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School of Physical Sciences

Department of Physics

Syllabus for B.Sc. Honours, 2008-2012 Degree

The B.Sc. Honours courses in Physics shall comprise the courses on Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, Computer Science and Engineering, Statistics and English. The course is spread over four academic years in eight semesters. Each year is divided into two semesters. Final examinations are held at the end of each semester and also there are incourse examinations. A student has to complete successfully at least 140 credit hours of courses to obtain the B.Sc. Honours degree. A student will be given four extra semesters to complete his/her B.Sc. Honours degree. ( A student, if he/she is not a clearing graduate, has to register for at least 12 Credits minimum and 30 Credits maximum in a semester). A student has to complete at least 30 credit hours in a year. There will be marks for class participation, assignments and mid-semester examination and final examination for which the distribution of marks is as follows: Class participation Assignment and mid-semester examination Final examination : : : 10% 20% 70%

The grading system consists of Letter Grading, corresponding Grade Point Average (GPA), Letter Grade, corresponding Grade Point will be awarded as follows: Numerical Grade 80% and above 75% to less than 80% 70% to less than 75% 65% to less than70% 60% to less than 65% 55% to less than 60% 50% to less than 55% 45% to less than 50% 40% to less than 45% Less than 40% Letter Grade A+ A A− B+ B B− C+ C C− F Grade Point 4.00 3.75 3.50 3.25 3.00 2.75 2.50 2.25 2.00 0.00

Absence from the final examination will be considered incomplete. The distribution of courses for respective academic years and semesters is given below along with the detail of the courses.

Detailed Syllabus

First Year Semester I Course No. Course Title Hours/Week Theory + Lab. 3+0 3+0 3+0 3+0 2+0 0+2 0+9 14 + 11 = 25 Credits

PHY 121 MAT 101B MAT 102B PHY 125 ENG 101 ENG 102 PHY 122A

Mechanics Vector Analysis and Tensors Trigonometry, Matrices and Complex variables Electricity and Magnetism English Language-I English Language Lab Physics Practical Total

3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 2.0 1.0 4.5 19.5

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First Year Semester II Course No. Course Title Hours/Week Theory + Lab. 3+0 3+0 3+0 0+3 2+0 0+2 0+9 0+2 11 + 16 = 27 Credits

PHY 123 MAT 103B CHE 101P CHE 102P ENG 103 ENG 104 PHY 122B PHY 124

Properties of Matter , Waves and Vibration Calculus and Differential Equations General Chemistry (For Physics) Chemistry Lab (Inorganic Qualitative) Advanced English Language-I Advanced English-I Lab Physics Practical General Viva Total

3.0 3.0 3.0 1.5 2.0 1.0 4.5 1.0 19.0

Second Year Semester I Course No. Course Title Hours/Week Theory + Lab. 3+0 3+0 2+0 3+0 0+9 11 + 9 = 17 Credits

PHY 221 PHY 223 PHY 237 STA 208 PHY 222A

Heat and Thermodynamics Optics Radiation and Statistical Mechanics Basic Statistics and Probability Physics Laboratory Total

3.0 3.0 2.0 3.0 4.5 15.5

Second Year Semester II Course No. Course Title Hours/Week Theory + Lab. 4+0 4+0 3+0 2+0 0+6 0+9 0+2 13 + 17 = 30 Credits

PHY 225 PHY 229 PHY 231 CSE 203F CSE 204F PHY 222B PHY 224

Classical Mechanics Basic Electronics Elementary Quantum Theory Introduction to Computer Language Introduction to Computer Language Lab Physics Practical General Viva Total

4.0 4.0 3.0 2.0 3.0 4.5 1.0 21.5

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Third Year Semester I Course No. Course Title Hours/Week Theory +Lab. 4+0 4+0 4+0 3+0 0+9 15 + 9 = 24 Credits

PHY 321 PHY 323 PHY 325 PHY 327 PHY 322A

Classical Electrodynamics Quantum Mechanics-I Atomic and Molecular Physics Relativity: Special & General Physics Lab Total

4.0 4.0 4.0 3.0 4.5 19.5

Third Year Semester II Course No. Course Title Hours/Week Theory + Lab. 4+0 3+0 4+0 0+9 0+2 11 + 11 = 22 Credits

PHY 331 PHY 333 PHY 335 PHY 322B PHY 324

Nuclear Physics-I Mathematical Physics Solid State Physics-I Physics Lab General Viva Total

