ANIMAL CELL  Robert Hooke (1635-1703) -first to described plant cell - 1665 observed cells (bark of oak

tree) -compound microscope cells - tiny compartments found in oak bark Aton van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723) - Dutch scientist - single lens microscope - 500 x magnification - pond water - animalcules Mathias Schleiden (1838) - German botanist - Plants are composed of cells - cell walls of plant cells are visible even in simple microscope Theodor Schwann (1839) - German biologist - Animals are made up of cells Rudolf Virchow (1855) - Cells arise from existing cells - Cell Theory with 3 main conclusion 1. All organism are made up of one or more cell 2. Cell is the basic unit structure of all living things 3. All cells arise from existing cells

and mechanical support . The cytoskeleton monorail transport substances around the cell. - Animals, plants ,protest ,fungi 3 Basic Parts of a Eukaryotic Cell A. Cell/ Plasma membrane outer boundary of the cell - Double layered membrane surrounding the cell - Singer & Nicolson: developed the first model of double layer (bilayer of phospholipids polar ends /head - Hydropholic (head) water attracting nonpolar ends/tails - Hyrophobic (tail) - Semi-permeable = not all substance can penetrate; to regulate the passage of substances in and out of the cell Composition:  Cholesterol- embedded in the interior of membrane 1. Makes the membrane lees permeable to water soluble substances 2. Helps stabilize the membrane/structural rigidity Proteins attached to the inner 7 outer surface of the membrane -transfer substances in and out of cell 1. Help move ions/ molecules across cell membrane Carbohydrates- gives structural rigidity to the cell Glycocalyx/ cell coat: Carbohydrate +protein= glycoprotein Carbohydrates +lipids= glycolipids     

CELLS functional unit of life in which all of the chemical reactions necessary for the maintenance and reproduction of life will take place Types of cells: 1. Prokaryotic cell- DNA ( located in region and not bound by a membrane or enclosed in nucleus) - Achaea and eubacteria - Generally smallest and simplest cells - No organelles 2. Eukaryotic cell little organs - nucleus - cells with membrane bound organelles - fibers and tubules - network of protein fibers criss-crosses the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, providing shape 

Functions:      Regulates material moving in and out of the cell Separates the inside of the cell from the outside Separates various organelles within the cell Provides large surface area on which specific chemical reaction will occur Separate cells from one another

Highly concentrated area Less concentrated area Osmosis water molecules pass through a selectively permeable membrane -diffusion of water molecules across a selectively permeable membrane .maintenance of a relatively constant internal environment despite of the fluctuations in the external environment Types of movement across cell membrane: 1.Molecules not soluble in LIPIDS diffuse or spread thru protein channels or pores in the lipid bilayer . Cytoplasm. externally applied force B.process that force small molecules across a selective permeable membrane with the aid of a. salt water Factors affecting diffusion:  Steeper concentration gradient = faster diffusion  Smaller molecules= faster  Higher Temp = faster 2. Storage of enzymes and other proteins *Regions/ Kinds: a. water move inside.same with pino but solid c. Simple diffusion-molecules move randomly .most solute= lowest water concentration * Isotonic equal solute and solvent e.Uphill direction 4.g distilled water .Molecules and substances move across a selectively permeable membrane against a concentration gradient .Downhill direction . Filtration. ringer * HypOtonic low solute concentration outside than inside of cell. BURST e. Phagocytosis.g. Helps materials to circulate throughout the cytoplasm (internal transport) 2.Has ATP / energy (adenosine triphosphate) . water move outside.direction of net flow is determined by water concentration gradient .arranged into flattened sacs . continous w/ nuclear membrane -extends throughout cytoplasm -complex.kytos-hollow.specific mechanism of bringing large molecules into the cell -clathrin. vacuoles.fluid) Distinct parts: 1.golgi apparatus. sacs and tubules -branches and spreads in the cytoplasm *Functions: 1. membrane bound flattened sheets.high solute concentration outside than inside of cell. Active transport . SHRINK and Shrivel/ CRENATE e. Facilitated/Passive diffusion .proteins & other molecules that the cell produce into vesicles for secretion fuse w/ the plasma membrane and release their contents into the extracellular environment 6.Uptake of small droplets of extracellular fluid . plasm. Pinocytosis/ potocytosis cell drinking (liquid) .(gr.Hemolysis = bursting of RBC *HypErtonic.Vesicle and caveolae b. Bulk transport -involves the bulk movement if materials across the plasma membrane rather than individual molecule TYPES : a. Rough ER w/ ribosomes .part where the organelles are suspended  Endoplasmic Reticulum -in animal cell. hydrostatic pressure & b. Receptor-mediated Endocytosis -selective uptake of molecules .No energy input . vesicles 2. Exocytosis.ribosomes in surface give rough appearance . Cytomembrane system consists of well defined structures -ER.g. Fluid cytosol or hyloplasm.coated pits 5.No energy input ( downfall) 3.Selective Permeability ability of the membrane to let substances in and keep others out Homeostasis.

