HEW 1982










seeks to


the specialist

as wen

as the general reader with interest in this field of study. 'The picture portrays Tiberology's massive building in the typical Himalayan Architectural Style.

Editors: Or. A. C. Director Banerjee

Shri J. K. Rvchung, Deputy Director Shri B. GhOS!l Librarian



the' XVI



(1924 - 198/ A. D)

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la/For supply overseas (Including air postage) 11. .Price Rs. Tibet Road. Gangtok-737 J 01.50 (British Sterling) 1/82 Printed at B'joy Printers. Gangtok and published by the Director. Sikkim Research Institiute of Tibetology and other Buddhist Studies.

. Library of Tibetan Works and Archi- . H IN THIS ISSUE Institute of Taleyarkhan Governor of Sikkim/President Sikkim Research Tibetology and Other Buddhist Studies. Gangtok. S. M. Karma Lodro Chokyi Senge is one of the four Seat-Holders of the International Kagyu Dharma Chakra Centre. Sikkim. China. Shri Tashi Tshering. Dr. Hugh Edward Richardson Leading English speakin g specialist scholar in his lory and language of Tibet. Sikkim Research Other Buddhist Studies. Editor. A. Rumtek. Chhi Med Rig in Tibetan. Dharamsala.CONTRIBUTORS I. Mr. of F. Indo-Tibetan 8. His Eminence Jamgon Kongtrul Rinpoche The third reincarnation of Palpung. 4. Government College. Sikkim. Gtam-Tshogs. India and Tibet. S. F. Reader and Studies. Held diplomatic post at Lhasa and Chungking. Ph. Director. 2. R. Gangtok. Visva-Bharati. A. Gangtok. B. H. spent more than two decades in Asia. Kham. LL. (London). 3. Shri Bhajagovinda Ghosh Institute of Tibetology and Librarian.. A. Gangtok. D. Anukul Chandra Banerjee. ves. 5.. Dzin Lama Head of the Santinike tan. 6. Department of West Bengal. Acarya Ringu Tulku Lecturer 7. Sikkim Research Institute Tiberology and Other Buddhist Studies. Sikkim. His Excellency Shri Homi J. P.


who was closely associated with the Institute and contributed immensely towards its development. This IS the first issue of the quarterly journal (January--March. it has been carrying on its eventful existence as one of the leading Journals on Tibetology and Buddhism. Central Asian and Indological Studies. the XVI Gyalwa Karrnapa. 1982).PREFACE Since the inception of the Bulletin of Tibetology. It was decided that this issue should be published as a Karrnapa Commemoration Volume to immortalize the sacred memory of H. It has now a fair circulation in India and abroad. Learned papers from the pens of distinguished writers on a variety of subjects have been featuring in the pages of this Journal. SRITOBS which two are written in there and a IS further an account of the functions Jist of books published so far. It covers a wide range of subjects dealing with Tibetology. and Dr. Its popularity has gained prominence so much so that enquiries and demand for the Journal have been constantly pouring in. This issue contains eight articles of Tibetan with their outlines In English. Sikkirn Research Institute Studies. more than a decade and half years back. Those activities of apart. Anukul Chandra Banerjee Director. of Tibetology & Other Buddhist Gangtok . H.


H. 5. Shri C. Ghosh Six Yogas of Naropa Acarya Ringu Tulku 35 40 6. R. Memories of Tshurphu Mr. H. HCHANG . Richardson The XVI th Gyalwa Karmapa-xHis divine personality Shri B.TSHA-MED-PA-LAS-CHU -THIG TSAM-GYI-SA-BON-BZHUGS-SO.CONTENTS ENGLISH 1.DRUG-PACHEN . 19-54 9.POHI-PHYI-YI-RNAM-THAR-RGYAMCH O-L T AR. I-IX X-XIV of SRITOBS . the Gyalwa Karrnapa HJIG-RTEN-DBANG-PHYOG-MTHING-MDOGCOD-PAN. H. Rang J ung Rigpai Dorjee the XVIth Karmapa. 10. Shri Tashi T shering Functions Publications and Activities of SRITOBS 1-18 8. Taleyarkhan Life Story of His Holiness The XVIth Gyalwa Karrnapa His Eminence Jamgon The Kargyupa Sect Dr. The Godliness of Buddhism His Excellency Homi PAGE J. Anukul Chandra Kongtrul Banerjee Rinpoche 6 22 31 3. A brief History of Karrnapa and Prayer for the rapid reincarnation of H. TIBETAN 7. 4. 2. Lama A brief Biography of H. H. E.BA-BCU .


way of religious thinking because Buddha believed in the universality of religion. I say. But I know something about the misery of man". The new born infant suddenly spoke and said. . It is said that when he was born "light flooded the world. The maimed ran. Never use force. Never indulge in violence. All sorts of legends are woven round the life of Buddha. He was not born with one in his mouth. This is my last birth. was the formula Lord Buddha gave to his followers forbidding them to convert people to his way of religious thinking except by using the weapon of persuasive language. "I know nothing about the mystery of God. "If 1 cannot c mvince you.The Godliness of Buddhism H. Henceforward. I must not convict you". there will be no more births for me". the Almighty. in compassion and consideration for all and in the invincibility of gentleness. Taleyarkhan Governor of Sikkim] President: SRTTO BS. integrity. Both preached and practised simplicity. H. The only difference between Mahatma Gandhi and the Buddha was that while the one firmly believed in the existence of God. The deaf heard. It was the sight of this misery that converted Buddha from a prince to a pauper. Homi J. Gandhiji had no silver spoon to cast away. Nearly twenty six centuries later. the other said.the contemporary saint. He had begun and ended his life in simplicity and humility ani hid su ffcred untold hu -niliarions in the service of suffering humanity. E. The blind suddenly saw. Mahatma Gandhi preached the same creed. unity and equality for all mankind. Both believed in piety and pity. Both believed in the power of good over evil.

Buddhism was born in our country and spread to various parts of the world.and how to relieve it. He never admitted. was full of extraordinary i ntellectual genius borne of discovery for every ancient civilization. He never. The belief that all gods. That has also been the line of pious thinking and action and sacrifices of all Prophets. "There is only one God. 2 . Buddha never d. toa'k Him roots". far flung in their spread but never far fetched in their beliefs. India began to bet~~Qsforrned then from a country believing in' hatunil forces into nation justly famed for its COncern with deep rooted religious understanding. it.. the Sixth Century B. Indian philosophers had put the same question and their finding made India the centrepiece of religious act ivity in the world. people and all things are different manifestations of th~ Ole Spirit 'that pervades the Universe. Buddhism and laid the foundations of other religions. those who had faith. ali. Commentaries on the Rigvedas became world famous as the Upanishads in 700 B. Anaximander and Herclitus in Greece. Zoroaster said. in Him.The century in which he was born. It founded Jainism. the nature of the . To this day that ancient reputation we acquired adheres and has directed our action through so mariy vicissitudes through which our great country has passed. disrespected. The Guiding hand has always been there to correct our course wherever arid whenever we had strayed.eniedthe existence of God.' a' Lord Buddha was one of those forces.C. Buddha was born in IQdia~ Zoroaster in Persia. The Rigvedas were the most ancierit religious scriptures way back in the second millenium B. India's religious' frontiers wentbeyond the sacred scriptures.C. "mankind had a choice between Truth and Evil-a choice each must decide for himself". Confucius in China. They probed right into the heart of things. universe and of the human soul. Buddha concerned himself with the sufferingof humanity.C. 'Our' Upanishads preached.

But he rejected after some years of the practice of severe ascetisrn which re~uced him to' al~ost ~skeietan. he tald his anxious disciples as he approached "the blessed silence of peace". did not admit and did not deny thep~esence of God.end of life" as they came to the corpse.plunged into the lonely woods in search of Truth which he found at the age of 35. 3 . Yet aut of sheer 'f(!~erence far him they' insist-on doing so and he cannot prevent them. W.I~ was succession of sights of such human suffering. The . Kusinagar at the aze of eighty.. is the way of life and this is the . he began to preach his new faith in . Be-tree . the Prince then as Buddha was till abaut the age of 29. the Ward is ended". shed his royal robes almost there and then made him go. He resumed normal but frugal ways of living and spread "the knowledge of life" from place to. Buddha himself had never desired to. into.repeatedly said.even among the living.. Yet he was. never wanted to be deified.. however much he says he is merely the interpreter of God. It made the young Siddhartha Sakyamuni Gautarna. Sai Baba today has .followers shauld not so address him.-the tree of enlightenment. my lord. deep meditatian. ~nother suffel'iiig· from leprosy. a third dead. a begging bowl. But not in his wildest dream "De> could even Buddha have kno~Q then what turn his Word was destined to take. like in the case of so many other religious Ieaders . place. that changed the course of his life and perhaps one facet of the course of history. . His Charioteer Channa told his lard. not \hink because your Teacher is gone. be so considered. gathering ever increasiqg numbe~of followers in the wake of his wanderings. such practices which according to him did not lead to salvation.Benaras waudering from place to place like" a pauper with. And from then on. He left his royal f~ther. the god of a new religion. the king. Dying at.great religiaus teacher who. "this. He found it under a.lS to became virtually a god unto himself.his beautiful wife and son and. a man broken by old age. he is not Bhagwan and' his .

Buddha's counsel was "Do good for its own sake and for the good of your own spiritual peace' '. the respectability of the name he gave them.the voluptuary passion of a prince and the self-mortification of the Hermit. When he rose at dawn. He said that "as rain breaks down upon an ill-thatched hut. Shunning the concept of personal immortality which has been eventually thrust on him. "the Heaven of Peace" 4 . the Right means of livelih ) id. the Right Effort. It proclaimed the famed Four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path-the Right Understanding. That became his most enduring sermon. until at last it melts into the universal flame of immortal life". ranging from Brahmins to the untouchables. an evil which even today.In the case of Buddha after he left the sadhus creed of superstitions and rituals which divided the people into social castes. inspite of all the exhortations and teachings of Mahatma Gandhi and his living along with the Harijans. After numerous experiences and experiments. he sat struggling in the suspense of doubt and loneliness. He had found that both King and Hermit were wrong. the Right Speech. but Buddha the Enlightened. he was no longer Gautama the sceptic. it still painfully persists in our society. the Right Awareness. the Right Behaviour. he had tried both the extreme of passion . when suddenly a great peace descended on him. the Right Purpose. He preached his first sermon in Benaras before an audience of five. the Right Meditation which means pondering on Truth till Salvation comes. He told his f rllowers that in his Search for Truth. so also passion breaks down upon an untrained mind". And that he had discovered the famous MIDDLE PATH which opens the eye and b estows understanding which leads to peace of mind and to the higher wisdom and finally to full Enlightenment. he preached that he who subordinates his little personal self to the larger interests of humanity is ready at last to end his long pilgrimage from life to life by attaining Nirvana of eternal rest. he taught his disciples that each living soul was "like a torch whose flame was handed down in turn to another torch and so on through the ages.

