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You are on page 1of 38

RAPIDC 2.0

and Integrated Design for Commuters

Prepared by:

Chun Chen

Reviewed by:

Jeffrey Tom

Program Manager

ii

Table of Contents

1.0 Introduction ...........................................................................................................................1

2.2 The Fastener Joint Allowable and Margin of Safety.....................................................2

2.2.1 Fastener Joint Allowable in Straight Shank Holes ............................................3

2.2.2 Fastener Joint Allowable in Countersunk Holes...............................................3

2.2.3 Fastener Joint Margin of Safety......................................................................4

2.3 The Shear Margin of Safety........................................................................................5

2.4 Margin of Safety as a Criterion...................................................................................5

2.5 The Stiffness Check of the Repair...............................................................................6

2.6 The Fastener Bending Check of the Repair .................................................................6

2.7 The Inter-Rivet Buckling Guidelines ............................................................................6

3.2 Initial Cracks and Subsequent Growth Assumptions................................................. 10

3.3 Fastener Load Transfers and Stress Gradients .........................................................16

3.4 Stress Intensity Factors ............................................................................................16

3.5 Residual Strength and Limit Stresses.........................................................................23

3.5.1 Residual Strength: Fracture Toughness Criterion............................................23

3.5.2 Limit Stresses...............................................................................................23

3.6 Load/Stress Spectrum and Equivalent Stress.............................................................24

3.7 Crack Growth Rate Data .........................................................................................25

3.8 Crack Growth Analysis Methods..............................................................................27

3.9 Inspection Threshold and Intervals............................................................................30

6.0. References...........................................................................................................................32

Appendices

B - RAPID-FEM Analysis

C - Stress Intensity Factor Solutions

D - Load/Stress Spectrum Development

E - One-Cycle Equivalent Stress Calculation

iii

F - General Notes and Program Limitations

iv

1. Introduction

This document describes technical details of the analysis methodology implemented in the static strength

and damage tolerance analysis modules of the Repair Assessment Procedure and Integrated Design for

Commuters (RAPIDC) program, Version 1.4. In this document, the static strength analysis method for

repaired fuselage skin and skin modifications to antenna installation is first described. A description of

the damage tolerance analysis method is next provided.

RAPIDC is a software tool that assesses the static strength and performs damage tolerance analysis of

repaired skin and modified skin to antenna installation. The static strength analysis determines if

doublers and fasteners are statically adequate in the design, and the damage tolerance analysis provides

residual strength and crack growth to assist users in determination of inspection intervals for

maintenance schedule of the repaired/modified skin.

With the 2-D stress analysis capability, RAPIDC calculates load transfers at critical fasteners and stress

gradients along assumed crack growth paths in repairs and antenna installation configurations.

Static strength and damage tolerance analysis methods used in RAPIDC are described in subsequent

sections.

Typical repairs on the commuter aircraft fuselage skin generally involve removing the damaged area and

replacing it with repair doublers. The repair doublers are mechanically fastened to the skin around the

skin cutout.

Typical antenna installations on the fuselage of commuter airplanes generally involve cutting a hole in the

skin for the antenna installation. A doubler with a hole the same size of the skin cutout is then

mechanically fastened to the skin around the cutout.

To assess the static strength of repaired/modified skin, three independent criteria are used to evaluate

the margins of safety. The margins of safety are calculated using the doubler allowable, the joint

allowable, and the shear allowable.

(A) Repairs

To assess the strength restored by the doubler in a repair, the margin of safety of repair doublers is

calculated as

Pd u

Margin of Safety = −1

Pd

1

where Pdu , the doubler force allowable per inch, is calculated using the equation

N

Pd u = ∑ Ft u t D

1

in which Ftu and tD are the ultimate tensile strength of the doubler material and the thickness of each

repair doubler, respectively, and N is the total number repair doublers.

The skin internal force per inch, Pd , is calculated using the equation

L

Pd = ∑ σ u t s

1

where σu and ts are the design ultimate tensile stress of the skin material and the thickness of each skin

layer, respectively, and L is the total number skin layers.

To assess the restoring strength capability of the doubler due to strength loss of skin cutout, the margin

of safety of the doubler is calculated as

Ppu

Margin of Safety = −1

Pp

where Ppu , the doubler load allowable, is calculated using the equation

in which Ftu, wp, D, and tp are the ultimate tensile strength, width, cutout diameter, and thickness of the

doubler, respectively.

Pp = σu D ts

where σu and ts are the design ultimate tensile stress and thickness of the skin, respectively.

2

2.2 The Fastener Joint Allowable and Margin of Safety

In the vicinity of a repair or an antenna installation on the skin, skin stresses are transferred to the

doublers through fasteners via fastener shear and hole bearing. The fastener together with the skin and

doublers represents a fastener joint. A joint can only transfer a certain amount of load until it fails. The

point at which this fastener joint fails is the joint allowable. The calculation of the joint allowable is

based upon two failure cases, fastener shear and hole bearing. Two hole types also need to be

considered when determining the joint allowable, the straight shank and countersunk.

