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Submitted in the partial fulfillment of the Degree of Bachelor of Technology

Computer Science and Engineering


Name – KANIKA MEHTA Mr.Princejit Singh
Regd. No 10902338
Roll no RB1902A63

Department of Computer Science and Engineering Lovely Professional University


I take this opportunity to present my votes of thanks to all those guidepost who really
acted as lightening pillars to enlighten our way throughout this project that has led to
successful and satisfactory completion of this study.
We are really grateful to our HOD for providing us with an opportunity to undertake
this project in this university and providing us with all the facilities. I am highly
thankful to Mr. Princejit Singh for his active support, valuable time and advice,
whole-hearted guidance, sincere cooperation and pains-taking involvement during the
study and in completing the assignment of preparing the said project within the time
Lastly, I am thankful to all those, particularly the various friends , who have been
instrumental in creating proper, healthy and conductive environment and including
new and fresh innovative ideas for me during the project, their help, it would have
been extremely difficult for us to prepare the project in a time bound framework.


1. Introduction
2. Semiconductor Devices
3. List of common Semiconductor Devices
4. Introduction to transistor
5. uses and importance of a transistor
6. Transistor as a switch
7. Transistor as an amplifier
8. advantages and limitations over vacuum tubes

Introduction While this economic reality reflects the
massive growth of the industry, it is hard
Semiconductor devices such as diodes, to even imagine a similar growth in any
transistors and integrated circuits can be other industry. For instance, in the
found everywhere in our daily lives, in automobile industry, no one would even
Walkman, televisions, automobiles, expect a five times faster car with a five
washing machines and computers. We times larger capacity at the same price
have come to rely on them and when comparing to what was offered
increasingly have come to expect higher five years ago. Nevertheless, when it
performance at lower cost. comes to personal computers, such
expectations are very realistic.
Personal computers clearly illustrate this
trend. Anyone who wants to replace a The essential fact which has driven the
three to five year old computer finds that successful growth of the computer
the trade-in value of his or her computer industry is that through industrial skill
is surprising low. On the bright side, one and technological advances one manages
finds that the complexity and to make smaller and smaller transistors.
performance of the today’s personal These devices deliver year after year
computers vastly exceeds that of their better performance while consuming less
old computer and that for about the same power and because of their smaller size
purchase price, adjusted for inflation. they can also be manufactured at a lower
cost per device.

useful temperature range make it
Semiconductor currently the best compromise among
the various competing materials.
device Germanium (Ge) was a widely used
early semiconductor material but its
Semiconductor devices are electronic thermal sensitivity makes it less useful
components that exploit the electronic than silicon. Gallium arsenide (GaAs) is
properties of semiconductor materials, also widely used in high-speed devices
principally silicon, germanium, and but so far, it has been difficult to form
gallium arsenide. Semiconductor devices large-diameter boules of this material,
have replaced thermionic devices limiting the wafer diameter to sizes
(vacuum tubes) in most applications. significantly smaller than silicon wafers
They use electronic conduction in the thus making mass production of GaAs
solid state as opposed to the gaseous devices significantly more expensive
state or thermionic emission in a high than silicon.
Other less common materials are also in
Semiconductor devices are use or under investigation.
manufactured both as single discrete
devices and as integrated circuits (ICs), Silicon carbide (SiC) has found some
which consist of a number—from a few application as the raw material for blue
to millions—of devices manufactured light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and is
and interconnected on a single being investigated for use in
semiconductor substrate. semiconductor devices that could
withstand very high operating
temperatures and environments with the
presence of significant levels of ionizing
radiation. IMPATT diodes have also
Semiconductor device been fabricated from SiC.
Various indium compounds (indium
By far, silicon (Si) is the most widely arsenide, indium antimonide, and indium
used material in semiconductor devices. phosphide) are also being used in LEDs
Its combination of low raw material cost, and solid state laser diodes. Selenium
relatively simple processing, and a sulfide is being studied in the
manufacture of photovoltaic solar cells.

