Types of questions
Concept based Non-Concept based Concept based questions include : Conclusion based (Statement and CR) Assumption based (Statement and CR) Inference based (DT/PT and CR)

Non-concept based includes …..
Assertions and Reasons Strong Argument and Weak Argument Cause and Effect Course of action Possible consequences

assumptions and courses of action . cause and effect DT/PT and assumption (statement) Critical reasoning and possible consequences DT/PT . critical reasoning Courses of action . cause and effect.Question distribution at a glance Year 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 Question type Courses of action.

Areas to focus on in Reasoning Areas in which 100 % accuracy possible are : Conclusion based (Statement) Assumption based (Statement) Courses of Action Cause and effect Assertions Border areas Strong and weak argument Tricky areas DT/PT Critical reasoning .

Difference between Reasoning and Analysis Rules of reasoning Check for the validity and not verity of a statement Use all information given to you [never contradict] Always eliminate the options to reach the right answer [these are applicable for all reasoning based questions] .

Reasoning basics Premise (fact) : information given/verifiable Assumption : a statement based on a fact to derive the conclusion Conclusion : is a judgment derived from a fact. since the fact is verifiable the judgment is also verifiable Argument : P+A=C Inference : is a judgment derived from a fact. though the fact is verifiable the judgment in not verifiable Explicit : given Implicit : not given .

Meaning of the directions…… Read the directions carefully especially in cause and effect question category Mark 1) when I follows Mark 2) when II follows Mark 4 ) if neither follow Mark 5 ) if both follow Important one : either I or II means they contradict each other .

Conclusion based questions Types : statement and identify the conclusion Statements given can be : facts / judgment/ F+J Formula To identify the conclusion : ask : ‘What can I clearly understand from this statement?’ Please remember : in these questions there is no difference between a conclusion and an inference .

but his problem is that he has partners in his business. Sachin has heard that Sania strikes the ball hard.Conclusion based examples Statement : Raman does not want to purchase new machinery.because I want to get a feel of how hard she strikes the ball” said Sachin Conclusions : Sachin likes to play opposite those who hit the ball hard. . Conclusions : Raman wants to run his business with the old machinery Raman’s partners want to buy new machinery Statement : “I want to play opposite Sania.

Home Minister Conclusion : It is easier to handle the environment and forest portfolio rather than the home ministry.Conclusion based examples Statement : The last match gave the team the opportunity to realize that the team lacks efficiency in bowling and fielding.I would have probably chosen the ministry of environment and forest". The person did not become a home minister by choice . Statement : “Had I asked to choose a portfolio. Conclusion : The team lost the match because of inefficiency in bowling and fielding Better performance in other departments of the game saved the team from losing the match.

it will be said that the Tibetan people got freedom without shedding a drop of Chinese blood.Conclusion based examples Statement : The Dalai Lama’s dream of seeing his homeland free will probably not happen in his lifetime. Conclusions : Tibet is under Chinese control The Dalai Lama is very old. But whenever it does. .

Assumptions Statements given can be : facts / judgment/ F+J Formula : To identify the assumption : Ask : ‘for the above statement to be valid which of the following statements need to be valid?’ Ways of doing this could be : Negate the statements given in the options .

Some templates Notice Assumptions could be : All people will read it At least some would abide by it The desired result would be achieved This problem exists Eg. A notice in a hospital ‘Keep silence’ .

Some templates When a person or an organization is blamed : They are responsible for the action When a shock or surprise is expressed : The opposite can be assumed .

time and money? After three brilliant issues. . you follow up with this issue on Kabas.Assumption examples Statement : ‘Enjoy your challenges’ – an advertisement of a car brand Assumptions : People like to enjoy challenges People will buy the car Statement : What a waste of effort. Assumptions : Money is spent in bringing the issue on Kabas The issue on Kabas is not brilliant Any amount of time can be spent in bringing a brilliant issue.

giving your 100 % is not enough” Anil told the trainees Assumption : One can do more than 100 % Trainees would give more than 100 % Statement : Stop endorsing cold drinks.Assumption examples Statement : “When you are starting a business of your own. they are harmful to health Assumptions : People are suffering from health problems due to consumption of cold drinks Endorsement leads to an increase in consumption of a product .

Cause and effect Rules : Both statements have to be read together On its own a statement can either be a cause or an effect Can accept universal truths while solving these questions Effects can be of two types : Immediate Delayed Imp : Read the directions carefully .