Straight shank holes are used for protruding head fasteners and for doubler that have a flush head

fastener installed but are not countersunk. The joint allowable is the lower of the fastener shear

allowable or the hole bearing allowable. An allowable is calculated for the skin and doubler that the

fastener goes through.

The single shear allowable for straight shank holes is calculated using the following equation

The double shear allowable for straight shank holes is calculated using the following equation

In both equations, Fsu is the ultimate shear strength of the fastener material, Af is the cross-sectional

area of each fastener, SCF1 is the single shear correction factor and SCF2 is the double shear correction

factor. SCF1 and SCF2 are used only for solid rivets and can be found in MIL-Handbook 5F Table

8.1.2.1(b).

The hole bearing allowable for the straight shank hole is calculated using the following equation

Pb r u = Fbru d t

in which Fbru is the ultimate bearing stress of the plate material, d is the fastener hole diameter, and t is

the thickness. In RAPIDC, the Fbru for the case e/d (edge distance to hole diameter ratio) equal to 2.0

is used.

The joint allowable for a given joint is the lower of Psu or Pbru denoted by Pjoint.

3

2.2.2 Fastener Joint Allowable in Countersunk Holes

The fastener joint allowables for countersunk holes are different from the straight shank holes. They are

determined by tests and can be found in MIL-Handbook 5F Section 8.

The fastener joint margin of safety is determined by summing each fastener joint allowable in the skin

and doubler layers. It is calculated for each side of the doubler using the equation

(Pjoint )n

K

Ptotal = ∑

n =1

in which Ptotal is the total fastener joint load, (P joint )n is the fastener joint load for the nth fastener, and K

is the number of fasteners. If multiple skin layers are present, the fastener joint allowable for each skin

layer is added together for the Ptotal for the skin layers. If multiple-repair doubler layers are present, the

fastener joint allowable for each doubler layer is added together for the P total for the repair doublers.

The Ptotal for the skin and doubler are then compared. The smaller of the two is the fastener joint

allowable for that side of the doubler and is used in determining the margin of safety for the fastener

joints.

An applied load is needed to determine a margin of safety. That load is the design ultimate load of the

structure.

(A) Repairs

L

Papplied = ∑ (σ u l t s )n

n =1

where σu is the design ultimate tensile stress, ts is the thickness of each skin layer, l is the length of

damage treatment (skin cutout) normal to the fastener load direction, and L is the number of skin layers.

Ptotal

Margin of Safety = −1

Papplied

4

For antenna installations, this applied load Papplied is calculated by

Papplied = σu D ts

where σu is the design ultimate tensile stress, ts is the skin thickness, D is the diameter of skin cutout

hole.

A detailed description of fastener joint margin of safety calculation together with illustrative examples is

provided in Appendix A.

(A) Repairs

number of layers

∑ (Fsu t ) doublers

Margin of Safety = i=1 −1

number of layers

∑ (Fsu t) skin

k=1

where FSU is the ultimate shear strength of the skin or doubler material. The equation is used for each

side of the repair.

Margin of Safety = −1

( FSU D t ) skin

where FSU is the ultimate shear strength of the skin or doubler material. The equation is used for each

side of the doubler.

The margins of safety (MOS) based on the doubler allowable and the fastener joint allowable are

calculated to determine the adequacy of the repair or antenna installation on fuselage skin.

5

• MOS < 0 Design is statically inadequate

• MOS = 0 Design is marginally adequate

• MOS > 0 Design is statically adequate

When the design is not statically adequate, it must be redesigned to ensure the adequacy of the design.

2.5 The Stiffness Check

The stiffness ratio between the doubler and the skin is calculated using the following equation

( E t ) doubler

Stiffness Ratio =

( E t ) skin

The design is considered adequate if the ratio is between 1.0 and 1.5. It is too stiff when the value is

greater than 1.5 and not stiff enough when less than 1.0.

ts+t p

Q=

d

where d is the fastener diameter, ts and tp are the thickness of skin and doublers, respectively. The

parameter Q is the fastener-bending indicator. For aluminum fasteners, the bending is important. A Q

value above 2 may indicate that the aluminum rivet will not fill the hole but instead may buckle in the

hole. In such a case, RAPIDC recommends steel or titanium fasteners be used. For steel and titanium

fasteners, there is no constraint for typical fuselage repairs and antenna installations.

To avoid inter-rivet buckling in the repaired skin, the fastener spacing should be four to six times the

diameter of the fastener shank diameter.

To perform the damage tolerance analysis of a repaired/modified skin, critical fasteners and their load

transfers as well as skin stress gradients at an open hole must first be determined. Assumptions of initial

6

flaws at fracture critical locations and the continuing damage need to be made. The stress spectrum

must also be prescribed. In addition, the following data are needed:

§ Fracture toughness of the skin material

§ Stress intensity factors of relevant crack configurations

Damage tolerance analysis procedure is described in the flowchart shown in Figure 1. Each element in

the analysis procedure is described in subsequent sections.

