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TOPICS 9 AND 10

1. Fluorine, chlorine, bromine and iodine are halogens.


(a) Complete the table by filling in the blank spaces.

(b) Predict the boiling point of iodine.

(d) State a use of chlorine.

2. Iron is extracted from the ore, haematite.


The iron ore is put in a blast furnace with coke and a current of air is blown
through the heated mixture.

(a) What do you understand by the term ore?


(b) What other raw material needs to be added to the blast furnace? Put a ring
around the correct answer.
cement limewater limestone slag
(c) Near the bottom of the furnace, iron(III) oxide is reduced by carbon.
Fe2O3 + 3C ------------> 2Fe + 3CO
(i) Write a word equation for this reaction.
(ii) Explain what is meant by the term reduction.

(e) Iron can be converted into steel, which is more resistant to corrosion.

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(i) Describe briefly how iron is converted into steel.
(ii) State one use of mild steel.

3. The diagram shows part of the Periodic Table.

(a) Answer these questions using only the elements shown in the diagram.
Write down the symbol for an element which
(i) is a transition metal.
(ii) forms an acidic oxide.
(iii) has six electrons in its outer shell.
(iv) has a giant covalent structure.
(v) reacts rapidly with water.
(vi) has a higher proton (atomic) number than iron.

(b) Some uses of some non-metallic elements are show below.


Draw lines between the boxes to link the elements to their correct uses.
The first one has been done for you.

(d) Choose from the following list of substances to answer the questions below.
Bromine chlorine iron mercury sodium
chloride sulphur
Name a substance which is
(i) a gas at room
temperature. ......................................................................................

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(ii) a non-metallic liquid at room
temperature. ...............................................................
(iii) a compound which is a solid at room
temperature. ...................................................

4. This question is about different metals.


The list below shows part of the metal reactivity series .
potassium more reactive
magnesium
aluminium
zinc
iron
copper less reactive
(a) From this list, choose a metal which is extracted using electrolysis.

(b) Two thousand years ago, people were able to extract iron and copper from
their ores.
They were not able to extract aluminium.
Suggest why they were not able to extract aluminium from its ore.
(c) Uranium is between magnesium and zinc in the reactivity series.
Equal sized strips of magnesium, uranium and zinc were placed in hydrochloric
acid.
The hydrochloric acid was the same concentration.
The results are shown in the table.
(i) Complete the result for uranium and hydrochloric acid.

(d) Metals high in the reactivity series react readily with oxygen.
Name the compound formed when magnesium reacts with oxygen.
(e) Copper is alloyed with tin to make bronze.
(i) State what is meant by the term alloy.

(ii) Suggest why metals are often used in the form of alloys.

(f) Zinc can be extracted by heating zinc oxide with carbon.


ZnO + C → Zn + CO
Explain why carbon is a reducing agent (reductant) in this reaction.

(e) The list below shows some of the substances which are found in the liquid
which drains through the waste.
aluminium calcium carbonate iron lead
magnesium nickel sodium sulphate zinc
From this list choose

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(i) a metal used to galvanise
iron. .................................................................................
(ii) a transition
metal. .....................................................................................................
(iii) a metal which is in Group IV of the periodic
table. ....................................................
(iv) a substance which will release carbon dioxide when an acid is added.
................................................................................................................................
..
(v) a metal which is used to make aircraft
bodies. .........................................................

Bromine is an element in Group VII of the Periodic Table.


(a) State the name given to the Group VII elements.

Aluminium is a metal in Group III of the Periodic Table.


(b) State three physical properties which are typical of most metals.

Look at the list of five elements below.


argon bromine chlorine iodine potassium
(a) Put these five elements in order of increasing proton number.
(b) Put these five elements in order of increasing relative atomic mass.
(c) The orders of proton number and relative atomic mass for these five
elements are different. Which one of the following is the most likely explanation
for this? Tick one box.
The proton number of a particular element may vary.
The presence of neutrons.
The atoms easily gain or lose electrons.
The number of protons must always equal the number of neutrons.
(d) Which of the five elements in the list are in the same group of the Periodic
Table?
(e) (i) From the list, choose one element which has one electron in its outer shell.
(ii) From the list, choose one element which has a full outer shell of electrons.
(f) Which two of the following statements about argon are correct?
Tick two boxes.
Argon is a noble gas.
Argon reacts readily with potassium.
Argon is used to fill weather balloons.
Argon is used in light bulbs.

