Lorem ipsum dolor sit arnet, eonseetetuer adipiseing elit.

Etiarn sit arnet tellus ultriees ligula tempor fringilla. Donee pede diarn, aliquet nee, pharetra vel, dictum vestibulum, urna. Lorem ipsum dolor sit arnet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Duis venenatis consequat pede. Quisque laoreet rutrum eros. Sed dapibus, turpis eget lobortis pellentesque, dolor orci mollis neque, et pretium ipsum lacus vestibulum erato Sed lobortis pharetra nisI. Etiarn aceumsan fermentumjusto. Donee fermentum aliquarn dolor. Aliquam sollicitudin consequat nunc.

Lorem i{Jsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Etiam SIt amet tellus ultrices ligula tempor fringilla. Donec pede diam, aliquet nee, pharetra vel, dictum vestibulum, urna. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Duis venenatis consequat pede. Quisque laoreet rutradipiscingum eros. Sed dapibus, turpis eget lobortis pellentesque, dolor orci mollis neque, et pretium ipsum lacus vestibulum erato Sed lobortis pharetra nisI. Etiam accumsan fermentum justo. Donee fermentum aliquam dolor. Aliquam sollicitudin consequat nunc.

Class aptent taciti sociosqu ad litora torquent per eonubia nostra, per ineeptos hymenaeos. Morbi tristique leo non velit. Donee auctor purus et mauris. Nulla porta elit in orci. Donee elementum lobortis libero. Cras quis risus nee risus volutpat posuere. Nam risus eros, sodales nee, eleifend nee, scelerisque sit arnet, massa. Nulla feugiat, diam nee accumsan vulputate, orci nulla rutrum elit, in auctor lacus ligula vel massa. Vestibulum urna. Proin nee quarn sit arnet dolor tincidunt aliquarn. Pellentesque habitant morbi tristique seneetus et netus et malesuada farnes ac turpis egestas. Fusee eursus mauris at sem. Suspendisse tincidunt pellentesque dolor. Vivamus gravida. Phasellus rutrum, ante vitae placerat lacinia, lectus augue ornare nibh, sit arnet pulvinar pums ipsum nee dolor.

Pellentesque facilisis risus nee pede. Etiarn tellus massa, tempus at, tempor nee, nonummy sed, metus. Pellentesque ut pede ut quam semper nonummy. Maecenas malesuada ultricies velit. Sed viverra eros ut leetus. Nullam magna. Sed varius auctor nisi. Aliquarn erat volutpat. Aliquarn eommodo tortor nee tortor. Etiam id nulla quis nibh eondimentum rhoneus. Vestibulum libero nibh, eongue ut, dictum in, tempus ut, nulla. Sed ac mauris nee sapien tincidunt scelerisque.

Class aptent taciti sociosqu ad litora torguent per conubia nostra, per inceptos hymenaeos. Morbi tristique leo non velit. Donec auctor purus et mauris. Nulla porta elit in orci. Donee elementum lobortis libero. Cras quis risus nee risus volutpat posuere. N am risus eros, sodales nee, eleifenec, scelerisque sit amet, massa. Nulla feadipiscingugiat, diam nec accumsan vulputate, orci nulla rutrum elit, in auctor lacus ligula vel massa. Vestibulum urna. Proin nee quam sit amet dolor tincidunt aliquam. Mente:quehabitant morbi tristique senectusfused et netus et malesuada fames ac turpIs egestas. Fusee cursus mauris at sem. Suspendisse tincidunt pellentesque dolor. Vivamus gravida. Phasellus rutrum, ante vitae placerat lacinia, lectus hdicianaslkopsquamaugue ornare nibh, sit amet pulvinar purus ipsum nec dolor.

Nulla laoreet felis sed risus laoreet eonvallis. In et ante molestie nunc iaculis blandit. Mauris lobortis varius dui. Proin ut magna. In enim. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit, Aliquarn sed sapien. Sed egestas. Class aptent taciti sociosqu ad litora torquent per eonubia nostra, per ineeptos hymenaeos. Pellentesque habitant morbi tristique senectus et netus et malesuada fames ac turpis egestas. Lorem ipsum dolor sit arnet, eonseetetuer adipiscing elit. Fusee lacus. Praesent ut pede. Integer felis eros, aeeumsan sit amet, tincidunt vitae, vestibulum quis, leetus. Nulla faeilisi. Nam diarn. Integer hendrerit lacinia tellus.

Morbi scelerisque, sapien eu interdum pulvinar, enim elit porta arcu, non faucibus metus diam et enim. Aenean sodales metus non nisi. Nullam et tortor interdum pede eommodo ornare. Quisque orci velit, lacinia eu, sagittis sed, dictum vel, dui. Donee nunc felis, euismod quis, sodales vel, condimentum a, nulla. Morbi a magna id purus seelerisque ultricies. Integer mi ipsum, laoreet quis, aliquarn sit arnet, gravida eget, tortor. Nulla facilisi. Phasellus lobortis hendrerit leo. Nam metus nulla, dignissim non, interdum sit amet, tincidunt eget, arcu. Nunc rutrum velit ut nibh.

Legibility means that the text is recognizable enough to read. Type must be large and distinct enough for a reader to discriminate individual words and/or letters.