Location & Load Spectrum Rate Data

Initial Crack

Geometry

Stress Intensity

Factors

Crack Crack

Advance Growth

Yes Residual

σRes > σLimit?

Strength

No

Inspection

Threshold & Interval

It is noted that the stiffeners are not considered in the damage tolerance analysis. By ignoring the

stiffener effects on stress intensity factors of a crack growing toward a stiffener, the crack tends to grow

faster which renders a conservative crack growth life.

Damage tolerance analysis of a repaired or modified skin begins by postulating initial flaws at the critical

locations. The criteria used to determine the critical locations are

(b) Highest fastener load transfer, and

(c) Stress concentration at an open hole

7

Critical locations determined based on the criteria are described as follows.

In rectangular repairs, central fasteners in the outermost row normally take a constant load transfer. The

highest load transfer occurs at the corner fastener. These critical locations are illustrated in Figure 2.

(i) One doubler (ii) Two stack-up doublers (iii) One internal and

one external doublers

In circular repairs, the highest load transfer occurs at the outermost fastener. Figure 3 shows the critical

fasteners.

In splice joint repairs, the critical fastener location normally occurs in the outermost fastener row.

For butt joint repairs with the skin cutout and doubler flushed on one skin, the center and corner

fasteners in the outermost fastener row parallel to the splice doubler are considered critical. The

fastener next to the free edge of the repaired skin in the outermost fastener row normal to the splice

doubler is also critical.

For butt joint repairs with a skin cutout on one skin and a doubler extending over the other, the center

fastener in ht e outermost fastener row parallel to the splice doubler in the damaged skin takes the

8

highest load transfer. The corner fastener on the undamaged skin normally yields higher load transfer as

compared with that on the damaged skin. In addition, the fastener next to the free edge of the damaged

skin in the outermost fastener row normal to the splice doubler is also critical.

When skin cutouts and the doubler are on both skins, critical fasteners are located at the center and

corner in the fastener row parallel to the splice doubler in the damaged skin with a smaller skin cutout.

The fastener next to the free edge of the larger damaged skin in the outermost fastener row normal to

the splice doubler is also critical.

For lap splice joint repairs, critical locations are located at the center and corner fasteners in the

outermost row parallel to the splice doubler on the upper damaged skin. The fastener next to the free

edge of the same skin in the outermost fastener row normal to the splice doubler is also critical.

(i) Cutout & doubler (ii) Cutout on one skin & (iii) Cutout & doubler

flushed on one skin doubler on 2 skins on 2 skins

(i) Cutout on upper (ii) Cutout on upper (iii) Cutout on upper &

skin with a flushed skin with a Rect lower skins with 2

doubler nd a T-doublers Rect and a T-doublers

9

In antenna installations, an irregular fastener placement is allowed in the design. The critical fastener

location is determined at the fastener that takes the highest load transfer.

Due to the cutout in both skin and doubler in an antenna installation, high skin stress takes places at the

edge of the skin cutout. The skin cutout hole is thus also considered as the critical location.

With critical locations identified in a repair or an antenna installation, initial flaw configurations and

subsequent crack growth scenarios are assumed as follows.

10

Initial Cracks: Two diametric through cracks of lengths 0.05” and 0.005”, respectively,

emanating from the center fastener hole along with a 0.005” crack at one side

of other holes

Subsequent Growth: All cracks grow concurrently but independently and interaction between

cracks is ignored when the primary crack grows toward the adjacent hole. The

amount of growth δa1 for the 0.005” crack is added to its original length when

the 0.05” crack grows into the adjacent hole. The tip-to-tip primary crack

continues to grow, with crack tip interaction, toward adjacent holes. All

0.005”+ δa 1 0.005”+ δa 1

0.005”+ δa 1 + δa 2 0.005”+ δa 1 + δa 2

continues in successive growth until the residual strength is no longer greater

than the limit stress or the crack growth life reaches 300,000 flights.

Initial Crack: Two diametric through cracks of lengths 0.05”, pointing toward the adjacent hole,

and 0.005”, respectively, emanating from the corner fastener hole along with a

0.005” crack at one side of other holes

Subsequent Growth: All cracks grow concurrently but independently and no interaction

between cracks is considered when the primary crack grows toward the

adjacent hole. The amount of growth δa for the 0.005” crack is added to its

original length when the 0.05” crack grows into the adjacent hole. The tip-to-

tip primary crack continues to grow with crack tip interaction. All secondary

cracks grow concurrently but independently. The same process continues in

successive growth until the residual strength is no longer greater than the limit

stress or the crack growth life reaches 300,000 flights.

