Usability and Design Bibliography for International Products
December 10, 1998 Chauncey Wilson Chaunsee@aol.com

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Andrews, D. C. Technical Communication in the Global Community. Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 1998.
Andrews has a section entitled “Crossing Cultures” at the end of most chapters.

Apple Computer, Inc. Human Interface Guidelines: The Apple Desktop Interface. Reading, MA, 1992. Axtell, R. E. Do’s and Taboos Around the World (3rd Edition). Wiley, New York, 1993. Axtell, R. E. Gestures: The Do's and Taboos of Body Language Around the World. Wiley, New York, 1991. Belge M. The Next Step in Software Internationalization. Interactions. ACM Publishers. Vol 2. No 1. pp 21-25, 1995. Bishop, M. International Web Site. The Coriolis Group, Scottsdale, AZ, 1998. Borgman C L. Cultural Diversity in Interface Design. SIGCHI Bulletin. Vol. 24. No. 4. p31, 1992. Coe, M. Human Factors for Technical Communicators. Wiley: New York, NY, 1996.
Coe's book provides technical communicators with clear explanations of the impact of human factors on technical communication.

Del Galdo, E. M. and Nielsen, J. (Eds.) International User Interfaces. Wiley: New York, NY, 1996.
Del Galdo and Nielsen's book is a collection of chapters on topics dealing with usability engineering, culture and design, international differences in software user training, case studies on international user interface design, and the design of multilingual documents. Examples of Arabic, Chinese, Japanese, and Europeans designs are shown.



Fernandes, T. Global Interface Design: A Guide to Designing International User Interfaces. AP Professional: Boston, MA, 1995.
Fernandes book is an excellent reference for GUI designers. His book has sections on visual design, international formats, cultural issues, symbols and taboos, and cultural aesthetics. This book has the best examples of good and bad international GUI designs that I’ve seen.

Fowler, S. L. and Stanwick, V. R. The GUI Style Guide. AP Professional: Boston, MA, 1995.
Fowler and Stanwick provide a detailed list of localization and internationalization resources.

Hall, P. A. V. and Hudson, R. (Ed.) Software Without Fontiers: A Multiplatform, Multi-cultural, Multi-nation Approach. Wiley: New York, 1997.
Software Without Frontiers is a detailed reference book that deals with globalization methods, internationalization architectures, cultural conventions, documentation and translation, message generation, and quality assurance.

Hars , A. Localizing software is not just a multilingual issue; it's also multicultural. http://www.byte.com/art/9603/sec18/art1.htm Hoft, N. L. International Technical Communication: How to Export Information About High Technology. Wiley: New York, NY, 1995.
Hoft provides a comprehensive sourcebook on the issues associated with the design of international technical communications. She covers topics ranging from the management of internationalization groups to the criteria for selecting good translators.

Hoft, N. L. Case Studies in International Technical Communication. http://www.world-ready.com/cases/index.htm Horton, William, The Almost Universal Language: Graphics for International Documents. Technical Communication, Vol. 40, No. 4. pp. 682-693, November, 1993. Horton, W. The Icon Book: Visual Symbols for Computer Systems and Documentation. Wiley: New York, NY, 1994.
Everything you ever wanted to know about icon design. The Icon Book describes the process for designing icons, provides guidelines for icon design, and gives advice on how to design for international audiences. There is one version of the book that includes a disk with a set of 500 icons. Small companies that can’t afford graphic designers might find this set of icons useful as a starting point for design.

Horton, W. Designing and Writing Online Documentation. Wiley: New York, NY, 1994.



Internationalization (i18N). http://www.vlsivie.tuwien.ac.at/mike/i18n.html
A semi-organized list of Web sites that focus on internationalization of software.

Internationalization Working Group of the W3C. Non-western Character sets, Languages, and Writing Systems. http://www.w3.org/International/ International Technical Communication (ITC) PIC Home Page. Http://www.iquest.com/~btatro/itc.itc.html ISYS Information Architects, Inc. Hall of Shame: Globalization. http://www.iarchitect.com/global.htm ISYS Information Architects, Inc. Globalization Tips. http://www.iarchitect.com/htglobal.htm Jackson, R., MacDonald, L. and Freeman, K. Computer Generated Color: A Practical Guide to Presentation and Display. Wiley: New York, NY, 1994. Jones, S., Kennelly, C., Mueller, C., Sweezy, M., Thomas, B., and Velez, L. A Digital Guide: Developing International User Information. Digital Press: Bedford, MA, 1992.
This book has detailed guidelines on how to develop international user information. It is an excellent reference for companies creating international software.

Kano, N. Developing International Software for Windows ® 95 and Windows NT ®: A Handbook for International Software Design. Microsoft Press, Redmond, WA, 1995. Karat C, and Karat J. World-wide CHI: Perspectives on Design and Internationalization. SIGCHI Bulletin. Vol. 28. No. 1. pp. 39-40. January 1996. Kellogg W, Thomas J. Cross-cultural Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction: A Report on the CHI'92 Workshop. SIGCHI Bulletin. Vol. 25. No. 2. pp. 40-45, April 1993.

Leaptrott, N. Rules of the Game: Global Business Protocol. Thomson Executive Press: Cincinnati, OH, 1996.
Leptrott offers advice on how to discover the rules of international business “games”. Chapters topics include: “The game of Global Business”, “Discovering the Rules”, Conflicting Rules: Ethics and Integrity”.



