected to a host P C / A T (see Fig.456 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS.e. 1 7 experiment. if xlu U = [ The function sgn ( U ) in (12) denotes the sign function of U. = -(TI + p l ) x l . 9). i. According to (11) or (12).16x2. the analog and digital controllers can then be designed below.0 . and the applied armature voltage U of CAC is as follows: U.72x2 = -10/7xl >0 . NO. Analog Controller results of the phase trajectory in the x2-x1 plane and the In implementing the analog controller.4. 7. two operational time waveforms of x. We have obtained c = 1. Digital Controller In the implementation of the digital controller. Circuit diagram of the analog controller. tan (1 '73. The CD4016BE is used as B. 6 and 7. -2.(v2 + p2)x2.v2x2= .5v I I l l 1 1 6 - I TL074CN I - I- C F I B 4016 Fig. amplifiers TL074CN and a logic EXCLUSIVE-OR gate 74LS86 are used to decide the sign of xlu. 31. The experimental A . This control system and this controller's circuit diagram are shown in Figs.( t) are shown in Fig. DECEMBER 1990 Fig.

..v---7 214...8637 and ‘pz = ..... (b) time waveforms of x l ( t ) and x...6 1 L. 10.................L ...... ) x .5 2 Fig....... In this approach.......... ( t ) and x Z ( f ) given in Fig... (b) time waveforms of x ............. I 2 t bee.. ...... ... ........... (a) Phase trajectory in the xz-xI plane via the analog controller. ....... the chattering The experiment for comparison is designed for the case that c = 1.. In this traditional method.: POSITION CONTROL OF DC MOTORS 457 ndp : = NDP i ... .. pl = 0..i................... The solid line is for x l ( t ) and the dashed for x.. C.. . Digital control system... problem is not specially considered.........E) = U . .1................... E) is introduced to replace the discontinuous function sgn (a) in (12): +1. Let T....5 2 Fig.........-..... I \ I.... ‘p. [15]...1.. if a > E if .... (b) . otherwise........... 1) The Traditional VSS Control: The traditional VSS control proposed in [3] is first implemented to compare with our CAC algorithm..4. i ..... (c) control effort u ( t ) via the digital controller..........CHANG et al......... 12... MC = [(tan ( l o ) ... [13]...... I ........ -1 -2 -3 -4 .. 0 0... 1 1 ... ) (a) 3 pl-----T-............. i ... (a) Phase trajectory via the digital controller..i .. 9.(t).... . The applied control effort and its spectrum are also shown in Fig..E 5 a I E sgn(a.... According to the traditional method.............i ... ........................ ( t ) and x 2 ( t ) via the analog controller..(t) via the digital controller........ respectively....... = 0.... and [16] to suppress chattering...c..4... where 4 is the feedback gain with ‘p..... = 0....... Comparisons of CAC with Other Approaches In this section...... ................. ‘p2.... ( t ) and the dashed line for x..2955 satisfy the existence condition of sliding mode.......... computer flowchart of this controller is shown in Fig........ The results using a digital controller with a computer ’ process time 7 ’= 0.. x 1 ivo1t.................. The values of c and MC are the same as in the analog case: c = 1.... 1 .... .............. ........... .....Ll--4 -3 -2 -1 0 k : = k+l xi ( v o l t . ......(t)...... a continuous function sgn (a.. and [16] will be implemented and compared in the digital environment with our CAC algorithm.... respectively.. The amount of chattering is quite significant............ 10........ a < 0...... (d) spectrum of u ( t ) via the digital controller...... ... .01 s are shown in Fig.2375 and ‘pz = -0......... then. 2) Boundary Layer Approach: The boundary layer (BL) approach is proposed in [13].... are 1l(a) and (b)........ . Program flowchart of the digital controller..2375 according to the CAC algorithm.. Fig....) (b) -4 .01 s.. ..1 (a) ....... The experimental results of the phase trajectory and the time waveforms of x . two different VSS control algorithms proposed in [3]...... 8. ....... i -1 0 0.. and its control function is given by U = 4(% x ...l t b....... [15].. .... 4 .& i l 3 & Fig............. ... The solid line is for x .. ll(c) and (d)...5 1 1...... tan (lo)]... if x I u > 0 if x ..........