Pellentesque facilisis risus nee pede. Etiam tellus massa, tempus at, tempor nee, nonummy sed, metus. Pellentesque ut pede ut quam erosquisemper nonummy. Maecenas malesuada ultricies velit. Sed viverra eros ut lectus. Nulla eros. Quisque justo velit, porttitor nee, accumsan ac, iaculis et, mauris. Praesent tincidunt felis. Donee id nunc. Nulla facilisi. Quisque eu sem. Aliquam erat volutpat. Nullam magna. Sed varius auctor nisi. Aliquam erat volutpat. Aliquam commodo tortor nec tortor. Etiam id nulla quis nibh condimentum rhoncus.

Readability means that the text is comfortable for reading. It is the quality that makes the page easy to read, inviting, and pleasurable to the eye.

OREM IPSUM dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Etiam sit amet tellus ultrices ligula tempor fringilla. Donec pede diam, aliquet nee, pharetra vel, dictum vestibulum, urna. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Duis venenatis consequat pede. Quisque laoreet rutradipiscingum eros. Sed dapibus, turpis eget lobortis pellentesque, dolor orci mollis neque, et pretium ipsum lacus vestibulum erato Sed lobortis pharetra nisI. Etiam accumsan fermentum justo. Donec fermentum aliquam dolor. Aliquam sollicitudin consequat nunc.

Class aptent taciti sociosqu ad litora torquent per conubia nostra, per inceptos hymenaeos. Morbi tristique leo non velit. Donee auctor purus et mauris. Nulla porta elit in orci. Don elementum lobortis libero. Cras quis risus nec risus volutpat posuere. N am risus eros, sodales nec, eleifenec, scelerisque sit amet, massa. Nulla feadipiscingugiat, diam nee accumsamdn vulputate, orci nulla rutrum elit, in auctor lacus ligula vel massa. Vestibulum urna. Proin nec quam sit amet dolor tinci dunt aliquam. Pellentesque habitant morbi tristique senectus et netus et malesuada fames ac turpis egestas. Fusee cursus mauris at sem. Suspendisse tincidunt pellentesque dolor. Vivamus gravida. Phasellus rutrum, ante vitae placerat lacinia, lectus augue ornare nibh, nec dolor.

Pellentesque facilisis risus nec pede. Etiam tellus massa, tempus at, tempor nee, nonummy sed, metus. Pellentesque ut pede ut quam semper nonummy. Maecenas malesuada ultricies velit. Sed viverra eros ut lectus.

*Binns, Betty. "Readability and Regibility in Text." Designers Guide to Typography. Eds. N. Aldrich-Ruenzel & J. Fennel. Great Britain: Step-byStep Publishing, 1991: 18-23.

Gutenberg, 42-Line Bible, 1455.

Typeface: 8embo by Francisco Griffo

POLIPHJLO INCOMINCIA ILSECON,DO LFBR.OD'I LA SVA H¥P'NEROTOM.ACHIA.NEL QYALE PO; LIA 'ETLVI DISER. TABONDI,lN QY ALE M·ODO ET VARIO CASO NAR.RANO ]NTERCALARIAMEN.TEILSVO I'NAMORA.·M'ENTO.

EMIEDEBl'LE V·OCETALEO·CRA

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tura d:j pr6nutiat,o~che in rne:per alcun~ .iI fuo grac_io fo affelio. M'l.a,uui Celibe l' Eiiche &: confu(a '& lncomptamerc' frin,gl cula gra[(.nclro a;;fTai. Q.!!ando uoluntarc

pOlnU1Ia[:~'I~' P·I·':lr·IPr1.!~."r'o·'::·:', piu 'p'~'I'rlf::_I·~iIO- .. 1 'C'. 'U' rm l ar

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mile parendo.checumenucleara [crfa,& prjfca dunque, - ueterrin ag,cncQlogi,a,.'& ,garrulando ordire.Ondcgia ,dfendo nel

I~Q~;'n~'~' rp.'.· ···J-'~o.--· ..... ~f' '~II",-'d··· erme .tl.-"IIJ·r;,·:;11-,~ .. ,~~" 1-~,,;I-I;'u-.,.-'.·:n·II .. '1I.· d--"~; I'

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Co

uoeeto di uuiO Nymphe fedule fa:mu·l~

[ohenigpo, &: dc]eaeuole&,fac[ofito,d~ J ni afH'3~E,IOI,,~,lol acccnciamente co'mt_u,lfa'd

NAR.RA QYIVI LAorVA POlIA LA NOBILE ET ANTIQYAORIGIINE 5VA.ETCOMO PER LI PREDE CESSOR.I SVITRIVlSIO FVE EDI FICAT'O.ETD'I QYEL LA GENTE LELIA. OR.IVNOA. ET PER 'QY ALEMO" DODISAVEDVT A .IET INSCIA DJSCONC.lAMENTk SE INAM.OROE OJ 'LEI [L S VO DJILECTO POLIPHILO-

Aldus Manitius, 1499.