List of common • Bipolar transistor
• Darlington transistor
semiconductor • Field effect transistor
devices • GTO (Gate Turn-Off)
• IGBT (Insulated Gate Bipolar
Two-terminal devices:
• SCR (Silicon Controlled
• Avalanche diode (avalanche
• SGCT (Switched Gate
breakdown diode)
Commuted Thyristor)
• Thyristor
• Diode (rectifier diode)
• Gunn diode
• Unijunction transistor
• IMPATT diode
• Laser diode
Four-terminal devices:
• Light-emitting diode (LED)
• Photocell
• Hall effect sensor (magnetic field
• PIN diode
• Schottky diode
• Solar cell
Multi-terminal devices:
• Tunnel diode
• Charge-coupled device (CCD)
• Microprocessor
• Zener diode
• Random Access Memory (RAM)
• Read-only memory (ROM)
Three-terminal devices:

Transistor transistors produced are in integrated
circuits (often shortened to IC,
Introduction microchips or simply chips) along with
diodes, resistors, capacitors and other
A transistor is a semiconductor device electronic components to produce
commonly used to amplify or switch complete electronic circuits. A logic gate
electronic signals. A transistor is made consists of up to about twenty transistors
of a solid piece of a semiconductor whereas an advanced microprocessor, as
material, with at least three terminals for of 2006, can use as many as 1.7 billion
connection to an external circuit. A transistors (MOSFETs)."About 60
voltage or current applied to one pair of million transistors were built this year
the transistor's terminals changes the [2002] ... for [each] man, woman, and
current flowing through another pair of child on Earth."
terminals. Because the controlled
(output) power can be much more than The transistor's low cost, flexibility, and
the controlling (input) power, the reliability have made it a ubiquitous
transistor provides amplification of a device. Transistorized mechatronic
signal. Some transistors are packaged circuits have replaced electromechanical
individually but most are found in devices in controlling appliances and
integrated circuits. machinery. It is often easier and cheaper
to use a standard microcontroller and
The transistor is the fundamental write a computer program to carry out a
building block of modern electronic control function than to design an
devices, and its presence is ubiquitous in equivalent mechanical control function.
modern electronic systems.

The bipolar junction transistor, or BJT,

was the most commonly used transistor
in the 1960s and 70s. Even after
Importance MOSFETs became widely available, the
BJT remained the transistor of choice for
many analog circuits such as simple
The transistor is considered by many to
amplifiers because of their greater
be one of the greatest inventions of the
linearity and ease of manufacture.
twentieth century. The transistor is the
Desirable properties of MOSFETs, such
key active component in practically all
as their utility in low-power devices,
modern electronics. Its importance in
usually in the CMOS configuration,
today's society rests on its ability to be
allowed them to capture nearly all
mass produced using a highly automated
market share for digital circuits; more
process (fabrication) that achieves
recently MOSFETs have captured most
astonishingly low per-transistor costs.
analog and power applications as well,
including modern clocked analog
Although several companies each
circuits, voltage regulators, amplifiers,
produce over a billion individually-
power transmitters, motor drivers, etc.
packaged (known as discrete) transistors
every year, the vast majority of

The essential usefulness of a transistor can control or switch a much larger
comes from its ability to use a small current between the collector and emitter
signal applied between one pair of its terminals. For a field-effect transistor,
terminals to control a much larger signal the terminals are labeled gate, source,
at another pair of terminals. This and drain, and a voltage at the gate can
property is called gain. A transistor can control a current between source and
control its output in proportion to the drain.
input signal, that is, can act as an
amplifier. Or, the transistor can be used The image to the right represents a
to turn current on or off in a circuit as an typical bipolar transistor in a circuit.
electrically controlled switch, where the Charge will flow between emitter and
amount of current is determined by other collector terminals depending on the
circuit elements. current in the base. Since internally the
base and emitter connections behave like
The two types of transistors have slight a semiconductor diode, a voltage drop
differences in how they are used in a develops between base and emitter while
circuit. A bipolar transistor has terminals the base current exists. The size of this
labeled base, collector, and emitter. A voltage depends on the material the
small current at the base terminal (that transistor is made from, and is referred
is, flowing from the base to the emitter) to as VBE.