cell control center -contains the hereditary information of the cell Components :  Nuclear envelope. Site for lipid production. sac-like . Smooth ER w/o ribosomes .material arrives and leaves in vesicles  Ribosomes . Phagocytosis intracellular digestion of foreign bodies  2. packages and transports lipids and protein *Golgi Bodies put finishing touches on proteins and lipids that arrive from ER -package finished material for shipment to final destination .attached to Rough ER or float freely in the cytoplasm .composed of flattened stacks of membrane (320) -cisternae = closed spaces serving as fluid reservoir . Peroxisomes similar in appearance to lysososomes .different shapes and size Function: 1.Contain a variety of enzymes . spherical/ elongated in shape . space between cristae (matrix) with oxidative enzyemes .non membrane bound structures . resorption. Lysosome (suicide bags) .Function: sorts.Acid hydrolasas w/c are optically active at pH 5. detoxification of organic molecules 2.double membrane. drugs -Sacroplasmic reticulum of muscle specialized form . capable of digesting organic molecules under acidic condition Functions : a. Store food .Functions: 1. Nucleus. Collect water & pump it outside to maintain homeostasis 2. storage of calcium ions  Golgi Apparatus (golgiosome) -Cammilo Golgi ( 1898) .POWER GENERATORS convert chemical energy into ATP C.penetrated by pores  Nucleolus/ Plamosome -non-membrne bound structure -preassembly points of ribosomes -protein synthesis  Nucleoplasm/ karyoplasm contain genetic material -chromatin  Chromatin cell collection of DNA and assiociated proteins -apperance changes as cell divide  Vaults barrel shaped .a series of interconnected tubules -no ribosome on surface -lipids assemble inside tubules -smooth ER of liver in activates wastes.equal amt of protein special kind of RNA (rRNA) Polysome / polyribosome cluster/grps -connected by mRNA (messenger Ribonucleic acid )  Microbodies :  1.-cells that specialize in secreting protein have lots of rough ER b.Inner membrane folds to form partition( cristae).destruction of dead & degenetrating b.cellular trucks .Rid of toxic substances hydrogen peroxide( a common by product of cellular metabolism)  Mitochondrion.pick mRNAand transport ribosomes  Vacoules.Spherical.protein synthesis .

Used to propel or to move cells 2.Most stable cytoskeleton elements .take part in movement.Functions: 1. Mechanical support to various cellular structures 2. Promote mechanical activities within the cell (support)   Cilia & Flagella .kinetosome or basal body identical with centriole .Suspended in the Cytoplasm : Microtubules Organizing Centers (MTOC) Centrioles (diplosome) -cylindrical structures -composed of 9 triplets of microtubules arranged in circular pattern . formation and maintenance of cell shape .movement of chromosome during cell division Microfillaments thinnest cytoskeletal elements -made up of solid string of protein ( ACTIN molecules) .made up of proteins 3 major classes of Protein Fibers making up the Cytoskeleton of Eukaryotes Microtubules.Present only in animal cells of certain tissues .structure for cell motility .Composed of different protein subunits .move materials all over the cell surface -axoneme (9 pairs around 2 central microtubules = 9+2) . Stationary cells. Movement of organelles 2. Help maintain cell shape 2.largest elements -composed of the globular protein ( tubulin subunits) .duplicated during cell division and involved in chromosome movement  Cytoskeleton -present in eukaryotic cell -Latticed framework extending throughout the cytoplasm -provides support & shape. assists in transporting substances throughout the cell -Cell motility .Functions : 1.functions : 1. responsible for cellular movement Intermediate Fillaments .arise from microtubule organizing centers (MTOC) .Elongated appendages Functions: 1.

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