Buddha.Buddha and Mahatma Gandhi both preached tolerance. Indira Gandhi. I am sure it will mak : a distinguished contribution house of Buddhist thought and literature. to his father and his wife. respect for all men of all races and of all creeds. After its foundation stone was laid by Dalai Lama. they turned towards his creed. Both taught self-control against self-indulgence and repaying hatred with kindliness. Mongolia. "the knighthood of hateless chivalry". keeping forbearance in the forefront. The most outstanding monument of Buddha's life and work is the great Stup 1 at Sanchi built in the first century A D. including his son Rahula who also took the begging bowl from his father's hand. who never lost her faith in him through all the years. the Institute was inaugurated by Pandit Jawahlrlal Nehru who w-. containing articles by renowned scholars of Buddhism on the various aspects of Buddha's teachings. volume is being brought out. Japan and many other countries to become one of the world's great religions which believed in the goodness preached by all other religions.s a keen student. In the evening of his life when he returned to his royal home. It depicts all his teachings. Both taught the heroism of suffering without inflicting pain and the courage of dying without killing. scholar and admirer of Buddhism. to the vast store- In honour of the occasion. Both showed the power of love in an endeavour to flush the world with love. respect for all creeds. a special commemorative. of which the one in Sikkim is perhaps the most renowned and famous. The Institute is on the eve of completing twentyfive years on which occasion Mrs. our revered Prime Minister will be coming to Gangtok to inaugurate its Celebrations. . so many interpretations given by so many scholars all over the world. Buddhism passed beyond India's border into Tibet. There have been so much research on his teachings. China. There are many Institutes of Tibetology in different parts of the world. after they got over the initial shock of seeing their beloved son and husband in a monk's smock and ematiated in appearance and physique. Korea.

branched out His Buddha activity to encompass the entire world. Thub..le. on the full moon day of the sixth m mth of the year of the Wood Mouse (1923 A. Rang. China. 6 . He was born in an aristocratic family named Ah. His Holiness the XVIth Gyalwa Karmapa.Chos. was barn at Den. chooses to take rebirth in this dark age in order to subdue the sufferings of sentient beings . Chen. Early life and dbang. the Karrnapa in the Ah. Dharma activites of H.r. rD s. to the Fifteenth Karmapa.Kyi.gsum. Acting on his advice. who continually take Iebirth for the benefit of all beings-c-whose name. recognition of bZang.Pae'. who.recognizing.). D.Bu. Karmapa. Dus. From the First Karrnapa. H. and his mother's name was Kal. sPrul. Sikkim and Bhutan. His Holines.the mother had given birth in the nearby cave of Padmasambhava.Pa. is as renowned as the sun and moon. 'the birth of a great bodhisattva H. 'byung.lDan. though having attained supreme enlightenment.Chos.head of the famous rNying.Life Story of His Holiness the XVI Gyalwa Karmapa Venerable Jamgon Kongtrul Rinpoche The embodiment of all the enlightened activity of the Buddhas of the three times.sK~. rJe.in Khams. near the river Yangtse. called the "Lion Sky Castle".Khok .Thub family had been previously predicted by rDzogs.Nor.Chen.rJe. Khyab.H. Rig. out of His limitless compassion.the supreme lineage of tulkus.mkhyen. rDo. His father's name was Tshe. they ha~e performed their Dharma activities principally in Tibet.Ma Monastery of rDzogs. mKha. Karmapa Mongolia. self .rDo.

Che.Kong. of dPal.mGon.Po.Phyug. Phu. His Holinesswas welcomed by dPal sPungs.Che. Che then invited Him to visit dPal. and 'Jam. Rin. Two month~ later.Rin.Tu. His Holiness stayed with His family for several years.Pad.Tu.Rin. A search party was sent.Rin.Phu to Khams for Him.sPrul. he received the lay ordination from Si. hKa'. Lay ordination of Po. and the child was speedily recognized to be the Sixteenth Karrnapa incarnation. and then returned the next.Tu.sPungs Monastery.Before the child's birth He disappeared entirely from the womb for one whole day.P6. the party visited Nyen. many guineapigs were presented to held for first time Him as pets. When He was seven years old.Po-Che. set out for m'I'shur. in the main shrine of the Monastery. 7 . Along the way. Si. an environment symbolically dedicated to the energy of the Karma. accompanied by a monastic camp of a thousand people.inGon.sPrul. His Holiness performed the VajraCrownceremony for the first time in His lifetime at Gyi.Po.Thang-Lha. Tshab. Ri~.rGyal.Che.Phu. and four days later.Rin. His Holiness was given a great welcome there. On His subsequent arrival at mTshur. Si. On: the actual night of His birth.Na.sPungs.bo. the atmosphere was charged with portents.H.. he was enthroned by Si. After this auspicious event. Che and rGyal.Che. His Holiness and Si Tu.dbang.po opened the previous Karmapa's letter of prediction and discovered therein a detailed description of the house in which His Holiness' parents dwelt.' Jam. Rin-Po. which everybody in the locality could sense. Rin. His Holiness' love of animals was very evident on this long Vajra Crown ceremony journey and.Gang.Ma. 'and a year later the Vajra the H. Chen. brGyud tradition.Po. Shortly thereafter.Kong.Che.Tu. Karmapa Crown and the robes of the Karmapa were brought from Situ Rimpoche from mTshur.dPa.Po.

ories of His previous lives to His guru. He had memorized the entire contents of the Kagyur. After His return to mTshur. po. His Holiness asked for some water in which to wash Himself. Subsequently. His Holiness related the st. Po. Chen area. dbang. Tu. the Karmapa's eney.H. His Holiness Visited Ilis Holiness the Thirteenth Da.After a short period of time. Journey to Khams Gyur.ma perceived the Vajra Crown. in Lha. Rin. On the journey many highly symbolic events took place which conveyed the inspiration of Karmapa's energy. Rin. and 'brug.Rin. Zhung. 8 . gTen.Rin. De. Cho.Sa.Phu. rGya. Rin.rGya. During this visit. was When His Holiness finally arrived at dPal. His Holiness and His entourage set out Khams. Second golden woven from the hair of one hundred thousand throne ceremony dakinis above His Holiness Karmapa's head. it started to rain and a spring came up under the wash tub. His Holiness studied with Kang.dKar. Mi. For the next four Study of scriptures years. SLTu. Kyi. and also numbered among his students the most profound Sa. sPungs monastery. on a journey to De rGe to visit Si. bSam. His Holiness was given a second golden throne ceremony by Si. Rin.mTso. the. Thub. He welcomed by Si.Pa. Ma. Che. mTsho requested His Holiness to bring an end to the drought that was afflicting the monastery. As He bathed. Che. Che. There bLa. Po. In response. Po.Ram.nineteenth century Ba. In 1937.Po.bsTan. bKa' brCyud master. Che. Che. Tu. Rin. Po.Po. Che.lai bLa. While studying with Kang. Rin. dKar. in the Nang. Che. Pham. gLing. Tu. Po.sKya contemporary scholar.po.ma. Chen. the Dalai bLa. who was acclaimed as the greatest bKa. brGyud scholar of the time. On this jourH. His Holiness visited the monastery of mChog.

where. Phung monastery. Po. Che left their footprints on stone. Med scholar. Che. Kong. mGon.win ~ year. ). spungs. Phu. Pa. firstly to bSam. For the next three years. gSum. Shes.. His Holiness received the emp )wennents. rDo. mDzod. sNgags. H. Chen. his guru instructed Him in the r Gya. rJe. he saw His Holiness in the form of Dus. while outside the temple. the aged Si. Phu. received full ordination as a monk from si. Tu. Kun . At the D7. po. the Vajra Crown ceremony.' brGyud. pilgrimage to Sarnye on which the Dharmapala prithavapati was seated.Che instructed His Holiness in 'Jam. Chen monastery. Rin.r». Rin. D. the home of Mar. Po. In addition. Rin.ck to rn'Tshur . Pa. m'I'ha. After a journey lasting eleven months. Rin. then twentythree years H. bLo 'gros. In the ninth month of tile y~ar of the Iron Dragon (1940 A. His Holiness' dog and horse also left clear footprints on the rock. wa. That same year His Holiness visited Bhutan at the request of His Majesty the King. Kong. br I'se. b Ka. grol collection 9 . dbang. He visited Ben. br I'se. Che travelled to mTshur. La. In addition. Vas monastery and then on to Lho. sprul. Jigs. Ngag. He performed the Vajra Crown ceremony several times and gave many empowD rments. bKa: mDzod collection of 'Jam mGon. m Khyen.Po. the First Karm ipa. His Holiness entered into intensive practice. mKhyen. sKya tradition. transmissions and instructions of the collected spiritual practices of the Sa.Che envisaged the spiritual form of the Vajra Crown floating about eighteen inches above His Holiness' head. the great Ris. phu to give further teachings to his Full ordination of spiritual son. a statue of the horse His Holiness' back Journey to Tshurphu. In 1944 He went on pilgrimage. 01 His return to d l'al. gSa\' monastery gtos. His Holiness performed Kvi. Tsa. began to neigh. bLo.0ng. m Tha. bLo. During His stay. on His arrival. while new construction work was carried out on the monastery. mDzod and gDams. 'Vas's profound works. Med. In the flll . -prul. On the way. Chos. His Holiness and His entourage reached mTshur. of mKhyen. His Holiness began the journey ba. His Holiness and Si. Phyug. gros. His Holiness. Tu. brags. Karrnapa old. On a visit to sPan~. Vas and the gOg.

the site of Sakyarnuni's first sermon. Finally. D.Pa's teaching. H. In the fourth month »f the year of the Fire Pig (1947 A. Che. Pad. rGyan. sPrul. To celebrate His Holiness' mastery of Mahamudra . mGon.. Po. Chen. His H ilinese and His party arrived back in rn'I'shur. H. His Holiness journeyed to Western Tibet and from there into India and Sikkirn. 'Jam. Che.of th : Ninth Karrnapa. Po. the place of his enlightenment. Pa. Konf. From O. At the invitation of the Chos. Phu passed through the area of Mount Kailasa and Lake Manassarovar. Ma. Chog'Gyur. India. Tu. Che and Si. This teaching has in fact exerted a p rwerful influence on both the bKa. the birthplace of the Sakyamuni Buddha.nplete empowerments and transmissions of gTer. sPrul. gLing. sKu. and Bodhgaya.{. which is a sixtythree instrnctions on Mahavolume collection of rNying. Many white snakes appeared on the surface of the Rewalsar lake and this was regarded as a very auspicious event. Nepal werments. Phu. Po. rGyal. Kong. Ma) in North west India. Phu and give Him further teachings.). mGon. rGyal of Sikkim. In Nepal He performed the Vajra Crown ceremony and gave His blessings to the people. Shis. Rin. Kongtrul Rinpoche His H rllness received the transmission of the lineage from 'Jam. His H ilincss received the co. SPIU!. r Narn. gTer. The long journey back to mTshur.).' brGyud and rNying. sPrul. mDzod. D. sPungs to come to m Tshur. gTer. po. His Holiness then travelled to Re valsar (mTsho. At the completion of His studies. bKra. His Holiness invited 'J srn mGon. which is sacred to Guru Padrnasambhava. Ma mudra and six Yogas texts. of dPal. Rin. Ma traditions in the modern period. His Holiness visited Gangtok where He p erforrn ed th ~ Vajra Crown ceremony and gave empoH. dbang. rDo. in the eleventh month of the year of the Earth Rat (1948 A. Rin. Rin. Phyug. s'Ton. Kong. 10 . and instructions in Mahamudra and the Six of Naropa from Jamgon Yogas of Naropa.: also visited Varanasi. His Holiness then travelled to Lumbini.'s Journey to W 'stern Tibet. Che gave Him Karrnapa received the Rin. rJe.

Tu. Po. Ma teaching to sMin. Pa's gTer. in which he praised Him as a perfect holder of the Maharnudra lineage. Che at dPal. Ma. and the heads of the other Tibetan religious traditions. He was able to send a letter to dPal. Chen. Po Che. Rin.hKa. On the return journey. gLing. grol. mChog. Rin. Kong. In 1956. 'Jam. Ma.Ch')s.the Dalai to give the empowerment of the one thousand Lama's visit armed Avalokitesvara. gLing. 'Gyur. sPrul. Che's incarnation. the Dalai bLa to Tshurphu Ma asked His Holiness to perform the ceremony of the Vajra Crown. to receive ernpowerrnents and teachings . His Holiness Karmapa accepted the invitation and together with the rest of the party. phu. together with other notaries. the Chinese authorities in Peking invited His Holiness the Fourteenth Dalai bLa. His Holiness formally enthroned the new Si. In 1953. His Holiness supervised the construction of a residence for the Dalai bLa. Pa. Po. Ma of the rNying. Padmasarnbhava dance was also held in his honour. 'brGyud Monastry. Rin. Karmapa's visit travelled to Peking. dPungs describing the where-abouts of Si. Ma tradition. He '!ave teachings and the also II . Po. sPungs. Tu.Chen. In 1954. to visit Peking and other parts of China.bDe.' brGyud bLa.'Khor. His Holiness reto China ceived a visionary intimation from Mahakala indicating the circumstances of the rebirth of Si. Following His return to mTshur. who as head of the important sMin. Chung. Po. . Che. whom He invited to visit. Rin. The Dalai bLa. sPungs.dPal. and he was requested H. His H oliness gave the ernpowerrnents and transmission of bDe. His Holiness visited 'brug. A ritual. grol. mGon. while He travelled.H. Che composed a poem. Rin. Tu.gling' principal 'brugs. In return. Ma and his entourage were greeted with great festivities. gLing monastery was in effect the senior hLa. While there. Many bKa. Mas and students came to His Holiness.

