Shah Jalal University of Science and Technology, Sylhet

School of Life Sciences

Department of Genetics
Syllabus for B. Sc. Honours Degree, Session 2008-2012

The B. Sc. Honours courses in Genetics shall comprise the courses on Genetics, Biophysics, Chemistry, Biotechnology, Genetic Engineering, Computer Science and Engineering, Statistics, English and Economics .The course is spread over four academic years in eight semesters. Each year is divided into two semesters. Final examinations are held at the end of each semester and also there are in-course examinations. A student must have to complete successfully at least 160 credit hours of courses to obtain the B.Sc. Honours degree. (A student, if he/she is not a clearing graduate, has to register for at least 12 credits minimum and 30 credits maximum in a semester). A student has to complete at least 36 credits hours in a year. There will be marks for class participation, assignments and mid-semester examination and final examination for which the distribution of marks is as follows: Class participation Assignment and mid-semester examination Final examination : : : 10% 20% 70%

The grading system consists of Letter Grading Point Average (GPA), Letter Grade; corresponding Grade Point will be awarded as follows: Numerical Grade 80% and above 75% to less than 80% 70% to less than 75% 65% to less than 70% 60% to less than 65% 55% to less than 60% 50% to less than 55% 45% to less than 50% 40% to less than 45% Less than 40% Letter Grade A+ A AB+ B BC+ C CF Grade Point 4.00 3.75 3.50 3.25 3.00 2.75 2.50 2.25 2.00 0.00

Absence from the final examination will be considered incomplete. The distribution of courses for respective academic years and semesters is given below along with the detail of the courses. First Year Semester I Course No. Course Title GEN 121 GEN 123 GEN 124 GEN 125 GEN 126 CHE 101G CHE 102G ENG 101 ENG 102 Total Introduction to Genetics Cytology Cytology Lab. Basic Biology Basic Biology Lab. General Chemistry General Chemistry Lab. English Language-I English Language-I Lab.

Hours/Week Theory + Lab 3+0 3+0 0+2 3+0 0+2 3+0 0+3 2+0 0+2 14 + 9 = 23

Credits 3.0 3.0 1.0 3.0 1.0 3.0 1.5 2.0 1.0 18.5

First Year Semester II Course No. Course Title GEN 127 GEN 128 GEN 129 GEN 131 GEN 132 ENG 103 ENG 104 CSE 101S CSE 102S GEN 134 GEN 100 Total Basic Biochemistry Basic Biochemistry Lab. Fundamentals of Molecular Biology  Physiology of Living Organism Physiology of Living Organism Lab. English Language-II English Language-II Lab. Introduction to Computer Application Introduction to Computer Application Lab. Field Work General Viva Voce

Hours/Week Theory + Lab 3+0 0+2 3+0 3+0 0+2 2+0 0+2 2+0 0+2 0+4 0+2 13 + 14 = 27

Credits 3.0 1.0 3.0 3.0 1.0 2.0 1.0 2.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 19

Second Year Semester I Course No. Course Title GEN 221 GEN 222 GEN 223 GEN 224 GEN 225 GEN 226 GEN 227 GEN 228 GEN 229 GEN 230 PHY 215 Total Molecular Genetics Molecular Genetics Lab. Introduction to Microbiology Introduction to Microbiology Lab. Cytogenetics Cytogenetics Lab. Enzymes and Bioenergetics Enzymes and Bioenergetics Lab. Biostatistics Biostatistics Lab. Biophysics

Hours/Week Theory + Lab 3+0 0+2 3+0 0+2 3+0 0+2 4+0 0+2 3+0 0+2 2+0 18 + 10 = 28 Hours/Week Theory + Lab 4+0 3+0 0+ 2 3+0 3+0 2+0 0+4 3+0 0+4 0+2 18 + 12 = 30

Credits 3.0 1.0 3.0 1.0 3.0 1.0 4.0 1.0 3.0 1.0 2.0 23 Credits 4.0 3.0 1.0 3.0 3.0 2.0 2.0 3.0 1.0 1.0 23

Second Year Semester II Course No. Course Title GEN 231 GEN 233 GEN 234 GEN 235 GEN 237 CSE 203S CSE 204S ECO 103A GEN 238 GEN 200 Total Metabolism and Metabolic Regulation Microbial Genetics Microbial Genetics Lab. Concepts of Biotechnology Plant physiology Introduction to Computer Language Introduction to Computer Language Lab. Principles of Economics Field Work General Viva Voce

Third Year Semester I Course No. Course Title GEN 321 GEN 322 GEN 323 GEN 324 GEN 325 GEN 327 GEN 328 GEN 329 Animal Anatomy and Reproduction Animal Anatomy and Reproduction Lab Plant Tissue and Cell Culture Plant tissue and Cell Culture Lab. Molecular Markers and Gene Manipulation Immunology Immunology Lab. Quantitative and Population Genetics

Hours/Week Theory + Lab 3+0 0+2 3+0 0+2 3+0 3+0 0+2 4+0

Credits 3.0 1.0 3.0 1.0 3.0 3.0 1.0 4.0

Total Third Year Semester II Course No. Course Title GEN 331 GEN 332 GEN 333 GEN 334 GEN 335 GEN 337 GEN 339 GEN 340 GEN 300 Total Genetic Engineering Genetic Engineering Lab. Animal Tissue and Cell Culture Animal Tissue and Cell Culture Lab. Plant Genetics and Breeding Industrial and Pharmaceuticals Biotechnology Research Methodology Field work General Viva Voce

16 + 6 = 22


Hours/Week Theory + Lab 3+0 0+2 3+0 0+2 4+0 3+0 3+0 0+4 0+2 16 + 10 = 30

Credits 3.0 1.0 3.0 1.0 4.0 3.0 3.0 1.0 1.0 20

Fourth Year Semester I Course No. Course Title GEN 421 GEN 422 GEN 423 GEN 424 GEN 425 GEN 427 GEN 428 GEN 429 GEN 430 Total Animal Genetics and Breeding Animal Genetics and Breeding Lab. Proteomics, Genomics and Bioinformatics Proteomics, Genomics and Bioinformatics Lab. Gene Expression and Regulation Techniques in Molecular Biology Techniques in Molecular Biology Lab. Cell Signaling Study Tour

Hours/Week Theory + Lab 4+0 0+2 4+0 0+2 3+0 3+0 0+2 3+0 0+4 17 + 10 = 27

Credits 4.0 1.0 4.0 1.0 3.0 3.0 1.0 3.0 1.0 21

Fourth Year Semester II Course No. Course Title GEN 433 GEN 435 GEN 437 GEN 439 GEN 440 GEN 400 Total Human Molecular Genetics and Diagnostics Recombinant DNA Technology GMO and Biosafety regulation Environmental Biology Thesis/Project + Seminar General Viva Voce

Hours/Week Theory + Lab 3+0 3+0 3+0 3+0 0+8 0+2 12 + 10 = 22

Credits 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 4.0 1.5 17.5

Detailed Syllabus
GEN 121 INTRODUCTION TO GENETICS 3 Hours/Week, 3 Credits Introduction: Historical background of genetics. Modern concept of genetics, Scope and branches, Application and Importance of genetics in human society. Some important genetical terms. Heredity, Environment and the continuity of life: Heredity and variation. Reproduction of living organism. The physical basis of Inheritance. Genotype and Phenotype. distinguisihing heredity and environmental variation. Genotype and environmental interaction. Mendelian genetics: life history of Mendel. Discovery of Mendel works. Experiment of Mendel work. Mendels law of segregation and independent assortment. Exception of Mendelism: Modification of Mendelian ratios. Lack of dominance, co-dominance, Heterodominance, Epistasis, interaction, lethal gene. Multiple factor inheritance: Multiple allelism, pleotropism and cytoplasmic inheritance in animals, human and plants. Blood groups inheritance in man and plasma protein polymorphism in man. Linkage and Crossing over: Linkage, Crossing over, different kinds of linkage and crossing over and their significance, linkage groups. Factor affecting the strength of linkage, cytological demonstration of crossing over. Linkage maps of Drosophila, chromosome map.

Sex determination: Cytological and genetic basis of sex determination. Different mechanism of sex determination in plants, animals and its implication. Mutation: Defination, types of mutagen and mutation, characteristics, causes and effects of gene mutation and mechanism. Chromosomal Aberrations: Types of structural and numerical changes of chromosome and mechanisms. Genetical consequences of changing chromosome structure and number. Books Recommended: 1. Verma, P.S. and Agarwal, V.K 1985.: Genetics (6th edn) S. Chand and Co. Ltd. New Delhi. 2. Gardner, E.J., Simmons, M.J. and Snustad. D.P. 1991. : Genetics (18th ed) John Wiley and Sons. New York. 3. Strickberger, M.W. 1968. : Genetics. McMillan, New York. GEN 123 CYTOLOGY 3 Hours/Week, 3 Credits Introduction: Historical background of cell, cell discovery and organelles. Definition and modern concept of cell, protoplasm theory. Cell types and structure: Eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells, differences between the two types of cells. Typical structure of Eukaryotic and prokaryotic cell and their functions. Cellular organelles: Major cellular organelles, composition, structure and function. Cell wall membrane, plasma membrane, nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi bodies, mitochondria, chloroplast, ribosome, lysosome, cytoskeletal structure. Nucleus and chromosome: Structure of nucleus, morphology and chemistry of chromosome. Special types of chromosomePolytene, Lampbrush, Sex, Iso-chromosomes and diplochromosomes, Karyotypes- Definition, characteristics, variation and significance. Cell division: Types of cell division, steps of mitosis and meosis, Difference between the two process, Abnormalities in mitosis and meosis, causes and significance. Chromosome replication and cell separation (on aspect of cell signaling).Physiology of cell: Energy, enzymes and metabolism, cellular respiration, cell secretion. Books Recommended: 1. Power, C. B., : Cell Biology. 2. Stern, H. and Nanney, D. L., : The Biology of Cells. 3. Verma, O. P. S. and Agarwal, O. V. K., : Cell Biology, Genetics and Molecular Biology. 4. Rastogi, S. C., : Cell Biology. GEN 124 CYTOLOGY LAB 2 Hours/Week, 1 Credit 1. Cytological and cytochemical techniques. 2. Introduction of the microcope. Use and care of the microscope and its development. 3. Preparation of tissue for microscopy 4. Study of different stages of mitosis and meiosis. GEN 125 BASIC BIOLOGY 3 Hours/Week, 3 Credits