5. Iron is extracted from its ore in a blast furnace using carbon (coke) as a
reducing agent and as a source of heat.
(a) The coke burns in hot air. The equation for this reaction is
2C(s) + O2(g) _ 2CO(g)
State the name of the gas produced in this reaction.
(b) Near the top of the blast furnace, the iron(III) oxide in the iron ore gets
reduced to iron.
Fe2O3(s) + 3CO(g) _ 2Fe(l) + 3CO2(g)
Use the equation to explain why the change of iron(III) oxide to iron is a
reduction reaction.
(c) In the hottest regions of the furnace, iron(III) oxide is reduced by carbon.
Complete the equation for this reaction.
Fe2O3(s) + C(s) _ Fe(l) + 3CO(g)

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(d) The iron from the blast furnace contains up to 10% by mass of impurities. The
main impurities are carbon, silicon and phosphorus. The diagram below shows
one method of making steel from iron.

A mixture of oxygen and basic oxides is blown onto the surface of the molten
iron.
(i) What is the purpose of blowing oxygen onto the molten iron?
(ii) A large amount of energy is released in the process of steelmaking.
What name is given to chemical reactions which release energy?
(iii) The basic oxides react with the impurities in the iron and form a slag. What
information in the diagram suggests that the slag is less dense than the molten
iron?
(v) Why is steel rather than iron used for constructing buildings and bridges?

(e) Special steels contain added elements such as vanadium, chromium, cobalt
or nickel.
These are all transition metals.
State three properties of transition metals which are not shown by non-transition
metals.
(f) What is the name given to metals which are mixtures of more than one
metal?

6. The table below gives some information about the elements in Group I of the
Periodic Table.

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(a) How does the density of the Group I elements change down the Group?
(b) Suggest a value for the boiling point of rubidium.
(c) Suggest a value for the radius of a caesium atom.
(d) Use the information in the table to suggest how fast lithium reacts with water
compared with the other Group I metals.
(e) State three properties shown by all metals.
(f) When sodium reacts with water, hydrogen is given off.
2Na(s) + 2H2O(l) --------------> 2NaOH(aq) + H2(g)
(i) State the name of the other product formed in this reaction.

7. The halogens are a group of diatomic non-metals showing a trend in colour,


state and reactivity.
(a) In this description, what is the meaning of
(i) diatomic
(ii) state?

(b) The table gives some information about some of the halogens.

(i) Complete the last column in the table to show the state of each of the
halogens at room temperature.
(ii) State the colour of bromine.
(iii) Suggest a value for the boiling point of iodine.

The information below shows the reactivity of chromium, copper and iron with
warm hydrochloric acid.
chromium – few bubbles of gas produced every second
copper – no bubbles of gas produced
iron – many bubbles of gas produced every second
Put these three metals in order of their reactivity with hydrochloric acid.

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Most reactive →

Least reactive →

8. The diagram shows part of the Periodic Table.

(a) Answer these questions using only the elements shown in the diagram.
Write down the symbol for an element which
(i) has five electrons in its outer shell,
(ii) has diatomic molecules,
(iii) reacts with sodium to form sodium bromide,
(iv) is a noble gas,
(v) has a giant covalent structure,
(vi) has a lower proton number than fluorine,
(vii) is the most abundant gas in the air.
(b) Write down a use for each of the following elements.
(i) argon
(ii) helium
(iii) oxygen
(ii) Why is argon very unreactive?

9. Aluminium is used in overhead power cables.

The table shows some properties of three metals which could be used for the
power cables.

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(i) Suggest why aluminium is used for overhead power cables rather than
copper.
(ii) Suggest why steel is not used alone for overhead power cables.
(iii) Why is steel used as a core for overhead power cables?
(iv) Electrical insulators are used in parts of the pylons which carry the electrical
cables.
Which one of the following is an electrical insulator?
Put a ring around the correct answer.
aluminium ceramic graphite zinc.

(f) Aluminium has many uses.


(i) Why is aluminium used for aircraft bodies?

10. Metals are sometimes mixed with other elements in order to change their
properties.
(i) What is the name given to a mixture of metals with other elements?

(ii) Match up the metals in the boxes on the left with their uses on the right. The
first one has been done for you.