Po. and the venerable mediCentral Tibet. 'Jam. which deals with Maha H. Karrnapa recei yes instructions Ati Yogas. Po.H. saying that He could be coming to it in the f. rethe Ninth Sangs. rGyas. Chen. Po. Che.performed Karmapa's a pUIification pilgrimage of to India during 2500th Anniversary Buddha's Parinirvana rte. Karmapa came to mTshur. Chen. However. to Bhutan.Che. His H iliness Himself decided not to leave at that time.Che.Rin.Shis.b Kra.sPungs. Phu early in 1957.Che His Holiness Himself received the transmissions and teachings of the kLong.sPruI. His Holiness declined the invitation. the profound seven-volume work of kLong. br Gyud. During this time. Phu.Che incarnation and the new dPa1. Rin. which had b ien established during the lifetime of the Ninth Karrnapa. serious hostilities had broken out again in Khams. Conflict spread in sNyan. H.bTeg Monastry in Sikkim. sPru!' Rin.H. Pa.i ture. His Holiness recognized the Twelfth rGyal. saying that Inexorably. where He again met the Chos. both of whom by H.nNarn. stayed in Tibet The young dPal sPungs. Lu. tation master Ka. A stream of refugees was pouring into Central Tibet. Pa. bDun.Rin.Rin. His Holiness was asked to visit Rum. H. Tshab.mG)n.1m. Rin. mGon. Rin. Kong. Rin. Gyal. po. So.a. b l.Che.Chen. From Ze. Tu.'Du.Po. Che. Sangs. Che. rGyas. was sent to Kalimpong in India to stay to assist the refugees with his family. Among these refugees were many bKa.sf'rul.. However.Tu. When His Holiness returned to m Tsur. Kong. Pa.Kong. when He had need of it. the conflict spread from Khams into Central Tibet. wealthy merchants. His Holiness and His party extended their journey into India and Nepal where they visited all the sacred places of pilgrimage. The year 1956 was celebrated world-wide as the twothousand fivehundredth anniversary of Lord Bu ldha's Pari nirvana. Mas such as Trouble in Tibet. the Sa.r Gyal. cognition of Rinpoches and the Twelfth Si. sNyan. His Holiness sent Si. 'j.Po.Po. Che. From there He travelled to Sikkim. 12 .Po. During this journey. Po. mDzod.Rin.

As all the successive Karmapas had been the head glarnas of the Kings of Bhutan and Sikkim. Khyab. and His Majesty the Sikkim and Covt.Phu until the last possible moment to render assistance to the refugees. Jigs.Po. the Twelfth r Gya l. Sikkim. Realizing that He must leave Tibet then.He would come to Bhutan if the situation deteriorated It was His intention to stay behind at mTshur.Po. His Holiness informed the Dalai b La. between the Chinese People's Liberation Army and the Khams. rJe.Pa refugee forces were now raging throughout Tibet. Po.Rin. H. Che.Shis.Mo. dMar.Chen. rOo. H.d Pon.). in the middle of the fourth night of the year or lite Earth Pig (1959 A. rnKha'. escaped Phu. With His Holiness were the Thirteenth Zhwa. rje. of King of Bhutan. together with a party of one hundred and sixty people. The hostilities Subsequently. dbang. His Holiness. Rin. rGyal of Kings of Bhutan. dressed in lay clothing.Narn. Rin.rGyal. lefe mTshur. and the saintly fourth consort of the Fifteenth Karrnapa. 13 . The party included incarnate bLa. Med.Mas who were fleeing Tibet. And thus the Chos.a. The Government of India also extended an official invitation to His Holiness. to followers to take up residence in their respective take up residence countries. rOo. they always enjoyed a close Dharma connection.Che. mKha.Che. the meditation master grub.ma of His plans. in order to help preserve Buddhadharma. The party's escape route lay over the Himalayas into Bhutan.D.Ma and all the eminent bLa. His Holiness saw that the ancient Buddhist Karmapa's decision culture of Tibet was about to be extinguished like to leave Tibet the light of a lamp. Phyug India extended inviextended their invitations to His Holiness and His tations to H. bKra. as they had made preparations for receiving and resettlement for His Holiness the Dalai bf.' gro.Mas.H. monks into Bhutan and lay people.bs'Tan 'Dzin.Tshab.

such as.sPrul.mGon. at the instruction of His Holiness.rnTha'Yas cornmDzod. He gave numerous empowennents. collections of 'Jam. Canada. The establishment 14 . and having H. His Holiness blessed Rum. brGyud monasteries and Dharma Centres in various countries -throughout the world. And thus.known as Shedrup Chokhor Ling. Asia and Australia. are just a few philosophy and retreat of the many Dharma activities which His Holiness accomplished. His Holiness initiated the building of the root monastery of bKa'. bTeg as the main centre for the re-establishment of the Precious Dharma. of an Institute for the study of Buddhist philosophy.H. providing their material needs as well transmissions as their spiritual need. The Chos. and gDams. and teachings on the bKa. 'gros. prising 13 volumes. initaited construc. sNgags.Kong.' brGyud. Europe.rGyal of Sikkim offered 74 acres of land at Rum. and founding of a retreat Establishment of centre for the practice of meditation on Mahamucentres for Buddhist dra and the Six Yogas of Naropa.b'Teg to His Holiness.sNgags.' was the ideal place for the preservation of .However. His Holiness perceived that Sikkim.the precious and noble Dharma. Sutra and Tantra. Upon His arrival in Sikkim. to take residence monks and lay disciples. H. The construction tion of Kagyu Shedr up commenced in 1963 and was completed in 1967. Venn able Chogyam Trungpa Rinpoche. He proceeded to Sikkim. More than 250 tulkus. tulkus. In recent years.bLo. America. 's decision gathered together more than 500 followers. and performed many Vajra Crown ceremonies. in His perfect wisdom.mDzod. the 'holy land of Guru Padrnasambhava. Venerable Kalu Rinpoche and 3UO Dharma Chakra numerous tulkus and lamas have gone abroad to Centres throughout elucidate the teachings and presently there are more world than 300 bKa'. lamas and monks are consChokhor Ling at tantly engaged with performing pujas there in the Rumtek traditional manner for the flourishing of the Dharrna and the benefit of all limitless Mother sentient beings.H. His Holiness cared in Sikkim (India) for them all. 'orGyud tradition' the Main Seat.

grol. H. At the same lime. If) . Shes. His HoliH. Installation of thouthe making of one thousand Buddha statues of sand Buddha images clay with gold-plating. His Holiness conferred the empowerment. transmission and teachings on rGya. the Shri Karmaregions raja Mahavihara monastery at Swayambhunath was particularly blessed. His Holiness visited at the request of King all parts of the country imparting blessings. His Holiness visited all the monasteries of Nepal. Tashi Chholing Dzong in Bumthang and Kunga Rabten Dzong were offered to His Holiness by the Late King. bTeg monastery. Kong sPrul.Kun. and on Mahamudra and the Six Yogas of Naropa. transmission of the Six-Syllable Mantra. His Majesty Jigs. Phyug. and empowerments and teachings according to the needs and requests of the people. 8 inches in height. at the request of many tulkus and lamas of and transmission of all sects. the Late King of Bhutan. to house more than 300 monks. His Holiness completed the unfinished Dharma activities for the Rum. Later. mGon. Rje. the main teachings of the bKa' brGyud Tradition. each at Rurntek Monastery consecrated and containing a precious bone relic of Lord Sakyamuni Buddha. extended a yearly invitation to His Holiness H. refuge vows. transmissions and teateries of Himalayan chings. bKa' Kagyud doctrine mDzod. as His Holiness arranged for its complete renovation and refurnishing. Ladakh and the Himalayan region. which continued for three months. During His visit to Nepal. such as. Hv's visited Bhutan to visit and bless his country. and gChig. There monastery in Bhutan afrer. Med. His Holiness constructed a large monastery at TashiConstruction of chhohng. Also. r Do. Che.At the request of the devoted benefactors and followers. visit to monasness gave empowerments. a collection of the Ninth Karmapa. For the benefit of all. a collection of the First 'Jam. These statues are the main devotional objects in the monastery. and at his request. dbang.

bestowing teachings and instructions for the future at each Centre. Dr. Subsequently.H. from the Dharma tour. at the 16 . staying for several days. and Mrs C.A. one of the States of America. otfered to His Holiness 400 acres of land in the vicinity of New York for the construcDonation of lands in U. Kagyu Trust abroad England and France according to the laws of the respective countries. While in France.H. the Hopi Indians were most grateful to His Holiness for perfoming the miracle of bringing rain to the parched land. retreat centres and institutes are already in progress. The concerned governments showed a great deal of devoted interest and respect to His Holiness' project and also gave their full recognition and co-operations. T. a disciple in France for construction of offered a 500 acre plot of land In accordance with monasteries the wishes of His Holiness. In order to facilitate the monastery construction projects and to unify and strengthen the existing Centres. H. the various works for the establishment of these monasteries.invitations received from various Dharma Centres. His Holiness went abroad for the first time. and France tions of a monastery. afflicted by a drought.S. During His five-month tour. His Holiness Setting up of Karma set up Karma Kagyu Trusts in America. His Holiness took up the project of printing some one hundred very rare Printing of Kagyud text texts. His Holiness received an invitation from Pope John the XXIIlrd to visit Rome. these precious texts have become the indispensible objects of devotion for all benefactors. during which at the invitation time He discussed with the Pontiff the establishof Pope John ment of harmony among all world religions. and Derge Kagyud tion. monks and lay people. commentaries of the bKa' brGyud Tradi. His Holiness visited America. and printed 500 sets of the 'Derge Edition' of the Kangyur in 102 volumes.'s visit to Dharma Chakra Centres abroad Canada and Europe. His Holiness visited H. wealthy and devoted Buddhists and residents of America. Soon after returning In 1974. Shen.'s visit to Vatican the Vatican. During bestowing teachings His Holiness' visit to Arizona. Similarly. Canada. making it available to all monasteries and libraries irrespective of sects.

His Holiness consecrated the newly founded Ka-Nying Shedrup Ling monastery and gave teachings to tulkus. During this visit. of India of India had made all necessary arrangements for His Holiness' stay in New Delhi. His Holiness had a meeting with the Prime Minister. Canada and Europe. His Holiness paid a visit to Nepal at the requests of various monasteries Construction of KaNying-Shedrup Ling Monastery in Nepal Birendra. wed many teachings and performed the Vajra Crown ceremony. Upon arrival. His Holiness number of monasteries. proceeding to the Centres which He had established in southeast Asia. and returned to India by way of Lumbini.In 1976. His Holiness returned Renovation of Calcutta Monastery to Inida. At the end of 1978. Maharaja was present for the opening ceremony of the monastery. to instruct and guide the many disciples along the Path of Dharma. the Capital of the country. At the He initiated the establishment of some twenty new Dharma the consecration ceremonies for the construction of Centres and performed several monasteries. His Majesty the King of Nepal. and His requested the King to take the monasteries and Dharma people under his government's protection and assistance. Holiness of Nepal visited a there. His Holiness bestoH. besides fullfilling the various other spiritual needs of the individual disciples. Shrimati Indira Gandhi. at which time the Government of India expressed its willingness to offer a plot of land in New Delhi to His Holiof a mo nastery. America.'s second visit abroad same time. H. His Holiness made His second international Dharma tour. 17 . The Government Donation of a plot of land in New Delhi by Govt. His Holiness began renovation of the Calcutta Monastery and sent 30 Lamas abroad as resident teachers for Centres. nels for the construction In 1977. lamas and lay people numbering over 100 for an entire month.