Introduction: definition, classification, nomenclature and scope of Biology. Systematic study and economic importance of different families, origin of life. Plant anatomy: ultrastructure and chemical nature of cell wall, meristems and meristematic tissue and tissue system, function and distribution of different plant tissues. Secondary growth of stem and root. Embryology: study of sporogenesis and gametogenesis, oogenesis and spermatogenesis. Fertilization and development of embryo. Economic biology: economic importance of plants, apiculture, sericulture, lac culture and fisheries in Bangladesh. Applied Biology: causes of plant disease, diagnosis, symptoms, importance and control. Concept of insect pests and pesticides. Definition of bio-agents, predator, parasitoids and vector, disease transmitting insects. Ecology: Definition, types and fields, importance, habitat, community and ecological factors; Ecosystem: definition, structure and function, types, energy flow, food chain and webs, Population Ecology.
Evolution: Overview of major phylogenic and evolutionary trends among the simpler plants and animals. 1. Datta, A. C., : Botany for Degree Students. 2. Gupta, R. K., : Text Book of Systematic Botany. 3. Bilgrami, K. S., Srivastava, L. M. & Shreemali, J. L., : Fundamental of Botany. 2nd Ed. 4. Hill, A. F., : Economic Botany. 5. Pandey, B. P; Economic Botany

GEN 126 BASIC BIOLOGY LAB. 2 Hours/Week, 1 Credit Based on the basic biology theory classes. CHE 101G GENERAL CHEMISTRY 3 Hours/Week, 3 Credits Syllabus should be proposed by chemistry department. CHE 102G GENERAL CHEMISTRY LAB 3 Hours/Week, 1.5 Credits Syllabus should be proposed by chemistry department ENG 101 ENGLISH LANGUAGE-I 2 Hours/Week, 2 Credits ENG 102 ENGLISH LANGUAGE-I LAB 2 Hours/Week, 1Credit GEN 127 BASIC BIOCHEMISTRY 3 Hours/Week, 3 Credits Introduction: Basic concepts of biomolecules. Water: Properties and biological importance of water. Stereoisomerism: Introduction, enantiomers, chiral centre, configuration, specification of configuration: R and S, Diastereomers, Meso compound, conformational isomers. Carbohydrates: Definition, classification, physical and chemical properties, structure and general reactions, mono, di and polysaccharides, amino sugars and other important saccharides, sources and biological functions of major carbohydrates. Proteins: Definition, classification based on shape, structure and biological function; sequence determination of protein, preliminary concept on secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure of proteins; fibrous proteins: α and β keratins, Globular proteins: Structure of myoglobin, oligomeric proteins and quaternary structure of haemoglobin, oxygen binding curve of haemoglobin and myoglobin. Amino acids: Definition, structure, properties, optical activity and classification of amino acids, ionization of amino acids in solutions, titration curve of amino acids, isoelectric properties, general reactions of amino acids. Peptides of biological interest. Lipids: Definition, classification, chemical and physical properties, fatty acid composition of fats. Chemical reactions of fatty acids. Edible oils and their characteristic fatty acid composition. Characterization of fats, oils and waxes, phospholipids with special reference to lecithin and cephalic. Nucleic acids: Definition, composition and classification, structure and physiochemical properties, important functions of nucleic acids. Vitamins: Deinitation, clssification, structure and function. Enzymes: Definition, classification, Physiochemical properties, basic concepts of co-enzymes and prosthetic groups, mode of action of enzymes, factor affecting enzymatic reactions. Books Recommended: 1.Lehninger, Albert L.. Nelson David L ., Cox, M ichael M.,: Principle of Biochemistry 2. Murray, R. K., Granner, D. K., Mayes P. A. Riwell, V. W.: Harpers Biochemistry 3. Strayer, Lubert,.: Biochemistry 4. Morrison, R, Thornton, Boyd, R, Neilson. : Organic Chemistry GEN 128 BASIC BIOCHEMISTRY LAB 2 Hours/Week, 1 Credit 1. Preparation of Buffer solution 2. Color test for Carbohydrates (Benedict test, Molischs test) 3. Color tests for protein and amino acids (Ninhyrin test, Biuret test) 4. Estimation of sugar content of blood by Nelson Somogy Method 5. Determination of protein content of blood by Biuret method and calculation 6. Determination of saponification number of oil 7. Paper, thin layer and ion-exchange chromatography. 8. Quantitative measurments of ascorbic acid. GEN 129 FUNDAMENTALS OF MOLECULAR BIOILOGY 3 Hours/Week, 3 Credits

Molecular design of life: Introduction, overview of role of macromolecules; protein structure and function; Role of DNA and RNA; Molecules of heredity. DNA as genetic material: Any exception. Chemistry of nucleic acids: Composition of nucleic acids, bases, sugars, nucleosides, nucleotides and polynucleotides. DNA structure: Watson and Crick model and its characteristics, its physicochemical properties. Chargaff rules. Gene expression: Concept. (i) Replication as continuity of transfer of genetic information. (ii) Transcription, types of RNAs, their characteristics and function. (iii) Translation leading to functional protein synthesis, colinearity of genes and proteins. Application of Molecular Biology: Concept. (i) Recombinant DNA technology – isolation of genes, restriction endonuclease, vectors, cloning and expression of cloned genes. (ii) Agricultural and industrial applications, with examples, (iii) Application in medical and related fields – forensic studies, detection of molecular diseases, pharmaceutical production, gene therapy. (iv) Some Molecular Biology techniques – Polymerase chain reaction, DNA fingerprinting, DNA mapping, use of genetic markers, DNA sequencing. Hazard associated with Recombinant DNA technology: Concept and controversies of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO). Books Recommended: 1. Readings from Scientific American., Molecules of Life., W.H. Freeman and Company, New York. 2. Darn ell, J., Lodesh, H. and Baltimore, D. 1986. Molecular Cell Biology., W.H. Freeman and Company, New York. 3. Stryer, L. 1988. Biochemistry, W.H. Freeman and Company, New York. 4. Alberts, B. Bray, D. Lewis, J., 1989. Molecular Biology of the Cell. Garland Publishing, Inc. New York. 5. Stryer, L. 1989. Molecular Design of Life. W.H. Freeman and Company, New York. 6. Voet & Voet, 1991. Biochemistry. 7. Lehninger, Nelson, Cox, 1990. Principles of Biochemistry. GEN 131 PHYSIOLOGY OF LIVING ORGANISM 3 Hours/Week, 3 Credits General physiology: Introduction, definition, branches of physiology, glossary and terminology related to physiology. Blood circulation and cardiovascular system: Definition and different composition of blood and plasma proteins, their structure, functions, development and fate. Blood coagulation mechanism, blood groups, lymphoid system. Structure and properties of cardiac muscle, generation and conduction of cardiac impulse. E.C.G, events of cardiac cycle and cardiac outputs, factor affecting heart rate, haemodynamics, blood pressure and its regulation, fetal circulation and maternal circulation. Respiratory system: Different parts of respiratory system, functions and pulmonary circulation, mechanisms of respiration. O2 and CO2 transport in the body, regulation of respiration- nervous and chemical.Urinary system: Structure and functions of kidney, renal circulation, urine formation in mammals, birds, reptiles. Filtration, reabsorption of different components of tubular fluid, excretion, concentration of urine, concept of plasma clearance, acidification of urine. Digestive system: Structure and functions of digestive system, digestive enzymes, mechanisms of secretions of gastric juice, physiology of digestion and absorption of food (carbohydrates, proteins and fats).Reproductive system: Male and female reproductive system of human, mammals and birds, structure and functions of these organs, puberty, estrous and menstrual cycle, physiology of pregnancy, fertility, control and sterility. Endocrine system: Endocrine and exocrine glands of male and female, growth and sex hormones, structure, functions and mechanisms of regulation of hormones. Nervous system: Classification of nervous system, structure and functions of neuron, synapse, neurotransmitter and transmission of nerve impulse, control of sensory and motor function. Organization of nervous system, cerebral cortex, brain stem, cerebellum and spinal cord. Books Recommended: 1. Ganong, W. F., : Review of Medical Physiology. 2. Guyton, A. C. and Hall, J.E.,: Textbook of Medical Physiology 3. Gottschalk, Gerhard,. : Bacterial Metabolism. 4. Dataa, S. C., : Plant Physiology. GEN 132 PHYSIOLOGY OF LIVING ORGANISM LAB. 2 Hours/Week, 1 Credit Based on theory class ENG 103 ENGLISH LANGUAGE-II 2 Hours/Week, 2 Credits ENG-104 ENGLISH LANGUAGE-II LAB 2 Hours/Week, 1Credit