0.005”+ δa 1L 0.005” + δa 1R

11

0.005”+ δa1L + δa2L 0.005”+ δa 1R + δa 2R

It is noted that successive growths of the 0.005” at corner fastener hole δa1R,

δa2R, etc. are different from the growths at other holes δa1L, δa2L, etc. because

the former does not grow toward an adjacent hole but others do.

For circular repairs, it is postulated that two initial diametric of 0.05” and 0.005” at the critical fastener

hole exist in the outermost fastener ring. The cracks grow concurrently with crack interaction.

Initial Cracks: Two diametric through cracks of lengths 0.05” and 0.005”, respectively,

emanating from the critical fastener hole

0.005” 0.05”

Subsequent Growth: Cracks grow concurrently with crack interaction and continue to grow until

the residual strength is no longer greater than the limit stress or the crack growth

life reaches 300,000 flights.

Critical length

In splice joint repairs, fasteners are assumed to place in a straight pattern parallel or normal to the splice

doubler direction. Crack growth analysis is performed on the critical fastener hole in the outermost row

similar to that in rectangular repairs. Since the fastener next to the free skin edge normally takes the

highest load in the row, the following additional scenario is considered.

12

Initial Crack: Two diametric through cracks of lengths 0.05”, pointing toward the free edge, and

0.005”, respectively, emanating from the edge fastener hole along with a

0.005” crack at other holes

Free edge

Subsequent Growth: All cracks grow concurrently but independently and interaction between

cracks is ignored when the primary crack growing toward the free edge. The

amount of growth δa for the 0.005” crack is added to its original length when

the 0.05" crack breaks the ligament to become an edge crack.

The primary edge crack continues to grow toward the adjacent hole. All

secondary cracks grow concurrently but independently. The growths continue

until the residual strength is no longer greater than the limit stress or the crack

growth life reaches 300,000 flights.

Free edge

13

In antenna installations, fasteners can be placed in an irregular pattern. Crack growth analysis is

performed on the critical fastener hole. Because of irregular placement of fasteners, the number of

fasteners on both sides of the critical fastener hole needs to be determined. An assumption is made that

the crack will run into the next fastener hole if it is located within a strip of three times the fastener hole

diameter. The procedure to determine the number of fasteners on each side of the critical fastener is

illustrated in Figure 6.

(1) Draw a line (solid line), normal to the stress direction, passing through the critical hole

Critical

(2) Draw 2 lines (dotted lines) a distance 1.5 times the fastener hole diameter, one above and the

other below the line drew in Step 1

1.5 fastener

diameter

Critical

(3) Ignore fasteners located outside the dotted lines band, using the center of the fastener hole, and

reposition the fasteners on the line passing through the critical hole

14

Critical

(4) Calculate averaged fastener pitch and fastener diameter if necessary, and rearrange the fasteners

Critical

on each side of the critical fastener

Once the number of fasteners on each side of the critical fastener has been determined, the scenario is

described as follows.

Initial Cracks: Two diametric through cracks of lengths 0.05” and 0.005”, respectively,

emanating from the critical fastener hole along with a 0.005” crack at other

holes

Subsequent Growth: All cracks grow concurrently but independently and interaction between

cracks is ignored when the primary crack grows toward the adjacent hole. The

amount of growth δa1 for the 0.005” crack is added to its original length when

the 0.05” crack grows into the adjacent hole. The tip-to-tip primary crack

continues to grow with crack tip interaction. All secondary cracks grow

concurrently but independently. The same process continues in successive

growth until the residual strength is no longer greater than the limit stress or the

crack growth life reaches 300,000 flights.

0.005”+ δa 1 0.005”+ δa 1

15

When it is determined that there are no fasteners in a row on both sides of the critical fastener, scenario

3 is then used.

Initial Crack: Two diametric through cracks of lengths 0.05” and 0.005”, respectively,

emanating from the antenna connector cutout hole along with a 0.005” crack at

other fastener holes

Subsequent Damage: All cracks grow concurrently but independently and interaction between

cracks is ignored when the primary crack grows toward the adjacent hole. The

amount of growth δa for the 0.005” crack is added to its original length when

the 0.05” crack grows into the adjacent hole. The tip-to-tip primary crack

continues to grow, with crack tip interaction, toward adjacent holes. All

secondary cracks grow concurrently but independently. The growths continue

until the residual strength is no longer greater than the limit stress or the crack

growth life reaches 300,000 flights.

It is noted that successive growths of the 0.005” at skin cutout hole δa1L, δa2L, etc. are

different from the growths of 0.005” crack at fastener holes δa1S, δa2S, etc. because the

hole sizes and fastener pitches are different.

16

3.3 Fastener Load Transfers and Skin Stress Gradients

To calculate the stress intensity factor of a crack emanating from a fastener hole in a repaired or

modified skin, the fastener load needs to be known. For an open hole such as the antenna connector

hole in skin, the stress gradient along the assumed crack growth path needs to be described.