B. And subsein Tibet quantly. Percy of IIIinosi and his family arranged a luncheon in honour and devotion to His Holiness at the Capital Building. In a speech to the official dignitaries. His Holiness spoke extensively on the Dharma and on world peace and happiness. for examination and treatment. Seat. and the Government expressed in a !etter its gratitude to His Holiness for coming to the country. Shri Neelam Sanjiva Reddy. At the request of His Exccellency the President and His Excellency Sudden illness and the Former Governor of Sikkirn. Comprehensive treatment was offered and within a month's a time His Holiness had fully recovered. Hi8 Holiness was admitted in to All India Institute of Medical Science. Senator Charles H. A hearty welcome was extended to His Holiness upon His arrival in Washington. recovery of H. the Capital of America. point in time. and gradually was able to visit all the World 'four Centres and universities which had extended invitations. La).In 1979. His Holiness recognized thirtytwo. D C. laid the cornerstone of Karmae Dharma Chakra Centre. due to the liberalization policies of the Chinese Government. Rumtek. H. H.'s Third check-up. At that In 1980. the Government of India gave official confirmation of the alIotment of land for the construction of the New Laying of corner stone Delhi Monastery. IR . His Holiness became suddenly ill. He was admitted in to several world-renowned hospitals for H. Request by Tibetan Many people in Tibet requested His Holiness to in Tibet to recogise recognize the rebirths of the tulkus who had passed incarnate Lama away in Tibet over the past 20 years. Thereafter. And on 28th November 1979. Above all. His Holiness made His Third World Dharma Tour. Shortly thereafter. His Holiness and His Excellency the President of India. He returned to His Main. in the presence of the Honourable Vice President of Dharma Chakra Centre in Delhi of India and host of other government officials and dignitaries and devoted benefactors. New Delhi. Shri B. communication was opened with Tibet.

future reincarnation and that in the near future. His Holiness did not say clearly that He' wculd stay on. H. afterwhich the Precious sKu. and approximately 500 tulkus.'s prediction for that impermanence might strike at any moment. His Holiness went on for treatment. His Holiness gave the impression that He would not stay Oil for long.as per the request of the Hong Kong Buddhist Association. hundred and thousands of people blesssings and pay their tribute carne t" ITCf'IVe to the Precious The Government Thousands of people paid tribute to the precious mortal remain the noble qualities sKu. 1981. lamas and monks performed the 49-day pujas. During this time. He remained in sarnadhi tor three days. However. He established a new Tibetan Dharma After Centre in Hong His return Kong. and often in His conversations he mentioned H. eventually. The holy cremation ceremony was performed on 20th Decernbr-r . H. At that time the great multitude had the blessed opportunity of witnessing the miraculous signs which expressed of His Holiness. offii cd their dhatu Samadhi treatment. Holiness caused His body to weaken in order to demonstrate impermanence for the benefit of all. His Holiness (hose to leave His body and passed to the Dharmadhatu. and provided Proceeded Hong Kong a physician to acompany Him.b'Teg. Chicago. Zion. Illinois. He would return as a small child and at that time He should be well looked after. but only agreed to go for treatment. where the American Internal ional passed to DharmaClinic. Later. His Holiness began preparing new small robes. to America. the Living Buddha. Ho's visit to understanding among the various Buddhist tradi Hong Kong tions existing there. And at the persistent reqllesl~ of mall> benefactors from all walks of life. He proceeded to Hong Kong for medical treatment. to India. However.i. H. gDung. 11. Later. invoked and 19 . at the advice of a Hong Kong doctor. g Dung was transported to Rum. of Sikkim made special arrangements for His Holiness to proceed to Hong Kong. His Holiness proceeded to Hong Kong and spoke to those present stressing the importance of mutual H. Hi.

Situ Rinpoche. and His Eminence Gyaltsab Rinpoche. His Holiness' devotees and followers all offered and continued to offer constantly their hearitfelt prayers for the quick rebirth of His Holiness' next incarnation. Chain of Kagyu Lineage will continue 20 . so that Centres In the meantime.strengthened their devotion in the noble Dharma. are responsibilities of taking full responsibility for carrying out the Dharma International Kagyu activities and fullfilling His Holiness' wishes. His Eminence Tai. His Eminence Jamgon Kongtrul Four High Lama's took Rinpoche.the Golden to flourish for all time. who are the Four Heart-Sons of His Holiness. His Eminence Shamar Rinpoche. the Protector of all sentient beings.

Now aged 27. in Lhasa on l st October 1954. Since His Holiness has passed away His Emience Jamvon Kongtrul Rinpoche is one of the Four Seat-Holders who are taking full responsibility for continuing of His Holiness' Dharma projects and the fulfillment of His wishes. Palpung. I t was though t to take the new incarnation to his monastery. And in Lhasa. Rinpoche remained constantly with His Holiness and had accompained His Holiness on His several world Dharma tours. Rinpoche has been residing in Rumtek receiving numerous ernpowerrnents. where they had already established a residence. due to growing unrest in Tibet with the Chinese occupation. at which time the servants of the previous Jamgon Kongtrul Rinpoche. and studying Buddhist philosophy with eminent teachers such as Khenchen Tbrangu Rinpoche and others.His Eminence Jamgon Kongtrul RinpocheA brief Ire sketch The Third Jarngon Kongtrul Rinpoche of Palpung. When he was two years old. However. they discovered the child who was easily identified to be the new Jamgon Kongtrul Rinpoche of Palpung. staying with his family until the age of six. His Holiness instructed that he would go to stay with his family at Kalimpong. Rinpoche continues to reside at Dharma Chak ra Centre. was born in an aristocratic family known as Sadutehang. in a dwelling situated at the back of the famous statue of Lord Sakyamuni Buddha. they ale included in the list of lineage holders. And so he went. His Holiness recognized him. transmissions and teachings from His Holiness. India. Rinpoche then joined His Holiness at Rumtek. Since that time. During the past 7-8 years. Karma Lodro Chokyi Senge. carrying the recognition letter written by His Holiness. went in search of the new inca ration. and was formally enthroned in Rumtek Old Monastery. As the First and Second Jamgon Kongtrul Rinpoches were the Gurus of the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Gyalwa Karmapas respectively. 21 . Rumtek. for his enthronement. Sikkim.

C.5 22 .The Kargyupa Sect Dr. disappeaBuddhist different there in course of time. Some of the Tibetan Lamas who had derived their religious knowledge from Indian Pandits. so as to branch out into numerous different sects as a result of the extraordinary growth. Buddhism was widely spread and occupied the position it did in Tibet. feeling great veneration for the theories themselves. These. "Buddhist Religion" observes S.75 J ASB. beliefs and the like then prevalent prior to the Buddhist doctrines. named their respective sects after them. Anukul Chandra Banerjee A hundred years after Buddha's Mahaparinirvana dissension arose among the monks in regard to the actual words of the master and their interpretations which ultimately led to the origin of sects in Indian Origin of Buddhi5t Buddhism. And within a few hundred years after the demise of the Great Teacher as many as twenty sects or more came into existence-although a few of them red shortly after their appearance. 74. it was through the efforts of these sects. which was little else than a priestly mixture of demonolatry and witch raft. pp. Inded. 1. 2. But in regard to the origin of sects in Tibet. They did not follow the Indian patriarchs in their nomenclature. Das'l "progressed more and more. like the eighteen divisions of the Vaibhasika school of ancient India were designated after the names of respective teachers and places of origin. the case has been quite Origin of Buddhist and about ten sects came into being Sects in Tibet. Waddell! writes that the sects "arose in revolt against the depraved Lamaism then prevalent. part II p. for all the Indian Buddhist Schools were designated after the general sense of their philosophies". superstitions. Abandoning the grosser charlataism the new sects returned to celibacy and many of the purer "Mahayana rules ". all aiming to have preserved his original sects in India teachings. The Tibetan sects came into existence with a view to preserving the purity of the Buddhist teachings and doing away with the degrading practices. The Buddhism of Tibet or Lamaism.

59. a new school of Buddhism came into being in Tibet. rectified and systematised the Buddhist teachings then prevalant. Tihet: A Political History. In other words Tib vta n sects traced their heritage to the great Acarya Dipankara Srijnana late sometime in the latter part of the l l th century A. To distinguish themselves unreformed followers of Padrnasarnbhava.D. 1. With Tibetan his reformation originated the Kadarn 'Fa sect.D. No sect prior to 11 th Thus came the great disaster to Buddhism.D. It was century A. In the 11 th century A. nor till more than a century and a half later. better known as Guru Rinpoche." "No sects" observed Waddell. the first sect of Buddhism as against the unreformed type of Buddhism called Ning-rna-pa "the old ones" founded by Padmasambhava. the followers of Atisa and Dram were called Ka-dam-pa (one of the doctrine) while the unreformed monks were called Nying-ma-pa ( one of the old). p. suffered a violent setback for the time-being because of the King Glang-dar-ma's ruthless persecution. Since Atisa came to Tibet he corrected." Thus Tibetan Buddhism developed into various sects from the time of Atisa.There were no sects in Tibet prior to the eleventh century A. He reformed the Sangha in Tibet and brought a great renaissance in the religion. According to the Tibetan historians "the doctrine was rooted out". as a result. D. 1.W. pp.60 The Buddhism of Tibet or Lamaism. "appear to have existed prior to Lan-Darrna's persecution. Kadampa sect Shakabpa! writes that "the teachings of Atisa were subjected to a reformation movement by Drom and. The sectarial movement seems to date from the reformation started by the Indian Buddhist monk Atisha". King Ye-ses-hod who was one of the pious kings of Tibet and to whom Buddhist renaissance owed much invited Atisa (Dipankara Srijnana ) to come to Tibet Invitation to Atisa from India to propagate Buddhism there. 54 23 . virtually annihilated in Tibe. The period which followed the year of the persecution of the doctrine is one of the darkest in the whole history of Tibet". Buddhism as already observed. "All contemporaneous and later sects without exception were influenced by the teachings of the Bkah-darn-pa sect. 2.

It traces its origin to Marpa (lIth century A. He taught for about thirty years and had eighty thousand disciples. Among his . Mahamaya. Of the sects extant the Kargyud-pa (bKah-rgud-pa) is one of the important sects in Tibet. as we have seen. Its followers believe in the succession of precepts handed down through the galaxy of teachers. This system is not at present wide-spread as a school. Only few of them still survive.). Hevajra.Tibetan Buddhism. In Tibetan. few details about them.). We have. He spent fifty years in studying Sutra and Tantra texts in India. Most of them are now extant. His teachings were based on the five Tantras. Guhyasamaja and Vajrabhairava. He also taught the teachings of Nigu and Sukhasiddha as also the doctrine of Mahamudra. Samvara. Nepal and Tibet. viz.teachers were Nigu (the consort of Mahasiddha Naropa). It may also be called "Oral TraditionaKargyupa sect lism". the great Indian Siddhacarya (master of mysticism). two main schools: the and Dvags-po-b'Ka' (I) The Shangpa Kargyud-was estblished by the great Yogi and Siddha Khyung. who visited India and Tibet and studied extensively the Tantric texts with a number of eminent teachers there. He built about a hundred monasteries including his own principal monastery Zhang-Zhong in Shangpa Kargyud Shangs valley and that is also known as Shang- pa Kargyud. In other words.. On his return to Tibet he founded this sect on the basis of the teachings of his teacher Naropa. The Kargyud-pa (bKa-brgyud-pa) has Shangs-pa bKa'-brgyud(Shangpa-Kargyud-) 1 udDagpo-Kargyud-pa).po-rNal-a'Byor (978-1079 A. 24 . developed into various sects later on. It is that is why it is called' 'school of successive order". a native of Lho-brag. D. Sukhasiddha and Rahualgupta. bKah-rGyud means "the transmission of teachings". D. however.. it means the tradition of instructions orally transmitted through a continual series of teachers and disciples.

