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These include diseases of the lung, pleural cavity, bronchial tubes, trachea, upper respiratory tract and of the nerves and muscles of breathing. Respiratory diseases range from mild and selflimiting such as the common cold to life-threatening such as bacterial pneumonia or pulmonary embolism. They are a common and important cause of illness and death. One of the most commonly chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma. The study of respiratory disease is known as pulmonology. A doctor who specializes in respiratory disease is known as a pulmonologist, a chest medicine specialist, a respiratory medicine specialist, a respirologist or a thoracic medicine specialist. Symptoms The symptoms of respiratory disease differ depending on the disease. Common symptoms are:
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General malaise Shortness of breath or dyspnea which usually occurs with exercise and can interfere with daily activities. In severe cases, shortness of breath can occur while resting. Cough with or without the production of sputum. Coughing blood (haemoptysis).It is very painful. Chest pain. This may or may not be pleuritic chest pain (that is pain that worsens with the movements of breathing). Noisy breathing, either wheeze or stridor. Somnolence. oss of appetite. Weight loss. Cachexia Cyanosis, a bluish discoloration of the lips, tongue or fingers.
In some cases respiratory disease is diagnosed without symptoms in the investigation of another disease or through a routine check. Diagnostic tests Respiratory diseases may be investigated by performing one or more of the following tests
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Chest x-ray Pulmonary function test Computed tomography scan Culture of microorganisms from secretions such as sputum Bronchoscopy Biopsy of the lung or pleura
y y Ventilation . the following treatments are often used for respiratory diseases: y y y y y y y y Medication. by the pattern of symptoms or by the cause of the disease. causing incomplete lung . lobectomy. often given in an inhaled form o Corticosteroids o Bronchodilators o Antibiotics o Anticoagulants o Cancer chemotherapy o Immune suppressants Physiotherapy Oxygen Mechanical ventilation Liquid ventilation (or Liquid breathing) Surfactant Replacement Therapy Radiotherapy Surgery o Removal of a cancer e. Obstructive lung diseases Obstructive lung diseases are diseases of the lung where the bronchial tubes become narrowed making it hard to move air in and especially out of the lung. Vaccination can prevent some respiratory diseases. Lifestyle factors such as regular exercise and healthy nutrition are important in preventing and treating respiratory disease. the severity of disease and the patient. In addition. pneumonectomy o Pleurodesis o Lung volume reduction surgery o Lung transplantation o Artificial lung Respiratory diseases Respiratory diseases can be classified in many different ways. by the organ involved. Restrictive lung diseases Restrictive lung diseases (also known as interstitial lung diseases) are a category of respiratory disease characterized by a loss of lung compliance.perfusion scan Ultrasound scanning can be useful to detect fluid such as pleural effusion Treatment Treatment of respiratory disease depends on the particular disease being treated.g.
Other pathogens such as viruses and fungi can cause pneumonia for example severe acute respiratory syndrome and pneumocystis pneumonia. The majority of respiratory system cancers are attributable to smoking tobacco. They are traditionally divided into upper respiratory tract infections and lower respiratory tract infections. infections of specific organs of the upper respiratory tract such as sinusitis. E. pharyngitis and laryngitis are also considered upper respiratory tract infections. are a major health problem responsible for 15% of all cancer diagnoses and 29% of all cancer deaths. or cancers of the respiratory system. otitis media. tonsillitis. Lower respiratory tract infection The most common lower respiratory tract infection in is pneumonia. A pneumonia may develop complications such as a lung abscess. Worldwide. in infant respiratory distress syndrome (IRDS) Respiratory tract infections Infections can affect any part of the respiratory system. Respiratory tumours Tumours of the respiratory system are either malignant or benign. Kaposi¶s sarcoma. particularly Streptococcus pneumoniae in Western countries. tuberculosis is an important cause of pneumonia. . the spread of the infection to the pleural cavity. Malignant tumors Malignant tumors. Pneumonia is usually caused by bacteria.g. a lung infection. melanoma) Lymphoma Head and neck cancer Mesothelioma. particularly lung cancers. The major types of respiratory system cancer are: y y y y y y Small cell lung cancer Non-small cell lung cancer o Adenocarcinoma o Large cell undifferentiated carcinoma Other lung cancers (carcinoid. usually caused by exposure to asbestos dust.expansion and increased lung stiffness. a round cavity in the lung caused by the infection or an empyema. Upper respiratory tract infection The most common upper respiratory tract infection is the common cold however.
