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ABBREVIATIONS

ADB Asian Development Bank


AFTA ASEAN Free Trade Area
AIRT Agency for Industrial Research and Technology
AMT Advanced Manufacturing Technologies
ANSAB Asia Network for Sustainable Agriculture and Bioresources
APBSD ASEAN Policy Blue Print for SME Development
APCAEM Asian and Pacific Centre for Agricultural Engineering and Machinery
APCTT Asian and Pacific Centre for Transfer of Technology
AP&NET Asia-Pacific Business Network
APEC Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
ASTAR Agency for Science, Technology and Research
ASEAN Association of Southeast Asian Nations
ASU Academy of Science of Uzbekistan
BCSIR Bangladesh Council of Scientific & Industrial Research
BDS Business Development Service
BI Business Incubator
BIM Bangladesh Institute of Management
BK21 Brain Korea 21 programme
BOI Board of Investment
BPO Business Process Outsourcing
BSCIC Bangladesh Small and Cottage Industries Corporation
BTC Business Technology Centre
BTIs Business and Technology Incubators
CCI Chamber of Commerce and Industry
CCTD Centre for Commercialization and Technopreneur Development
CDMA Code Division Multiple Access
CEI Central European Initiative
CII Confederation of Indian Industry
CLCSS Credit Linked Capital Subsidy Scheme for the technology up-gradation of
the small-scale industries
CSIDB Cottage and Small Industry Development Board
DCSI Department of Cottage and Small Industry
DEA Data Envelop Analysis
DFIs Development Finance Institutions
DIP Department of Industrial Promotion
DRAM Dynamic Random Access Memory
DRC Daedeok Research Complex
DSF Daedeok Special Fund
DSIR Department of Scientific and Industrial Research
DST Department of Science and Technology
DST Daeduk Science Town
EDB Economic Development Board
EDI Entrepreneurship Development Institute
EMCs Export Management Companies

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ERP Enterprise Restructuring Project
ESCAP Economic and Social Commission for Asia and Pacific
ETPL Exploit Technologies Pte. Ltd.
ETRI Electronic and Telecommunication Research Institute
EU European Union
FDI Foreign Direct Investment
FISME Federation of Small and Medium Enterprises
FNCCI Federation of Nepalese Chambers of Commerce and Industry
FNCSI Federation of Cottage and Small Industry
FTA Free Trade Agreement
FTE Full Time Equivalent
FWEAN Federation of Women Entrepreneurs Association of Nepal
GATS General Agreement on Trade and Services
GDP Gross Domestic Product
GEM Global Entrepreneurship Monitor
GERD Gross Expenditure of Research and Development
GET-UP Growing Enterprises with Technology Upgrade
GIS Global Innovation System
GMS Greater Mekong Subregion
GRIs Government Supported Research Institutes
GTN Global Technology Network
GNP Gross National Product
GTZ Foreign Investment and Foreign Trade Agency
HLCIT High Level Commission for Information Technology
HRD Human Resource Development
IAS International Accounting System
IAT Institute of Appropriate Technology
IBI International Business Incubators
IBRD International Bank for Reconstruction and Development
ICC Information and Communications Centre
ICICI Industrial Credit and Investment Corporation of India
ICSID International Centre for Settlement of Investment Dispute
ICT Information and Communication Technology
IDBI Industrial Bank of India
IEDI Industrial Enterprise Development Institute
IFC Industrial Finance Corporation
IFCI Industrial Finance Corporation of India
IIFT Indian Institute of Foreign Trade
IIT Indian Institute of Technology
IKED International Organization for Knowledge Economy and Enterprise
Development
IMF International Monetary Fund
INSMEs International Network for SMEs
IP Intellectual Property
IPM2 Second Industrial Master Plan
IPR Intellectual Property Rights
IRPA Intensification of Research in Priority Areas
ISMED Institute for Small and Medium Enterprise Development