CSE 101S INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER APPLICATION 2 Hours/Week, 2 Credits Computer application syllabus should be proposed by CSE department. CSE 102S INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER APPLICATION LAB 2 Hours/Week, 1 Credit Computer application syllabus should be proposed by CSE department. GEN 134 FIELD WORK 4 Hours/Week, 1 Credit GEN 100 GENERAL VIVA VOCE 2 Hours/Week, 1 Credit GEN 221 MOLECULAR GENETICS 3 Hours/Week, 3 Credits Fine structure of gene: Classical versus molecular concept of gene. Structure and chemistry of nucleotides, nucleosides and nucleic acids. The Watson and Crick model of DNA structure. Different physico-chemical properties of DNA (Tm value, cot values, hybridization kinetics, different combinations of DNA). Mutagenesis: Definition, classification, molecular basis of mutation, kinds of mutagenic agents and their effects on organism, mutation affecting human beings, detection of mutation in Drosophila by CIB, Muller-5, attached-X methods, practical methods of mutation. Transposons: Terminology, Insertion sequence, detection of transposons in bacteria, structure of transposons and its nature, mechanism and role of transposons. Replication of DNA: Mode of replication, DNA polymerases, mechanism and control of DNA synthesis for prokaryotic and eukaryotic system. Repair of DNA: Alternation of DNA molecules- biological indication of repair, repair mechanism of thymine dimers, restriction and modification sites, the role of restriction enzymes in genetic engineering, excision and repair of mutant sequence. Gene regulation and expression: One gene- one polypeptide concept, protein synthesis transcription and translation, co-linearity of gene and polypeptide, genes and enzymes involved in the synthesis of arginine, tryptophan and histidine, gene regulation, structure and function of protein. Transcription: Prokaryotic and eukaryotic RNA polymerase, mechanism of transcription, reverse transcriptase, regulation of transcriptionoperon models and RNA splicing. Translation: Genetic codes, specificity, redundancy and Wobble hypothesis with experimental evidences, colomearity of gene and protein structure. Protein Synthesis: Ribosome structure, protein synthesis – initiation, elongation and termination, control of translation of both prokaryote and eukaryotes. ` Books Recommended: 1. Verma, P. S. and Agarwal, V. K., : Cell Biology, Genetics, Molecular Biology and Evolution 2. Adams, R. L. P.; Burden, R. H., Camphel, L. D. P.; Smiling, R. M. S. : The Biochemistry of the Nuclic Acids. 3. Brown, T.A. (1995). : Gene Cloning: An Introduction 4. Lewin, B. (1996) : Gene VI 5. Peter J. L. and Leegoog, C.R. (1993). : Plant Biochemistry & Molecular Biology GEN 222 MOLECULAR GENETICS LAB 2 Hours/Week, 1 Credit Based on the theory classes of Molecular genetics. GEN 223 INTRODUCTION TO MICROBIOLOGY 3 Hours/Week, 3 Credits Introduction: Definition, brief history of microbial world discovery, germ theory of disease, place of microbes found, major classification of living organism by different scientists, distinctive characteristics of major microbes group scope of microbiology. Characteristics of microorganism, classification, nomenclature and identification: Morphological characteristics, chemical characteristics, cultural characteristics, metabolic characteristics, antigenic characteristics, genetic characteristics, pathogenecity, ecological characteristics, classification, nomenclature, identification. Bacterial world: Morphology, size, shape, external and internal structure of bacteria, classification, nutritional requirement for bacterial culture, types of bacteriological culture media, physical condition for growth, reproduction, growth, maintenance and preservation of bacteria, importance and disadvantage of bacteria, bacterial disease. The virus: Definition, classification, characteristics, bacterio- phages; morphology, structure and component, replication, lytic cycle and lysogenic cycle, HIV, SARS, Dengue virus-their structure, characteristics and pathogenecity. Fungi: Molds and yeasts distinguishing characteristics, cultivation, some fungi of special interest, fungal disease and prevention. Algae: Characteristics, reproduction, biological and economical important of some species, algae and disease. Control of microorganism: Fundamentals of control, the control of microbes by

physical, chemical and antimicrobial agents, characteristics of these agents, evaluation of antimicrobial chemical agents. Books Recommended: 1. Pelezar, M.J; Chan, E.C.S. and Kreig, N.R.(1993). : Microbiology. McGraw Hill Inc. USA. 2. Tortera, G.J.; Funke, B.R. and Case, C.I., (1982). : Microbiology: An Introduction. 3. Stainer. R.Y.; Adelberg and Ingraham, I.J. : General Microbiology, MacMillan USA. 4. Purohit, S. S. (2004): Microbiology; Fundamentals & Applications, India GEN 224 INTRODUCTION TO MICROBIOLOGY LAB 2 Hours/Week, 1 Credits 1. Microscopic examination of bacteria; wet mount preparation, hanging drop technique, simple staning, gram staining and acid fast staining. 2. Isolation and identification of bacteria from different sources. 3. Susceptibility of microbes against antibiotic 4. Measurement of bacterial growth by turbidometric and count methods. 5. Isolation of yeast from natural sources. GEN 225 CYTOGENETICS 3 Hours/week, 3 Credits Introduction: Definition, extent and brief history. The chromosome complement: Morphological structure, nomenclature and characteristics of chromosome, chemical organization and ultra structure of chromosome, viral chromosome. Euchromatin, Heterochromatin, karyotype and banding pattern of chromosome, cytogenetics of sex determination and sex differentiation. Structural changes of chromosome: Deletion, duplication, inversion, translocation; Definition, types, origin, meiotic behavior and role of evolution, uses in cytogenetical study. Numerical changes of chromosome: Polyploidy, autopolyploidy, autotetraploids, allopolyploids, trisomic (primary, secondary and tertiary), monosomic and nullisomic and haploid. Molecular cytogenetics: Nuclear DNA content and its organization, Genetic, cytogenetic and physical maps using molecular markers.

Books Recommended:
1. Gupta, P. K., : Cytogenetics. 2. Sinha, U. and Sinha, S., : Cytogenetics, Plant Breeding and Evolution. 3. Verma, P. S. and Agarwal, V. K., : Cell biology, Genetics, Molecular biology, Evolution and Ecology. 4. Shukla and Chandel, : Cytogenetics and Evolution. GEN 226 CYTOGENETICS LAB 2 Hours/week, 1 Credit Based on the theory classes of Cytogenetics. GEN 227 ENZYMES AND BIOENERGETICS 4 Hours/Week, 4 Credits Introduction: Definition, classification, factors affecting enzyme activity, active site, activation energy, equilibrium constant, binding energy, interaction between enzyme and substrate, general acid-base catalysis, covalent catalysis, metal ion catalysis. Enzyme kinetics: Michaelis-Menten equation, Line Weaver-Burk equation. Enzyme inhibition: Reversible and irreversible inhibition; competative, noncompetative and uncompetative inhibition. Regulatory Enzymes: Allosteric Enzymes, kinetic behavior of allosteric enzyme, mechanism of regulatory activity of allosteric enzyme, covalent modification of enzymes isozyme. Enzyme immobilization .Microbial screening, selection and strain improvement: Sources of industrial used microorganism, techniques of microbial screening, methods of strain improvement. Enzyme isolation, purification and assay: Objective and stratigies in enzyme purification,clarification of soluble enzyme, methods of concentrating enzymes, various curomatographic method for enzyme purification, examples of purification procedure, techniques of enzyme assay, determination of molecular wt and amino acid compsition. Industrial production of Enzymes: Enzymes isolated on industrial scale and their application. Bioenergetics and metabolism: Bioenergetics and thermodynamics, high energy compound, the ATP cycle, occurrences and properties of ATP, ADP and AMP, AP, transfer of phosphate group, ATP as the source of energy, role of AMP and pyrophosphate, other high energy compounds. Mitochondria: Structure, enzyme localization , mitochondrial electron flow, electron carriers. Biological Oxidation and Reduction Reactions: Oxidative phosphorylation and dephosphorylation: ATP Synthesis: Coupling with respiratory electron flow, the chemiosmotic model, mitochondrial oxidation of cytosolic NADH, energetic of electron transport, uncoupling and inhibition of electron transport, regulation of oxidative phosphorylation.

Books Recommended: 1. Wiseman, A. : Principles of Biotechnology. 2. Nicholas C. Price and Lewis Stevens. : Fundamental of Enzymology 3. Watson, J.D. Gilman, M, Witkowskli, J., Zoller, M. : Recombinant DNA Technology GEN 228 ENZYMES AND BIOENERGETICS 2 Hours/week, 1 Credit Based on the theory classes of Cytogenetics. GEN 229 BIOSTATISTICS 3 Hours/Week, 3 Credits Introduction: Definition, Branches of statistics, nature of statistics, uses of statistics in biological science, Variables, classification, construction of frequency distribution, Graphical representation of data. Central tendency, Measures of Central tendency, Quintiles, Dispersion, Measures of Dispersion, moments, Skew ness and kurtosis. Probability: Elementary theory of probability, laws of probability, additive and multiplicative laws of probability and Bay’s theorem. Random variables, probability distribution, derivation, properties and uses of Binomial, Poisson and Normal distribution to observed data. Techniques of Sampling: The concept of statistical population and parameters Samples and random sample statistical characterization of samples. Definition and use of standardized normal variate. Descriptive statistics: Calculation of the mean, variance and standard deviation, Machine method of calculating the variance and standard deviation, Estimation of standard deviation from the range, Standard deviation of the mean, Confidence limit of the mean. Correlation and Regression: Definition, correlation coefficient, product moment correlation coefficient to measure the relationship between variables in a bi-variate distribution. Fitting simple linear regression to observed data by the method of least squares. Hypothesis: Test of Hypothesis, type I and type II errors and level of significance, preliminary idea on t-test, F-test, Chi square test and their application. Testing hypothesis regarding population mean, equality of two means, population variance equality of two means, population variance equality of two population variances, goodness of fit and independence of two attributes in a contingency table and test of significance of correlation coefficient and regression coefficients. Principles of experimental design: Field layout and analysis of variance in completely randomized design, randomized block design and Latin square design. Analysis of covariance in a completely randomized design. Probit analysis: The estimation of 50 percent endpoints. Graphic approximation of LD50 value. Method of estimation of 50 per cent endpoints. Books recommendation: 1. Steel, R.D.G and Torry, J.H (1960). : Principles and procedures of statistics. McGraw Hill Book Co. Inc. NewYork 2. Mian, M.& Miyan, Alimullah, M. (1984). : Introduction to Statistics. 3. Cochraan . W.G & Cox. G. M., : Experimental Designs. 4. Shill & R Debnath; Introduction to Statistics 5. Mostafa M. N., Method of statistic, Bangladesh 6. Islam M.N Introduction to statistic and probability, 3rd edition. GEN 230 BIOSTATISTICS LAB 3 Hours/Week, 1.5 Credit Based on the theory classes of Biostatistics. PHY 215 BIOPHYSICS 2 Hours/Week, 2 Credits Biophysics syllabus should be proposed by physics department. GEN 231 METABOLISM AND METABOLIC REGULATION 4 Hours/Week, 4 Credits General aspects of metabolism: Experimental approaches to the study of metabolism, a survey of intermediary metabolism. Glycolysis: The glycolytic pathway, metabolism of disaccharides, pentoses and hexoses, physiological importance of anaerobic glycolysis, fructose intolerance, The tricarboxylic acid cycle: Cycle overview, the discovery of the TCA cycle, amphibolic nature of the cycle, anaplerotic reactions, pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency. Other pathways of carbohydrate degradation: The pentose phosphate pathway, the glyoxylate pathway. Biosynthesis of carbohydrate: Gluconeogenesis, biosynthesis of di-, oligo-, and polysaccharides, glycoproteins and nucleotide sugar formation. Fatty acid metabolism: Fatty acid oxidation, utilization of fatty acids for energy production, ketone body formation and utilization.Lipid metabolism: lipid biosynthesis, fatty acid biosynthesis, storage of fatty acids as triglycerides, , cholesterol metabolism, Disorders of lipid metabolism. Amino acid LAB