'. ciore & diuc Nvmpheablonc peruenerano & mconoine.alla uoflra bcn'igRa Judiaia t quale . ··laH~rrifica raucitate del unnante ECacho al (ua. ue canto dela piangeuole Philomela. Nondi :~~?"I' rneno uolendoio cum tun gli mc:i exili cona... ci del ime.lletto,& curn.la mia paucula fufncie

- tiarii fati(fare alle uollre piaceuole petitone, non rrflaro a'Ijllolerc. Leg uale [emoea qualiique heotatio.nc e,pre piu (he ficongruerebhe altronde.dignamenre rncrieano piu uberrrmo Huuio dl cloqouenria.cum troppa piu rotunda elcgantia& cum piu exornata poli tura di premitiato.che in merer alcuno.padonon 11 troua, d',i cofeguire il fuo gratia [0 affetto .. Maauui Celibe Nymphc& adme alquaro, g uan ulche &. confufa& incomptamcre fringultiete haro in qualche pertiun ... cub gratificato affai.~ando uoluntarofa &, diuotaa gli deGi uoflri & pollulatome prellaro piu preflo cum lanimo no mediocteprol'i1il.pm,hu/ mile parendo.chccum enucleate terfa,&uenufla cloquentia placedo. La prifca dunque& ueterrimagcneo.logia,& profapia,& il fatale mioamore garmlando ordire.Onde gia dfendo ncl uollro uencrandocorurenrualc confpecto,& uederrne fleriTe&ieiuna di doquio&.ad tanto prdlate &. di uo ceto di uui 0 Nymphe {edule Iarnuiarie dil.aocelo cupidine.Et iran ... tobenigno &. dclcdeuole & fac~ofito,dl Gncereaure & Hor-igerilpirami; ni afflato.1o acconciarnente compuUiadi aJfumcre uno ucnerabile aulo, & tranquillorimore de dire. Dunque auanre il tuto ucrua dare,o beIlifG .... me & beatiflirne Nymphe a queflo mio bladerare &agJlfemelli & terri .... g.eni,& pufill uliConari, fi aduene che in a1chuna pane in incautamenre

. A

c. Garamond, 1545.

Dc di[feaionc partiurn corporis humani, Libcr fecundus.

Procemiurn,

iiiii:!iiiil v z partes in humano corpore folidiores &' exte:;~/ liffum riores erant,qme'q; ipfammachinam potiffimum fi6:rofllp~ri~ cenfhrnebanr.faris iam explicate nobis videnrur re,

libro fup~ri~re.Se9uitur"v[ lonternaspercurramus Q!!_iJ fe",,,, qUa! maxrme pertinenrad vitam, & ad earum fa:;· do libra dkc ..

, culrarumquibus mcolumes viuimus conferuario- cur. I .nem.In quocqnemadmodu infrituimus) [ubfia.n==

ria, fitus,forma,nufllcrus,c6nexio,earum parrium ~!!!!~~~~!!!!!=::::~ de quibus fenno-fururus eft,brellircrexponenda.

Ad quod mnnus.Ilatim aggredicmur,fi panca prius de infhturo-acde iddi~

ctonoftro fubiunxerimus.Q.~an'l enirn hie nofler in fcribendo acdiflecan .

1.0 do lahor.complures non modo in anaromes cognidone,fed crism in Galel'lIYJ4tiol1l.

ni {eurentl3! inrcrprerarione ,iunare p.ote~·i[,:tame~inte~dli ~er,em~r ,ne9ui~ ;;·t;;;:~em bufdamnomenhocanarolnlcum firinnifirrn : m'lrenrurq; In ea ddfecbone jlflatOtnU In,. tanturn nos opcrce & rcmporis p9nere: cum alioquiab ijs qui nnrnmorurn tf~114tio"etn.

2.1·porius quamarris aueupin dane operam facilc'negligarur. A.tq;, ira nobis oc tnmHs FTOPIt' currirur.dum quorrunr:fattfne conflantcr facere vidcamur.quicumcorpos

ris humani partiiilongioti indag~tioni ftudemus ,quzmagis funt vnlia, imprimffq; neceffaria przterroittimus:(atiusdfe affirmanres,eius rei cogni

rioncm ,{iceo (vt. ~ ~(ir)p,.ede pe.r,currere,i~ ~u,a alia.~ .. c .•... e. rra,a.ha :incert~ eife di~

o cunnalia probabilia.aliarninus probabilia Inuenul.Q._ nod cerre dlctum(fi

3 qui ramen inuenianrur qui hoc dicant) hominurnrnihi videtur parii conlyd(:rate loqtrenerurnearq, in rnaximis rebus errantium. Q_uibusvellem fa~ tis cognita ·eflCt noflra fent,enrla.N·onenim(vt inquit qu~da) fumus ii quo rum vagcturant-mus errore; &inccrtis rebus dernus operam.nequehabea-

~.~.' mus vnq quod fequamur.Q_ uidenirn dl,per deos.abfoluraanaromes co.:: A:'~Q,to"!euo" i11 •. , " bili e··d 11.' e °d M' di °1'· t: 'd CL'. 8",'tl.0"1I "d g~ltl~neopta·1 ~US. qUI. przn:annus,qul· .. e .1C~ Vtll~S:qU[ . ' .. ,[llrur.g~ltt.as &at rii

dlgnlUs~ qua qUi expcnmt&. adfequuntur,tundemu .MedlC13C Chlrurgl dltaso ~ .

cendi funt:nccquidi eft aliud.quod.Medicum aut Chirurgum magis com mender.qusmipfa anarome.Cuiusfludium quivimperar.haud [a.·tie inrelli

