Page Thesis Statement and Outline................................................................................. 02 I. The Domination of Darkness .............................................................................. 03 Đỗ Kim Ngân ................................................................................................03-05 Trần Thị Thu Hiền .........................................................................................05-06 II. The Indifference Attitude ................................................................................. 07 Lâm Thị Phương Nga ....................................................................................07-08 Đào Ngọc Ánh ...............................................................................................08-10 III. The Bare Surroundings Together With the Empty and Slow Train ............ 11 Đỗ Thị Hằng ..................................................................................................11-13 IV. The Unilateral Love ......................................................................................... 14 Trần Đức Minh ..............................................................................................14-15 Nguyễn Kiều Trang .......................................................................................15-16 Appendix: Araby by James Joyce


The boy kept cherishing a unilateral love to a girl and dare not to bare his heart. To some extent. The indifference attitude among the characters in the story showed a lukewarm life. OUTLINE I. II. IV. The bare surroundings together with the empty and slow train show us a boring and dull life without any motivation.Thesis statement: The short story Araby by James Joyce (1882-1941) depicts a picture which extends to us a profound impression about a gloomy. The domination of darkness throughout the story seemed to portray a gloomy life of Dubliners at that time and to foreshadow an unhappy ending. lukewarm stagnant and sultry life of Dubliners in 1890s. 2 . III. it can be seen that the people at that time seemed to be pushed down by an invisible complex which was too sultry to pursue their desires and express their feelings.

Dublin in 1894. “quiet street”(1). told from the perspective of a young boy. The image of an “uninhabited” and “detached” house (2. Joyce is a very influential writer in the avant-garde of the early 20th century. belongs to Dubliners (1914) – the first set of James Joyce. Ireland. stagnant and sultry life of Dubliners in 1890s. the short story "Araby" depicts a picture which extends to us a profound impression about a gloomy. This is a blind world. named North Richmond in Ireland's largest city. I. a famous Irish novelist and poem. The opening scenes of the story described the young boy’s overall view of the world. lukewarm. at the turn of the twentieth century. In addition.Araby is considered as one of the best short stories by James Joyce. James Joyce wrote Araby in Trieste. we can see his gloomy background. ĐỖ KIM NGÂN The gloomy picture in the story was first portrayed through the overwhelming of darkness from the beginning until the end. Austria where he lived for quite a long time feeling there was no position for him. Like the rest of Dubliners. the image of the “blind end” (3) illustrated the darkness and the somberness of the city and the citizens’ life at that time and suggested that there was nowhere that the boy and his friends could go except for dreary houses and streets 3 . which was introduced as a “blind”. The collection Dubliners was a portrait of life in Dublin. From the first sentence. The title “Araby” is taken from the real festival which came to Dublin in 1894 when the author was only 12 years old. he did not have a smooth life. Araby (1905). 3) from the others in the street created an image of isolation for this house as well as for the boy who felt alone and detached from his neighbors. drinking habits and strained relationship with his brother. And like many famous writers in 20th century. The domination of darkness throughout the story seemed to portray a gloomy life of Dubliners at that time and to foreshadow an unhappy ending. He lived in the street. and frustrated with his frivolity of money.

streetlights were but “feeble lanterns” (18) in the somberness of the “dark muddy lanes”(20).5).here (3). 4 . the boy chose to hide in the shadow. line 6). The boys’ life was the same as what it was suggested in the first paragraph. “Dusk fell before we had well eaten our dinner” (15) showed the readers the picture of a day began at dusk and continued through the evening during this season. the narrator described the depressing atmosphere. The next sentence seemed to foreshadow the entire story. 4. When the night fell. The boy in this paragraph was as blind as his world. choosing the gloomy setting to be the home of the young boy. The domination of darkness was emphasized by the image of pale light in this paragraph. In the third paragraph. in “dark dripping gardens” (21) near “dark odorous stables” (22) and “ashpits” (22). but the boys must still play in “dark muddy lanes”(20). Scanning through the story. They could not go anywhere except this stagnant city. the readers could easily see that all the scenes in this story often happened in the dark setting. In the blind and dark surroundings like this. The hopelessness and the dull life of the boy’s were clearly reflected through the houses that contained the sense of the dead present and lost past. only the boys’ games and shouts “echoed the silent street” (19) and made the story have some breaks . however. Joyce's "Araby" written by Mahmood Azizi. “The other houses of the street” gazing at one another with “brown imperturbable faces” were “conscious of decent lives” (3. Joyce made the boy’s life particularly and the Dubliners’ lives generally become more vivid at the time of 1900s. The light from the kitchen windows only filled the street when boys returned. This action made the darkness again cover all the light which had just appeared in a short time. Darkness continued to reappear “in the short days of winter”. Joyce used such setting to express his intention when he wrote the stories “Dubliners”. Actually. He wanted to “write a chapter in the moral history” of his country and he chose Dublin city for the scene “because that city seemed to me the centre of paralysis”(The Archetypal Myth of the Quest in J. para.