metabolism: general reactions of amino acids, oxidative degradation of amino acids, amino acid biosynthesis, nitrogen fixation, clinical correlations: phenylketonuria, alkaptonuria, folic acid deficiency, hyperammonemia and hepatic coma, deficiencies of the urea cycle enzymes. Nucleotide metabolism : synthesis of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides, formation of deoxyribonucleotides, nucleotide degradation, antimetabolites of purine and pyrimidine nucleotide metabolism. heme metabolism. Xenobiotics : Introduction, general properties, role of liver in such metabolism, characteristics of cytochrome P450, methods of xenobiotic metabolism. Regulation of enzyme activity: Enzyme availability, alteration of catalytic efficiency. Hormones: General introduction, classification and chemistry, feed back control, second messenger, role Camp, ca2+ as 2nd messengers, phosphotidyl inositol, mechanism of action of Epinephrine, Glucagons, Insulin and steroid hormone. Metabolic Integration: regulation of metabolism in liver, muscle and adipose tissues. Books Recommended: 1.Lehninger, Albert L.. Nelson David L ., Cox, M ichael M.,: Principle of Biochemistry 2. Murray, R. K., Granner, D. K., Mayes P. A. Riwell, V. W.: Harpers Biochemistry 3. Strayer, Lubert,.: Biochemistry GEN 233 MICROBIAL GENETICS 3 Hours/Week, 3 Credits Bacterial Chromosome: Structure and Replication (Review).Plasmid: Introduction, structure and replication, replication of Col E1, R6k and conjugative plasmid control of plasmid replication, plasmid curing r-plasmid and antibiotic resistance, mechanism of antibiotic resistance. Conjugation: F+ and F- like plasmids, tra-operon, sex pilli, formation of hfr strain, gene mapping by conjugation analysis, transfer of non-conjugative plasmid by conjgative plasmid, plasmid mobilization, chromosome transfer by f cultures of E. coli k-12.conjugation and chromosome transfer in other bacteria, conjugal transfer of r-plasmid. Transformation and electroporation: Competence, uptake of DNA,transfection, artificially induced competence. DNA transfer by electroporation. Transduction: Generalized transduction, experimental evidence, origin of generalized transducing phages, genetic mapping by different transductant classes. Specialized transduction, experimental evidence, origin of specialized transducing phage particle. Phage genetics: Phage T4; T4 life cycle (lysis Vs lysogeny), genetic recombination in phage T4, genetic fine structure. Phage φ x174 ---life cycle, genetic organization. Transposon and insertion sequences: Transposable eliments, the mechanism of transposion. Transposon mutagenesis. Molecular cloning: Restriction endonuclease and digestion of DNA. Ligases; blunt ended ligation, linker. Homopolymar tailing. Cloning Vector; use of bacterial plasmid, λ DNA, cosmid, yeast plasmid as cloning vector. Gene libraries. Yeast Genetics: Mating type genetics of yeast, yeast plasmid, mitrocondrial inheritance in yeast. Books Recommended: 1. Avers, C.J. : Genetics 2. Brock, T.D Martinco, J.M and Parker, J.,: Biology of Microorganism. 3. Hardy, K. M.,: Bacterial Plasmid 4. Strickberger, M.W., : Genetics 5. Suzuki, Griffith and Miller. : Introduction to Genetic Analysis. GEN 234 MICROBIAL GENETICS LAB 2 Hours/Week, 1 Credit Based on the theory classes of microbial genetics. GEN 235 CONCEPTS OF BIOTECHNOLOGY 4 Hours/Week, 4 Credits Introduction: Definition, history, technology level, application of BT, BT and developing countries. Recombinant DNA technology: Selection and processing of foreign gene, selection and processing of vector, ligation, transgenic organism. Biotechnology and fermentation process: Definition of fermentation, fermentation, process and products, bioreactor designs. Food biotechnology: Introduction, alcoholic beverages, dairy products, food enzymes, food waste, fermented foods and drinks bakery process. Biotechnology and agriculture: Application in agriculture, their advantages and disadvantages, Biotechnological tool used in crop production, plant tissue culture, genetic manipulated plant, nitrogen fixation and biofertilizer, biopesticide, herbicide for insect and weed control, mushroom production. Biotechnology and animal production: Animal cell and tissue culture, transgenic animal production, pharmaceutical product and blood substitutes from transgenic animal, Biotechnology used in animal development, embryo transfer. Biotechnology in medicine: Production of regulatory protein, blood products, antibiotics, vaccines, monoclonal antibody, gene therapy. Biotechnology in fuel generation: Sources of biomass, ethanol from biomass, methane from biomass, biogas. Biotechnology and environment: Oil pollution and control, microbes and geological environment, pesticide and herbicide pollution and control, heavy metal pollution and control, sewage disposal,

biosensor and bioremediation. Safety in Biotechnology: Problems of transgenic organism, human cloning and ethics, new organism pathogenecity problems of biologically active biotechnological products. Books Recommended: 1. Smith, J.E. : Biotechnology 2. Bubey, R.C. : Introduction to Biotechnology 3. Bilgrami and Pandey. : Introduction to Biotechnology GEN 337 PLANT PHYSIOLOGY 3 Hours/week, 3 Credits Introduction: Importance, scope and application of plant physiology. Mineral nutrition: The chemical composition of plant, classification of plant nutrients, deficiency symptoms, macro and micronutrients. Hydroponics and its significance. Plant cell specialties, chloroplast: Detailed structure. Photosynthesis: Photosynthetic apparatus and pigment system, transformation of light energy into chemical energy, factors affecting photosynthesis, C3, C4 and CAM pathways, significance of photosynthesis, source and sink relationship. Respiration: respiratory substrates, glycolysis, kreb cycle and electron transport system, hexos-monophosphate pathway, photorespiration and its significance. Plant growth regulators: physiological and biochemical role, use of phytohormone in agriculture and plant tissue culture. Physiology of flowering: Mechanism of flowering, florigen, light image, photoperiodism and vernalization. Growth and development: factors, kinds, shoot growth, life processes of plants, leaf area index, and growth rate. Light and plant life --- Light sensing by plants; Photomorphogenesis; Phytochromoe and blue light photoreceptors; Effect of UV light on biological systems; Significance of biological clocks. Dormancy and germination of seeds: definition, germination and seed viability, types and causes, process of germination, causes of losses of seed viability. Secondary metabolites: Types, Alkaloids and plant phenolics, commercial application, production via plant cell culture. Books Recommended: 1. Galstone, A.W. and Davies, P.J. 1970. Control Mechanism in Plant Development., Prentice Hall Inc, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey. 2. Galstone, A.W. and Davies, P.J. 1980. A Life of a Green Plant., Prentice Hall Inc, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey. 3. Noggle, G.R. and Fritz, G.J. 1983., Introductory Plant Physiology., Prentice Hall Inc, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey. 4. Salisbury, F.B. and Ross, C.W. 1983., Plant Physiology., Wardsworth Pub. Co. USA. 5. Devlin, R.M. 1988., Plant Physiology., Reinhold Pub. Co. New York. GEN 338 PLANT PHYSIOLOGY LAB. 2 Hours/week, 1 Credit Based on the theory classes. CSE 203S INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER LANGUAGE 2 Hours/week, 2 Credits Introduction to computer language syllabus should be proposed by CSE Department. CSE 204S INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER LANGUAGE LAB 4 Hours/week, 2 Credits Introduction to computer language Lab. syllabus should be proposed by CSE Department. ECO 103A PRINCIPLES OF ECONOMICS 3 Hours/Week, 3 Credits Principles of economics syllabus should be proposed by economics department. GEN 238 FIELD WORK 4 Hours/Week, 1 Credit GEN 200 GENERAL VIVA VOCE 2 Hours/week, 1 Credit GEN 321 ANIMAL ANATOMY AND REPRODUCTION 3 Hours/week, 3 Credits