40 go quidnam,filtquo~lauda~u~ i~ huiu~modivir.is aut,artibus put~r.Na~: fiue obIea-atlo qu~rltur anlml:q'uld,ct'que ddeaat,3ut Ingenuos animosaf ficit,ac'q; condiroris noltri.in hoc microcofmo procreando, diligcnter per~ Icrurarum arri ficiumHiue perfcctio,?kabfoluta quzdam .arsperitur r certe abfq; anarorne.Medicina aut ars n6 eric, aut nulla omnino.Iraque needle eft,qui hrec omnia inquibus tantopere in [udamus" neglexerit:artem quoql

J. Baskerville, 1757.

Po V I R C'I LII MA RON I S

ECLOGA. I.

,.

CUI

nomen '1lTrR U $.

BUCOLICA

MEL I ,B oF:. U 5, T rr y' R US .•

T l~YRE, tu palul~ recubans [u~ t~gmine fagi SdveHrenl tenui Mulammcditaris avena:

Nos patriae fines, et dulcia linquimus arva;

'Nos patriarn fugim,us: tu, Tityre".lentus: in umbra 5 Formofam rcfonare doces Amaryllida Iilvaa.

T. o Melibcee, Deus nobis heec otia fecit:

Namque edt ille rnihi fempcr Dells: il1ius aram Seepe tener nofiris ab ovilibus imbuet agl~us.

I Ile me as errare hove s, ut cernis; et ipfum

10 Ludere, qUa! vellern, calamopermifir agrefii.

M.Nonequidem invideoj.miror magis:"undique totis Ufque adeo turbatur agris. en ipfe .capellas

Protenus reger ago: harte etiarn vix',Tityre, duco:

Hie inter denfas corvlosmodo namqu.e gemellos, " 15 Spemgregis, ah! .. [ilice in nuda' connixa reliquit.

Szepcmalum hoc nobis, fi mens non leeva fuiIfet, ,De coelo taclas mernirri pr~d.icere qUCtcus:

8a:lpe .fi.nifira cava przedixit ab ilice cornix,

Sed. tarncn, ifle 'Deus qui fit, da, Tityre, nobis.

2oT. U rbem, quamdicunt Rornam, Me libeee, putavi 'Stultusego huic noflra; Iimilern, quo frepe folernus Paflores ovium tencros depellercfcerus.

Sic canibuscatulos Iimiles, fie matribus hcedos

A Nor-am;

Someone .musr have traduced Joseph K., for without having done anything wrong. he was arrested one fine moming. His landlady's cook, who always brought him his. breakfast "at 'eight o'clock, failed to appear. on this 'occasion. That had never happened before. K. 'waited for a little while longer, watehingIrom his pillow the old lady opposite, who seemed to be peering at him with a curiosity unusual even for her, hut then, feeling both put out and hungry, he rang-the bell, .At once there was a knock at the door and a man entered whom he had never seen 'before, in the house. He was slim and yet wellknit, he: wore a closely fitting black suit, which was furnished with an sorts of pleats', 'pockets, buckles, and buttons, as well as a belt, like a tourist's' outfit, and inconsequence: looked 'eminently practical" though OU€ could mot quite tell what actual purpose it served .. "Who are you?" askedK; half raising himself in 'bed. But the man ignored the question, as though his appearance needed noexplanation, and merely said: "Did you ring?" "Anna is to bring me .my breakfast," said 'K.,and then studied the fellow, silently

and carefully, trying to make outwho he could be. The man did not submit to this scruriny for' very long, but turned. to

Merle Armitage, Kafka, Trial.

Chapter One

The Arrest Conversation with Frau Grubach

Then Fraulein B urstner

1

Rubina Yeh, Multimedia:

From Wagner to Virtual Reality, 2001.

The type used in the main text is Bell Gothic.

Initially designed for the Bell Telephone Co. for use in telephone directories.

Designed by:

Chauncey H.

Griffith, 1938.

<

'2 »

104

Myron kru eger

"Responsive Environments'" (11977)

Myron, K:rlJ,£gl!~ Videcplace, ©Jll"7.tfn. K't'IIJJg/tr, Crntrttsy if" My'r:v1L J(rUl:ger.

IIrh~ responsive environment has be~n presented as th~ basis fora new aesthetic medium based on reaJ,..time i'nte'fattio'n between m(Hl arid ri'JijlchInes. }[I th.e 10{1'9 rang~ it aU9urs a new real m of human experienCE, artifiCial reaHt:ieS Which seek m;t ttJ.stimr;/a'te thephyslca'i wor(tJ but to define arbitrary, abstraet'and otherwise· impossible relaUollships 'between action and result. II

« M,Yi'!on Krueger Was among the-first artists to explore the computer 'as a centraleornponent in ihteraeti:ve: art. O'riglnally trained as a com p utee sil:lentisl, Krue.ge~ul'Jde.t' the lnfluence of John GaQ.es.experImentsin indeterminacy and audience' partilillpation"p'ioneered human-computer lnteractiorr in the context ofphysical environments, Beginning. in 1969, he Collaborated with artist and e,r,lglI}e.er- cclleaques at the; U niver.sityoJ WlSCOIJ·,si,n to create artworks that responded t,o tht~; movement and gest,ure of the,'vIewerthroughalJ elaborate system o+sensing floors,graph],c tables, and '),Iideo cameras .. In thlsessay, which 'reflects the lnf uence of cybernetlcs on' the arts .and 'sciences, Krueqer discusses humancomputer interaction, as the baslsfor an emer~in~ art form.