. As a result.. ( t ) = aOeXlf b.. ..... = . ... .. ..(O) x2(0) = (p2 r + + . . are the eigenvalues of the system.. The chattering is very much improved using our CAC algorithm values of a.exl' X. .. (b) I ....4.. g : tP~tlon...45 8 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS......i.. (c) control effort u ( r ) via traditional method... .. 13.. ..:. k(lfll)1'2= c f q when x . improper choices of the parameters E .C... (d) spectrum of u ( t ) via BL method... .... .. .. . j . VOL..5 2 x i ("0lt. The omitted in the following derivation..) 4 0 0 0. ...5 1 1. The index m will be case with c = 1. .. .... .c... . . and values of feedback parameters in the VSS control law has been derived......5 I = & .. ..... with the traditional and boundary layer algorithms...... 14. ... l : : : : i ... .. . A. . _. ... . (d) spectrum of u ( t ) via traditional method. It is clear from the figures that the amount of chattering is still very significant. of the computer is the same as that in (a)...... i. .. .. Comparisons of input frequency contents.. .. ..1 (a) 4. . It should be pointed out that c. CONCLUSION In this paper. .. -4 -3 XI -2 IVOlt. .. It is straightforward to obtain that X. ..... (b) time waveforms of x l ( t ) and x 2 ( t )via the traditional method.. The experimental results are x .. ..l .... .... This can be seen from Fig.....5 1 1. I ' i .... Proof of Theorem 1 Apply the control input (2) with : the experiments via this approach are performed for the same the condition (4) to the mth subsystem. .. Here. (C) (4 Fig...) (a) . is also a design parameter that can be chosen to minimize....) Dnl (C) (d) Fig.. : : : .. . .. . The solutions of this processing time T... .x2(0)) = cx.. . . i I oLL.. (pl = 0...L&..... . ... ...boeA2' Comparing the above experimental results with those that are shown in Fig..... However. which could result in unforeseen instability. ..... The solid line is for x l ( t ) and the dashed line for x2(t). I : : : : i o &.. . NO.. L - 0 ~ 9 1 2 0 3 0 t b.. E) = sgn ( a .. the spectral analysis of the control input of the CAC method has indicated that it contains only low-frequency components..........1. ..... 1 j ... .. (c) control effort u ( t ) via the BL method.(O).. &. DECEMBER 1990 79- ... A new chattering alleviation control (CAC) algorithm is then proposed....... and bo are decided by the initial conditions of in the digital controlled system. .5 . (b) .. 13. . ...... . : . A. V........ . ... By taking FFT of their respective control signals.. . (b) time waveforms of x . . j 0 0. ... it can be found that the problem of where A. ...C.. and X.... (ol...-... . Hence....eA*' + given in Fig.. -4 -3 -2 -1 0 0 0.8637.!. . It will certainly be an interesting problem for future research to find analytic expressions for the optimal choice of c. . the other two approaches contain higher frequency components as well...s 2 t Ia..... a < O .. j . for instance. the control effort of the system... 14. The solid line is for x1 ( t ) and the dashed line for x 2 ( t ) .. . ..... switching time.. .. 12... t M I i o o p o ? ) o * o w f t WI Fig. ..*tfi%!. subsystem can be obtained as follows: and sgn ( a . ...(... the important relationship among the level of chattering........c k i(a)'I2= . and X.1)... 11.......c namics.... .... I : j : . it will not excite unmodeled high-frequency plant dynamics....... : : . Both analog and digital controllers using the theory of CAC have been applied to the position control problem of a dc servo motor system. we see that the frequency content of the CAC is concentrated in the lowfrequency part.. ! 1 701 ! ...l t (. j j j i .. . 2 .. . ... 'a (........ .. ( t ) and x 2 ( t ) via the BL method.. . x2(t) = Ala....2955. .. 6..c. APPENDIX However... . .. 1 1 ... . (a) Phase trajectory via the traditional method.. In addition..... If the initial state we also want to compare the frequency components of CAC (x.. We a ~ believe that many applications in motor control can benefit from using the CAC algorithm.. Comparisons with other VSS control algorithms have shown that the CAC has excellent capability in chattering alleviation.l~ithod . . x2(0)) satisfies a ( x l ( 0 ) .... = chattering may excite unmodeled high-frequency plant dy.. and may not guarantee a suitable degree of chattering. and (02 = ..... 37.......... ... 16 . . Phase trajectory via the BL method... .... It is well known that the state variables...c & ip when x l a > 0.+ .. . 0......