11. The electronic structures of various atoms are shown below.

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(a) (i) Which one of these structures A to E represents a noble gas?
(ii) Which two of these structures represent atoms from the same Group of the
Periodic Table?
(iii) Which one of these structures represents an atom with an atomic number of
8?
(iv) Which one of these structures forms a stable ion by gaining one electron?
(v) Which one of these structures is in Period 3 of the Periodic Table?

12. Iron is extracted from iron ore by heating the iron ore with coke and
limestone.
(a) State the name of the ore from which iron is extracted.

(b) The coke burns in a blast of hot air to form carbon monoxide.
(i) Complete the equation for this reaction.
......C + O2 --------------------->......CO

(c) Near the top of the blast furnace, carbon monoxide reacts with iron ore.
Fe2O3 + 3CO ---------------->2Fe + 3CO2
(i) Write a word equation for this reaction.
(ii) What type of chemical reaction is the conversion of Fe2O3 to 2Fe?

(iii) The calcium oxide reacts with silica and alumina in the iron ore.
The product of this reaction collects on top of the molten iron at the bottom of
the furnace. What is the name of this product?
Put a ring around the correct answer.
bauxite sand slag slaked lime
(e) The iron obtained from the blast furnace contains the following impurities.
carbon manganese phosphorus silicon
(i) Which one of these elements is a transition element?

13. When Group I elements react with water, hydrogen gas is given off.
The diagram shows the reaction of lithium, potassium and sodium with water.

(a) Which one of these elements A, B or C is lithium?

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(b) (i) Balance the equation for the reaction of sodium with water by completing
the left hand side.
......Na + ......H2O 2 -------------------> NaOH + H2
(ii) Apart from fizzing, describe two things that you would see when sodium
reacts with water.
(iv) Which of the following statements about sodium are true?
Tick two boxes.
It is made by reducing sodium oxide with carbon.
It reacts with chlorine to form sodium chloride.
It reacts readily with oxygen.
It only conducts electricity when molten.

(c) Rubidium also reacts with water. How does the speed of reaction of rubidium
with water compare with that of potassium with water?

14. The list shows part of the reactivity series.

(a) Calcium is manufactured by the electrolysis of molten calcium chloride.


Suggest why calcium is extracted by electrolysis.

(b) Equal sized pieces of magnesium, strontium and calcium are placed in water.
Some observations about these reactions are shown in the table.
Complete the box for strontium.

15. The table gives some information about the properties of some metals.

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(a) Which two of the metals A to D are transition metals?
Give a reason for your answer.

(b) When iron powder reacts with warm sulphuric acid, hydrogen is given off.
Fe + H2SO4 ---------------->FeSO4 + H2
State the name of the salt made in this reaction.

(c) Pure air contains about 1% argon.


(i) In which Period of the Periodic Table is argon?
(ii) State the name of the Group of elements to which argon belongs.

(iv) Why is argon used in lamps?

16. The halogens are a group of elements showing trends in colour, state and
reaction with other halide ions.
(a) Complete the word equation for the reaction of chlorine with aqueous
potassium bromide.
chlorine + potassium bromide → ________________________ +
_______________________
(b) Explain why an aqueous solution of iodine does not react with potassium
chloride.

(c) The table shows the properties of some halogens.

(i) Complete the missing spaces in the table. [2]


(ii) Suggest values for
the boiling point of fluorine,
the density of bromine.

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(d) How many electrons does an atom of fluorine have
(i) in total,
(ii) in its outer shell?
(e) State a use for chlorine.

17. This question is about metals.


(a) Match up the metals in the boxes on the left with the descriptions in the
boxes on the right. The first one has been done for you.

(c) Alloys are often more useful than pure metals.


(i) Complete the following sentences by filling in the blank spaces.
An alloy is a ___________________ of a metal with other elements. The properties of
_____________________ can be changed by the controlled use of additives to form
steel alloys. Increasing the amount of carbon in a steel makes it ____________.
(ii) Name one other alloy apart from steel.

18. The table below shows an early form of the Periodic Table made by John
Newlands in
1866.

(a) Newlands arranged the elements according to their relative atomic masses.

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What governs the order of the elements in the modern Periodic Table?
(b) Use your modern Periodic Table to suggest why Newlands put cobalt and
nickel in the same place.
(c) Which group of elements is missing from Newlands’ table?
(d) Describe three other differences between Newlands’ table and the modern
Periodic Table. You must not give any of the answers you mentioned in parts (a),
(b) or (c).

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