At the heart of I<ruegerfs:contt"ibutinn toInteraetlve csrnputerart was the notion oHhe artist as 'a ~\composerJi ofintelI.igent, real-time ;comp'uter~med['ated spaces, or i\resPQnsive' envlronrnents, It as he ca,ned them .. I<irue,g,e,r: ~\compos~du environment.s inlwh'ich thecomputer respondeditethe g:estur:~5 of;' the-audience by interpreting, and even antlcipa,t.ing, their actions .. In such works as Metapl~y arid Mi~eoplac~J both from the 1'97'05, imq_g,es,of alJdlenceme'mbers:WDlIl.d be 1'1'0,. Jected on ail eight-by-ten-foot screen: superimposed on the screenwould be animated Hgures and speclal effects' design.ed b{the artist. Audience members could \\touc-h/! eachether's video-generated silhouettes, as well as, manipulate the odd(playful assertmentef graphic.al objects and anImated or'~arijsms th:at appearedon the screen, imbued with the presence, of artiftciallife,

In r<rue:g.er!~ artworks the Im,a,ges of spectators video-broadcast.from sepatate lccatlons.would be projected Into a. single. space. This collaqeetfectantlcipated subsequent developments iln telepresence.whlch can be described as the state of beih:g present sih10Itaneot:.fsly in more than one lecaticn.Tn these early explorations of telernatlsart, audience members experienced .a sensation ,ofv'i.rtuall':Ir0x.imi:ty, as If they were standJng next toeachother in the same space, though they wereseparated by.a sjgnifican-t distance. This, aspec] ofl~ruegerrs work. makes ita precursor to to,dayls gJobalcol'Ylmqr:lic;3.tions lechi1bldgy, including"vid~a-confer.e.nting, netwcrked'vlrtua' world's, and live 0n-lin'lf chat. »

I.NTRODUCTION

Man-machine interaction is 'Usually limited to a seated-man poki:ng at a machine with'his fingers or perhaps wavin:~, a wand over a data tablet. Seven years~go, I was dissatisfied With such. a restricted dialogue and embarked on researchex-

"People read best what they read most."

Rudy VanderLans.

Textus: Type Color

Lorem Ipsum dolor sit amet, eonseetetuer adipiseing elit. Etiam sit amet tellus ultriees ligula tempor fringilla. Donee pede diam, aliquet nee, pharetra vel, dictum vestibulum, uma. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, eonseetetuer adipiseing elite Duis venenatis eonsequat pede. Quisque laoreet rutradipiseingum eros. Sed dapibus, turpis eget lobortis pellentesque, dolor orei mollis neque, et pretium ipsum laeus vestibulum erat. Sed lobortis pharetra nisl. Etiam aeeumsan fermentum justo. Donee fermentum aliquam dolor. Aliquam sollieitudin.

Class aptent taeiti soeiosqu ad litora torquent per eonubia nostra, per ineeptos hymenaeos. Morbi tristique leo non velit. Donee auctor purus et mauris. Nulla porta elit in orei. Don elementum lobortis libero. Cras quis risus nee risus volutpat posuere. N am risus eros sod eleifenee, seelerisque sit amet, massa. Nulla feadipiseingugiat, diam nee aeeumsamdn vulputate, orei nulla rutrum elit, in auctor laeus ligula vel massa. Vestibulum uma. Proin nee quam sit amet dolor tinei dunt aliquam. Pellentesque habitant morbi tristique seneetus et netus et malesuada fames ae turpis egestas.

Bodoni 10/14

Lorem Ipsum dolor sit amet, eonseetetuer adipiseing elit. Etiam sit amet tellus ultriees ligula temper fringilla. Donee pede diam, aliquet nee, pharetra vel, dictum vestibulum, urna. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, eonseetetuer adipiseing elit. Duis venenatis eonsequat pede. Quisque laoreet rutradipiseingum eros. Sed dapibus, turpis eget lobortis pellentesque, dolor orci mollis neque, et pretium ipsum laeus vestibulum erat. Sed lobortis pharetra nisi. Etiam aeeumsan fermentum justo. Donee fermentum aliquam dolor. Aliquam sollieitudin.

Class aptent taciti soeiosqu ad litora torqent per nee eonubia nostra, per ineeptos hymenaeos. Morbi tristique leo non velit. Donee auctor purus et mauris. Nulla porta elit in orei. Don elementum lobortis libero. Cras quis risus nee risus volutpat posuere. Nam risus eros, sod ales nee, eleifenee, seelerisque sit amet, massa. Nulla feadipiseingugiat, diam nee aeeumsamdn vulputate, orei nulla rutrum elit, in auctor laeus ligula vel massa. Vestibulum urna. Proin nee quam sit amet dolor

Helvetica Neue Light 10/14

Type Color is the density of texture in a written or typeset page. It refers to the darkness or blackness of the letterforms in mass. The evenness of color is typographer's normal aim.