This may be due to fluid shifting from the bloodstream into the pleural cavity due to conditions such as congestive heart failure and cirrhosis. travels through the heart and lodges in the lungs (thromboembolism). pulmonary embolus. Examples of benign tumors are: y y Pulmonary hamartoma Congenital malformations such as pulmonary sequestration and congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation (CCAM). a pneumonectomy). leading to a life threatening situation. a blood clot that forms in a vein. germ cell cancer and renal cell carcinoma may also metastasize to the lung. rare circumstances. It may also be due to inflammation of the pleura itself as can occur with infection. it is common for cancer metastases to occur within the lung. Surgery (usually removal of part of the lung. Prostate cancer. A collection of fluid in the pleural cavity is known as a pleural effusion. Breast cancer may invade directly through local spread. A pneumothorax is a hole in the pleura covering the lung allowing air in the lung to escape into the pleural cavity. colon cancer frequently metastasizes to the lung. chemotherapy and radiotherapy are all used. In the case of metastases to the lung. mesothelioma and other conditions. treatment can occasionally be curative but only in certain. Examples of these conditions are y Pulmonary embolism.In addition. The affected lung ³collapses´ like a deflated balloon. The chance of surviving lung cancer depends on the cancer stage at the time the cancer is diagnosed and is only about 14-17% overall. Pleural cavity diseases Pleural cavity diseases include empyema and mesothelioma which are mentioned above. tuberculosis. so the pneumothorax keeps getting bigger until it compresses the heart and blood vessels. After metastasis to the liver. Treatment of respiratory system cancer depends on the type of cancer. since many cancers spread via the bloodstream and the entire cardiac output passes through the lungs. A tension pneumothorax is a particularly severe form of this condition where the air in the pleural cavity cannot escape. Benign tumors Benign tumors are relatively rare causes of respiratory disease. a lobectomy or an entire lung. breaks free. Pulmonary vascular diseases Pulmonary vascular diseases are conditions that affect the pulmonary circulation. and through lymph node metastases. Large pulmonary .
The periodic constriction of your bronchi and your bronchioles is called Asthma. This can make breathing very hard especially when breathing out air (exhaling). A person with asthma can have an asthma attack when airborne irritants such as chemicals and cigarette fumes are inhaled. In my website you might be able to find out something that you never knew could happen. It is usually due to congestive heart failure. particularly COPD. a condition known as cor pulmonale. amniotic fluid embolism (with complications of labour and delivery). Other irritants such as things a person who has asthma is allergic to can cause a asthma attack. A number of other substances can also embolise to the lungs but they are much more rare: fat embolism (particularly after bony injury). When this happens for a long enough time to get worse . It can be idiopathic or due to the effects of another disease. Pulmonary hemorrhage. inflammation and damage to capillaries in the lung resulting in blood leaking into the alveoli. the person who this has this happening will need to have supplemental oxgen. air embolism (iatrogenic). This may cause blood to be coughed up. Pneumonia is an infection in the alveoli that may be caused by many different types opf bacteria such as streptococcus pneumonia. Respiratory Diseases In my website you will be able to learn about many different diseases such Pnuemonia and Emphysema. . Pulmonary arterial hypertension. causing sudden death. This can lead to strain on the right side of the heart. Pulmonary edema. leakage of fluid from capillaries of the lung into the alveoli (or air spaces). Many of these diseases are caused by many types of bacteria. Pulmonary hemorrhage can be due to auto-immune disorders such as Wegener's Granulomatosis and Goodpasture's syndrome. The tissue fluids in your body can accumulate and reduce the surface area that can be exsposed to air.y y y emboli are fatal. elevated pressure in the pulmonary arteries.
Chronic Bronchitis is when any type of irritant that comes to the Bronchi or to the Bronchioles causes the body to stimulate an increased amount of mucus. This extra strain can also cause heart failure. It seldom is a direct cause of death and this develops slowly. Some of the causes of COPD are cigarette smoke and in rare cases cystic fiborosis. Emphysema and Chronic Bronchitis that were developed together is called COPD. this will cause a persistent cough. When you have Asthma. After gradual loss of the gas exchange . COPD is also known as Chronic Obstuctive Pulmonary Disease.Emphysema is a disorder in the delicate walls of your alveoli breaking down and minimizing the gas exchange area in the lungs. Cystic fiborosis is a disorder that is genetic. . This is caused by inheriting two defective genes for a cystic fiborosis transmembrane conductance regulator. it can force the heart to pump more blood to satisfy the body¶s needs. Whenever your air passages become clogged with mucus. When you have chronic bronchitis it is most likley caused by cigarette smoke.
Lung Cancer Lung Cancer is a very common cancer and most common reason of death in males in the United States. This mainly happens to the forks where your bronchioles branch. Lung Cancer is the uncontrolled proliferation of your cells. . The mucas secreting cells disappear and are replaced by a mass of disorganized cells with abnormal nuclei. The linings of the airways consists of two layers of cells. Exposure to irritants can cause the layers to increase.
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