138. he went through the darkness to go to this bazaar. and it created some small hope for the boy of having something as a present for Mangan’s sister: “A few people were gathered about the stalls which were still open. the boy still kept a hope for going to Araby despite of late time and slow train. and 139). The author‘s use of dark made the boy's reality of living in the gloomy town of Araby more vivid. By using dark and gloomy references. over which the words Café Chantant were written in coloured lamps. so in this situation if light appeared it would be very meaningful because if there was no light. 137. Before a curtain. the destination of story and also the destination of the boy was completely full of darkness at the end. 5 . Joyce expressed vividly the depressing atmosphere in the bleak city. Darkness dominated throughout the story while pale light just appeared at some places. The experiences of the boy in "Araby" of James Joyce show us that life sometimes does not happen as people expect. light still appeared. In the boy’s hope: Araby would be a place of light and it would still open. When he came to Araby. two men were counting money on a salver” (136. Why he kept that hope? With the hope bringing back a present for Mangan’s sister. Araby was a bazaar happened during 14th to 19th May 1894. Once again darkness encroached and it was likely that the hope of the boy would disappear. Araby would completely close. and predicted the unhappy endings of the young boy’s life. and in this darkness we predicted that nothing happy would happen. and Araby. “greater part of the hall was in darkness” (135). the girl he loved. Darkness appeared everywhere. TRẦN THỊ THU HIỀN Although darkness dominated throughout the story. In this bloomy scenery.The domination of darkness in the “Araby” represented the stagnation and isolation of the young boy in Dublin as well as Dubliners at that time.

through the way the author describes the surroundings we can see darkness appeared through the story. He came back disappointedly: “Gazing up into the darkness I saw myself as a creature driven and derided by vanity. A brief history of Dublin. It means that at that time accordance with completely domination of darkness. the most beautiful period of human’s life. 6 . the hope still had but disappeared at the end of the story.Despite of how hard he tried to get there. lights totally disappeared. Reading the story. At the beginning of the story we forecast that there was nothing happy at the end of the The boy’s life plunged in dark. the first paragraph). Dublin in the 19th century. This was the time when the boy realized that life was not as good as what he had dreamed. Ireland by Tim Lambert. It was also a gloomy life of people in Dublin at that time when there was a terrible poverty in Dublin (http://www.localhistories. what bring them disappointed feeling. and my eyes burned with anguish and anger” (163 and 164). but in his eyes life was full of darkness. When life has nothing happy. Life is not as good as what they expect. he came back with nothing in his hand except for darkness. which totally covered Araby “The upper part of the hall was now completely dark” (161 and 162).html. scenery surrounding them is also unhappy. The boy who was at the age of teenager. and it was true.

should have figured out that he had special feelings to her. The indifference attitude among the characters in the story showed a lukewarm life. after “every morning” (33) the boy followed and passed her. LÂM THỊ PHƯƠNG NGA Dubliners’ life at that time seemed to be rather lukewarm through the indifferent attitude among the characters in the story. Right at the beginning of the story. The indifference hurt the boy even more when his uncle came back home late at the night of Araby. she did almost nothing to reply his heart. Mangan’s sister. All these people made the boy felt as if he had got into a “throng of foes” (47). The market was such a mess with drunken man jostling. laborers cursing.II. where everyone kept doing what they wanted and just ignored others. The boy first informed his uncle about his travel to Araby on a Saturday night-on weekend night when his uncle was free from work. the sense of unconcern gradually grew. The indifference among people got stronger when the boy went to the market on Saturday evenings. James Joyce gave readers a feeling of unconcern by mentioning “brown imperturbable faces” (4 and 5) of houses on the street. except for saying a few words “at last” (60). Yet. One week 7 . and shop-boys shrilling. together with his aunt. The indifference appeared not only among people of different families. but also among those of the same one. women bargaining. Reading the story.