Type Color depends on:

1) The design of the typeface.

2) The spacing between letters

3) The spacing between words

4) The spacing between lines ..

None is independent of the others.

Lorem Ipsum dolor sit amet, eonseetetuer adipiseing elite Etiam sit amet tellus ultriees ligula tempor fringilla. Donee pede diam, aliquet nee, pharetra vel, dictum vestibulum, urna. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, eonseetetuer adipiseing elite Duis venenatis eonsequat pede. Quisque laoreet rutradipiseingum eros. Sed dapibus, turpis eget lo-bortis pellentesque, dolor orei mollis neque, et pretium ipsum laeus vestibulum erato Sed 10 bortis pharetra nisl, Etiam aeeumsan fermentum justo. Donee fermentum aliquam dolor. Aliquam sollieitudin.

Class aptent taeiti soeiosqu ad litora torquent per eonubia nostra, per ineeptos hymenaeos. Morbi tristique leo non velit. Donee auctor purus et mauris. Nulla porta elit in orei. Don elementum lobortis libero. Cras quis risus nee risus volutpat posuere. N am risus eros, sodales nee, eleifenee, seelerisque sit amet, massa. Nulla feadipiseingugiat, diam nee aeeumsamdn vulputate, orei nulla rutrum elit, in auctor laeus ligula

Walbaum 10/12

Readability -general rules

At normal reading distance a normal eye span is between 12-15 picas wide.

Determining the Line Width

The upper limit for line width meant for continuous reading is about 27 picas.

10 picas

Lorem Ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing eli t. E tiam sit amettellusultrices ligula tempor fringilla. Donee pede diam, aliquet nee, pharetra vel, dictum vestibulum, urna. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elite Duis venenatis consequat pede. Quisque laoreet rutradipiscingum eros. Sed dapibus, turpis eget lobortis pellentesque, dolor orci mollis neque, et pretium ipsum lacus vestibulum erato Sed lobortis pharetra

A column of type a single eye span wide is 13 picas. (Mostly in magazines 12-15 pica line lenght is used)

Lorem Ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elite Etiam sit amet tellus ultrices ligula tempor fringilla. Donee pede diam, aliquet nec, pharetra vel, dictum vestibulum, urna. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elite Duis venenatis consequat pede. Quisque laoreet rutradipiscingum eros. Sed dapibus, turpis eget lobortis pellentesque, dolor orci mollis neque, et pretium ipsum lacus vestibulum erato Sed lobortis pharetra nisI. Etiam accumsan fermentum justo. Donee fermentum aliquam dolor. Aliquam sollicitudin consequat nunc.

Class aptent taciti sociosqu ad litora torquent per conubia nostra, per inceptos hymenaeos. Morbi tristique leo non velit. Donee auctor purus et mauris. Nulla porta elit in orci. Don elementum lobortis libero. Cras quis risus nee risus volutpat posuere. Nam risus eros, sodales nee, eleifenec, scelerisque sit amet, massa. Nulla feadipiscingugiat, diam nee accumsamdn vulputate, orci nulla rutrum elit, in auctor lacus ligula vel massa. Vestibulum urna. Proin nec quam sit amet dolor tinci dunt aliquam. Pellentesque habitant morbi tristique senectus et netus et malesuada fames ac turpis egestas. Fusee cursus mauris at sem. Suspendisse tincidunt pellentesque dolor. Vivamus gravida. Phasellus rutrum, ante vitae placerat lacinia, lectus augue ornare nibh, nec dolor.

55 picas

Very long lines, as well as very short lines force our physiology to act beyond its capacity, therefore interrupt continuous reading.

From 45 to 75 characters is widely regarded as a satisfactory lenght of line for a single-column page set in a serifed text face in a text size.

The Proportion of Type Size to Line Width

66 character per line is widely considered as ideal.

Lorem Ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Etiam sit amet tellus ultrices ligula tempor fringilla. Donee pede diam, aliquet nee, pharetra vel, dictum vestibulum, urna. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Duis venenatis consequat pede. Quisque laoreet rutradipiscingum eros. Sed dapibus, turpis eget lobortis pellentesque, dolor orci mollis neque, et pretium ipsum lacus vestibulum erato Sed lobortis pharetra nisl, Etiam accumsan fermentum justo. Donec fermentum aliquam dolor. Aliquam sollicitudin consequat nunc.

Class aptent taciti sociosqu ad litora torquent per conubia nostra, per inceptos hymenaeos. Morbi tristique leo non velit. Donee auctor purus et mauris. Nulla porta elit in orci. Don elementum lobortis libero. Cras quis risus nee risus volutpat posuere. N am risus eros, sodales nec, eleifenec, scelerisque sit amet, massa. Nulla feadipiscingugiat, diam nee accumsamdn vulputate, orci nulla rutrum elit, in auctor lacus ligula vel massa.Vestibulum urna. Proin nee quam sit amet dolor tinci dunt aliquam. Pellentesque habitant morbi tristique senectus et netus et malesuada fames ac turpis egestas. Fusce curs us mauris at sem. Suspendisse tincidunt pellentesque dolor. Vivamus gravida. Phasellus rutrum, ante vitae placerat lacinia, lectus augue ornare nibh, nee dolor.