4.0 3.0 4.0 4.5 1.0 16.5

Fourth Year Semester I The courses PHY 421, PHY 422, and PHY 423 are compulsory and students will take any two optional courses from the 5th row. Course No. Course Title Hours/Week Theory + Lab. 4+0 4+0 0+9 3+0 ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, 14 + 9 = 23 Credits

PHY 421 PHY 423 PHY 422 PHY 429 PHY 431 PHY 433 PHY 435 PHY 439 PHY 441 PHY 443 PHY 461

Quantum Mechanics-II Digital Electronics Physics Lab-A Reactor Physics-I Non-linear Optics-I Nuclear Radiation and Health Physics-I Medical Physics Computational Physics-I Biophysics-I Nuclear Radiation Detection and Measurement-I Orbital Mechanics-I Total

4.0 4.0 4.5 6.0

18.5

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Fourth Year Semester II Courses PHY 445 and PHY 447 are compulsory and students will take two optional courses from the 4th row in the table below, but corresponding to the courses of the previous semester. Course No. Course Title Hours/Week Theory +Lab. 4+0 4+0 3+0 ,, Credits

PHY 445 PHY 447 PHY 437 PHY 449 PHY 451 PHY 453 PHY 455 PHY 457 PHY 459 PHY 463 PHY 465 PHY 426 PHY 424 PHY 428

Nuclear Physics-II Solid State Physics-II Geophysics Reactor Physics-II Non-linear Optics-II Nuclear Radiation and Health Physics-II Computational Physics-II Biophysics-II Nuclear Radiation Detection & Measurement –II Orbital Mechanics-II Microelectronics: Physics and Processing Physics Lab-B General Viva Viva on Project Total

4.0 4.0 6.0

,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,,

0+9 0+4 0+0 14 + 13 = 27 4.5 2.0 0.0 20.5

Detailed Syllabus

PHY 101 MECHANICS, PROPERTIES OF MATTER AND WAVES (For MAT Majors) 3 Hours/week, 3 Credits Mechanics: Different co-ordinate systems; projectile motion; Newton’s laws of motion; friction; conservation theorems (momentum and energy); collisions; rotational motion; angular momentum and torque; moment of inertia; parallel and perpendicular axes theorems; central forces and gravitation; gravitational potential; escape velocity, Kepler’s laws. Properties of matter: Hooke’s law; elastic modulli and their inter-relations; bending of beams, cantilever; surface tension; capillarity; concepts of fluid flow; Bernoulli’s equation and its applications; viscosity; Poiseuille’s equation. Waves: Simple harmonic motion; simple and compound pendulum; traveling waves; interference; stationary waves; vibrations in strings; sound; beats; Doppler effect. Books Recommended: 1. Halliday, D. and Resnick, R.: Physics (Part I) 2. Mathur, D.S.: Elements of Properties of Matter 3. Puri, S.P. : Fundamentals of Vibrations and Waves PHY 101C MECHANICS, PROPERTIES OF MATTER AND WAVES (For CEP Majors) 3 Hours/week, 3 Credits Mechanics: Different co-ordinate systems; projectile motion; Newton’s laws of motion; friction; conservation theorems (momentum and energy); collisions; rotational motion; angular momentum and torque; moment of inertia; parallel and perpendicular axes theorems; central forces and gravitation; gravitational potential; escape velocity, Kepler’s laws. Properties of matter: Hooke’s law; elastic modulli and their inter-relations; bending of beams, cantilever, surface tension; capillarity, concepts of fluid flow. Waves: Simple harmonic motion; simple and compound pendulum; traveling waves; interference; stationary waves; vibrations in strings; sound; beats; Doppler effect. Books Recommended: 1. Halliday, D. and Resnick, R.: Physics (Part I) 2. Mathur, D.S.: Elements of Properties of Matter PHY 101Z PHYSICS FOR ENGINEERS (For PGE Majors) 3 Hours/week, 3 Credits Structure of Matter: Classification of solids, amorphous, crystalline. Different type of bonds of solids, metallic, Van der Waals, covalent and ionic bond, packing in solids, interatomic distances and forces of equilibrium, X-ray