Fastener load transfers in skin of repairs and antenna installations are obtained using 2-D RAPID-FEM

analysis. A description of the analysis is provided in Appendix B. Stress gradients in skin for antenna

installations are also obtained from RAPID-FEM analysis.

The stress-intensity factor of a crack, denoted by K, characterizes the stress field near the crack tip. It

has been used in crack growth prediction models under cyclic load as well as in fracture toughness

measurements. The value of K depends on the crack configuration in the structural geometry and the

loads applied in the structure.

Stress-intensity factor solutions for the crack geometries in the crack sequences described in section 3.2

are required for damage tolerance analysis. Three methods that RAPIDC uses are described as

follows.

This method is used for the case in which the crack is located at the edge of a pin-loaded hole in a plate

subjected to gross, bearing, and bypass stresses as illustrated in Figure 7.

σ Bearing

a

= 1/2 a + a

σ Bearing

σ Bearing

17

where the term 'Far Field' refers to σGross + σBypass, and ‘Point Loads’ represents σBearing.

Let BRF and BPF denote the bearing factor (σBearing /σGross ) and the bypass factor (σBypass/σGross ),

respectively. The stress intensity factor K can be written as

= 1

2 (1+ BPF ) σ Gross π a β FarField + 1

2 BRF σ Gross πa β Po int Loads

where βFar Field is the geometry factor obtained by normalizing the stress intensity factors for the problem

shown in Figure 8 with respect to the Griffith crack. βPoint Loads is the geometry factor obtained by

normalizing the stress intensity factors for the problem shown in Figure 9 with respect to the Griffith

crack.

Thus, the above equation can be rewritten for the overall beta factor, β, as

K = β σ Gross πa

where

in which the geometry factors βFar Field and βPoint Loads are given by the curves as shown in Figures 8 and

9 respectively.

σ∞

R a

σ∞

18

3.5

3

2.5

1.5

0.5

0

0 2 4 6 8 10

Normalized Crack Length: a/R

uniform far field stress: K o = σ ∞ πa

R a

19

1.6

1.4

1.2

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

0 2 4 6 8 10

Normalized Crack Length: a/R

a pair of point loads: K o = F π a

2 Rt

If the stresses vary along the crack paths as shown in Figure 10(a), the stress intensity factor can be

obtained by summing up the stress intensity factors for each pair of splitting point loads along the crack

surfaces as shown in Figure 10(b).

X X

σ(x) = σο φ(x) p

R a 20 R a

(a) Stress Gradients (b) A Pair of Point Loads

Consider a crack emanating from a hole and is subjected to a pair of point loads as shown in Figure

10(b). The stress intensify for the crack tip can be written as

p

∆K = G( λ ,ω )

πa

where the non-dimensional parameters λ and ω are defined as λ = a/R and ω = x/a, respectively.

Let the stress gradient be σ(x) = σ0 φ(x) as shown in Figure 10(a), the load per unit thickness at a

distance x from the edge of the hole can be expressed by

p = σ 0 φ ( x ) dx

Therefore, the stress intensity factor of the crack subject to the stress gradient shown in Figure 10(a)

can be calculated as

a σ 0 φ (x )

K=∫ G( λ, ω ) dx

o

πa

a 1

K=

π ∫o σ o φ (aω ) G(λ,ω ) dω

β = K / Ko

21

where K 0 =σ 0 πa .

To account for the effect of a geometry modification ahead of a crack tip, the geometry corrector factor

is compounded with the stress intensity without the geometry modification to take into consideration of

the effect. The method is illustrated by the example below.

Consider a crack emanating from a hole and growing toward an adjacent hole as shown in Figure 11.

P

σ(x) = σ0 φ(x)

D a

K = σ 0 π a β Compound

For the case of a crack emanating from a hole in a wide plate subjected to stress gradients on crack

faces as shown in Figure 10(a), the geometry factor βAt a Hole can be obtained using the Green’s function

method described in Method 2. For the case of a crack growing toward a hole (Figure 12), the

geometry factors βApproaching a Hole are obtained from an open literature and are presented in Figure 13.

σ∞

22

c

2a

b R

σ∞

K o = σ ∞ πa

2.5

Normalized Stress Intensity Factor: K/Ko

0.5

2

0.4

1.75

0.3

1.5

0.2

1.25

0.1

1

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

Normalized Crack Length: a/b

With βAt a Hole and βApproaching a Hole determined, the value of βCompounded can then be calculated.

Using the method, the stress intensity factor for a crack passing through multiple holes can be estimated.

The solutions are provided in Appendix C.

23

3.5 Residual Strength and Limit Stresses

The critical crack length is defined as the crack length in skin at limit stress. The methods used to

determine the residual strength evaluation and limit stress calculation are described in the following

sections.

Kc

σ Re sidual =

β π a

where K C is the toughness of the skin material, β is the geometry factor, and a denotes the crack length.