It spread widely and is one of the four major schools of Tibet.kyi . The four major sub-sects are: Karma Kargyud (Kamtshang Kargyud). Wang-Ngo).Dorjej. D.. He studied the various doctrines with Dagpo-Lhaje and Rechungpa. rNgog. He received the teachings of Tantras from the renowned teachers such as Naropa and Maitripa.wa. Guhyasamaja. mTshur . He studied first with a'Brog-mi-lo-tsa-ba (DrogmiLotswa) and then visited India thrice and Nepal four times.Tshonpo) and Mi-Ia-Ras-pa (Milarepa). This esoteric doctrine was thereafter orally transmitted to Bu-ston. (Marpa . Since Karmapa Dusum Khyanpa the heads of ~arma Kargyud this sub-sect have been the uninterrupted rein- A. by Karmapa Dus-g. Specially he obtained the absolute realization of Mahamudra mysticism from the teaching of Maitripa. he transmitted the teachings of Samvara.ston . In Tibet.Ngo (Tshurton. Mahamaya and other Tantras to his disciples. Kargtru Kargyud. Chos . so called four pillars. till the Thence. presen t time. next reincarna tion carnation of him was Karma Pakshi.Blo-gros (Chokyi Lodro). the great hermit-poet of Tibet.(II) The Dag-po-bkah-brgyud[Dagpo KargyudJit means the transmission of the order of Dag-po. which is the name of a great scholarasectic who lived in the Bagpo valley. (a) Karma Kargyud was founded in the middle of the 12th century D.sum-mKhyan-pa (Du-sum-khyenpa).dBang . viz. after Pakshi. His this 25 . since Shangpa Kargyud Dagpo Kargyud the first one is not well-knownit is now almost extinct.Lo-tsa . Tshalpa Kargyud and Barompa Kargyud. is the founder of this school in the l lth century A. He built monasteries at Karma Lha-Iding and in Tshur-phu (Tshu-phu) for the great benefit of the people. Hevajra. He died at the age of eighty. Chhos-SkurDo-rJe (Ngogton . the great Tibetan reformer 'in whose hands this tradition gained extensive prevalance and unbroken continuity down to the present time ! From this Dagpo Kargyud arose four major sub-sects and eight minor sub-sects from one of its sub-sects latter on. It may be pertinent to note here that now Dagpo Kargyud is the only Kargyud (bKah-rgyud). the eminent scholar and authoritative historian of Tibet and Tson-Kha-pa.Choku . Mes-sTon Tshon-po (Meton .

D. D. He died at the age of sixty One 111 1170 A. It should be pointed out here that the Karrnapa 'seems to be nearly identical with the Karmpa sect of Nepal'. Sikkim. He established more than two hundred meditation centres in the various parts of the world. under Barom Kargyud attained all excellent virtues. The XVIth Karrnapa Rigpai Dorje (Rig-pa'i Rdo-rje] who used to Jive at Rumtek. He studied the various teachings under different teachers. He studied all nes.81 in Chicago. Wangchug the doctrihim and built the hence his To pay his homage to the IXth Gyalwa Karmapa Wangchuk Dorje. Kargyud (c) Tshalpa Kargyud(TshaI-ba-kagyud)-the founder of this sub-sect was Zhang-Dar-matrog (Zhang Danna Grags) who was born in 1122 '\. Trupa. passed away on 6. both exoteric and esoteric.D. Gyalpo (Phag-mo-Gru-pa-rDo-rJe . Gyurmed Namgyal.11. (d) Barompa-Kagyud (Sbab-Rom bKa-brgyud Darrna (Dar-Ma-dBang-phyug) was a disciple of Dagpo.D. He constructed a monastery at a place called Pha-rno-gr u in South Tibet (now known as Densa-Thil-g Dan-sa-m'I'hil) to propagate the doctrine and was hence called Phamo. D. USA He visited several countries abroad. His main preceptor was Wongom Tshultrim (dBon-bsGom Tshul-khrirns sNying-pa) who was a disciple of Dagpo. I.sect was also called the "Black Cap Sect" (Shwa-nag-can)".r Gyal-po) who was born in the southern part of Kham in 1110 A. His principal monastery in Tibet was the m'Tshur-phu in Central Tibet. the ruler of Sikkim constructed the first Karmapa monastery at Ralang in Sikkim in about 1730 A.Trupa Dorje. He died at the age of seventyone m 1193 A. He Barom monastery in the North and tradition was known as the Barom Kargyud. He had a large number of disciples which formed many sub-sects later on. Afterwards Phagtru he learnt the Mahamudra (doctrine of the great symbol) from Dagpo Lhaje at Sgam-po monastery. (b) Phagtru Kargyud (Phag-gru-bkah-brgyud)it was founded by Phagmo. 26 . Later on he founded the Gungthang monastery to po pula rise the doctrine and Tshalpa Kargyud to convert the people.

He became an attendent of Phamo Trupa who taught him all his doctrines. disciples of 1.po-chej. (4) Throphu Kargyud (Khro-phu-hKa-brgyud-] _.D. He trained many disciples.originated with two brothers '. In other words. Rinpoche Gyal-tsba and Kunden Rogpo. He got the highest realisation just at the sight of his guru (preceptor). (3) Yamzang Kargyud (gYa'-bZang bKa'-brgyud) it was founded by Ye-She-Sa ng (Ye-She s-Sange}. they originated with the Phagtru Kargyud.dpal). But rightly speaking. a disciple of Pagmo Trupa and a native of Mon-hgar. who was born III 1142 A. they traced their heritage to the disciples of Phagmo Trupa. His formost disciple was Yamzang Kargyud Yamzang (gYa'. He received the teachings of the Kargyud from Phagmo Drupa and became an eminent scholar and a famous monk.We have seen before that the eight minor sub-sects issued from the Dagpo Kargyudpa. He built a monastery in Drigung valley in Central Tibet and hence his tradition was known as Drikungpa. He built a monastery at Taglung (sTag-Lung) Taglung Kargyud valley for propagation of Buddhism and to his tradition became known after it.it was founded by Kyuru Rimpoche (Skyu-Ru-Rin. His religious discourses Drikung Kargyud were usually attended by a number of his disciples including many monks. there are a large number of Drikung Kargyud followers and many monasieries. They are:- (1) Drigung Kargyud (a'Bri-Gung bKa'-bagyud) . According to some nephew and uncle. Their traditon was named Yamzang Kargyudpa. 27 . In Ladhak. (2) Taglung Kagyud (sTag-Lung bKa'-brgyud-) it was founded Thangpa Trashipal (s'Tag-Lung-Thang-pa bkraby Taglung shi .bZang-pa) who built the Yamzang monastery there.

He built a temple at Throphu monastery and installed a big image of Maitreya Buddha therein. Their nephew was Throphu Lotsawa who was ordained as a monk by Throphu Kargyud his uncle and learnt extensively all the teachings from them. itself into three sub-schools.This tradition was started by Marpa Rinchen Lodro (slvlar-pa-Rin-chen-Blc Gr os). Kargyud (sMar-tshang) . He also worte a number of books. . the middle (a) The Par-Druk (Middle Drukpa Kagyud) (Bar-d Brug) . His tradition was known as Shugseb Kargyud. Tsangpa-Gyare (gTsaug-parGyur-Ras) was a famous teacher.iDo-r Je) was a highly enlightened disciple of Phagrno Trups. Their tradition was thus known as Throphu Kargyud. a disciple of Phagmo Trupa. Lho. Am lUg his disciples. Drukpa Kargyud Lower Kargyud (sDrun-pa-bKa'brgyud) -. The former built (5) Shungseb Kargyud (Shugs-Sgeb-bKa'-brgyud) . Kargyud (Byang-rTa-rNa) (8) Drukpa Drukpa. He invited many Indian teachers including the great Pandita Sakyasri of Kashmir. Drukpa and Upper Drukpa.the Throphu monastery. He built Shar sDorje Dzong (Shar-rDo-rJe-rDzong)..Lingrepa Padma rDo-r] c (Gling-Ras-pa-Padrna . (6) Martshang (7) Yepa Martshang Kargyud Yepa (Yelpa) Kargyud . Yel-phug (Lho-yel-ph ug) and Chang Tans monasteries for propagation of his teachings. disciple Tsangpa Later it divided VIZ. He built a monastery at Nilgphur (sNa-phur).this Tradition was established by Phagmo Trupa's Gyare (gTsang-par Gya-Ras).originated with Chokyi Senge (Chos-kyi-senge). He built Longdocl (Klong-rDol) and F alung (RaIling) monasteries.this tradition was established by Yelpa Yeshe Tseg (Yel-ba-ye-shes-brtsegs}. He built Nyephu Shugseb (sNye-phu-Shugs-gseb) monastery Sgungseb Kargyud and gave religous discourses to the people.

At present among all the Kargyudpa sub-schools Karma Kargyud (Darrna Kamtshang) is the most wide lv spread sub-school and comes first. Later in this tradition Baraba Gyaltshen Palzang (a'ba-Re . Druk(a'Brug. Among his disciples were Karmapa Rangchung Dorje (Rang-Byung-rDo-rje). also known as Kun Khyen (Kun. He had many disciples. Ogyenpa Rinchenpal who was a disciple of Odshanpa was a great Siddha and visited Bodh-Gaya. Ordiyana (Ujjan) and China. Med Druk ( sTod-a'brug -. Kharchupa (rn Khar-Chhu-pa) and Togden Dasegn (rTogs-Den-Zla-seng). Beggars are Drubthobs (Siddhas)" took it to be a good omen. It is that is followers as Drukpa.Then he went Par=Duk to a place called Namkyi phu (gNam-Gyi-phu) to build a monastery. He built Wuri (dBu-Ri) monastery and then made Sang-Ri as his seat (residence). (b) Med-Druk( Smad-a'Brug . the Drukpa Kargyud comes second and Drikung Kargyud counting third. in this tradition appeared many disciples. Among them there was Padma Karpo (Padma dKar-po). Drukpa Kagyudpas are beggars.Ba-rGyal Tod Druk mTshandPal-bZang) wrote numerous works. It is because of this Bhutan is called Druk (a'Brug). who founded the Sang Ngag Choling (gSang-sNgas Chhos-gling) monastery near the border of Assam ( in Tibet) and it became the seat of the Druk-chhen incarnations.mKhyen-Sarvajna).Upper Druk). He led a very humble and disciplined life. There "Half of the Half of the And half of the Later on. His tradition was known a Med-Druk. this sub-school is very popular in Bhutan. Jalandhara.) and Druk (gNam-a'Brug). Godtshanpa (c) Tod-Druk Gompo Dorje (rGod-Tshang-pa llIGon-po-rDo-rje) was a distinguished disciple of Tsangpa Gyare.lower Druk )-Lorepa Darrna Wangchuk ( Lo-Res-pa-Dar-Ma-dbang-phyug ) was a disciple of Tsangpa Gyare and others. Along with his party when he reached there they saw nine Druks (a'Brug-Dragons) flying into the sky with roars. He And he called the name of the monstery as Sewa Chang chub Gon as also Namdruk why this tradition was known as Druk and his is a Tibetan proverb which means as followsc-> people are Drukpa Kagyudpas. Tibet apart. 2!J .

Kriyatantra.) Gyulu (Maya--body). J. The six aspects of instructions of Naropa are: Turno (Heart. But they further practise the four Tantras.Yoga.) . Odsel (Radiant Clarity). viz. the Kargyudpa generally follows the tradition of Kadampa on doctrinal matters.Milam (Dream).Lastly. Caryatantra. Pardo-Bardo (Intermediate stage between death and birth) and Phowa (Transfenence. Its special teachings are Naro-Chodruk ' of Mahasiddha Naropa and the Mahamudra teachings of Mahasiddha Maitripa. Yogatantra and Anuttaratantra of the New Translation Tantras.