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diffraction, Bragg’s law. Waves and Oscillation: Simple harmonic motion, free, forced and damped harmonic oscillation, resonance. Optics: Nature and propagation of light, electromagnetic spectrum, interference, Young’s experiment, single slit diffraction. Heat: Concept of temperature and heat, principle of thermometry, constant volume air thermometers, Newton’s law of cooling. Electromagnetism: Coulomb’s law, electric field, electric potential, electric dipole, Ohm’s law, Kirchhoff’s laws with applications, Faraday’s and Lenz’s laws, Biot-Savart law, magnetic force on charge and current, Ampere’s law, alternating voltage and current and their graphical representation, rms values. Books Recommended: 1. Halliday, D. and Resnick, R. : Physics (Vol. I ) 2. Puri, S. P. : Fundamentals of Vibrations and Waves 3. Saha and Srivastava: A Treatise of Heat 4. Beiser, A. : Perspective of Modern Physics 5. Sears, Zemansky and Young, University Physics 6. Puri, S.P. : Fundamentals of Vibrations and Waves PHY 103 MECHANICS, WAVES, HEAT AND THERMODYNAMICS (For CSE and CHE majors) 3 Hours/Week, 3 Credits Mechanics: Motion in two dimensions; projectile motion; Newton’s laws of motion; conservation theorems (momentum and energy); collisions; circular motion; rotational dynamics of rigid bodies; central forces and gravitation; Kepler’s laws. Waves: Simple harmonic motion; damped and forced vibrations; waves in elastic media; sound waves; Doppler effect; Fourier’s theorem and its applications. Heat and thermodynamics: Principles of thermometry; measurement of high and low temperature; zeroeth law of thermodynamics, kinetic theory of ideal gas; first and second laws of thermodynamics; entropy; black body radiation. Wein’s law and Planck’s law. Books Recommended: 1. Halliday, D. and Resnick, R. : Physics (Vol. I ) 2. Puri, S. P. : Fundamentals of Vibrations and Waves 3. Saha and Srivastava: A Treatise of Heat PHY 107 MECHANICS, STRUCTURE OF MATTER, WAVES AND OSCILLATIONS, (For IPE majors) 3 Hours/week, 3 Credits Mechanics: Motion in two dimensions, projectile motion, Newton’s laws of motion, momentum and energy conservations; collisions; circular motion; angular momentum and torque, moment of inertia; rotational dynamics of rigid bodies; central forces and gravitation. Structure of matter: Classification of solids; amorphous, crystalline, ceramics and polymers. Atomic arrangements in solids. Lattices, basis and crystal structure, unit cell, different types of crystal systems, packing in solids, packing fraction of sc, bcc, fcc and cph lattices. X-ray diffraction, Bragg's law. Plasticity and elasticity. Distinction between metal, insulator and semiconductor. Oscillation: Simple harmonic motion, free, forced and damped harmonic oscillation; resonance; Propagation and velocity of longitudinal waves in gaseous medium; Superposition principle. Books Recommended: 1. Beiser, A.: Perspective of Modern Physics 2. Sears, Zemansky and Young: University Physics 3. Puri, S.P.: Fundamentals of Vibrations and Waves 4. Jenkins and White: Fundamentals of Optics PHY 107C STRUCTURE OF MATTER, SOUND WAVES AND FLUID MECHANICS (For CEE Majors) 3 Hours/week, 3 Credits Structure of matter: Classification of solids; amorphous, crystalline, binding energy and atomic separation in equilibrium in solid, different types of bonds in crystals, lattice, basis, crystal, unit cell, packing fraction of sc, bcc crystals, X-ray diffraction, Bragg's law, elasticity, distinction between metal, insulator and semiconductor. Sound Waves: Simple harmonic motion, audible, ultrasonic and infrasonic waves; propagation and velocity of longitudinal waves in gaseous medium; Doppler effect, interference and diffraction, beat. Fluid mechanics: Surface tension, angle of contact, capillary rise, equation of continuity, Bernoulli’s equation, viscosity, Poiseulli’s equation Books Recommended: 1. Beiser, A. : Perspective of Modern Physics 2. Sears, Zemansky and Young, University Physics 3. Puri, S.P. : Fundamentals of Vibrations and Waves PHY 109 ELECTRICITY, MAGNETISM AND MODERN PHYSICS (For CEP Majors) 3 Hours/Week, 3 Credits Electromagnetism: Different electrical units; Coulomb’s law; electric field; electric potential and potential function; Gauss’s law and its applications; electric dipole; Ohm’s law; Kirchhoff's laws with applications. Faradays and Lenz's law of electromagnetic induction; self and mutual induction; Biot-Savart law; magnetic force on charge and current.