Fedderson revised the curve by drawing a tangent line from residual strength curve that intersects the

material yield stress, σy, as shown below in Figure 14.

Kc

Residual Strength

σy β πa

Crack Length

The residual strength diagram is therefore the straight tangent line followed by the curved portion of the

residual strength curve obtained from the fracture toughness method.

The limit stress in the circumferential direction, for the longitudinal crack, is calculated using the equation

pR R

σ Limit,Circumfere ntial = 1 .1 + 0 .6

t t

24

where p is the pressure differential, R and t are the radius and thickness of the fuselage at the location

where the damage tolerance analysis is performed. The stress due to the additional pressure 0.6 psi in

the equation is to account for the external aerodynamic suction pressure (0.5 psi) plus a 0.1 psi

regulator tolerance per FAR 23.574.

The limit stress in the longitudinal direction, for the circumferential crack, is determined using the

equation

pR R n1 σ 1G

σ Limit, Longitudinal = + 0 .6 +

2t 2t γ

where p is the pressure differential, n1 is the maneuvering limit load factor, γ is the payload reduction

factor assuming a value of 0.7, R and t are the radius and thickness of the fuselage, and σ1G is the one-G

stress, under normal operating condition, at the location where the damage tolerance analysis is

performed. The additional pressure 0.6 psi is added per FAR 23.574.

To predict the crack growth of a repaired or a modified skin, the stress spectrum at the repair or

antenna location needs to be described. RAPIDC generates the stress spectrum from the load

spectrum that RAPIDC also generates. In addition, RAPIDC accepts user-provided stress spectrum in

the crack growth analysis.

The stress spectrum, either generated by RAPIDC or provided by the user, can be used in the cycle-

by-cycle crack growth analysis. A one cycle equivalent stress representing a flight cycle can be

calculated from the stress spectrum and used in the simplified crack growth analysis. The user can

provide RAPIDC with the equivalent stress as well. The analysis process is described in Figure 15.

25

User Input User

Aircraft Data Input

Load

Spectrum

Stress Stress

Spectrum Spectrum

Cycle-by-Cycle Equivalent

Crack Growth Analysis Stress

Simplified

Crack Growth Analysis

Load and stress spectra generation methods are described in Appendix D. For the calculation of one

cycle equivalent stress used in simplified crack growth analysis, the method is described in appendix E.

The crack growth rate data obtained experimentally from constant amplitude coupon tests in the form of

da/dN versus ∆K for the material are generally documented in a tabular form. The tabulated data can

be used directly in the crack growth calculation using the cycle-by-cycle method. In RAPIDC, the

following da/dN versus ∆K tabular data of thirteen materials are in the material database.

(2) .................................................... 2024-T3 Clad Sheet, -T42 Bare Sheet, T-L RT LA DW

(3) ........................................................ 2024-T351 Plate, -T3511 Extrusion, L-T RT LA DW

(4) ................................................................................7050-T7452 Forging, L-T T-L LA RT

(5) ........................................................... 7050-T74511, -T76511 Extrusion, L-T RT LA DW

(6) ...............................................................................7050-T74511 Extrusion, L-T RT STW

(7) .............................................................. 7050-T7651, -T7451 Plate, L-T T-L RT LA DW

(8) ...............................................................................7050-T76511 Extrusion, L-T RT STW

(9) ...........................................................................................7475-T7351 Plate, L-T LA RT

(10)................................................................................. 7475-T7651 Plate, L-T LA RT DW

(11)..........................................................................7475-T761 Clad Sheet, L-T RT LA DW

26

(12)..................................................................................... 7075-T6 Clad Sheet, L-T RT LA

(13)...................................................................... 2014-T6 Sheet, T=0.05 L-T RT LA 10 HZ

where

T-L:..........................................................................transverse-longitudinal material orientation

RT:..........................................................................................room temperature test condition

LA:...........................................................................laboratory air environmental test condition

DW: ........................................................................ distilled water environmental test condition

STW:...................................................................sump tank water environmental test condition

RAPIDC also provides user with direct input of da/dN tabular data or Walker’s coefficients. The input

format of the da/dN tabular data is described as follows.

Line 1 1

3 30 (2024-T3 CLAD SHEET,-T42 BARE SHEET, L-T RT LA DW)

0.05 0.40 0.80

Line 4 0.100E-31 0.100E-07 0.300E-07 0.500E-07 0.700E-07 0.800E-07 0.100E-06 0.200E-06