31 . I was met some four miles from the monastery by the Chandzo who escorted me to the Rinpoche's summer house in a pleasant grove of willows a little way from the monastery. His room was full of clocks of all kinds and was hung with cages ul' the birds he loved--budgerigars and canaries. The Rinpoche was then about 23 years old. the Lhorong Ma-chu flowed northwards towards the Karma pa Zharnar monastery of Yangpachen about 30 miles distant and too far for a visit. On the next day I found that the Meeting with Rinpoche's kindness had preceded me and that Rinpoche tents were pitched for my party at the halting place in Kharkha Drok. to His Holiness before finally leaving Tibet. The region is now a source of geothermal The previol]sly power for Lhasa. calm young man with a ready smile and sense of humour. E. 1950 many years my memory. Richardson The death of His Holiness thr Sixteenth Gyalwa Karmapa brought vividly to mind the several occasions when I had the privilege of meeting him and in particular two visits to his great monastery of Tshurphu. in the middle. a farge. plumes of steam rose from geysers of hot water. entertained me to lunch after which I was received by the Rinpoche himself in his bright. A ver. been seen by a foreigner before. Hugh. a wide upland grazing ground sea He red with yaks. determined me to visit it agai nand I was able to do so in 1950 to say farewell Visit to Tshurphu. as I had to leave early on the following day. The first was in 1946 on a journey from Lhasa to Gyantse by way of Tolung and Nyemo. Beyond the river on the far side of the plain. To the west. even with the help of notes made After so First vis it to Tshurphu .MEMORIES OF TSHURPHU Mr. the Rinpoche's father. I think. The Yab Kusho. largr and comfortably carpeted tent had been pitched with. grandeur and interest of Tshurphu Gompa. and then. of which I had heard little and which had not. there was time for only a short visit to the monastery. a massive brass bedstead standing like an island in an ocean. not far from my camp. We enjoyed a long friendly conversation. gleaming room looking out on a little flower garden in which stalked a fine peacock.

and listing their contents. In front. lofty and dark. the west side being open. with a chain curtain. into what was perhaps a Gonkhang. contained the famous brass image of Shakya Muni . There is a well-known story that Karma Pakshi principal temple found the image was leaning to one side and that he sat in meditation beside it and by inclining his body brought the image to follow his movement back to the perpendicular.a few salient features of the at the time. The monastery stood in the shelter of a scrub-covered hill on the north side of a high. Karma Pakshi. made in about 1265 on the instructions of the second Zha-Nag hierarch. The principal temple. further inside the monastery. I wondered whether this was the original site of the early temple but was told later that the pillar was former ly opposite the main assembly hall. The roof above the head of the image is surmounted by a gilded pagoda-rooflet (rgya phibs) which is said to be part of a very large 32 . I hope that some learned monk from Detailed ground plan Tshurphu now living at Rumtek may be moved to of Tshurphu from do for his old monastery what Dzasa Jigme Tarimemory suggested ng has done for the Jokhang at Lhasa and draw a detailed ground plan locating all the temples. It is was about 60 feet high and enshrined relice of the Buddha and of several early religious teachers. wonderful images. can only sketch inadequately with its stately chapels and halls. known as the Ornament of the World. flowed a small tributary stream of the Tolung river. great monastery frescoes and thangkas. let me attempt to describe what I can. I fear that the past tense must be used. bare and narrow valley. No one seemed to know about the Ralpacharr's temple or the name Changbu. In the centre stood a stone pillar dating from the reign of Ralpachan and describing the foundation of a temple at Changbu in Tolung It is opposite a flight of steep stone steps leading h) a doorway. Although I have heard no definite news of the fate of Tshurphu in the "Cultural Revolution ". After passing through a narrow gate in the high wall surrounding the monastery one came to a wide paved courtyard with building on three Description of Tshurphu monastery sides. chapels and '0 on. In the meanwhile. and religious treasures of all kinds. 60 feet high brass I had the impression that its head was rather image enshrined in flat.

and a very gaunt image of Milarepa Many gilded images said to be self-created. In the "main temple there is a small chapel of Dus-sum Khyenpa. Wherever I went the monastery was clean and well kept and the monks had an air of quiet discipline and seriousness. very different from of Red Hat Lamas the sturdy figure carved in rhinoceros horn by a previous incarnation and kept with other precious images in the Rinpoches private rooms. I was also shown many fine gilded images including one of the Ninth Zha-rnar-pa (Red Hat) Lama said always to radiate noticeable warmth: also one of Lama Zhang who at one time created difficulties for the Karmapas but was reconciled t I Dus-sum Khyenpa. the protion he did manage Description of roof to bring was adapted to cover the head of the above the head great image. Its rather dark colour was said to be of the image due to its many vicissitudes. much simpler and more impressive than the lavish golden tombs of. perhaps 40 feet high. the Drigung lamas at Yangri Gompa or Drigung Thil. Round its base were some ornamental Karmapas vases. That of Dus-sum Khyenpa with a simple clay-covered dome decorated lightly with painted Choten tomb figures reminded me of the tomb of Atisa at containning relics of Nyethang. for example. the first hierarch and founder of the monastery which is perhaps the oldest part of the whole series of buildings. Another gilded roof surmounts a great hall in which were many Choten tombs containing the ashes and other relics of former hierarchs and other Karmapa Lamas. Fourteen of them were tall and massive. Karma Pakshi's tomb was even more austere uncoloured cla y dome was without any sort of its and decoration.such roof looted from India by the Mongols and abandoned by them near the China border. Karma Pakshi found it but could not bring it all. The tombs of later hierarchs were rather more elaborate but were mostly of black-painted clay with golden ornamentation. There were also tombs and reliquaries nations including of some Red Hat Karrnapas the great historian Tsuglag and some of the Pawo incarThreogwa. given to the principal by the Chinese temple is a wooden emperor tablet painted inscribed Yung Lo and 33 . Over blue and the entrance gold.

safely preset ved Treasures of Mongol at Rumtek and «xaminat ion should discover and Chinese whether it is that given by Mongke Khagan Emperors preserved to Karma Pakshi and later taken from him by Kublai and restored to the Lama Rangchung Dorje by the Emperor Togh Timur III 1331. The Remarkable painted scroll depicting fifth incarntion Emperor had a special devotion for the fifth incarnation. I was also shown letters from Chinese Emperors and many other treasures including palm-leaf manuscripts. altnnating panels in gold lettering describe in five languages the subject of each Painting. At the end. And with that in my mind I join the myur-du gsol-r'debs. which I still have. I was greatly surprised and moved to be greeted by him with the touching of foreheads (dbu-thug). with a dragon on the handle. De-shin shek-pa as can be seen ill the remarkable painted scroll which I have described and translated III the Journal of the Royal Asiatic 1 Society. We delighted erernony perforrnedc were all deeply impressed by the solemn ritual with its bursts of thrilling music and by the grave concentration with which the Rinpochc performed it. and a great gold seal inscribed in "Ilor-yig".' the Zha Nag Lamas with the Mongol Yuan dynasty-porcelain Vases. This seal is. bronze images. when he gave me a scarf of blessing. 1959. the prayer that his reincarnation may speedily appear for the br nefit of sentient beings. . It is about 50 feet long by 22 feet in height and has panels of elegant painting illustrating the miracle performed by the Lama on each of 22 days during his VISIt to China in 1407. I believe. Black Hat wearing by the honour. One lasting memory of my second visit IS the graciousness of His Holiness III offering to perform the wearing the Black Hat for our party.with his name. a carved ivory panel in the Rinpoche's room. It IS now fairly wellknown III Europe and Amer-ica but at that time in was scnnething of a mystery even III and my staff were awed Lhasa. There are also treasures from the earlier connection 0.

H. blazed with actions. 35 . As a child he displayed tremendous natural spiritual insight Recognition of and received complete meditative trainmg and Karmapa practice traditional for a Gyalwa Karmapa. The Gyalwa Karrnapa is the enlightened embodiment of all the Buddhas and Bodhisattavas that have recreated themselves for over eight h undr ed years to continue the wor k on earth for the well-being of all sentient beings. H. The world in the wilderness had some solace due to existence of oasis of spiritual giant all over the world. The supreme head of Siddha of Kargyu school was born at Tibet Denkhok in Dergye [Kham--Eastem Tibet] on the full moon day of the sixth month of the Male-wood mouse year corresponding to 1924.H. H. which was just arising out of the vast ruins ot psychological disbalanee. vcuurn H. created great impact in the minds of his world widr follow er s of the order. was also discovered and recognized through the will left by his predecessor predicting his next incarnation. was born in the world. From 1924 to 1981 the divine personality of H. facing ideological conflict-this was the yoar 1924. H. as in the case of the previous Karrnapa. Here we are not going to elaborate his life and various activities to understand this divine pc rsonnlities he represents. H.H. 1914-1918. It may be noted here that the Gyalwa Karmapa's reincarnation lineage started from first Karrnapa Dhusum Khye npa. owing mostly for scientific lntrod uctory and technological advancement and resultant discovery of vast destructive weapons.The XIV Gyalwa KarmapaHis Divine Personality B.H. Ghosh The sad derni se of XVI Gyalwa Karrnapa has created considerable in the Buddhist world. late lamented Gyalwa Karmapa emanated in the world of at a turbulent period of Tibetan history when the whole humanity first witnessed the total ff arful destruction of first World War.

MKhah-hgromas sect are said to have been responsible for the communication. has stated therein that in irs earlier period disciples wore white robes and that is Ones" rom Conotation of the "White". they were caIIed"White the word "dKar" meaning be recalled' that the white times were distnctive garb of the in Tibet. It may name robes in ancient Yogins (Naljorpa) appears to has been replaced by the word"bKah"meaning 3G . Karrnapa's persona lity we must know the origin' of the Buddhist Siddha school which he commanded for long.it how he established a spiritual link throughout the world establishing numerous Dharma Chakra Centres Establishment of in many countries within a short span of time. H.the Cottonschool in Tibet Clad Mila. Naropa. The fr male divinii ies.H. peace and harmony of the world.H. 975 A. First transmission of doctrine the second to a Bengali ascetic Tilopa was by Dakinis to Khyenpo. and Marpa passed on the esoteric doctrine to celebrated Introduction of Siddha Tibetan wizard turned Yogi-Milarepa. popularly known in Tibet as "Naro Chos Drug" six doctr-ine of Naropa. Narota. Dharma Chakra with dedicated efforts of limited and devoted Centres incarnate Lamas and devotees and admirers. Naropa preached six different kinds of doctrine. ThTanu-ic practices (Sadhanas ) and sublime doctrine from the primordial Buddha Vajradhara (Rdorje-hchang) transm i tted the esoter ic teaching Origin of Kagyu to Tilopa.D. It is Marpa. The wordvd Kar" it "Command". This historically and spiritually important school of Siddhas has an important place in Buddhism. D. To understand properly H. from Buddha Vajradhara and Tilopa communicated the same to Naropada (Tib. He communicated the sublime teaching to his Tibetan disciple Marpa Lotsawa --Marpa the Translator) 1012-96 A. D. (Marpa Bhutanese hKah-brgyud-hbrugpa text mentions the Kagyu pa sect. Naro ) who was a Junitor of Nalanda Mahavihara 1039 A. devoted his whole life for propagation of IS unimaginable Dharma. Mila and successive why.

4. Hbrugpa sub-sect.) It was Gampopa. who recognised Dhusum Khyenpa as first Karmapa. 3. a great exponent of Buddhist philosophy and meditation. He embodied. Rang-hbyungrig-pai r do-rje. The following are the different sects and sub-sects: l. We have already mentioned the transmission from Buddha Vajradhara to Milarepa. was the 16th in the suecession of incarnation.5) Hbrigung sub-sect. Fo!lowging sub-sects issued out from the Phagmo-bKah brgyud (No. Khro Phu sub-sect. the prediction 37 . He laid special emphasis on meditation within the Kagyu order. Karmapa by Gampopa a manifestation of Avalokitesvara. Shangspa Dwagpo Karma Hbahram Phagmo bKah bKah bKah bKah bKah brgyud brgyud brgyud brgyud brgyud the followig sub-sects-e-the Sects and Sub-sects of the school arose rgyud (No. Srnartsang sub-sect.been adopted. whose existence has been prophesised by Buddha himself in the Samadhirajasutra. Gyab-bzang sub-sect and Chujgseb sub-sect.3) From Karma bkah Black hat sub-sect and the Red-hat sub-sect. The term bKah-brgyud means "Oral the succession of those who transmitted the orally available the Master-The Buddha Vajradhara and the like. Tradition". on each successive occasion. Yelpa sub-sect. teaching of Let us now mention the names of the sects and sub-sects that arose out of the Kagyupa sect. According to tradition the of Karmapa Karrnapa has been universally reputed to have passed and demonstrated in action the supreme spiritual power of predicting their next birth of the succeeding Avararas. Prior to their demise. The late lamented Gyalwa Karrnapa. Staglung sub-sect. represented and guided the accumulated Etymological meaning spiritual energy. 2. 5. who was the Guru of first Karmapa Dhusum Khyenpa Recognition of first (1110-1193 A. of the esoteric oral teaching Next in the line is the Milarepa's celebrated and learned disciple Choje Garnpopa. Etymologically Karrnapa means one who manifests the action-aspect of all the Buddhas. D.