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ISO International Organization for Standardization
ISO 14000 International Standards for environmental management systems
ISO 9000 International Standards for quality management systems
IT Information Technology
ITBI International Technology Business Incubator
ITC International Trade Classification
ITDG Intermediate Technology Development Group
ITEP Industrial Technology Evaluation and Planning
KAIST Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
KCI Knowledge Cluster Initiative
KFSB Korea Federation of Small and Medium Business
KICOX Korea Industrial Complex Corporation
KIPO Korean Intellectual Property Office
KITA Korea Industrial Technology Association
KITF Korean Industrial Technology Foundation
K-JIST Kwang-Ju Institute of Science and Technology
KOSBIR Korea Small Business Innovation Research
KOSDAQ Korean Securities Dealer Automated Quotations
KOTEC Korea Technology Credit Guarantee Fund
KPO Knowledge Process Outsourcing
KTB Korea Technology and Banking
KTIT Korean Industrial Technology Foundation
KTP Kyeongbuk Technopark
LDCs Least Developed Countries
M&A Merge and Acquisition
MADHU Modernisation of Artistic Design for Handloom Unit
MDA Multimedia Development Corporation
MDGs Millennium Development Goals
MEDEP Micro-Enterprise Development Programme
MIDAS Micro Industries Development Assistance and Services
MIDC Myanmar Industrial Development Committee
MIT Massachusetts Institute of Technology
MNCs Multinational Corporations
MSC Multimedia Super Corridor
MSCVC MSC Venture Corporation
MTD MSC Technoprenuer Development Flagship
NAMA Non-Agriculture Market Access
NARC Nepal Agricultural Research Council
NBIA National Business Incubators Association
NCC Nepal Chamber of Commerce
NCET National Continuing Education and Training Framework
NCST National Council for Science and Technology
NDRC National Development and Reform Commission
NESDB National Economic and Social Development Board
NGO Non-Governmental Organization
NIA National Innovation Agency
NIS National Innovation System
NISPASS National Institute for Science and Technology Policy and Strategy

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NISTADS National Institute of Science, Technology and Development Studies
NISTEP National Institute of Science Technology Policy
NPC National Productivity Corporation
NPEDC National Productivity and Economic Development Centre
NRCT National Research Council of Thailand
NSC National Science Council
NSDC National SME Development Council
NSDP National Supplier Development Programme
NSTDA National S&T Development Agency
NSTP2 Malaysia's Second National Science and Technology Policy
OECD Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development
OSTI Office of Science and Technology Innovation
OTOP One Tambon (subdistrict) One Product
PCA Principal Component Analysis
PCSME Presidential Commission on Small and Medium Enterprises
POSTEK Pohang Science and Technology Institute
PPP Public Private Partnership
PRSP Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper
R&D Research and Development
R&DB Research and Development and Business
RCRC Regional Cooperation Research Centre
RDA Regional Development Agency
REMTECH Regional Emerging Markets Technology Transfer Network
RETDC Regional Environment Technology Centre
RIS Regional Innovation Centre
RMB Renminbi (Chinese currency unit Yuan)
RONAST Royal Nepal Academy of Science and Technology
RRC Regional Research Centre
RSEs Researchers, Scientists and Engineers
RSTD Regional Specialized and Technology Development
RTIC Regional Technology Innovation Centre
S&T Science and Technology
SBA Small Business Administration
SBC Small Business Corporation
SCI Science Citation Index
SCITI Small and Cottage Industries Training Institute
SEA Software Enhancement Area
SEEDS Start-up Enterprise Development Scheme
SEDP Social Economic Development Programme
SIS Subnational Innovation System
SMBA Small and Medium Business Administration
SMEs Small and Medium-sized Enterprises
SMEPDC SME Promotion and Development Committee
SMEPDO SME Promotion and Development Office
SMIs Small and Medium-sized Industries
SMIDEC Small and Medium Industries Development Corporation
SOEs State-Owned Enterprises
SPDC State Peace and Development Council

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SPRING Singapore Standards Productivity and Innovation Board
SRIC Specialized Research Information Centre
STEA Science, Technology and Environment Agency
STEDS Science and Technology Entrepreneurship Development Scheme
STEPI Science and Technology Policy Institute
STPs Science and Technology Parks
TAP Technology Action Plan
TBIs Technology Business Incubators
TBT Technical Barriers Treaty
TCDC Technical Cooperation Developing Countries
TDF Technopreneur Development Flagship
TePP Technopreneur Promotion Programme
TFT-LCD Thin Film Transistor-Liquid Crystal Display
TI Technology Incubator
TIC Technology Innovation Centre
TNCs Transnational Corporations
TLO Technology Licensing Organization
TP Technology Park (Techno-park)
TPM Technology Park Malaysia
TRIM Trade Related Investment Matters
TRIPS Trade Related Intellectual Property System
UNCTAD United Nations Conference for Technology and Development
UNDP United Nations Development Programme
UNECE United Nations Economic Cooperation for Europe
UNESCAP United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and Pacific
UNIDO United Nations Industrial Development Organization
VAT value added tax
VBDA Venture Business Development Area
VC Venture Capital
WASME World Assembly for Small and Medium Enterprises
WIPO World Intellectual Property Organization
WTO World Trade Organization

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