C [Delayed] A – C/B-E [Delayed] None of these .Directions : 2 types Where the difference between immediate and delayed is not asked The other set where this difference is questioned. The directions are as follows: A – E /B-C [Immediate] A – C/B-E [Immediate] A-E / B.

Immediate/Delayed Delayed Cause Immediate Cause Effect .

It is widely acknowledged as the best 250 cc motorcycle in the world. Event B : Cricket is so popular that fans stop doing any work on the day of cricket matches except watching the matches in the stadium.Cause and Effect Examples Event A : The police are unable to curtail black marketing of tickets for cricket matches. [5] . Event B : Bajaj Auto announced the launch of the much awaited Kawasaki Ninja 250 R in India. [1] Event A : The price of edible oils has been constantly increasing for the past one year Event B : The Government has decided to release huge quantities of edible oils into the open market [2] Event A : Hero Honda has launched new versions of its two motorcycles Hunk and Splendor.

the student population in the IIT’s would grow from 40.00.000 Event B : The IIT’s are planning to recruit 10.Cause and Effect Examples Event A : The election commission announced that the elections for the 81 member Jharkand legislative assembly will be held in five phases Event B : The term of the Jharkand assembly is due to expire next month [1] Event A : In a survey it was found that by 2010.000 to 1.000 more faculty members by 2020 [2] .

Course of Action Things to remember : Actions can be of two types : Immediate Delayed Rules : We accept universal truths Mark the immediate course of action as the answer .

Template for Course of Action A clear and unbiased understanding of the given statement The course of action should enable solve the problem independently Choose an immediate course of action The course of action should pertain directly to the problem The given solution should not result in any problem The given solution should be practical A negative course of action should not be taken .

The government should immediately procure food grains from farmers 2. 3. The government should reduce the ration supplied through PDS. The government should increase the procurement price [none follows] . from 12 months in the last five months. Courses of action : 1.Course of Action examples Statement : The buffer stock of food grains has fallen to 4 weeks.

All the corporate offices should be closed down .Course of Action examples Statement : The competition among corporate hospitals has not done any good to the people. Courses of Action : 1. Permission should be given to open more corporate hospitals 2. The government should review the norms for corporate hospitals so that they take up some social responsibility. 3.

Strong /Weak Argument Def : Strong Argument : a statement that is relevant to the discussion is a strong argument Weak Argument : a statement that is not relevant or related to the discussion is a weak argument Take help of generally accepted facts. past events in solving these questions Please remember : there would generally be a room of ambiguity in the answers to these questions as the term relevant is subjective .

Some help in solving these …… Strong Argument Relevant Reason Example + reason Check verity of the statement Weak argument Any ambiguous/irrelevant/simplis tic statement Assertions/negations example .

SA/WA examples Statement : Should the government launch an armed offensive against rebels? Yes. US also offers bombers of the same technology and standards . Statement : Should India purchase advanced bomber planes from Russia? No. the rebels have no faith in the promise made by the government Yes. the rebels are not interested in resolving issues. Russian bombers are too expensive No. being rebellious is a way of life for them.

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Inferences DT : Logical conclusion DF : Contradictory conclusion PT : far-fetched conclusion (possibility) PF : far-fetched conclusion (possibility) .

gender) • Conjunctions • Parallelism .Para Jumbles Ways to tackle Para jumbles • Types • Introduction (if required) • Links : Structure/grammar Content Structure links : • Noun-pronoun (number.

Para Jumbles Contd…… Content links : • Idea elaboration • Idea example • Cause effect • Chronology • Common word approach • Generic to specific .

and had thus got much spare land besides the coffee plantation. C. who with their families (hold a few acres on a white man’s farm. saw the relationship in a different light. the rest of the farm. and was changing with the seasons the year round. D. and many varieties of big yellow and green speckled pumpkins.Para Jumbles Example acbed I had six thousand acres of land. The squatters’ land was more intensely alive than. My squatters. were gathered and thrashed by the women. B.A . and the maize stalks and coffee pods were collected and burned. The beans ripened in the fields. The squatters are Natives. I think. and their fathers before them. and in return have to work for him a certain number of days in the year. what [the KikuyuJ called their shambas. and they very likely regarded me as a sort of superior squatter on their estates. . The maize grew up higher than your head as you walked on the narrow hardtrampled footpaths in between the tall green rustling regiments. so that in certain seasons thin blue columns of smoke rose here and there all over the farm. and about one thousand acres were squatters’ land. Part of the farm was native forest. The Kikuyu also grew the sweet potatoes that have a vine like leaf and spread over the ground like a dense entangled mat. E. for many of them were born on the farm.