The uncle’s reaction left him in such a mood. and answered without any enthusiasm . He just said sorry to the boy after the boy got upset -“I did not smile” (114). and this time. The uncle remembered nothing about the boy’s sincere request and asked once again where he was going. He “felt the house in bad humor” (90). but he still forgot and returned home late. the boy seriously reminded his uncle that he “wished to go to the bazaar in the evening” (85). “at last” (60) Mangan’s sister spoke to him. he found the air “pitilessly raw” (90). the boy could not bear it anymore.later. And then he refused to give the boy money by saying “The people are in bed and after their first sleep now” (113).“Yes. and his wife said to him energetically-“Can’t you give him the money and let him go? You’ve kept him late enough as it is. 8 . Responding to the boy’s sincere request. let the boy wait in vain for so long. already. The boy had informed and reminded his uncle about the bazaar. He simply did not care! The indifference continued when the boy came to Araby. I know!” (88). Some days ago. rather than with warm hospitality as often seen in a charity bazaar. finally his uncle came home. though it was a charity one. with a discouraging voice. And.” (115). his heart “misgave” (91) him. There were only a few people in the bazaar. on Saturday morning. And the indifference got its climax when the lady at the stall served him as if she was doing something she did not want to. At that time. Then the boy had to answer two times before getting a florin. boy. He could have given money to his nephew sooner. and just gave up in anger. “He had forgotten” (112). his uncle got upset -“fussing at the hallstand” (86).

James Joyce puts the boy in a house with non-parent people. it becomes a pragmatic one with indifference. However. The lukewarm atmosphere not only exists outside but inside home. The lukewarmth of society spread into each house. A boy in the age of new feeling and desire. Firstly. the people mostly live for themselves. think of what they want. It is exactly real life but anything else suppresses the feeling and interest among the people in society. it makes the connection loose. They are the people who can feed you. The reader cannot know why the boy does not live with his parents. they do not have time to think of anybody except themselves. sometimes. it is really not easy to take care of somebody who is not “true” child. spending your tuition or buying you some new clothes.need have more cares from family’s member. the age of breaking everything without thinking and full of youth’s energy. talk about themselves and ignore what the others think. Unfortunately. 9 . James gave him a love. the child can be illtreated and not enough interest. with his uncle and aunt. In reality. The young boy’s life in the society where the people only care for individual’s thought and benefit. A question left in the reader’s mind about the young boy’s love is whether his love is “love” or temporary indulgence.ĐÀO NGỌC ÁNH The indifference attitude among the characters in the story showed a lukewarm life in Dublin. Love is wonderful thing but sometimes. the boy and the saleswoman make an impression of indifference and lukewarmth to the reader. they will not the person who sit beside you. even living with true parents. the boy and the girl Mangan. as in other societies. encourage and ask you that “Are you ok?”. the reader can have a feeling of totally unhappy life with full treatment. The relationships between the boy and his uncle. Because of so many things which they have to do. sympathize. from the beginning. anyway. this is not a biological mother and father. Secondly.

There is not because the salesgirl does not have that goods or need sell goods.whether Mangan. as well as the author-James Joyce. It is not similar with the way sellers often do. There is not the reason that she does not know it. we only see that the girl has not ever interested in the boy’s love. Her indifferent attitude to him is because she is shy. it simply is just contempt! Because the boy seems too young and no money! Although no one wants to welcome a child with a few shilling in hand. There is no warm welcome. talks with him because of love or she just takes advantage of the young boy’s naivety. On the contrary. The boy should have welcomed by the seller when going to Araby. James Joyce had declared in a letter “My intention was to write a chapter of the moral history of my country and I chose Dublin for the scene because that city seemed to me the center of paralysis”. it seems to care for money rather than charity! It is very funny and bitter as well! The young boy in “Araby”. That indifferent attitude unintentionally makes the boy fall deeply in her love. even one time. however she seemed to ignore it as child’s play. the girl he loves. we can realize a truth that. oh my God! It is just a charitable bazaar! So. Overall. the more love the boy gives. One more time. the more lukewarmth he receives. teases him for a gift. yet. she does not like him or she makes for herself a haughty cover? The reader cannot find out it. there is no smile. the lukewarmth of surrounding people. if it exactly is a charitable one. her attitude and her behavior show that she knows. 10 . James lets the readers feel the lukewarmth of Dublin society which is portrayed through the saleswoman.spent his childhood in a stuffy society and a restricted colonial culture of Ireland. nothing happened. Finally.

