# Surface area is the measure of how much exposed area a solid object has, expressed in square units.

Mathematical description of the surface area is considerably more involved than the definition of arc length of a curve. For polyhedra (objects with flat polygonal faces) the surface area is the sum of the areas of its faces. Smooth surfaces, such as a sphere, are assigned surface area using their representation as parametric surfaces. This definition of the surface area is based on methods of infinitesimal calculus and involves partial derivatives and double integration. General definition of surface area was sought by Henri Lebesgue and Hermann Minkowski at the turn of the twentieth century. Their work led to the development of geometric measure theory which studies various notions of surface area for irregular objects of any dimension. An important example is the Minkowski content of a surface. Definition of surface area While areas of many simple surfaces have been known since antiquity, a rigorous mathematical definition of area requires a lot of care. Surface area is an assignment

of a positive real number to a certain class of surfaces that satisfies several natural requirements. The most fundamental property of the surface area is its additivity: the area of the whole is the sum of the areas of the parts. More rigorously, if a surface S is a union of finitely many pieces S1, , Sr which do not overlap except at their boundaries then

Surface areas of flat polygonal shapes must agree with their geometrically defined area. Since surface area is a geometric notion, areas of congruent surfaces must be the same and area must depend only on the shape of the surface, but not on its position and orientation in space. This means that surface area is invariant under the group of Euclidean motions. These properties uniquely characterize surface area for a wide class of geometric surfaces called piecewise smooth. Such surfaces consist of finitely many pieces that can be represented in the parametric form

with continuously differentiable function

The area of an individual piece is defined by the formula

Thus the area of SD is obtained by integrating the length of the normal vector to the surface over the appropriate region D in the parametric uv plane. The area of the whole surface is then obtained by adding together the areas of the pieces, using additivity of surface area. The main formula can be specialized to different classes of surfaces, giving, in particular, formulas for areas of graphs z = f(x,y) and surfaces of revolution. One of the subtleties of surface area, as compared to arc length of curves, is that surface area cannot be defined simply as the limit of areas of polyhedral shapes approximating a given smooth surface. It was demonstrated by Hermann Schwarz that already for the cylinder, different choices of approximating flat surfaces can lead to different limiting values of the area. Various approaches to general definition of surface area were developed in the late nineteenth and the early twentieth century by Henri Lebesgue and Hermann Minkowski. While for piecewise smooth surfaces there is a unique natural notion of surface area, if a surface is very irregular, or rough, then it may not be possible to assign any area at all to it. A typical example is given by a surface with spikes spread throughout in a dense fashion. Many surfaces of this type occur in the theory of fractals. Extensions of the notion of area which partially fulfill its function

and circular shapes can be easily calculated using arithmetic formulas. The volume of a solid (whether regularly or irregularly shaped) can be determined byfluid displacement. sometimes one substance dissolves in the other and the combined volume is not additive. i. and is an important global Riemannian invariant. Volumes of some simple shapes. h = height  = radius of sphere = radius of sphere. volume is a fundamental parameter. The combined volume of two substances is usually greater than the volume of one of the substances. gas. = dihedral angle = radius of the circular base.[1] often quantified numerically using the S derived unit. Full surface area of a cone r = radius of the circular base. volume is e pressed by means of the volume form. the cubic metre The volume of a container is generally understood to be the capacity of the container. h = height of the cone B = area of base. and is a conjugate variable to pressure. rather than the amount of space the container itself displaces. e. Onedimensional figures (such as lines) and two-dimensional shapes (such as squares) are assigned zero volume in the three-dimensional space. w = width. r = radius of the circular base. or plasma) or shape occupies or contains. liquid. Three dimensional mathematical shapes are also assigned volumes.[2] In d ren a geo etry. However. The volumes of more complicated shapes can be calculated by integral calculus if a formula e ists for the shape's boundary. such as regular. # " !      Units  © ¨©   © s of ommon solids h p  © Equ tion ¤ ¢     V i bl s . h = height of the cone s = slant height of the cone. In thermodynamics. the amount of fluid (gas or liquid) that the container could hold.and may be de n ed even for very badly irre lar s rfaces are s died in the geometric meas re theory A s ecific e ample of s ch an e tension is the Minkowski content of a s rface Common fo mul s  © ¨© © ¨ ¦ ¥ £ ¥ £ £ £  £ § © ¡ £ ¨ § uf Cube Rectangular prism Sphere Spherical lune Closed cylinder s = side length = length. h = height of the cylinder Lateral surface area of a cone s = slant height of the cone. L = slant height Pyramid Volum is how much three-dimensional space a substance (solid. straight-edged. P = perimeter of base. Displacement of liquid can also be used to determine the volume of a gas.

Volume and capacity are sometimes distinguished. Rel ted terms The density of an object is defined as mass per unit volume. The metric system also includes the litre (L) as a unit of volume. where one litre is the volume of a 10-centimetre cube. The inverse of density is specific vo ume which is defined as volume divided by mass. including the cubic inch.001 litres = 1 cubic centimeter. and volume being how much space an object displaces (commonly measured in cubic meters or its derived units). the cubic mile. where 1 millilitre = 0. the gill. Various other units of volume are also popular. Volume and capacity are also distinguished in capacity management. the bushel. Imp i l liquid d Gill 142 ml 118 ml 138 ml Pint 551 ml 1101 Quart 1137 ml 946 ml ml 4405 Gallon 4546 ml 3785 ml ml Any unit of length gives a corresponding unit of volume. U. the standard unit of volume is the cubic metre (m3). For e ample. where capacity is defined as volume over a specified time period. the fluid ounce. the pint. the fluid dram. the tablespoon. the quart.S. the teaspoon. and the hogshead. Thus 1 litre = (10 cm)3 = 1000 cubic centimetres = 0. the barrel. with capacity being used for how much a container can hold (with contents measured commonly in litres or its derived units). In the International System of Units (SI).001 cubic metres. so 1 cubic metre = 1000 litres. the cord. the cubic foot. App oxim t on sion to millilit s:[3] U.S.Volume measurements from The New Student's Reference Work. the peck. the gallon. Volume formul s 2 2 2 2 1 % 0 568 ml 473 ml Sh pe 2 Volume formul &\$ \$ ) \$& ( '& % % \$& \$ V ri bles . the minim. a cubic centimetre (cm3) would be the volume of a cube whose sides are one centimetre (1 cm) in length. Small amounts of liquid are often measured in millilitres. namely the volume of a cube whose side has the given length.

b. h = height B = area of the base. and . h = height r = radius of sphere which is the integral of the Surface Area of a sphere a. . h = height of pyramid r = radius of circle at base. A(h) = area of the cross-sections perpendicular to h described as a function of the position along h.Any figure (calculus required) Cube Cylinder Prism Rectangular prism Sphere h = any dimension of the figure. h = height l = length. (This will work for any figure if its cross-sectional area can be determined from h). h = distance from base to tip edge length a Ellipsoid Pyramid Cone Tetrahedron[4] Parallelpiped a. and are the internal angles between the edges The units of volume depend on the units of length. c = semi-axes of ellipsoid B = area of the base. w = width. b. If the lengths are in meters. and c are the parallelepiped edge lengths. the volume will be in cubic meters. . a = length of any side (or edge) r = radius of circular face.

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