Introductory anatomy: Definition, branches of anatomy, anatomical terms, methods of study anatomy, importance of anatomy in the field of genetics. Osteology: Skeleton, classification of bones, composition and structure of bones, bones of cattle, goat, chicken including limb, skull, vertebrae and visceral bones. Definition and Scope of animal reproduction, Types of reproduction in various species of animals, relationship of reproduction with genetics and breeding. Reproductive System: Male and female reproductive system of economically important animals ,Reproductive system of cattle, sheep, horse, dog ,monkey and chicken. etc. Reproductive Endocrinology: Definition of hormone and receptor, classification, properties function and mode of action of reproductive hormones, endocrine regulation system governing male and female reproduction, hormone assay, hormone like substances- growth factor and prostaglandins. Use of synthetic and placental hormone. Transport and survival of gametes and embryos in vivo. Germ cells: Primordial germ cells, life history of the germ cells, oogenesis, biochemical aspects of oogenesis, ovulation, follicular atresia, the structure of the egg, spermatogenesis, sperm transport in the male and female genital tract, egg ‘pick-up’, movement of egg along the fallopian tube. Reproductive cycle and sexual behavior : Puberty, modern concept of the attainment of puberty in male and female, practical application of puberty, estrous cycle, endocrine mechanism of sexual behavior, endocrine, physiologic and behavioral changes during estrous in different farm animals, breeding season and its effect on reproduction. Fertilization, pregnancy and parturition: Fertilization, preparation of gamets, acrosome reaction, interaction of spermatozoa with the zona pellucida, gamet fusion, activation of the egg, cleavage, blastocyst formation, implantation, embryonic and fetal development, act of parturition. Books Recommended: 1. Hafez, E.S.E. : 1993. Reproduction in farm animals. (6th edn) Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia. 2. Lamming , G.E. : Marshall’s Physiology of Reproduction. 1990 (4th edn) Churchill Livingstone, London. 3. Austin C.R and Short, R.V. : Reproduction in mammals: Book 1, Germ cells and fertilization. 4. Austin C.R and Short, R.V. : Reproduction in mammals: Book 2. Embryonic an 5. R.K. Ghosh. Primary veterinary anatomy; Current books international, kolkata, 4th edition (2006) 6. Getty, R. : Sisson and Grossman’s The anatomy of the Domestic animals, 5th edition, W.B. Saunders and Co. Philadelphia (USA) GEN 322 ANIMAL ANATOMY AND REPRODUCTION LAB. 2 Hours/week, 1 Credit Based on the theory classes GEN 323 PLANT TISSUE AND CELL CULTURE 3 Hours/week, 3 Credits Introduction: Definition, types, history and development, theory of tote potency, importance. Laboratory organization and aseptic techniques: Lab, facilities, design, operation and management, aseptic technique for plant tissues, chemicals, instruments, glass wares, personal hygiene. Culture media: Definition, components, composition, function of components, preparation and media selection, solidification and maintenance of media. Explants collection & tissue culture: Selection, collection and preparation of explants, callus and suspension culture, batch and continuous culture, callus induction and maintenance, transfer of cultures and subcultures, storage of cultured cells, initiation and establishment of embryogenic suspension culture, effect of culture condition on growth. Growth and regeneration: Growth process, characteristics and measurement method of growth, organogenesis, morphogenesis, precaution and trouble shooting in plant tissue culture. Micro propagation: Definition, direct and indirect method of different plant, factors of shoots and root multiplication. Protoplast culture: Isolation, purification and culture of protoplast. Anther/pollen culture: Collection, processing and method, in-vitro pollination and fertilization. Production of disease free plants: Methods of virus elimination, versus indexing, eradication of pathogen other than virus, application and limitation, selection of decease resistant strains in-vitro. Somatic embryogenesis: Procedure, embryo development, mutation, plant formation, somatic hybridization and cybridization. Plant tissue culture in germplasm conservation & industrial application Books Recommended: 1. Razdan, M.K. : An Introduction to Plant Tissue Culture. 2. Bhojwani, S.S. : Plant Tissue Culture 3. Vasil, I,K. and Thrope. Plant Cell and Tissue Culture. GEN 324 PLANT TISSUE AND CELL CULTURE LAB 2 Hours/week, 1 Credit Based on the theory classes of plant tissue and cell culture.

GEN 325 MOLECULAR MARKERS AND GENE MANIPULATION 3 Hours/Week, 3 Credits Introduction: Concept, genetic principles, variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs)/Minisattellite sequences, short tandem repeats (STRs)/Microsattellite sequences, hybrid arrester translation, hybrid released translation. DNA Fingerprinting: Hybridization based DNA fingerprinting (RFLP) - radioactive, fluorescent and chemiluminescent methods; PCR-based DNA fingerprinting-Single locus and multi-locus DNA fingerprinting, RAPD, AFLP. Application of PCR, RT-PCR, LCR, differential display, RNA fingerprinting. Polymorphisms: Polymorphism of some genetic locus in relation to diseases. Applications of DNA Fingerprinting: Identification of genotypes/varieties/breeds/strains; animal and plant protection right, criminal investigation, immigration, paternity dispute, identification of missing children, bodies found in plane crush, road accidents etc. Marker assisted selection: By RAPD, SSR. Gene manipulation: Definition of cloning, types, history, Procedure of cloning: Animal, plant and microbes. Gene mapping: The human genome project, present status, strategies, potential benefits. genomic library building, DNA cloning, screening. Cloning for expression, commercial and medical applications Drawback of cloning: Ethical concerns connected with human gene cloning. Books Recommended: 1. Fowler, EA. 1993. Techniques for Engineering Genes. Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., UK. 2. Gupta, P.K. 1997. Cell and Molecular Biology. Rastogi Pub., India. 3. Henry, R.J. 1984. Practical Applications of Plant Molecular Biology. Chapman and Hall Pub., London. 4. Micklos, D.A. and G.A. Freyer. 1990. DNA Science, Cold Spring Harbor Lab Press, New York. 5. Stansfield, W.D. 1996. Theory and Problems of Molecular and Cell Biology. McGraw Hill Co., New York. 6. Weising, K., H. Nybom, K. Woff, and W. Meyer. 1995. DNA Fingerprinting in Plants and Fungi. CRC Press, USA. GEN 327 IMMUNOLOGY 3 Hours/Week, 3 Credits Introduction to immunology and immune system: Innate and adaptive immunity, molecular and cellular basis of immune system, soluble mediators of immunity, cytokines, antigen, haptens and carriers and inflammation. Cells involved in immune response: Lymphocytes (T cells, B cells and NK cells), development maturation, activation, recognition and accessory molecules and T & B cells, Natural killer cells. Antigen, Antibody and T cell receptor: Antigen antibody reaction, structure and general properties of immunoglobulin, structure of T-cell receptor, theories of antibody production, purification of antibody, immunoglobulin genes and diversity. Vaccination: Adminstration of vaccines, antigen used as vaccines, effectiveness of vaccines, adjuvant, active and passive immunity. Complements: Introduction, nomenclature, activities of complement, activation of complement, classical and alternative pathways, biological effects of complement. Immunopathology: Hypersensitivity, autoimmunity and autoimmune disease, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Immunological techniques: Immunodiffusion, heamagglutination and complement fixation test, direct and indirect immunoflauroscence, Radio immune Assay (RIA), enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Some examples of immunological procedures used in bioassay. MHC molecules: Discovery and function, class, antigen processing and presentation, genomic organization of MHC, MHC polymorphism. Gene therapy: Definition, history. Human gene therapy: Uses in different disease recovery. Cancer gene therapy: Definition, causes, recovery through gene therapy. Transplantation and rejection: Barriers of transplantation, histocompatibility antigens, laws of transplantation, role of T lymphocytes in graft rejection.

Books Recommended:
1. Donald, M. W.,: Immunology. 2. Roitt, M., : Immunolgy. GEN 328 IMMUNOLOGY LAB 2 Hours/Week, 1 Credit Based on the theory classes of Immune genetics. GEN 329 QUANTITATIVE AND POPULATION GENETICS 4 Hours/Week 4 Credits Introduction: Relations among Mendelian genetics, quantitative genetics population genetics, its scope. Genetic Constitution of a population: Gene frequency, genotype frequency, Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium, changes of gene frequency in migration, mutation, selection and small population, the idealized population and inbred population. Variation, values and means: Phenotypic and genotypic values, average effect and breeding values, genetic

components of variance, Environmental variance and repeatability. Phenotypic and genetic resemblance between relatives. Genetic and environmental covariance, Heritability and its estimation, genetic and environmental correlation. Selection and Breeding: Response to selection and its prediction, long term selection effects, efficiency in various methods of selection, inbred lines, heterosis, synthetic population, general and specific combining abilities, scale effects, threshold characters, and fitness related to metric characters. Polygenic inheritance: Continuous variation, polygene, major genes, genic basic and biometrical approach. Component of variation: Additive and dominance effects, non–allelic interactions in polygenic system; Heritability and genetic advance, components, of variation. Estimation of Genetic parameters: Calculation of genetic parameters and non- genetic components of phenotypic variance of genetically engineered plants in single location. Genotype–environment Interaction: Genotype–environment interaction in segregating and non–segregating generations. Heritability and selection: Estimation of heritability (broad and narrow sense), correlated characters, genetic and environmental correlation, path-coefficient analysis and selection, selection response and its application. Gene frequencies and equilibrium: Gene frequencies, gene pool, conservation of gene frequencies stain of equilibrium of two or more loci. Co dominance of natural population. Sex linkage in natural population and multiple alleles. Migration and population structure: Estimation of migration and population structures. Direct observation of migration. The continent of Island Model. Genetic drift: Effect of genetic drift, effective population size. Books Recommended: 1. Mather, K. and Jinks, J. L., : Biometrical Genetics(The study of continuous variation) Third Ed. 2. Strickberger, M. W., : Genetics 3. Falconer, D. S., : Introduction to Quantitative Genetics. Second Ed. 4. Mather, K. and Jinks, J. L., : Introduction to Biometrical Genetics. 5. Falconer, D.S. 1989 (3rd edn),: Introduction to Quantitative Genetics. Longman, London. 6. Chapman, A.B. : General and Quantitative Genetics. World Animal Science, A4 Elsevier Scientific publications, B.V. Amsterdam 1985. 7. Hedrick, P. W., : Genetics of population. GEN 331 GENETIC ENGINEERING 3 Hours/Week, 3 Credits Introduction: Definition, scope, basic steps, merits & problems. Basic tools of gene manipulation: DNA modification enzymes, foreign DNA, cloning vectors, cDNA library, genomic library, prerequisite for plant genetic engineering. Cloning Vectors: Character for good cloning vector, types. Characteristics and structure of different cloning vectors, cloning from m RNA, synthesis and cloning of cDNA, cloning from gene library. Production of transgenic plants: Identification and isolation of gees, preparation of plant nuclear, chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA preparation, gene transfer method, mechanism and relative advantages of physical and biological methods, strategy of stable transformation, foreign gene expression. Genetic manipulation of flower pigmentation, provitamin A, iron, proteins in rice. Plant as bioreactor-antibodies, polymers, foreign proteins in seeds. Edible vaccines in food products. Animal genetic engineering: Micromanipulation of farm animal embryos embryo and gamete sex selection; nuclear transplantation, sperm separation, embryonic sex selection, gene transfer through embryonic microinjection, production of transgenic animals, production of transgenic animals, prospect of transgenic livestock., PCR based cloning. Genetic Engineering in Medicine and Industry: Production of transgenic microbes, Commercial synthesis of hormones, vaccines, large scale preparation of organic chemicals, biomining. Books Recommended: 1. Watson. : Recombinant DNA Technology. 2. Foster, G.D. and Twell, D. : Plant Gene Isolation: Principles and Practice. 3. Barbuik. L.A.; Philliips, J.P and M. Moo-Young. : Animal Biotechnology: Comprehensive Biotechnology GEN 332 GENETIC ENGINEERING LAB 2 Hours/Week, 1 Credit Based on the theory classes of Genetic Engineering. GEN 333 ANIMAL TISSUE AND CELL CULTURE 3 Hours/Week, 3 Credits Introduction to animal tissue culture: Definition, type and history & development, Importance of cell, tissue and organ culture. Background of Animal Cell culture: Animal cell cultures new understanding, new developments. Animal cell culture technology in the 21st century. Laboratory Organization: Facilities, design, operation and management. Media: Components, composition, functions of components, preparation and media selection. Solidification and maintenance of media. Equipping the laboratory: Essential, beneficial and useful additional equipmentsconsumable items. Contamination, laboratory safety and biohazards: Types of microbial contamination,