all we see and feel is the houses are standing calmly and “looking” at each other. At the beginning of the story. James Joyce describes “North Richmond Street. the author impresses us with a deserted and quiet surroundings which make readers feel of a dull life without any motivation of the main character in this story. Firstly. “quiet”. a boring life. Being away from Dublin gave James Joyce an objective view about the city and its residents. this picture shows the author’s outlook about a real life in his native city. 11 . The author represents the bare and silent surroundings in his picture through three images. the conflict between Catholics and Protestants was at its peak.” (2-5). “square”. he presents a world that is simple but quite humdrum. he was not in Dublin. and “imperturbable”. In addition. being blind. The life in a street is not so different with the life in a remote and poor countryside. this picture also partly reflects the author’s thought about the Dubliners’ life when the author was not in Dublin at that time. To some extent. “brown”. That is the time after his mother’s death and also this period (from 1904 to 1914) is the time of political violence and instability in Dublin.III. we see “An uninhabited house of two storeys stood at the blind end. besides the darkness and the indifference of characters. It shows that this street has nothing salient. Continuing discovering this street. we discover the empty image of the street where the main character of this short story lives at. “uninhabited”. Through adjectives that the author used such as “blind”. The bare surroundings together with the empty and slow train show us a boring and dull life without any motivation. Clearly. we won’t know the existing of this street. Remembering a little bit about the situation when James Joyce wrote his masterpiece “Dubliners” (“Araby” is one of the first short stories in “Dubliners”). There is no people’s voice. The other houses of the street…gazed at one another with brown imperturbable faces. It sinks into silence and if we don’t pay attention. ĐỖ THỊ HẰNG In the picture that James Joyce depicts. was a quiet street…” (1). detached from its neighbors in a square ground.

. This train doesn’t put on it a hurried and crowded look as we think. 12 .” (134-136) and “A few people were gathered around the stalls which were still open. I recognized a silence like that which pervades a church after a service. After an intolerable delay. However.The second image that James Joyce used to depict a deserted picture of life is the image of a slow and empty train going to bazaar. There are no guests to carry. The train run slowly. In contrast. When all stalls are closed and Araby is filled with darkness. when the boy stands in front of Bazaar. Also. Araby is “a large building which displayed the magical name” (131) and brims over with light. However. it’s time the boy realizes that his real life is not as beautiful as his dream. he sees “Nearly all the stalls were closed and the greater part of the hall was in darkness. it seems utterly exhausted and sad in the dark night. no one except the boy is in this train. the author sketches an intolerable delay of the train and it makes both the main character and readers feel unbearable. The third and also the last image is the silent a somber of Araby. This train delayed unbearably. Although this is “a special train for bazaar” (128). Nevertheless. there is no animation here and it gives the young boy a feeling of despair and painfulness. just have some people in a large building and it sinks deeply into darkness and emptiness. Although it has the appearance of people in the third image and they are arguing something. in opposition to the eagerness of the boy. it is a deserted train. but a carriage just has only one guest. it contains something make us disappointed. he quickly strode towards the station. Any one of us when hearing about the bazaar. In the imagination of Mangan’s sister and the young boy. we usually think that there are a lot of people there and perhaps it lasts all night.” (137). the train has no motivation to start its trip. the train moved out of the station slowly. it’s quite different in this picture. the life of Dubliners at that time is full of class struggle and religious conflict. so people’s life is full of tiredness and has nothing that motivate them to go ahead. “I took my seat in a thirdclass carriage of a deserted train. It crept onward among ruinous houses…” (124-126). The young boy in this story had a very long day of nervousness and waiting for money from his uncle to go to bazaar and after receiving money in angrily mood. The bazaar now looks like the silence of a church after everyone leaves.

Hopelessness is one word that used to describe not only the emotion of the boy.Now in the dark night the young boy doesn’t know what he should do next. by using his own words. 13 . also the general mood of Dubliners. implies a boring and somber life of Dubliners that he felt when he lived far away from his native city. James Joyce.