It may be pointed out here that nine incarnated Lamas composed most appealing religious prayers. H.and time of birth. who sat near his holy feet. December 1981. as Sakyarnuni who revealed twelve deeds and entered into Nirvana. which took place on 25th day of 10th Tibetan month corresponding to 20th. tile na ne. The Hinayanist reveres Buddha as a superior Karrnapa human being (Narasimha). The Mahayanist conceives Buddha in three forms: (a) Nirmana-Kaya (creative body). such as.H. (b) Sarnbhoga-Kaya (enjoyment body). along with the conception of Prajna and Karuna.H the Dalai Lama with other reincarnated Tibetan lamas.provided full infor. It would not be out of place to discuss briefly the Buddha-Kava concept for clear understanding the Karmapa as an embodiment of supra-mundane cosmic manifestation as celestial Bodhisattava and mundane human Buddha. It was after H. dan. The Central concept cf Mahayana lies in the Trikaya . individually indicating complete theory of Trika ya concept and reincarnation thereof. his e nt ier divine personality was revealed taus by H. This has Prayers for Karrnapa. In Pali tradition he has also lokottara (Supra-mundane) besides mundane form.three bodies of Buddha and Bodhisattva. Throughout his divine life extending from 1924 to 1931. who attained perfection of wisdom in ihis life through accumulated merit arising out of Punya and Jnana of his past lives. It is also well-known that the present one had left behind some indications of forthcoming reincarnation. Trikaya Doctrine It may (~prul-sku) be of Tulku pointed out in this context that conception to that of the Nil manakaya answers Tibetan III 38 .H entered into final sublime Sarnadhi. been beautifully and tangibly manifested in spontanprompt reincarnation eous prayers offered by nine lamas for prompt reincarnation during the funeral ceremonies.of the would-he parents. blazed like the crescent moon difussing smiling fragment to whomsoever.nati In. as Buddha ideal. the place. who enjoyed a refulgent body and preached to the Bodhisattvas (enlightened beings) and (c) Dharma-Kaya (transcendental form) the supreme being comprising all dharrnas. and generously offered loving kindress to humnity at large. was an unparallcl and unique divine and majestic personality in a human garb. the e ssence of wisdom and compassion.

from the point of view of ideality he is Sarnbhoga-Bodhisattva to help sentient being.The Buddha in Kaya concept is not completely three different entities three aspects of one Buddha concept. .s and other Tantric manifestation of Buddha. he is the transcendent. Bodhisattv. From absolute universal point or view. it may be noted in passing that the Rinpoches and learned Ian.. but a living rcal it v. But the Dharrna-kaya is not only an abstract principle. Lastly. frorn human point of view he is the Nirrnanakaya the Sakyarnuni. which manifests itself in different forms. All of them pray for Holinr-ss" prompt reincarnation for liberating all beings from the mundane sorrow.-l\) . They are essentially the same but distinct in their nature.as consider H. Dharmakaya. son of King Suddhodana who attained bodhi and entered into Nirvana (final bliss). H. It is known that Ananrla being asked told him that -c 1he Tathagata has three bodies". Karrnapa to 1)(' the embodiment of Buddhas. These three bodies are three aspects of one Buddha Tathagata.

He-vajra. The teachings have been zealously guarded and secretly transmitted for the last thousand years. Among the 30 odd different kinds of literature on this topic available in India are the earlier and later Kapes (bka'vdpej written by Tilopa and Naropa respectively.D_). But it should be pointed out here that despite the vast literature available one cannot practise the Six Yogas without the assistance of an experience duGur. both of which are still preserved in Kagyu teachings. carried them to Tibet and through his noted disciple the saint poet Milarepa (1040-1123 A. rzdogs-rim) of the Anuttara Yogas such as like Guhyasarnaja. e. Tibetan saints and scholars. the tran-lator (1012-1097 A. Chakrasamvara and Kalacakra.D. Marpa.of course. received the teaching of the Six Yogas from various Gurus. the teachings of luminosity Kargyudpa from Lawapa (Dombupa) and the teachings of Candali (mystic heat) from Yogini Sumati (Sudhagini).). at that level of practice which is known as the Perfect stage (Sampannakrama. Tilopas lineage came to be known as Kagyu (the oral traditon).Six Yogas of Naropa Ringu Tlliku Mahamudra and Six Yogas are quintessence of Kagyudpa tradition of Tibetan Buddhism. As the four oral traditions merged into one. Naropa (1016-1100 A. etc.wrote many commentaries later on. The Ahapramana-samaya-nama-dakini-upadesa [bkayong-dak-pa' i-tshed-ma-don-gyi-yige-gsang-ba-mkha'-gro' i-man-ngag) with its commentary by Marpa. They are still preserved in the original form as an oral tradition which is transmitted only after thorough preparation so that they may not be wasted or confused.) received the lineage of six Yogas from Tilopa and he along with his sister Niguma expounded the teachings so much so that the teachings became known as the Six Yogas of Naropa and Six Yogas of Niguma.) spread to all sub-sects of Kagyu School.the first Guru of the Kagyu lineage. .The Six Yogas or Six Dharmas (Chos-drug) are meditation techniques which enhance the practice of Mahamudra (Phyag rgyachen po) at certain points and under special conditions i.D. forms the principal work of the Six Yogas. He received the teachings of Illusory Body and Transference of Consciousness from Nagarjuna and the teachings of Dream and Intermediate Lineage of state from Charyapa. Tilopa(988-I069A D..

like dreams. They just appear like illusory bodies. Higher Tantricism makes one realize that the five aggregates. This as the attainment of vajra body. The Tantr ic texts describe prana as the horse. the immaculate illusory body.rtsa. 41 . rIung. vajra speech and vajra mind. mind-consciousness as the rider. is known is the root or foundation of all other Yogas. nadi ann bindu dissolve into sampannakrama non-duality delight. thigle) practice helps one to attain realization by synchronising hody and mind.Here IS ~iven a general idea of the Six Yogas of Naropa without going into the esoteric aspect of the Teachings=-Oandali or Tummo means 'fierce' or 'wrathful'. The prana functions in the left and right channels called Symbolic representation lalana and rasana an d therefore our mind conceives of Pj-ana. The mind then dharmas conceives the non-duality of the things. A kind of psychic heat is generated and experienced through certain meditative practices. Illusory Body The universe and its contents are nothing (sgyu-Ius-mayadeha) but illusions as they have no substance in their nature. Although the heat generation is given emphasis Mystic heat Candali does not deal with heat generation alone. we lapse Nadi in Tantric text into duality because the prana functions in lalana and rasana. It is a fierce or wrathful fire. If the prana functions in the central channels (Avadhuti) the prana transforms into wisdom-prana. When the inner candali is synchronized with the outer candali which is Mind conceives non-duality of things Mahamudra. These two channels represent the subjective objective activities and Karmic activities. and the most immaculate illusory body. and realizes all The meditation on prana. like minor-reflection and the like. nadis as the pathway and hindu as mind-nourishment. Mana and the things in duality. viz. In other words. This heat serves to burl' up all types of obstacles and confusion. the twelve dhatus and the xix sense-organs Illusory body as unborn. To understand this and to meditate upon this helps one to cut off the mundane attachments and to realize the ultimate truth. Candali or apparition is broadly divided into three catagories. prana. (Tib. (gtum-mo-candali) Another important part of this Yoga is the practice of nadi. prana and bindu. nadi and bindu is called inner gTummo. This practice is known as mundane illusory body. the mundane illusory body.

) the intermediate state of dreams. Even this immaculate appearance has no substance and hence is illusory. self illuminating enlightened (Hod-gsal. The parct icc cd Bardoyoga is the last stage _ The intermediate stat e aiter death is <aJ1«i "k rr. There will be a time when the learner will see no distinction between the dream. The Practice of luminosity is believed to be the essence of the path. known as the immaculate illusory body. of dream practice is to recognize dreams during the time of dreaming. The next stage is to usc the dream as a means to practise various svapna] spiritual exercises including that of illusory body. The universe becomes a Mandala of divine deities where the forms are gods and goddesses. born out of completely pure prana and non-dualistic thought to achieve the last illusory body. Intermediate The Dream (rMi-lam. The immaculate illusory body still has a tinge of artificiality. as such The technique here would help to recognize those moments especially in dreams. Though a momentary flash of luminosity appears when dying. A constant practice on dream will have great effect on waking hour s. This practice transforms all the mundane thoughts into divine thoughts. waking hours and the death. natural experience. This practice is. therefore._the (Bar-do. and intermediate state of becoming (between death and rebirth). 'Ibi~ Dharrnakaya. however. is a spontaneous. or thai.ind [(0)'. a ntarabhava ) intcrun diatc state between birth and death (Ide. first stage 4:2 . the most popular one is M arpe 's classification Intermeditate State where the bardo is clas if'icd into three t) pu . and thoughts are transcendental wisdom. yawning and copulating. fainting. Luminosity is regarded as the last stage of Sampannakrarna of Anuttarayoga Tantras and its practice leads directly to the experience of Sam bhogakay a and state has bee-n classified into many different ways. The most immaculate illusory body.are divine by nature. It is therefore said that a Yogin is meditati g even when asleep. Luminosity in Tantra Luminosity is the spontanous. prabhasvara Buddha -nature which could be seen only with the ultimate intuitive perspective or the deepest meditation. Dreams are then transformed into the practice of luminosity. sounds are mantras. it is not recognized.

the meditative techniques to stop entrance into the six realms of the world are applied. These trainings are practised during the life-time and they are used when all the signs of death are manifest. While through these poisons we bound to wander endlessly in Sarnsara. through aversion denizens of be II and through bewilderment brute animals. ten or varying numbers with the addition of more branch p. A few of t ese techniques have been discussed in the Book of Dead. although the six Yo gas of Naropa are the most popular. If both of them fail to liberate the subject. The first four are known as the root Yogas and the last two as their parts. recommended for this period. Through passion we become spirits. It may be noted here that it is not necessary that all the Six Yogas should always be practised together. The next stage is the practice of illusory body which is practised when the mind-body is scperated from the dead physical body. 43 . But they as a whole make a complete path. Yogas. The second stage is to realize the divine nature and accomplish the illusory body. there will be no birth for us (in Sarnsara ") I. An accomplished person can help another person to a happy departing. The last stage is to transfer one's mind-body into the wisdom-mind of the Guru and Yidam or into some Buddha in Sukhavati. by making them a path according to the teaching of Naropa. This is also divided into three stages Consciousness of practice as found in Bardo. It is also not always necessary for the total number to be 0 ly six.30a.Vo1. Phe-ba is I.32. also known as the teaching to achieve Buddhahood without meditation. The purpose of these teachings is to be ready to die and to avoid being reborn in unfavourTransference of able situations. The three stages of practices are. The first stage is ('Pho-ba. There are texts which mention eight. aversion and bewilderment. "In our being we find passion. sGampopa. therefore.is an irnporta nt stage as a strong reaction at this period will have an immediate effect in deciding the realm into which the person will be reborn. The best of these is to recognize the luminosity when it is experienced at the time of death. sarnkrant i) to transform one into luminosity.