Pellentesque facilisis risus nee pede. Etiam tellus massa, tempus at, tempor nee, nonummy sed, metus. Pellentesque ut pede ut quam semper nonummy. Maecenas malesuada ultricies velit. Sed viverra eros ut lectus. Nulla eros. Quisque justa velit, porttitor nee, accumsan ac, iaculis et, mauris. Praesent tincidunt felis. Donec id nunc. Nulla facilisi. Quisque eu sem. Aliquam erat volutpat. Quisque justa velit, porttitor nee, accumsan ac, iaculis et, mauris. Praesent tincidunt felis. Donee id nunc.

Lorem Ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Etiam sit amet tellus ultrices ligula temper fringilla. Donec pede diam, aliquet nec, pharetra vel, dictum vestibulum, urna. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Duis venenatis consequat pede. Quisque laoreet rutradipiscingum eros. Sed dapibus, turpis eget lobortis pellentesque, dolor orci mollis neque, et pretium ipsum lacus vestibulum erat. Sed lobortis pharetra nisI. Etiam accumsan fermentum justo. Donec fermentum aliquam dolor. Aliquam sollicitudin consequat nunc.

Class aptent taciti sociosqu ad litora torquent per conubia nostra, per inceptos hymenaeos. Morbi tristique leo non velit. Donec auctor purus et mauris. Nulla porta elit in orci. Don elementum lobortis libero. Cras quis risus nec risus volutpat posuere. Nam risus eros, sodales nec, eleifenec, scelerisque sit amet, massa. Nulla feadipiscingugiat, diam nec accumsamdn vulputate, orci nulla rutrum elit, in auctor lacus ligula vel massa. Vestibulum urna. Proin nec quam sit amet dolortinci dunt aliquam. Pellentesque habitant morbi tristique senectus et netus et malesuada fames ac turpis egestas. Suspendisse tincidunt pellentesque dolor.

For multi-column work, a better average is 40 to 50 characters/line.

A moreprecise formula (which also takes into account the typeface):

1 ,5 or 2,5 x the typeset alphabet

abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz

~ ~

13,5 picas

GiliSans

regu lar 14 pts

13,5 x 1 ,5= 20.25

13,5 x 2,5= 33,75 picas >

Proportionately:

Baskerville 11 /14x27 (left) Helvetica Neue 9/13x14 (right)

The minimum & maximum line width for:

GiliSans regular 14 pts

Lorem Ipsum dolor sit amet, eonseetetuer adipiscing elit. Etiam sit amet tellus ultriees ligula tempor fringilla. Donee pede diam, aliquet nee, pharetra vel, dictum vestibulum, urna. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, eonseetetuer adipiscing elit. Duis venenatis eonsequat pede. Quisque laoreet rutradipiscingum eros. Sed dapibus, turpis eget lobortis pellentesque, dolor orci mollis neque, et pretium ipsum laeus vestibulum erato Sed lobortis pharetra nisI. Etiam aeeumsan fermentum justo. Donee fermentum aliquam dolor.Aliquam sollicitudin eonsequat nunc.

Class aptent taciti sociosqu ad litora torquent per eonubia nostra, per ineeptos hymenaeos. Morbi tristique leo non vel it. Donee auctor purus et mauris. Nulla porta elit in orci. Don elementum lobortis libero. Cras quis risus nee risus volutpat posuere. Nam risus eros, sodales nee, eleifenee, seelerisque sit amet, massa. Nulla feadipiscingugiat, diam nee aeeumsamdn vulputate, orci nulla rutrum elit, in auctor laeus ligula vel massa.Vestibulum urna. Proin nee quam sit amet dolor tinci dunt aliquam. Pellentesque habitant morbi tristique seneetus et netus et malesuada fames ae turpis egestas. Suspendisse tincidunt pellentesque dolor.

Lorem Ipsum dolor sit amet, eonseetetuer adipiscing elit. Etiam sit amet tellus ultriees ligula tempor fringilla. Donee pede diam, aliquet nee, pharetra vel, dictum vestibulum, urna. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, eonseetetuer adipiscing elit. Duis venenatis eonsequat pede. Quisque laoreet rutradipiscingum eros. Sed dapibus, turpis eget lobortis pellentesque, dolor orci mollis neque, et pretium ipsum laeus vestibulum erato Sed lobortis pharetra nisI. Etiam aeeumsan fermentum justo. Donee fermentum aliquam dolor. Aliquam sollicitudin eonsequat nunc.

Class aptent taciti sociosqu ad litora torquent per eonubia nostra, per ineeptos hymenaeos. Morbi tristique leo non vel it. Donee auctor purus et mauris. Nulla porta elit in orci. Don elementum lobortis libero. Cras quis risus nee risus volutpat posuere. Nam risus eros, sodales nee, eleifenee, seelerisque sit amet, massa. Nulla feadipiscingugiat, diam nee aeeumsamdn vulputate,orci nulla rutrum elit, in auctor laeus ligula vel massa.Vestibulum urna. Proin nee quam sit amet dolor tinci dunt aliquam. Pellentesque habitant morbi tristique seneetus et netus et malesuada fames ae turpis egestas. Suspendisse tincidunt pellentesque dolor.