Liungman, C. G. Dictionary of Symbols. ABC-CLIO, Inc: Santa Barbara, CA, 1991. Luong, T. V., Lok, J.S. H., Taylor, D. J., and Driscoll, K. Internationalization: Developing Software for Global Markets. Wiley, New York, NY, 1995.
Luong and his colleagues have compiled a detailed set of the rules that developers of international software need to know. The book is clearly written, even when discusses technical programming issues. The one drawback that I found was a lack of graphics the book is heavy on text and light on graphics.

Microsoft Corporation. Developing International Software for Windows 95 and Windows NT: Glossary. 1996. http://microsoft.com/OfficeDev/Articles/DISAppA.HTM Microsoft Corporation. The Windows Interface Guidelines for Software Design. Microsoft Press: Redmond, WA, 1995.
This is Microsoft’s much expanded GUI guidelines for Windows 95 and Windows NT. The first section of the book deals with fundamentals of designing user interface; the second covers Windows interface components; the last section covers design specifications and guidelines.

Microsoft Corporation. The GUI Guide: International Terminology for the Windows Interface. Microsoft Press: Redmond, WA, 1993.
The GUI Guide provides a list of terms used in Windows’ products in 14 languages. This book would be an excellent resource for international teams and translation agencies.

Microsoft Corporation. The Microsoft Manual of Style for Technical Publications. Microsoft Press: Redmond, WA, 1996.
The Microsoft Manual of Style for Technical Publications is a comprehensive usage manual for Windows 95 software and documentation. This style guide contains lists of technical terms and examples of appropriate usage, acronyms and abbreviations, and special characters.

Miller, C. L. Transborder Tips and Traps. BYTE. Vol 19. No 6. pp. 93-102, 1994. Nakakoji K. Crossing the Cultural Boundary. BYTE. Vol. 19. No. 6. pp. 107109, June 1994. New Mexico State University. Books on International Technical Communication. http://www.nmsu.edu/techprof/attwrsrc/books.html
A list of books and links to other references on international technical communication.



Nielsen, J. (Ed.) Designing User Interfaces for International Use. Elsevier: Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1990. Nielsen, J. Usability Engineering. Academic Press: Boston, MA, 1993. (Note: There is a paperback version available. The paperback version has additional references and some updated material.)
Nielsen’s Usability Engineering is highly recommended. The book describes the process by which development groups can create usable applications. The book details how usability issues must be considered throughout the development process and provides techniques for gathering usability data. There is excellent information on lowcost usability testing techniques.

Nielsen, J. International Web Usability. http://www.useit.com/alertbox/9608.html Nielsen, J. Global Web: Driving the International Network Economy. http://www.useit.com/alertbox/980419.html Nielsen, J. International Usability Testing. http://www.useit.com/papers/international_usetest.html Nielsen, J. Flag Problems. http://www.useit.com/alertbox/flagproblem.html O’Donnell, S. M. Programming for the World: A Guide to Internationalization. PTR Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1994. Russo P, and Boor S. How Fluent is your Interface? Designing for International Users. Proceedings INTERCHI '93 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems: INTERACT '93 and CHI'93. (Amsterdam, 24-29 April). ACM Press. pp. 342-347, 1993. Smith, W. J. ISO and ANSI Ergonomic Standards for Computer Products: A Guide to Implementation and Compliance. Prentice Hall: Upper Saddle River, NJ, 1996.

Society of Technical Communication. Global Talk Newsletter of the International Technical Communication SIG. http://www.iquest.com/~btatro/itc.itc.html.
You can download copies of Global Talk, the newsletter of the STC International SIG.

Steiner, H. and Haas, K. Cross-cultural Communication: Communicating in a Global Marketplace. Thames and Hudson: London, 1995.



This book has a series of case studies on how marketing communications experts solved problems they faced when designing marketing materials outside their own cultures. This book gives examples from corporate identity programs, magazines, books, and advertisements.

Stevenson, D. W. Audience Analysis Across Cultures. Journal of Technical Writing and Communication. Vol. 13, No. 4, pp. 319-330. The New York Times, Sunday, August 18, 1996, p. 7. What’s A-O.K in the U.S.A is Lewd and Worthless Beyond. Thorell, L.G. and Smith, W.J. Using Computer Color Effectively: An Illustrated Reference. Prentice Hall: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1990. Trenner, L. and Bawa, J. (Eds.) The Politics of Usability: A Practical Guide to Designing Usable Systems in Industry. Springer-Verlag: London, UK, 1998.
This short paperback has excellent advice for anyone who is trying to establish a usability presence. Chapters topics include: making a business case for usability, overcoming inertia in large organizations, integrating usability into system development, and cultivating an effective client relationship. Each chapter ends with a list of major lessons learned. Newcomers to the field can gain some savvy from this book. Experienced practitioners may find some new methods or political ideas that will make their work easier. Part 4 of this book focuses on international usability topics (the title is “The Politics of Expansion: How to Work Effectively on an International Scale”).

Trompenaars, F. Riding the Waves of Culture: Understanding Cultural Diversity in Business. Nicholas Brealey Publishing, London, 1996. Weiss, T. Translation in a Borderless World. Technical Communication Quarterly, Vol. 4, No. 4, pp. 407-423, 1995.



Wixon, D. and Ramey, J. Field Methods Casebook for Software Design. Wiley, New York, 1996.
Chapter 8 by Susan Dray and Deborah Mrazek describes an international ethnographic study from beginning to end.

Yeo, A. World-Wide CHI: Cultural User Interfaces, A Silver Lining in Cultural Diversity. http://www.cwi.nl/~steven/sigchi/bulletin/1996.3/international.html

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