Itkis. no. and G. 465-492. 812-816. vol. and S . pp. “Control of a class of nonlinear systems by decentralized control. pt. and S . vol. Inst. Contr. S. vol. D. 1977. [31 N. Silon. pp. ~ on I’“(7’’jor rS(T. x 2 ( q ) )into the following formulae: where [ . Syst. 137.” R o c . “Tracking control of non-linear systems using sliding surfaces. S. 271-287. “Modular Servo System MS 150.CHANG et al. pp. Young. Feedback Instruments Ltd. 1970.) = 0 and y B ( x l . 33. RA-1. Decarlo. Contr. 1988. ] [ . Morgan and U. J. 1983. no. “Real-time path tracking with application to robotic manipulators. 1988. 200-206.-xl phase are plane. D. Control Systems of Variable Structure. “System identification-A survey. Mar. 573-579. Syst. 1971. pp. the angles 8“ and B p are obtained. “Siliding controller design for non-linear systems. Inst. Man Cybern. pp. 131. IEEE. P.. Yeung and Y. pp. no.. 40.” Book 1. Chen. “A new controller design for manipulators using the theory of variable structure systems.. New York: 1976.. no.. vol. 6. no. no.) be collinear in the x. Mar. vol. ] denotes the inner product of two row vectors. 22. pt.” IEEE Trans. M.. x.” Int. 49-64. Bengiamin and B. Chang. Chin. “Variable structure control of nonlinear multivariable systems: A tutorial. SMC-8. Twu. K a u h a n n . K.” Proc.” J. Chang. pp.then the angle. P. Automat. Robotics Res. H. Chen. respec‘) tively.” IEEE J. Robotics Automat. Elec. D.” Book 3. vol.. “The robust control of robotic manipulators. W. 76. pp.) = 0 be the straight lines that characterize r “( 7’ and r O( T. Mag. E. 57-65.” Autornatica. vol. Automat.” Int.Twu. J. 1978. “Variable structure systems with sliding modes: A survey. r21 R. Feb. 2. x. Richter. pp. Decarlo. Workshop Automat. P. K.” IEEE Trans. J. Chang. 141 F. Elec. and S . 1121-1134. V. D. Lefebvre. vol. “Variable structure position control. “An instrumental variable method for real-time identification of a noise process. 1. “Reduced-order switching functions in variable-structure control systems. Zak. J. A. Astrom and P. pp. J . no. 123-162. J. J.” Autornatica. vol.” in Proc. Ozguner. : POSITION CONTROL OF DC MOTORS 459 alleviation of variable structure systems control. Young. 38. H. Sastry. J. Utikin. 3. Slotine and S.. and the proof is complete. K. J. 101-109. “Chattering alleviation of variable structure control for a certain class of nonlinear systems. Chang. S. S. A.” IEEE Trans. S.. pt. May 1984. Aug. pp.. R. vol. 11.” IEEE Trans. J. A. H. Elec.” Int. Second Nat. Thus. “Reachability in variable structure control systems. vol. F.” Proc. 492-494. J.. 2. “Controller design for a manipulator using theory of variable structure systems. Eng. G. vol. pp. 7. N. 1985. Automat. Jan. Chang. 1990. Feedback Insmments Ltd. White and P. Twu. Chang. 5 . S. Technol. White. S. H. Contr.” IEEE Contr..” Proc. say 8. S. 1983. J. (Kentin. 3. 1982. 1983. Slotine. Inst. 2. 6. 1984.. with application to robot manipulators. vol. no. Eng. Taiwan). 1985. REFERENCES - 1181 [19] [20] [21] 111 U. Eng. B. J. Eng.). rn ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors would like to thank the reviewers of this paper for their helpful suggestions and comments. pp. Ryan. F. vol.” Int. 421-434. C. Contr. E. 2. “A decentralized variable structure control algorithm for robotic manipulators. P.. Slotine. 212-222. T. K. 38. and R. &st. 1984. Contr. AC-27. Manhews. Contr. Eykhoff. I. “A variable structure approach to feedback regulation of uncertain dynamical systems. Let y“(x. “Modular Servo System MS 150. 130. 1988. 1988. “Adaptive chattering .no. J . vol. B.. between the sliding line U = 0 and the line y a = 0 (or yB = 0) can be obtained by substituting (x1(q).

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