V. g Dams-ngag-mzod VoJ. Works of Gampopa The Life and Teaching The Rain of Wisdom.References 1. of Naropa Vol. " Guenther.32. Trungpa. 4. Shes-bya-mzod. Jamgon Kongtrul. IV. (Kagyu part) 2. " 3. Chogyam 44 . 5 Collected H.

Nyingmapa. I am here mainly concerned with Kagyudpa. H. Sangpa Kagyud and Tagpo Kagyud. viz. . The prayer for the prompt reincarnation of H. Chimed Rinzing Lama The paper briefly deals with the five different Buddhist and non-Buddhist sects of Tibet. Gelugpa. Kagyudpa. Sadhanas. Sakyapa and Bonpo.A ON A BRIEF NOTE PAPER OF KAGYUDPA THE HISTORY ven. Rang Jung Rigpai Dorjee (the 16th Gyalwa Karmapa) has also been added. Here have also been discussed in brief the Lineages of Gurus.

~qrlr~'ll·.::rr'l~·q·=l~·~'l1'q' a; OJ' q ~~'l1·t:Tllr".'·q· ~:::'5·~~·q~·~~rlJ·q·~~q~·q
Prayer For The Rapid Reincarnation Hiqpa i Dorje. The 16th







of H. H. Rang Karmapa.


~ ~'q~'l'~~·.~fll·~·;)·i~·~·~1 I
Hung - Ma-bChos- sPros- Bral-bLa-Ma-ChhosHUNGJMA CHO



Guru,1 Master Dharmakaya


unartificial, without art;1 tice Hung. is the

free from all dual and rela-I tive positions,

The Guru without Dharmakaya.

artifice, free from all relative _,~-..


q~ ,~~

~::~ra .~.~.~~.~.~ ~ I1

b De-Chl1en - l.onqs-sf'vod -bl.a - Ma-ChhosDE CHE,\J






Kyi -r Je CHOKYIJE Lord of Dharma

enjoying great happiness



1 GuruJ
the Lord of

The Guru of great happiness, bhogakaya.


is the Sam-

q~'~C: ~~·~§C:~·aJ·~·~~·q~·~1
Pad -sDong-Las-' PAE DONG lotus (symbol stem



Khrungs-bLa - Ma -sPrul- Pa'i-sKu TRUNG









of unchanging


The Guru born from the lotus stem is the Nirmanakaya,
,..,,; '" _,..~rt!1~~r~' ~'~a;C::'(lJ'Q1~'ll'.::rr.:

~ ,,_"I


".q~1 I
LA/ to/ SOLWA DEB praise

sKu~gSum-rDo-rJe-'Chhang- La-gSol- Ba- 'Debes KU SUM / Three Kayas/ The supreme, original and eternal Buddha, praise the Vajradhara who has the three Kayas. Hung, The Guru without artifice free from all relative positions, is the Dharmakaya. The Guru of great happiness the Lord of Dharmas, is the Sambhogakaya. The Guru born from the lotus stem is the Nirmanakaya. I praise the Vajradhara who has the Three Kavas. DOR JE CHANG/ Vajradhara, /

6q·.:)~'fl·~·q~~·~qc::·~tll·~ ~·~dSC::·'


Khyab-bDag -sKu-bZhi'i-dBang- Phyug-rDo-rJe- 'Chhanq KU ZHI/ WONG CHUKI OOR JE CHANG powerful.j mighty Vajradhara

Pervading Lord / four Kayas / (title for Dharmakaya) Bodies

Dorje Chang, pervading Lord with the power of the four Kayas;

mKhyen-brTse- Thugs-rJe'i-gTer-Chhen- Te-Lo-Pa KHYEN/ TSE / THUG JEI/ TER CHEN/ TE LOPA great Treasure Telopa

understanding,/ compas-/ compassion/ true knowledge sion

Pa'i-rDo-Je'i-d Milarepa Milarepa.Yid../ YID KYI DUNG/ SEL / remembrance NA RO PA compassion..... Pal I SHIK / SHAD PAl RDO RJE PAL you / must -. having true know- ledge and ~~·q~·~"·~·::f]5~·~a.. '9~'~~'~9~....Kyi-gDung-Sel-Na-Ro-Pa DR EN PAE. -. ~ I mental trou-/ bles. Nyid . - e-.. ''1: Dran..~ .1 1 Byin-Gyis-rlobs-Shig JIN GYI LOB bless / -bShad .. most kind Chhos-Kyi-Lo-Gros (Marpa) . S~·~~ (G~·~"ll·Gc<1~·q~·(~~·~qa.':'q ''11 Dzod-Chig-sGam-PoDZO CH!K Pa / GAM PO PA / Gampopa Reverened DANG / YER ME / -vi e- _..Dang-dByer-Med-m NYID we and you I without difference or separation I make please Please make Gampopa.. of compassion.. us wit hout difference from yourself--Oh .. the great treasure . afflictions clearing. remembrance mental troubles.. ~:?~·~~·~qr). / Naropa removing of whom removes our The reverened Guru Naropa.Dt:N/CHHOS-KYI-LO-GROS-JE unequalled... _.~r~raP~~·~l 1 mNyam-iV1ed -d Pal-IDan -Ch h os-Kyi-bLo-aGros-rJe NYAM-IVIE /rJAL .·~·~ . And must grant us your blessings-Oh e-. ::-...r~~·a..~~'~~~'~"ll'S1. / glorious / Marpa Lotsawa glorious..Telopa. Unequalled.Pas...

'" bslu . I truth never cheating I Pa'lv'Bras-Bu- Yol-Med. ~~'~~'\(~'~C:'~~r.e. q~'~~'.:~~ 'rlJCf]~'~! / SOLWA DEB / LAG/NA / ... KE CH!G / TSAM YANG / TRAL ME / JE ZUNG /SOG instant / even for an / without / hold as disciples may moment separating (take responsibility You must hold us as disciples without for an instant.Oh Reverened Guru Gampopa.. on 1 ime May the result of your unfailing truth be timely. -- bDag-Sogs-sNying-Nas-gSol-Ba-'Debs-Lags-Na I NY!NGNAE we / from the heart I pray (all being who i. ~C:' ~~.Tsam. you must hold us as disciples without separatinq from for an instant. havinq true knowledge and compassion... pervading Lord with the power of the four Kayas. . for our welfare) separating from us even Dorje Chang.J..remembrance of whom removes our mental troubles-unequalled.q~qP'l~~' DAG SOG .. please make us without ditference from yourself ..~~ '~~n::laC:'~::f] del if 1 sKad -Chig..\:. and must grant us your blessingsMilarepa ... most kind Chhos Kyi Lotsa (Marpa) ... "~ us even ~·~\"'\'~~~':S·tN~·~~·51 _. The reverened Guru Naropa.Med-bDenLU ME undeceiving. the great treasures of compassion..Du result I (benefit for us) DEN PAl I / DRAE BU I VOL ME DU not late. T elopa. c:o-... If we pray to you from the heart. sincerely suffer in Samsara) If we pray to you from the heart..q~ <... ... glorious.. 'f"J~rlJ 'q'l.Yang-'Bral-Med -rJes-Zung-Sog.

Shig -sPyan'-Ras-gZigs-d B~lng-mth hog RE WA I KONG SHIG I CHHAN RAE ZIG WANG CHHOG hopes I fulfill! Grant us our hopes.~ 1I ""'" .~::fpn:p'·~'lrC1qr~~·~t:·~~~·:>. -- Legs.. .~'~ 9C::~'~P:C::'1 I Ma-bChos-Rang-aByung-Chhos-Kyi-dbYing Kyi-Ngang MA CHOt RANG JUNGI CHO KYI YINGI KYI/ NGANG unartificial.Padrna-Bvunq. e--.Par-sTsol-Zhig-Od -sNang -mTha.... &.::_C::'~~'a. '" ~~rll". .. ..r~q~I' .Bu -sTsol-Zhig..::::r~=:~r. you who are the Avalokitesvara.q~. . SOL TABI DRAE BUt CHOL ZHIG I PAD MA JUNG prayer! result I please I Padmasambhava Please' grant us the results to our prayers. Amitabha.. =.l'q\)~''. I naturally! Dharrnadhatuj off nature uncontrived occuring _. grant us our hopes.".. Amitabha.. . you who are the Avalokitesvara. Padrnasarnbhava.gqr~~·=-~·9==f1~·~qc::·~a. Padmasambhava. CO\. madhatu.. May the result of your unfailing truth be timely in bringing benefit for us..Yas-dPal LEG PARI TSOL ZHIG! 00 NANG THA YE PAL well I we request you! Arilitabha we hope you will do what we ask inbringing benefit for Us. _" He. naturally occuring Dhar- . From the nature of the uncontrived.Ba-s Kongs. .. Please grant us results to our prayers.·~..9·q~·~~C::·1 - - Ava lokitesvara I gSol-bTab-'Bras.q·~~~·51·~rll·C. c:-.. -eo..~ t:'It.

. ending and abiding. aGags-Med-sPrul-Pa'j'·Rang-Shal-Myur-aByon-mZod GAG MEl ceaselessl TRUL PAil RANG ZSHALI NYURI JON DZO incarnation/' Nirmanakaya form J .e Sunyata) Now it has merged back within the state free from begining.R"g-Pa'j-Rang-rTsal-Las-Shar-rDo-rJei-sKu RIG PAt I RANG TSALI LE SHARI DOR JEt KU cwarenssress' I wrvel arise: I Vajral<aya The wave of awareneas arose as your Va)akaya.quicklyl please show or cerne May the form of your csasek ss incarnation quickly appear. sKye-aGags-gNas-bBral-kLong-Du-RangKYEI GAGI Thim-pa RANG THIM PA naturally melts' NAEI TRAL LONGDL'I blrtb] deathl staying start-ending I withoutl inside I (i.

~·s~·q%.·q·~·~~·~tl}·q~·~~·~q·{~ ~ . 'dol You must You must perform the deeds of a Bodhisattva . Byang-Chhuub-Sems-dPa'i-sPyod-Pa-Byed-Par-Shog JANG CHUB SEM PAil Bodhlsattva's] CHOD 'PAl JED PARI SHO conduct. .- . . -. .''''1'l] .l.. beings.q~tl}. .~q~. '" ~~·~q~·a... actl PAR/ SHO - bDag-Sogs-'Gro-Don-sTobs-Chen-Byed-Par-Shog SOG DRO I moving in samsara You must strongly act for the benefit of those moving in samsara.l.. those] You must SC::'~&:I.. I THU 'Khor-Ba...'--9~ . .§~....> .q. deeds I ~ ."1tl}. DONI benEfitl TOB CHENI veryl strongly JED do. grea11 accornpllshl You must You must accomplish a great wave of virtue for the benefit of "'f%...".~.'..~'~~'~'l]'q. gZhan-Don-dGe-Ba-rLabs-Chhen-Grub-Par-Shog ZHAN DON I GE WAI LABI CHEN I DRUB BAR/SHO other's benefit I virtue] wavel others.Dong-Nas-sPrug-Pa'i-mThu -Thob-Shog KHOR WA/DONG down I I NAE I TRUG PAl empty pletely sarnsars] turn upside then! I com-I I THOB/ SHO must effective/ getl You power (like inverting a cup and pouring out all its contents) You must gain the effective power to upturn and empty samsara.. .~t::I~'~~'~q'q.~'ll~''''~' DAG - -. 'llC...~....~~~..

r' ·. You must accomplish a great wave of _ virtue You must gain the effective power to for the benefit of others.q).q~·:n=l·.Then. You must perform. the deeds .of a Bodhisattva.-. nine month of the iron. ~~~'9'~ ~'~'r!l'''~'~~·±~·.qil~ '~.q~ ~'~~'~~'~9'~~~'~~'~ .Bird (2107 :. from thattime on you must 'strongly act for the benefit of those moving in samsara.q~· II This prayer Is composed by chhi-Med Rig·'Dzin on the tenth day of t he tibetan Tibetan Era) Year. ) • ". .. upturn and empty samsara.. 'j ~.

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Shri Tashi Tsering
1. 2. Past, present and future lineages of Karmapa. Meaning of the word 'Karmapa' and significance of the

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