0.300E-06 0.500E-06 0.800E-06 0.100E-05 0.200E-05 0.500E-05 0.800E-05 0.100E-04

0.200E-04 0.400E-04 0.800E-04 0.100E-03 0.200E-03 0.500E-03 0.100E-02 0.300E-02

0.800E-02 0.200E-01 0.500E-01 0.100E+00 0.200E+00 0.100E+01

Line 8

2.8990 2.9000 2.9010 3.0000 3.2000 3.3000 3.6000 4.7500

5.5000 6.2000 6.6000 6.8000 8.0000 10.1000 12.2000 13.2500

16.9000 20.0000 24.2000 25.6000 29.6000 36.0000 41.0000 50.5000

61.0000 70.0000 78.0000 87.0000 92.0000 93.0000

Line 12

2.3480 2.3490 2.3500 2.3600 2.5000 2.6000 2.8800 3.9000

4.5000 5.1500 5.7000 6.0000 7.0000 8.7500 9.9000 10.5000

13.2500 16.0000 19.5000 21.0000 24.5000 29.0000 33.5000 41.5000

Line 16 48.0000 51.0000 54.0000 56.5000 57.0000 58.0000

1.7490 1.7500 1.7600 1.7700 1.8200 1.8750 2.0500 2.8500

3.4000 4.0000 4.5000 4.8000 5.6000 7.0000 8.0000 8.4000

9.9000 11.5000 13.0000 13.5000 15.3000 18.0000 19.8000 20.0000

20.0010 20.0020 20.0030 20.0040 20.0050 20.0060

1 NMAT Integer The material number that corresponds with the material

number containing the Walker’s C, p and q values

2 MRATIO Integer The first integer number is the number of different ratio

values in line 3; the maximum value is 10

2 MVALUE Integer The second integer value is the number of da/dN values in

lines 4-7, and ∆K values in lines 8-11, 12-15, and 16-19;

the maximum value is 40

2 - - Description of the material; optional

3 RATIOV Real The different ratio values in ascending order; there are

27

MRATIO values

4-7 DADN Real The da/dN values; there are MVALUE values for this y-

axis

8-11, DELTAK Real The ∆K values; there are MVALUE values, and MRATIO

12-15, sets for this x-axis

16-19

Two methods have been implemented in RAPIDC for the crack growth analysis, the simplified method

[1] and the cycle-by-cycle method. In the cycle-by-cycle method, the retardation effect due to

occasional stress overloads is accounted using the Generalized Willenborg Model [2,3,4]. In RAPIDC,

the crack growth analysis is performed up to 300,000 flight cycles.

In the simplified crack growth analysis method, the number of flights for a crack growing from the size ai

to the size aj (aj > ai ) can be calculated by the equation

1 -p

Nij = C ( S G ij )

where C and p are the coefficients in the Walker’s equation, S is the equivalent stress, and Gij is the

geometry term. The quantity Gij represents the cumulative geometry effect and is calculated by the

equation

−p

∫ [ ]

aj

G −ij p = β( a) π a da

ai

where β(a) is the geometry factor. The integration is carried out numerically using the Gaussian

quadrature method [5]. In this method, the integral can be approximated by the following equation

aj −ai K

G −ij p =

2

∑w

k =1

k g (a k )

where

g (a k ) = [ β (a k ) πa k ]−p

and

(a j − ai ) t k + (a j + ai )

ak =

2

28

In the above equations, the variables wk and tk are the k-th weighting coefficient and root of the K-th

order Legendre polynomial PK (t) = 0. Values of w and t for the case of k = 4 are given below.

k Wk tk

1 0.347855 -0.861136

2 0.652145 -0.339981

3 0.652145 0.339981

4 0.347855 0.861136

It is noted that the simplified method calculates the number of flights Nij for a crack growing from a size

a to a next size aj (aj > ai). To generate crack growth, the procedure is carried out successively

i

between two consecutive crack lengths.

The cycle-by-cycle crack growth analysis method is illustrated by the example shown in Figure 16. The

analysis procedure is described in the flow chart shown in Figure 17.

σ

σmax,i

σmax,2

σmax,1

σmin,i

R a σmin,2

σmin,1

Time Sequence

σ

(a) Crack at hole in a wide plate (b) Stress Spectrum

Crack Growth Rate Data: da/dN

R1 R2 R3

Normalized SIF: K/Ko

Ko = σ πa

(c) Normalized Stress-Intensity Factor (d) Fatigue Crack Growth Rate Data

29

i=1

Crack Length

a i-1 i = i+ 1

Stress Excursion

σmin,i → σmax,i

Stress-Intensity Factors

K min, i = σ min, i β πai−1

K max, i = σ max, i β π ai −1

2

1 Kmax,i

rp ,i =

2π σ

ys

No Yes

i=1

Set Set

γ i = ai −1 + r p, i a OL = a i-1

rOL = rp,i

Yes No γOL = a OL + rp,i

γ i ≤ γ OL

KOL = Kmax,i

ai −1 − aOL ∆Ki = Kmax,i - Kmin,i

K R, i = K OL 1 − − K max,i

rOL

Stress Ratio

Effective SIF

Ri = K min,i /K max,i

Eff

Kmax,i = Kmax,i - φ KR,i

Eff Incremental Crack Length

Kmin,i = Kmin,i - φ KR,i

∆a i = f (Ri, ∆Ki ) = (da / dN )i

Effective SIF Differential

Eff Eff Eff Updated Crack Length

∆Ki = Kmax,i - Kmin,i

ai = a i-1 + ∆ai

Effective Stress Ratio

No

/KEff

Eff

Eff K min,i a i ≥ a cr

Ri =

max,i

Yes

Incremental Crack Length

Stop

Eff Eff

∆a i = f ( Ri , ∆Ki ) = (da / dN )i

30

Let a0 be the initial crack length. The crack growth analysis starts with an initial crack of length a0 at i =