Lorem Ipsum dolor sit amet, eonseetetuer adipiscing elit. Etiam sit amet tellus ultriees ligula tempor fringilla. Donee pede diam, aliquet nee, pharetra vel, dictum vestibulum, urna. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, eonseetetuer adipiscing elit. Duis venenatis eonsequat pede. Quisque laoreet rutradipiscingum eros. Sed dapibus, turpis eget lobortis pellentesque, dolor orci mollis neque, et pretium ipsum laeus vestibulum erato Sed lobortis pharetra nisI. Etiam aeeumsan fermentum justo. Donee fermentum aliquam dolor. Aliquam sollicitudin eonsequat nunc.

Class aptent taciti sociosqu ad litora torquent per eonubia nostra, per ineeptos hymenaeos. Morbi tristique leo non vel it. Donee auctor purus et mauris. Nulla porta elit in orei. Don elementum lobortis libero. Cras

20.25 picas

41 chr/line

33,75 picas

72 chr/line

Determining The Line Space (leading)

Lorem Ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Etiam sit amet tellus ultrices ligula temper fringilla. Donec pede diam, aliquet nec, pharetra vel, dictum vestibulum, urna. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Duis venenatis consequat pede. Quisque laoreet rutradipiscingum eros. Sed dapibus, turpis eget lobortis pellentesque, dolor orci mollis neque, et pretium ipsum lacus vestibulum erat. Sed lobortis pharetra nisI. Etiam accumsan fermentum justo. Donec fermentum aliquam dolor. Aliquam sollicitudin consequat nunc.

Glass aptent taciti sociosqu ad litora torquent per conubia nostra, per inceptos hymenaeos. Morbi tristique leo non velit. Donec auctor purus et mauris. Nulla porta elit in orci. Don elementum lobortis libero. Gras quis risus nec risus volutpat posuere. Nam risus eros, sodales nec, eleifenec, scelerisque sit amet, massa. Nulla feadipiscingugiat, diam nec accumsamdn vulputate, orci nulla rutrum elit, in auctor lacus ligula vel massa. Vestibulum urna. Proin nec quam sit amet dolor tinci dunt aliquam. Pellentesque habitant morbi tristique senectus et netus et malesuada.

Helvetica Neue 14/14 SET SOLID

Lorem Ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Etiam sit amet tellus ultrices ligula temper fringilla. Donec pede diam, aliquet nec, pharetra vel, dictum vestibulum, urna. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Duis venenatis consequat pede. Quisque laoreet rutradipiscingum eros. Sed dapibus, turpis eget lobortis pellentesque, dolor orci mollis neque, et pretium ipsum lacus vestibulum erat. Sed lobortis pharetra nisI. Etiam accumsan fermentum justo. Donec fermentum aliquam dolor. Aliquam sollicitudin consequat nunc.

Glass aptent taciti sociosqu ad litora torquent per conubia nostra, per inceptos hymenaeos. Morbi tristique leo non velit. Donec auctor purus et mauris. Nulla porta elit in orci. Don elementum lobortis libero. Gras quis risus nec risus volutpat posuere. Nam risus eros, sodales nec, eleifenec, scelerisque sit amet, massa. Nulla feadipiscingugiat, diam nec accumsamdn vulputate, orci nulla rutrum elit, in auctor lacus ligula vel massa. Vestibulum urna. Proin nec quam sit amet dolor tinci dunt aliquam. Pellentesque habitant morbi tristique senectus et netus et malesuada.

Helvetica Neue 14/16

Lorem Ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Etiam sit amet tellus ultrices ligula temper fringilla. Donec pede diam, aliquet nec, pharetra vel, dictum vestibulum, urna. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, con sectetuer adipiscing elit. Duis venenatis consequat pede. Quisque laoreet rutradipiscingum eros. Sed dapibus, turpis eget lobortis pellentesque, dolor orci mollis neque, et pretium ipsum lacus vestibulum erat. Sed lobortis pharetra nisI. Etiam accumsan fermentum justo. Donec fermentum aliquam dolor. Aliquam sollicitudin consequat nunc.

Glass aptent taciti sociosqu ad litora torquent per conubia nostra, per inceptos hymenaeos. Morbi tristique leo non velit. Donec auctor purus et mauris. Nulla porta elit in orci. Don elementum lobortis libero. Gras quis risus nec risus volutpat posuere. Nam risus eros, sodales nec, eleifenec, scelerisque sit amet, massa. Nulla feadipiscingugiat, diam nec accumsamdn vulputate, orci nulla rutrum elit, in auctor lacus ligula vel massa. Vestibulum urna. Proin nec quam sit amet dolor tinci dunt aliquam. Pellentesque habitant morbi tristique senectus et netus et malesuada.

Helvetica Neue 14/17,5

Leading is the distance from one baseline to the next baseline .

Set solid: When the leading is equal to the typesize, it is called set solid. e.g. 11 111, 12/12

Continuous text is rarely set with negative leading, and only few faces read well in set solid.

The most conventional ones are: 9/11, 1 0/12, 11 1 13 and 12/15.

Sanserif typefaces often need more leading (or a shorter line width).

A conventional page carries 300 to 500 words. If you want more than 500 words it is time to consider MULTIPLE COLUMNS. A two column book page will confortably carry 750 words and can go up to 1000 words.

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WHAT KIND OF PROBLEMS CAN YOU OBSERVE ON THIS SPREAD?

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