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Vol. 2 No. 2
The ‘D’s in 4D Seismic from PGS
Part 2: Dense Acquisition & Distinguished Processing
PGS significant has recently devoted to the
Dense Aqcuisition Over view PGS has introduced HD3D technology for onshore, seafloor
The Advantages of Dense HD3DTM for 4D Seismic
When we design a seismic survey, we would ideally like to have: • Dense sampling to avoid aliasing and get optimum resolution. • High fold to decrease random noise and get clear data. • Multiple azimuths to improve imaging and map and control anisotropy. • Efficient acquisition to reduce costs. Dense sampling implies the
and streamer surveys.
improvement of 4D technology. A strong effort has been made to establish a thorough, consistent product including leading technology and tools as well as the right expertise. PGS has defined four Ds that characterize our products and strengths with respect to a 4D project: • Detailed planning • Dense acquisition • Distinguished processing • Dedicated QC This newsletter focuses on Dense Acquisition Processing. and Distinguished
technology is well suited for 4D seismic in all these environments because: • Dense acquisition gives adequate sampling of the wavefield, higher resolution and better velocity analyses. • Dense acquisition gives higher fold, reduced random noise and increased repeatability. • Dense acquisition may also give better azimuthal coverage, which enables better matching of two surveys due to: - Flexibility in selection of input gathers of monitor surveys. - Opportunity to remove multidirectional noise. - Better imaging. The efficient, dense
sampling interval (in space and time) is so small that aliasing is avoided in all
acquisition facilitated by HD3D makes this a very appropriate technology for acquisition of 4D data.
relevant processing domains. It also means we get a sufficient number of samples or traces within each bin. Proper sampling and proper sub-surface coverage is the best way to avoid harming the data during processing.
Figure 1: Comparison of conventional 3D survey with 166400 traces per km2 (lower part) and HD3D survey with 576000 traces per km2 (upper part) - Courtesy BP.
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a monitor survey acquired with HD3D allows us to pick the traces that have optimum match to the base survey's offset and azimuth. The solid line indicates the true AVO trend of a primary event. Again. For streamer surveys. Among the many vital components of a 4D friendly processing flow are pre-stack full or partial migration. it is crucial to do QC after each step! allow superior . (b) Improvement in amplitude using the wellparameterised high-resolution transform. Figure 3: (a) Comparison of AVO response for Radon demultiple using an aliased and an un-aliased Radon transform. Distinguished Processing High-quality 4D processing requires an integrated processing sequence that is specifically focused on both structural fidelity and primary amplitude preservation. Hence. HD3D technology enables the small bins/high resolution and high fold/high S/N we need for detailed reservoir studies. HD3D can Figure 2: QC of the processing flow.TechLink March 2002 Page 2 The Advantages of Dense HD3DTM for 4D Seismic Continued from Page 1 configurations and we consequently have to compare two surveys with varying sourcereceiver azimuths and different sampling. noise processes Many suffer suppression directional noise suppression when a wider range of azimuths have been acquired. HD3D surveys are therefore ideal for base line purposes for a 4D project. As is clear from the because the data are sampled only in one direction. If we are acquiring a monitor survey. HD3D technology will normally give more hits per bin than the base line survey. The surplus of data makes it possible to achieve a better match between the data that are used in each bin from the monitor and base line surveys respectively. Bin sizes in the range of 10m x 10m can be efficiently acquired using this technology. processing flow in Figure 2. coherent and incoherent noise removal. The shortdashed line shows the AVO response after demultiple using a high-resolution Radon transform. The longdashed line shows the AVO response of the event after standard (least-squares) Radon demultiple. which again makes available a larger range of azimuths for all source . An example of improvement in data quality achieved by HD3D streamer seismic is shown in Figure 1. The 4D friendly processing flow must be highly repeatable between base and monitor surveys. seafloor and streamer surveys.receiver configurations. the level of non-repeatable noise will be reduced through use of directional noise suppression. The higher trace density resulting from HD3D will allow for improved repeatability because processing artifacts originating in transforms or data interpolation are reduced. In addition. and consistent amplitude recovery. the efficiency flexibility of and HD3D PGS has introduced HD3D technology for onshore. We frequently face the problem that the monitor and baseline surveys do not have the same survey makes it feasible to acquire swaths that are overlapping. The dense acquisition improves the velocity analyses which normally have a strong impact on data quality.