1. For the first cycle stress excursion, the stress-intensity factors and the plastic zone size are

calculated. With the stress ratio R and the change of the stress-intensity factor ∆K, the incremental

crack length is obtained from the da/dN data. The crack is incremented to the length a1.

At each sequential i- th cycle, the crack growth starts with a length equal to ai-1. The stress-intensity

factors and the plastic zone size are calculated using the i-th stress excursion. A test is then made to

determine if the growth of the progressing crack is retarded. A positive answer leads the analysis to use

the Generalized Willenborg retardation model in the calculation of incremental crack length. Otherwise,

the retardation effect is bypassed in the calculation. The crack then propagates the length ai.

The process continues until the crack grows to the critical crack length determined from the residual

strength of the structure at the limit stress.

In RAPIDC, the compression-tension stress cycle is treated as a zero-tension stress cycle and the

compression-compression stress cycle is ignored in the crack growth calculation. Furthermore, the

parameter φ introduced in the generalized Willenborg retardation model is calculated by the equation

∆ K Threshold

1−

∆K i

φ=

S −1

OL

where ∆K Threshold is the threshold stress-intensity factor level associated with zero fatigue crack growth

rates, and SOL is the overload (shut-off) ratio required to cause crack arrest for the given material. A

value of 2.3 is used in RAPIDC.

With the crack growth of the repaired or the modified skin provided by RAPIDC, the user determines

the inspection threshold and the inspection interval at the detectable crack length for the desired

inspection method.

The RAPIDC analysis program consists of a static module and a damage tolerance analysis module.

The static module performs the static strength analysis of the repaired or the modified fuselage skin.

Margins of safety are calculated based on three independent criteria. RAPIDC calculates the load

carrying capacity lost, due to the damage treatment or a skin cutout, and the margin of safety based on

the joint allowable which includes the fastener shear and hole bearing allowables. It calculates the

margin of safety based on the ultimate tensile strengths of the doubler and the design ultimate tensile

31

strength of the skin. The margin of safety for shear is also calculated based on the shear allowables of

the skin and the doubler. In addition, the stiffness ratio between the doubler and the skin layers, and the

bending of the fastener going through the stack-up layers are also calculated. The program then checks

adequacy of the repair. RAPIDC either recommends redesign due to inadequate static design or deems

the repair to be statically adequate. The analysis procedure is described in the flow chart in Figure 18.

Static

Module

Due to Skin Cutout Tensile Load Shear Load

Stiffness

and

Fastener Bending

Fastener Shear Hole Bearing Skin and Doubler Skin and Doubler

Load Allowable Strength Allowable Tensile Allowables Shear

Margins

of Safety Acceptable

Damage

Advice of Safety > 0 Tolerance

No

The damage tolerance module performs the crack growth and the residual strength analysis of the

repaired or the modified skin. The analysis is performed for cracks initiating at the critical fastener

holes. Initial crack configurations are assumed for repairs and antenna installations. Fastener load

transfers and skin stress gradients are obtained from RAPID-FEM analysis. Stress-intensity factors of

relevant crack configuration are then calculated. The residual strength is calculated and the crack

growth analysis is performed using either the simplified or the cycle-by-cycle method. The residual

strength is then checked against the limit stress to determine whether the crack advances. Based on the

damage tolerance analysis results, the user determines the inspection threshold and inspection intervals

for the selected inspection method. The analysis procedure is described in Figure 19.

32

Damage Tolerance

Module

and Lengths or

Equivalent Stress

Bypass Factors

Stress Intensity

Factors

Advance Strength Growth

Yes

σRes > σLimit

No

Inspection

Threshold & Intervals

General notes and program limitations of the RAPIDC 2.0 program is provided in Appendix F.

6. 0 References

Editors: S. N. Atluri, S. G. Sampath, P. Tong, and Springer-Verlag, 1991.

an Effective Stress Concept,” AFFDL-TM-71-1-FBR, 1971.

Fatigue-Crack-Growth Behavior of 4340 Steel,” AFFDL-TR-74-27, 1974.

Loading Using the Willenborg Retardation Model,” AIAA Paper No. 74-369, 1974.

33

5. Handbook of Mathematical Functions with Formulas, Graphs, and Mathematical Tables, Edited

by Milton Abramowitz and Lrene A. Stegun, Dover Publications, Inc., New York, 1972.

34

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