Transistor as a switch

the collector voltage drops because of
the collector load resistor. The relevant

VRC = ICE × RC, the voltage across

the load (the lamp with resistance
RC )
VRC + VCE = VCC, the supply
voltage shown as 6V
BJT used as an electronic switch, in
grounded-emitter configuration. If VCE could fall to 0 (perfect closed
switch) then IC could go no higher than
Transistors are commonly used as VCC / RC, even with higher base voltage
electronic switches, for both high power and current. The transistor is then said to
applications including switched-mode be saturated. Hence, values of input
power supplies and low power voltage can be chosen such that the
applications such as logic gates. output is either completely off, or
completely on. The transistor is acting as
In a grounded-emitter transistor circuit, a switch, and this type of operation is
such as the light-switch circuit shown, as common in digital circuits where only
the base voltage rises the base and "on" and "off" values are relevant.
collector current rise exponentially, and

Transistor as an amplifier Various configurations of single
transistor amplifier are possible, with
some providing current gain, some
voltage gain, and some both.

From mobile phones to televisions, vast

numbers of products include amplifiers
for sound reproduction, radio
transmission, and signal processing. The
Fig. Amplifier circuit, standard first discrete transistor audio amplifiers
common-emitter configuration. barely supplied a few hundred mill
watts, but power and audio fidelity
The common-emitter amplifier is gradually increased as better transistors
designed so that a small change in became available and amplifier
voltage in (Vin) changes the small current architecture evolved.
through the base of the transistor and the
transistor's current amplification Modern transistor audio amplifiers of up
combined with the properties of the to a few hundred watts are common and
circuit mean that small swings in Vin relatively inexpensive.
produce large changes in Vout.
Some musical instrument amplifier
It is important that the operating values manufacturers mix transistors and
of the transistor are chosen and the vacuum tubes in the same circuit, as
circuit designed such that as far as some believe tubes have a distinctive
possible the transistor operates within a sound.
linear portion of the graph, such as that
shown between A and B, otherwise the
output signal will suffer distortion.


Comparison with a Vaccum tubes • Insensitivity to mechanical shock

and vibration, thus avoiding the
Advantages problem of micro phonics in
audio applications.
The key advantages that have allowed
transistors to replace their vacuum tube Limitations
predecessors in most applications are
• Silicon transistors do not operate
• Small size and minimal weight, at voltages higher than about
allowing the development of 1,000 volts (SiC devices can be
miniaturized electronic devices. operated as high as 3,000 volts).
• Highly automated manufacturing In contrast, electron tubes have
processes, resulting in low per- been developed that can be
unit cost. operated at tens of thousands of
• Lower possible operating volts.
voltages, making transistors • High power, high frequency
suitable for small, battery- operation, such as used in over-
powered applications. the-air television broadcasting, is
• No warm-up period for cathode better achieved in electron tubes
heaters required after power due to improved electron
application. mobility in a vacuum.
• Lower power dissipation and • On average, a higher degree of
generally greater energy amplification linearity can be
efficiency. achieved in electron tubes as
• Higher reliability and greater compared to equivalent solid
physical ruggedness. state devices, a characteristic that
• Extremely long life. Some may be important in high fidelity
transistorized devices have been audio reproduction.
in service for more than 30 years.
• Complementary devices Silicon transistors are much more
available, facilitating the design sensitive than electron tubes to an
of complementary-symmetry electromagnetic pulse, such as generated
circuits, something not possible by an atmospheric nuclear explosion
with vacuum tubes.