detection of microbial contamination, cross contamination, general safety, fire, radiation and biohazards. Preparation and sterilization: Principles of sterilization of apparatus, reagents and media. The cell culture environment: Substrate, gas phase, medium and temperature. The substrate: plastic and glass wares; tissue culture flasks, culture vessels. The gas phase: Oxygen, carbondioxide, Medium and Supplements: physical properties, constituents of media, serum, serum-free media; selection of medium and serum, other supplements, incubation temperature. Isolation of tissue and primary culture: Mouse embryos and hen’s egg.Culture of specific cell types: epithelial cells, mesenchymal cells, neuroectodermal cells, hemopoietic cells. Culture of tumor tissue- general method, selective culture. Three- Dimensional culture system: Organ culture, histotypic culture, filter wells. Preparation of cell line: Isolation of different types of animal tissue; fibroblast, liver, kidney, bone marrow and their uses, Physical methods of cell separation. Maintenance of cultured cells: Routine observation and maintenance; cloning and selection of specific cell-types. Quantitation and experimental design: selection of cell line; experimental design; growth phase: cell counting, preparation of samples for enzyme assay and immune assay, preparation of samples for extraction of DNA and RNA. Books Recommended: 1. Befuery, Griffiths and Zeijlemaker : Animal Cell Technology 2. Ian Fresshney, R. : Culture of Animal Cells 3. Chirkjian, J. G. : Biotechnology : Theory and Techniques GEN 334 ANIMAL TISSUE AND CELL CULTURE LAB 2 Hours/Week, 1 Credit Based on the theory classes of Animal Tissue and Cell Culture. GEN 335 PLANT GENETICS AND BREEDING 4 Hours/Week, 4 Credits Introduction: Definition, history, scope and objectives in plant genetics and breeding. Genetic basis of plant breeding. Fine structure of plant gene, genetical variation of leaves in higher plant, inheritance of extra nuclear genes. Contribution of national research institutes for the development of improved varieties of important crops. Origin and evolution of cultivated crop plants- Wheat and Rice. Reproductive system in relation to plant breeding: Relevance of mode of reproduction to plant breeding. Modes and methods of reproduction, modes of pollination, anthesis, mechanisms and genetic significance of pollination control/method. Concept of yield and yield contributing characters of some important crops. Self incompatibility and male sterility. Hybridization techniques and consequences: Definition, objectives, prerequisites, advantages and disadvantages of hybridization. Selfing and crossing techniques, difficulties and precaution, rising of the F1 generation, techniques in field traits. Heterosis and inbreeding depression: Heterosis; Types, scope, genetic, physiological and biochemical basis, use of heterosis in plant breeding. Inbreeding depression; Genetic effects of inbreeding depression (in plant, animals, human and fishes) practical application of inbreeding, genetical basis of heterosis and inbreeding depression. Methods of breeding: Self pollinated crop; Mass selection, pure line selection, pedigree method and bulk method of selection and single seed discent.Cross pollinated crop; Variety concept, mass selection, recurrent selection, inbreed lines and evaluation of inbreed lines(general combining ability and specific combining ability), synthetic variety. Asexually propagated crops of potato and sugarcane.Mutation breeding, clone and clonal selection, Breeding for insect and disesases resistance. Plant genetic resources in plant breeding: Definition and classification of germplasm. Biodiversity and genetic diversity and its significance, genetic erosion, implication and methods of germplasm conservation. Distant hybridization: Concept, objectives and techniques of production of distant hybrids, application and limitation in crop improvement. Evaluation of advance homozygous line. Improved varieties: Principles and methods, production practices. Release and evaluation of new varieties. Distribution of improved seeds from laboratory to farmers. Production of hybrid and synthetic varieties. Books Recommended: 1. Singh, B. D., : A Text Book of Plant Breeding. 2. Allard, R. W., : Principles of Plant Breeding. 3. Simmonds, N. W., : Principles of Crop improvement. 4. Chopra, V. L., : Plant Breeding theory and Practice. GEN 337 INDUSTRIAL AND PHARMACEUTICAL BIOTECHNOLOGY 3 Hours/Week, 3 Credits Introduction: Definition, history, biotechnology used in industry and pharmaceuticals. Concept of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP): Practice of GMP, Quality Control, Quality Assurance and In-process control in Pharmaceutical and Industry. Effect of microorganism in Pharmaceuticals: Affects of microorganism in pharmaceuticals and industries environment, water, skin, respiratory tract flora, raw materials, plant sanitation,

building and equipment. Production of pharmaceutical products: Production of polyclonal and monoclonal antibiotics, antibodies, vaccine and immunosera, cell culture and hybridoma technology. Modern pharmaceutical products by recombinant DNA technology: Interferon, insulin, somatostain, human growth hormone, etc. Test and techniques used for good pharmaceutical product: Sterility testing, purification of pharmaceutical products, potency of antibiotics and microbial quality control. Disease and diagnosis: Infectious and genetic disease, diagnosis of diseases by conventional and DNA based probes, gene therapy and counseling. Books Recommended: 1. Huge, W.B. and Russel, A.D.Edited : Pharmaceutical Microbiology, 2. Board, R.G. Allowodd, M.C. Bank, J.G. (Edited) : Preservatives in the pharmaceutical, food & environment industries. Blackwell Scientific Publication. GEN 339 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3 Hours/Week, 3 Credits Introduction: Definition, types and objectives of research process, criteria of good research, basic concept of experiment & research. Logistic support: Direct & indirect logistic support for effective research. Research planning and methodology: Meaning and characteristics of a problem, selections of a problem, meaning and characteristics of a good hypothesis, formulating and ways of stating of problem, meaning and characteristics stating of hypothesis, research approach, research project planning, identification and priorization of research problems for appropriate technology development. Research system in Bangladesh: In agriculture, industry, fish, livestock and different university. Data collection and presentation: Research design, data analysis in multiyear and multiplication; yield trial of genetically engineered crop varieties and calculation of genetically values. Research project preparation, implementation and evaluation, Review of literature: Purpose and source of review, preparation of index card for reviewing and abstracting, review of scientific reports. Method of writing annual reports and research highlights and interpretation: Concept, technique and significance and precautions of interpretation types, purpose, format, steps and significance of research reports, evaluation of research reports, salient feature of research high lights and executive summary. Books Recommended: 1. Kothari, C.R., : Methods and Techniques. 2. Sing, A.K., : Measurements and Research Methods In Behavioral Sciences. GEN 340 FIELD WORK 4 Hours/Week, 1 Credit GEN 300 GENERAL VIVA VOCE 2 Hours/week, 1 Credit GEN 421 ANIMAL GENETICS AND BREEDING 4 Hours/Week, 4 Credits Introduction: Need for animal products, concept of animal genetics, application of genetics in livestock and other economical animals. Mendelian genetics: Principles of inheritance- the law of segregation and the law of independent assortment, modification of Mendelian ratios – lack of dominance, lethal genes, epistasis, linkage and crossing over. Sex determination and sex linkage: Mechanism of sex determination, free martin, intersexes and super sexes, sex linked, sex influenced and sex limited characters. Chromosomal aberration: Deletion and duplication. Aneuploidy and polyploidy in animals, chromosomal abnormality syndromes in animals. Karyotype and Genetic maps: linear arrangement of gene in chromosome, linkage maps of Drosophila chromosomes, maps of human chromosome, Giant chromosomes in the salivary glands of flies. Concept of animal breeding. Its development and application, domestication of farm animals, development of breed association. Population, breeds and breed structure,. Phenotypic variation: Values and means, discrete and continuous variation, normal distribution, components of phenotypic and genetic variation, genotype-environment interaction, average effect of genes. Population parameters: Heritability, repeatability and genetic correlation- definition, methods of estimation and their uses. Breeding value: Definition, estimation and uses, most probable producing ability (MPPA), transmitting ability, best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP), Quantitative trait loci (QTL). Selection: Natural and artificial selection, selection objectives and selection criteria, mass selection, pedigree selection, family selection, progeny testing, sib testing, methods of selection for more than one traits. Selection for correlated traits. Single gene effect in animal breeding, Nucleus breeding system, accuracy of selection. Response to selection: Selection program for livestock improvement, prediction and estimation of selection response, selection limit. Mating System: Inbreeding, inbreeding depression, crossbreeding and Heterosis, selection for combining ability, formation of synthetic breeds, grading-up and species hybridization, breed conservation. Breeding plan formulation:

Improvement goal, existing genetic resources, improvement policy, breeding policy formulation for livestock, rabbit and zoo animals. Books Recommended: 1. Warwick, E.J. and Legates. 1987. : Breeding and Improvement of farm animal (7th ed.) McGraw Hill Book Co. Inc., New York. 2. Lasely, J.F. 1978. : Genetics of Livestock Improvement (3rd edn.) Prentice Hall of India, New Delhi. 3. Malcolm B. Willis. 1991. : Dalton’s Introduction to practical animal breeding (3rd edn) Blackwell Sci. London. 4. Verma, P.S. and V.K Agarwal 1985. : Genetics (6th edn) S. Chand and Co. Ltd. New Delhi. 5. Gardner, E.J ., M.J. Simmons and D.P. Snustad. 1991. : Genetics (18th edn) John Wiley and Sons. New York. 6. Strickberger, M.W. 1968. : Genetics. McMillan, New York. GEN 422 ANIMAL GENETICS AND BREEDING LAB. 2 Hours/week, 1 Credit Based on the theory classes. GEN 423 PROTEOMICS, GENOMICS AND BIOINFORMATICS 4 Hours/Week, 4 Credits Introduction to Bioinformatics: the fundamentals of protein and nucleic acid Sequence analysis, Database searching, pairwise alignments, database searching including BLAST, Sequence analysis with PERL, Multiple sequence alignments, phylogenetic analysis, Profile searches of databases, revealing protein motifs, 3D structural comparisons, predictions and modeling. Genomics: Genetics to genomics, genomes sequencing strategies. Genome Sequence Acquisition and Analysis, Evolution and Genomes, Biomedical Genome Research: genomic sequences to make new vaccines, new types of antibiotics, new types of medications. Variation in the human genome, known examples of SNPs that cause diseases, Pharmacogenomics, Ethical Consequences of Genomic Variations. Expression Data Analysis: DNA/RNA Microarrays, The oligo microarray/chip technology, Affymetrix protocol and data generation, The spotted microarray technology, cDNA and oligo spotted arrays, Biomedical applications; Cancer and genomic microarrays. Nanotechnology, Gene therapy. Proteomics: Introduction, Protein 3D Structures, Protein identifications (2-hybrid system, 2-D gel electrophoresis, mass spectrometry/MALDI-TOF, other arrays). Statistical models and stochastic processes in Proteomics, Signal Processing for Proteomics, Protein Interaction Networks, measureing protein interactions, Large-scale databases of information for protein sequences, structures, functions and interactions; mining of protein databases, applications to human disease studies. Networks in Bioinformatics/Proteomics: Communication Networks, Biological networks (Protein Interaction Networks, Gene regulation networks, Metabolism, Biochemical reactions), Databases and search tools for biological network analysis. Genomic Circuits: in Single Genes, Complex integrated Genomic Circuits, Modeling Whole-Genome Circuits: Genomics vs. Proteomics Case study Yeast Protein Interaction Network (random network, Scale free network, Hierarchical network) Books Recommended: 1. Discovering Genomics, Proteomics, & Bioinformatics. Campbell & Heyer (2003) Pearson Education, ISBN: 08053-4722-4 2. Bioinformatics, Methods of Biochemical Analysis Series Vol. 43, Baxevanis & Ouellette (2001) John Wiley & Sons, ISBN 0-471-38391-0 3. Computational Molecular Biology. Pevzner, P.A. (2000) MIT Press, ISBN: 0262161974 4. Bioinformatics: A Practical Guide to the Analysis of Genes and Proteins. Andreas D. Baxevanis & B. F. Francis 5. Ouellette (2004). 3rd Edition. Wiley & Sons, ISBN: 0-471-47878-4 GEN 424 PROTEOMICS, GENOMICS AND BIOINFORMATICS LAB 2 Hours/week, 1 Credit Based on the theory classes. GEN 425 GENE EXPRESSION AND REGULATION 3 Hours/week, 3 Credits Chromosome structure: Basic chemical aspects – DNA, histones and non-histones; Basic structural aspects – the nucleosomes, chromosome packaging. Organization of the genome in Eukaryotes: Gene and gene number; C-value paradox; Organization of replication; Gene amplification, Chromosomal redundency, Repetitive DNA and its relevance to plants and animals, inverted and tandem repeats. Gene Expression: Operon concept, lytic cascade and lysogenic repression, DNA methylation, etc. chromosomal activation, regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes, cell differentiation and oncogenes. Regulation of gene expression: Transcription – multiple RNA polymerases,

sigma like factors in eukaryotes; Heterogeneous nuclear RNA; Messenger RNA -- structure and complexity; Interrupted genes and RNA splicing; Expression of specific genes; Genes for ribosomal RNA; Histone genes; Globin genes; Heat-shock genes; possible role of middle repetitive DNA in control of gene expression. Regulation of gene expression in prokaryotes; Lac and Trp operon, inducible and repressible systems; positive and negative control; Brief introduction to the complexity of eukaryotic genetics. genetic recombination: Homologous and non homologous, In vitro mutagenesis, site-directed mutagenesis; gene targeting, transposon mutagenesis. Repair mechanism in mutation. Molecular biology of organelles: Extra nuclear hereditary materials; Genomes of mitochondria and plastid -- interaction with nucleus; Rubisco -- a case study of duel control of its synthesis by nucleus as well as plastome. In vivo Expression Techniques: Subtraction hybridization, transposon tagging, promoter trapping, activation tagging. Books Recommended: 1. Adams, R.L.P., J.T. Knowler and D.P. Leader. 1992. The Biochemistry of Nucleic Acids, 11th Ed. Champman & Hall, New York. 2. Alberts, B., D. Bray, J. Lewis, M. Rolf, K. Roberts, and J. D. Watson. 1994. Molecular Biology of the Cell. (3rd ed). Garland Publishing Inc, New York. 3. Darnal. J., H. Lodish and D. Baltimoye. 1990. Molecular Cell Biology, 2nd Ed. Scientific American Books. New York. 4. Freifelder, D. 1987. Molecular Biology. 2nd ed. Jones Bartlett Pub Inc, Boston. 5. Lehninger, A.L., D. L. Nelson and M.M. Cox. 1993. Principles of Biochemistry, 2nd Ed. Worth Pub., New York. 6. Reynolds, P.H.S. 1999. Inducible Gene Expression in Plant. CABI Publication, New York. GEN 427 TECHNIQUES IN MOLECULAR BIOLOGY 3 Hours/week, 3 Credits Centrifugation techniques: Theory and application of analytical and preparative centrifugation, concept of continuous and zonal rotors, use of K and K factors, analytical ultracentrifuge. Isolation of plasmid DNA, genomic DNA, RNAs and Protein. Quantification of nucleic acids by UV absorbance spectophotometry . Electrophoretic Techniques: Theory, applications and types of starch, agarose and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis; paper, native and SDS-PAGE electrophoreses; iso-electric focussing, isotechophoresis, immuno-diffusion and immunoelectrophoresis methods. Molecular Techniques: PCR, Southern, Northern and Western blotting, bioassay tests, sequencing. Chromatography Techniques: Theory, applications and types of chromatography- paper, thin layer (TLC), gel filtration, ion-exchange, affinity, reverse-phase chromatography, GLC, HPLC and FPLC. Radioisotopic Techniques: Introduction to radioisotopes, their uses and monitoring concept of counting efficiency, and autoradiography, radiation dosimetry. Labelling and measurements of radioactivity. Calculation of g-value. Spectroscopic Techniques: Theory and applications of UV and visible spectrophotometry, fluorimetry, MS, NMR, PMR, ESR, plasma emission, spectroscopy, hydrodynamic methods, X-ray diffraction, atomic absorption. Purification and characterization: Enzymes, protein, crystallization. Identification of bacterial species: sequences of their 16S ribosomal RNA genes. Books Recommended: 1. Cowell, I.G. and C.A. Austin. 1997. cDNA Library Protocols. Humana Press, New Jersey. 2. Fowler, EA. 1993. Techniques for Engineering Genes. Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., UK. 3. Freefelder, D. 1985. Essentials of Molecular Biology. Narosa Publishing House. New Delhi. 4. Freifelder. D. 1982. Physical Biochemistry. Application to Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2nd Ed. W.H. Freemen and Company, San Fransisco. 5. Glover, D.M., and B.D. Hames. 1995. DNA Cloning-1 Core Techniques: A Practical Approach. Oxford University Press, New York. 6. Gupta, P.K. 1997. Cell and Molecular Biology. Rastogi Pub., India. 7. Kjellssion, G., V. Simonsen, and K. Ammann. 1997. Methods for Risk Assessment of Transgenic Plants. Birkhauser Verlag, Germany. 8. Slater, R.J. 1990. Radioisotopes in Biology- A Practical Approach. Oxford University Press, UK. GEN 428 TECHNIQUES IN MOLECULAR BIOLOGY LAB. 2 Hours/week, 1 Credit Based on the theory classes. GEN 429 CELL SIGNALING 3 Hours/week, 3 Credits