which the boy had to experience. The focus was on himself and how he felt about his friend’s sister. It is clear that the boy in Araby was passive. He worshiped and desired her.” (163) The character 14 . The boy fell for the girl. She haunted his him even he was not around her. The girl had a negative influence on him as she occupied his mind taking him away from his sleep and school work. and my eyes burned with anguish and anger. should also be taken into account. unreal and its only basis was in his feelings. His eyes were “often full of tears” (48). learned something about himself. In addition. it can be seen that the people at that time seemed to be pushed down by an invisible complex which was too sultry to pursue their desires and express their feelings. The narrator had different attitudes and reactions to the initiation experience. The type of initiation the main character had was a sad journey from innocence to knowledge and experience. In addition. It was not a mutual feeling and therefore may have destroyed what he felt for her. the initiation. He thought of her even in the oddest places like the market or in the classroom. She seemed to be a wonderful escape from the harsh and depressing realities that confront him. She became the light that contrasted the dark and gloomy mood that surrounded him. He followed her but never spoke. The boy. TRẦN ĐỨC MINH The girl whom he had a crush on was the sister of his friend who came at the doorstep to call her brother. Every morning he would peek through the crack in the parlor to watch the girl next door leave the house and walk to school. He was more aware of what he was doing. the boy’s pride which took over his feelings for the girl was destructive and almost destroyed him. The boy kept cherishing a unilateral love to a girl and dare not to bare his heart. He cried “O love! O love!” (59) in prayer to express his great love. then. To some extent. inactive and reflective about his passion. The reader learns of the boy’s initiation in the final sentence: “Gazing up into the darkness I saw myself as a creature driven and derided by vanity.IV. He learned that his love for the girl was one-sided.

NGUYỄN KIỀU TRANG From the very beginning of the story we get to know that the boy has a secret adoration for a girl. The boy nourishes a very deep and pure passion for his dream girl. He was in distress because he had stopped for a moment and gazed up into the darkness and realized that his previous feelings were wonderful but the only reality existed in his feelings. with frustrating consequences. since she is part of the familiar surroundings of the narrator’s street as 15 . He describes his condition in the following words: "I imagined that I bore the chalice safely through a throng of foes" (46). darkness and drab world”. This is the truth and universal. and he discovered that feelings must be reciprocated and the negative side that love can also be painful. "Araby is about dream. In real world. In “Araby”. He had a difficult time accepting his own weakness. The girl drew out feelings in him. She is the sister of his friend Mangan. James Joyce creates the real world. He waits every day to have a glimpse of the girl. His ideals of the girl were not realistic but were fruitless and vain. happiness. and then he rushes out to walk behind her quietly until finally passing her He cannot forget her name for a moment. He was controlled by his passion for Mangan’s older sister. displeasure. disappointment and realization about love and reality. realism. He thinks about her when he accompanies his aunt to do food shopping on Saturday evening in the busy marketplace and when he sits in the back room of his house alone.had a negative reaction to his new awareness. Mangan’s sister embodies this combination. He places himself in the front room of his house so he can see her leave her house. the allure of new love and distant places combines with the familiarity of everyday hard work. But the boy never gets the chance to speak with his lady-love because his infatuation is so intense that he fears he will never gather the courage to speak with the girl and express his feelings. He always carries the image of the girl. anguish and anger. each and every person has to face the inevitable frustration. It had no existence beyond how he felt and the understanding of this was painful for the character. With various symbolic characters. His realization caused him to have feelings of shame.

must compete with the dullness of schoolwork. it can be seen that the people at that time seemed to be pushed down by an invisible complex which was too sultry to pursue their desires and express their feelings. As an author he has presented his perception of social limitation and shows how those limitations are against the freedom of self-expression. The English novelist James Joyce is famous for his research into basic human behavior and strong insight into the natural activities that make a man. Through the short story “Araby” written by James Joyce. and the Dublin trains. he realizes that Mangan’s sister will fail his expectations as well. however. To some extent. and that his desire for her is actually only a vain wish for change. his love for the young girl is just his limitations and all of his actions and love are unilateral. Mangan’s sister symbolizes the unreachable dream the people of England had during the tough times and it can be seen further as individualism and isolation. that is gloomy and sultry life without motivation of Dubliners in 1890s. Especially. James Joyce has a clever purpose that he wants readers to draw from the story. these mundane realities erode his plans and ultimately end his desires. Generally speaking. Moreover. Mangan’s sister inspire the narrator with new feelings of joy and elation. Though he promises Mangan’s sister that he will go to Araby and purchase a gift for her. Fortunately. he is young and obviously his new conception of reality will allow him to repair what he is doing wrong: “Gazing up into darkness I saw myself as a creature driven and derided by vanity. As the bazaar closes down. Like the bazaar that offers experiences that differ from everyday Dublin. his uncle’s lateness. The young boy’s failure at the bazaar suggests that fulfillment and satisfaction remain foreign to Dubliners. He characteristically fights against the traditional notions to set a new trend of thought in his literary works. we can imagine a picture about life of a young boy who was submerged in darkness. even in the most unusual events of the city like an annual bazaar. 16 . From life and way of thinking of a young boy. stagnancy and a unilateral love.well as the exotic promise of the bazaar. and my eyes burned with anguish and anger” (164). His love for her.

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