and in particular. improves the amplitude preservation at both far. The source and receiver arrays used in typical marine surveys produce responses that depend on the emission/emergence and azimuth angles of each source-reflector-receiver ray-path. Figure 3(a) shows a comparison of AVO behaviour for a synthetic event after Radon demultiple with both an aliased and unaliased Radon transform. • Pre-stack full or partial migration using true-amplitude pre-stack time migration that takes into account velocity variations as a function of depth. amplitudes. A robust approach is to apply scalars (that are functions of Q. • High-fidelity DMO. When Radon demultiple is used. elimination (SRME. However. in turn. (ii) geometrical spreading and (iii) the effects of Q.Page 3 A Publication of PGS Geophysical 4D Optimized Amplitude Recovery It is important to recover the amplitudes from the data in a consistent and accurate manner to obtain a good 4D signal. velocity and offset) to try and recover peak amplitude. Computation of these scalars is based on dominant frequency and bandwidth of the data at various travel-times. geometrical spreading. distorts the true amplitude (and thus true 4D) effect. the most commonly used demultiple algorithm. two stand out as being generally good at preserving pre-stack primary Figure 4: Seismic section before (left) and after application of SRME (right). • Multiple removal by SRME or Radon demultiple using highresolution transforms. near offsets (Figure transform processing. Three of the most important considerations in this process are: (i) source/receiver directivity. in cases where pre-stack demultiple. and absorption. The main effect is that the imbedded wavelet becomes non-stationary and this. time. Dispersion results in progressive wavelet delay as a function of travel-time. Surface related multiple . These effects are time and offset dependent for a given sourcestreamer combination and should be corrected for at an early stage in the processing sequence. Continued on next page 3(b)). removing coherent noise and multiple energy from the seismic dataset is one of the most vital processing steps. Absorption results in a progressive loss of high frequency signal as a function of travel-time. necessary a for well4D parameterised high-resolution Multiple Removal In general. Figure 4) shows very good primary amplitude preservation as long as care is taken during the design of the adaptive subtraction component of the process. it is vital that the Radon transform not generates alsiasing. As a result. Of the many demultiple techniques available. is Radon Distinguished Processing Over view PGS has developed a series of algorithms specially suited for 4D processing: • Consistent amplitude recovery compensating for source/receiver directivity. PGS has a total processing flow that comprises 4D friendly-processing. is Hence. The unaliased Radon transform primary amplitude preservation is critical.
The main objective of such a processing sequence is to obtain an optimal migration velocity field that can also be used to develop a model for pre-stack depth migration or a full timemigration before stack.conventional DMO is applied. Figure 5 shows two CMP DMO gathers of real marine seismic data with 16 streamers before and after the application of HiFi DMO. The migration results for model and raw data demonstrate that this curved ray migration technique produces better images and migration velocities than those obtained using the straight ray KPSTM.com/techlink .HiFi DMO is applied to the maximum offset 1200 m. Right panel .pgs. trueamplitude pre-stack time migration (TA-PSTM) is available. TA-PSTM uses an amplitude preserving KPSTM algorithm suitable for a media where velocity can vary as a function of depth. It is obvious that any DMO implementation used in such a processing sequence must be able to preserve amplitudes at all offsets.pgs. visit www.com More TechLinks at www. that makes an efficient practical application of near offset amplitudepreserved processing possible. All Rights Reserved For Updates on PGS Technological Advances. DMO is often a critical step to regularize the input data set to different offset planes. A significant improvement of DMO on near offsets has been achieved. compare the amplitudes on the nearest offset traces (arrowed). PGS Geophysical London Tel: 44-1932-260001 Fax: 44-1932-266465 Oslo Tel: 47-67-52-6400 Fax: 47-67-52-6464 Houston Tel: 1-281-509-8000 Fax: 1-281-509-8500 Singapore Tel: 65-6735-6411 Fax: 65-6735-6413 © 2002 Petroleum Geo-Services.TechLink March 2002 Page 4 Figure 5: DMO gather: Left panel . it is noticeable that DMO still retains a useful role as a preprocessing step rather than as a partial imaging step.High Fidelity DMO and TA-PSTM Although pre-stack depth/time migration is rapidly becoming a conventional tool. The conventional 3D Kirchhoff pre-stack time migration (KPSTM) assumes straight raypaths and constant velocity media for the traveltime calculations. Pre-Stack Imaging . the amplitude preservation makes it ideal for use in 4D and AVO processing. C O N TA C T PGS has implemented a HiFi DMO For a full imaging solution. Moreover. In particular.