General principles of cell signaling: Extracellular signal molecule and their receptors, Operation of signaling molecules over various distances, Sharing of signal information, Cellular response to specific combinations of extracellular signal molecules; NO signaling by binding to an enzyme inside target cell, Nuclear receptor; Ion channel linked, G-protein- linked and enzyme-linked receptors, Relay of signal by activated cell surface receptors via intracellular signaling proteins, Intracellular signaling proteins as molecular switches, Interaction between modular binding domain and signaling proteins, Remembering the effect of some signal by cells. Signaling through G-protein-linked cell surface receptors: cAMP and G protein signaling, role of cAMP-dependant protein kinase (PKA) in mediating effects of cAMP, Inositol phospholipids signaling pathway, Ca2+ as a intracellular messenger, role of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependantprotein kinases in mediating actions of Ca2+, desensitization of G-proteinlinked receptors. Signaling through enzyme-linked cell surface receptors: Receptor tyrosine kinases, docking sits for proteins, Activation of Ras, Ras cycles between active and inactive states, signals from activated Ras to a cascade of protein kinases including MAP-kinases, PI 3-kinase/ protein kinase B signaling pathway, Insulin receptor acts through PI 3-kinase pathway, Cytokine receptors and the JAK-STAT pathway, Two component signaling pathway of bacterial chemotaxis. Signaling pathways that depends on regulated proteolysis: Activation of Notch receptor by cleavage, binding of Wnt proteins to Frizzled receptors, stressful and proinflammatory stimuli act through NF-kB dependant signaling pathway. TGFß signaling receptors: Activated type I TGFß receptors phosphorylate Smad transcription factors, Smad signaling via negative feedback loop, TGFß signaling and abnormal cell proliferation. Environmental approaches of signal-induced responses: Evolutionary conservation and proliferation of genes encoding signals and regulators. Protein microarrays for monitoring cell responses, Cellular response by oxygen deprivation. Books recommended: 1. Molecular Biotechnology. Glick, B.R. and Pasternak, J.J. 2003. ASM Press, USA. 2. DNA cloning 1 and 2. Glover, D.M. and Hames, B.D. 1995. IRL Press (Oxford University Press, USA). 5. Molecular Biology of the Cell (4th edition). Alberts, Johnson, Lewis, Raff, Roberts and Walter. 6. Molecular Cell Biology (5th edition). Lodish, Berk, Matsudaira, Kaiser, Krieger, Scott, Zipersky and Darnell. 7. Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry (4th edition). Nelson and Cox. 8. Molecular Biology of the Gene. Watson, Baker, Bell. GEN 430 STUDY TOUR 4 Hours/week 1 Credits GEN 433 HUMAN MOLECULAR GENETICS AND DIAGNOSTICS 3 Hours/week 3 Credits Chromosomal abnormalities and Syndrome: Structural chromosomal abnormalities, Numerical chromosomal abnormalities, Cri-du-chat syndrome, down syndrome, turner syndrome, klinefelts syndrome, XY female and XX males. Genetic Diseases: Metabolic disorders, Genetics of the diseases of the Gastrointestinal system, detection of mutations in human genes. Genetic aspect of diseases of aging. Heredity methaemoglobinaemia: Genetics of blood group antigen, genetics of hemoglobin, disease of coagulation of blood, hereditary hemolytic anemia, disease affection thyroid hormone, human growth hormone. Human gene therapy: Ex vivo and in vivo gene therapy; Viral gene delivery systems; pro-drug activation therapy; Nucleic acid therapeutic agents; Oligonucleotide correction of genetic conditions and genetic counseling. Pharmacogenetics: Gene tests to guide drug therapy, who stands to benefit from a certain drug or be harmed by it. Cancer Genetics: Cell biology and genetics of cancer, types of tumors, characteristics of cancer cells, how a cell becomes cancerous, origin of cancer. Cloning of human disease genes – Detection of mutations in human genes; Functional gene cloning; Candidate gene cloning; positional gene cloning. Molecular Diagnostics: Multiplex PCR: Diagnosis of cystic fibrosis, abnormal mucus clearance, pancreatic insufficiency, abnormal salt transport, infertility in males. ARMS-PCR: Detection of βThalassemia mutation. FMR-1 Gene Trinucleotide Repeat Analysis: Detection of Fragile X Syndrome. Mental retardation, long faces, large ear, prominent jaws, post-pubertal macroorchidism. Genomic Southern Hybridization: Detection of Philadelphia chromosome; acute leukemia (ALL) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) DNA Microarrays/DNA Chips/Gene Chips: Basic concept, design and applications. Books Recommended: 1. Niyogi, A. K. and Srivastava, H. C., Human Genetics. 2. Singer. Human Genetics. 3. Mange. Human Genetics Basic. 4. Mandal, I. S. Fundamental of Human Genetics. 5. Dhar, P. K., Human Genetics.

GEN 435 RECOMBINANT DNA TECHNOLOGY 3 Hours/week 3 Credits Enzymes: Restriction enzyme, DNA polymerase, ligase, kinase, phosphatase, reverse transcriptase, exonuclease, ribonuclease, Proteinase. Cloning Vectors: Plasmid, cosmid, phage, phagemid, transponson etc. Gene Cloning: Isolation of mRNA and construction of cDNA library and genomic library, Screening of gene libraries by PCR, DNA hybridization, colony hybridization, Southern blotting, Northern blotting, immunoscreening assay and protein activity. Labelling of Nucleic Acids: Radioactive and non-radioactive labelling techniques, nick translation, end labelling, primer extension. Prokaryotic Transformation: Transferring DNA into E. coli, chemical induction and electroporation. Marker Genes: Selectable, screenable and nonantibiotic markers. DNA Delivery: Direct and indirect methods; through physical, chemical and biological processes. Gene Expression in Prokaryotes: Tissue specific promoter wound inducible promoters, strong and regulatable promoters; increasing protein production; fusion proteins; translation expression vectors; DNA integration into bacterial genome; increasing secretions. Protein/enzyme purification, characterization and crystallization. Recombinant protein production in yeast: Saccharomyces cerevisiae expression systems; S. cerevisiae vectors Books Recommended: 1. Brown, T.A. 1998. Recombinant DNA. Academic Press, London. 2. Cowell, I.G. and C.A. Austin. 1997. cDNA Library Protocols. Humana Press, New Jersey. 3. Cunningham, C. and A.J.R. Porter. Recombinant Proteins form Plants. Humana Press, New Jersey. 4. Draper, J., R. Scott and P. Armttage. 1988. Plant Genetic Transformation and Gene Expression. Black Well Scientific Pub., London. 5. Glick, B.R. and J.J. Pasternak. 1988. Molecular Biotechnology, ASM Press, USA 6. Glover, D.M. and B.D. Hames. 1995. DNA Cloning 1 and 2, IRL Press, USA. 7. Old, R W and S.B. Primrose. 1989. Principles of Gene Manipulation. Blackwell Sci Pub. 8. Sambrook, J., E.F. Fritsch and T. Maniatis. 1999. Molecular Cloning. Cold Spring Harbor Press. GEN 437 GMO AND BIOSAFETY REGULATION 3 Hours/week 3 Credits GMO: Definition, common mechanism of GMO, Production of transgenic plant, animal and microbes, merits and demerits of using GMO, Present research on GMO. Risk for animal or human health - toxicity and food quality/safety, allergies, pathogen drug resistance (antibiotic resistance). Risk for agriculture - weeds or superweeds, alteration of nutritional value (attractiveness of the organism to the pests), reduction of cultivars (increase of susceptibility) and loss of biodiversity. Risk for the environment - Persistancy of gene or transgene or transgene products, resistance/tolerance of target organism or susceptibility of non-target organisms, increased use of chemicals in agriculture, unpredictable gene expression or transgene instability. GMO Debate: Ethics and issues regarding genetically modified organisms. Religious and social acceptance of GMOs. Biosafety regulations: protect nature, growers and consumers interest and national interest. Cartigena protocol. Books recommended: 1. Modern Food Biotechnology, Human Health & Development: An Evidence Based Study. Food Safety Department, World Health Organization. 2005 2. Genetic Engineering in Agriculture and the Environemnt: Assessing risk and benefits. Maurizio G. Paoletti and David Pimentel. http:\\ 3. The Ecological Risks of Engineered Crops. Rissler, J. and Mellon, M., 1996. Cambridge, USA: The MIT Press. GEN 439 ENVIRONMENTAL BIOLOGY 3 Hours/Week, 3 Credits Environmental Biology and Man: The Future of Biosphere: (a) Global Climate Changes: Changes in atmosphere, Increase of CO2: The greenhouse effect; The rise of temperature; Ozone hole; Impact on living beings; Commenting on El Nino and oscillations in world’s climate; Desertification as affected by climate changes (b) Social Forestry and Agroforestry: Threatening issues in forest cover depletion; Desertification due to overgrazing; the tragedy of Chernobyl; Challenges and approaches; (c) Environment and Organismal health: Pollution of air, water and soil and their mitigation; Acid rain; Transfer of harmful compounds through ecosystems. The nuclear winter: The biological consequences. Recalcitrant Molecules: Recalcitrant molecules in the environment. Characterization of microbial activity and the biodegradation of recalcitrant substances including pesticides in soil. Microbial interactions with xenobiotics and inorganic pollutants. Persistence and biomagnification of xenobiotic molecules. Biodeterioration of materials and their control. Soil and Water: Bioremediation of contaminated soil

and water bodies. Water treatment system and measurement of treatment efficiency. Recent advances in culturable and non-culturable approaches for the detection of pathogens in potatble water. Effluent treatment plant. Some Approaches: Application of biosensors for the detection of environmental pollutants, isolation and enrichment of microorganisms capable of detoxifying environmental pollutants, waste management, environmental and biotechnological approaches, and Biogas production. Biology and Future of Man: New application of biological sciences towards human welfare. Human population growth. When we began sidesteping ? Control of human fertility; Ethical considerations; Possible means of birth control, Invitro fertilization, Eugenics, Guarding the genetic quality of man. Future of Homo sapiens Books recommended: 1. Handler, P. 1970, Biology and the Future of Man., Oxford University Press. U.K. 2. Watson, J.D. and Tooze, J. 1981. DNA Story. W.H. Freeman and Comapany N.Y. 3. Ricklef, R.E. 1990. Ecology . W.H. Freeman and Comapany N.Y. 4. Freefelder, D. 1985. Essentials of Molecular Biology. Narosa Publishing House. New Delhi. 5. Kjellssion, G., V. Simonsen, and K. Ammann. 1997. Methods for Risk Assessment of Transgenic Plants. Birkhauser Verlag, Germany. 6. Purohit, S.S, and S.K. Mathur. 1996. Biotechnology. Agro’s Botanical Publishers, India. 7. Modern Food Biotechnology, Human Health & Development: An Evidence Based Study. Food Safety Department, World Health Organization. 2005 GEN 440 PROJECT+ SEMINER 8 Hours/week, 4 Credits GEN 400 GENERAL VIVA VOCE 2Hours/week 2 Credits

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