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Ampere’s law; Maxwell’s equations, alternating voltage and current and their graphical representation; rms value of a current; ac voltage and ac current applied to circuits containing resistors, capacitors, and inductors. Modern Physics: Atomic models; Bohr’s atom; atomic spectra; photoelectric effect; Compton effect; X-rays; Bragg’s law. atomic nucleus; nuclear forces; radioactivity; de Broglie wave; uncertainty principle. Books Recommended: 1. Halliday, D. and Resnick, R. : Physics (Vol. I & II) 2. Saha, M. N. and Srivastava, A Treatise on Heat. 3. Zemansky, Heat and Thermodynamics 4. Kip, A. : Fundamentals of Electricity and Magnetism 5. Beiser, A.: Concepts of Modern Physics PHY 111 PHYSICS FOR ARCHITECTS 3 Hours/week, 3 Credits Heat: Humidity, vapour pressure, temperature related humidity, transmission of heat: Conduction: Conductivity, rectilinear flow of heat, determination of thermo-conductivity of good and bad conductors, heat flow through compound walls; Convection: free and forced convection, domestic and industrial applications. Ventilation; Radiation: different laws of radiation, black body radiation, radiation from surfaces, solar radiation. Sound: simple harmonic motion: equation of simple harmonic motion, energy of simple harmonic oscillator, damped oscillation, forced oscillation; characteristics of mechanical waves, equation of traveling wave, energy, stationary waves, beats, physical qualities of sound, reflection, transmission and intensity of sound waves, variation of sound intensity with distance, units of sound intensity, decibel and other units. Doppler principle, building acoustics. Light: Illumination and photometry, luminous intensity, their measurement and units, phosphorescence, fluorescence, discharge lamps, theories of light, interference, Young’s double slit interference, determination of thickness of a film, diffraction, diffraction due to a single slit, polarization, intensity of polarized light, defects of images, optical instruments. Modern Physics: Atomic structure, special theory of relativity, mass-energy equation, time dilation, radioactivity. Books Recommended:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Halliday and Resnick : Physics I and II Brijlal : Heat and Thermodynamics Brijlal : A text book of sound Brijlal : Optics Beiser: Perspectives of modern physics

PHY 113 INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY (For Business Majors) 3 Hours/week, 3 Credits This course is designed to give an understanding of basics of Physics and Astronomy. The topics in Physics include: Units of measurement: FPS system; CGS system; MKS system. Fundamental of Mechanics: Vectors, forces; kinematics, conservation laws, gravitation; Sound; Light: diffraction and interference; electric fields, potentials, magnetic fields; atomic and nuclear physics. Topics in Astronomy include: Structure of the universe and solar system; space probes and satellites; birth and death of stars, neutron stars, meteors, asteroids, comets, quasars and galaxies; the black hole and cosmological theories. Books Recommended: Will be given by the concerned teacher. PHY 102/104 PHYSICS PRACTICAL 3 Hours/Week, 1.5 Credits Same as PHY 122. PHY 121 MECHANICS 3 Hours/week, 3 Credits Particle Dynamics : Kinematics in one and two dimensions; force and Newton’s Laws; friction; work and energy; conservation of energy, projectile motion; circular motion; centre of mass; conservation of linear momentum; collisions. Rotational Dynamics: Rotational kinematics; kinetic energy of rotation, rotational inertia and its calculation for solids; parallel axes theorem; rotational dynamics of rigid bodies; symmetrical top; conservation of angular momentum; equilibrium of rigid bodies. Oscillation: Simple harmonic motion ; the physical pendulum; damped harmonic motion; forced oscillation, Central Force and Gravitation: Gravitational attraction; potential and field; field equation; escape velocity; motion of planets and satellites; Kepler’s Laws. Books Recommended : 1. Halliday, D. Resnick, R. and Krane :Physics (Vol. I & II) 2. Symon : Mechanics. 3. Francis W. Sears, Mark W. Zemansky. : University Physics.

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PHY 123 PROPERTIES OF MATTER, WAVES AND VIBRATION 3 Hours/week, 3 Credits . Elasticity: Elastic Modulli of isotropic solid and their interrelations; cantilever. Fluid Mechanics: (a) Surface Tension: Molecular forces; surface energy; pressure on a curved membrane, soap bubble; measurement of surface tension and angle of contact; capillary ascent; theory of ripples. (b) Fluid Dynamics: Concept of fluid flow: streamline flow: Bernoulli’s equation, equation of continuity and their applications. (c) Viscosity: Critical velocity; Poiseulli’s equation .Waves in Elastic Media: Differential equations for wave on strings; travelling and standing waves; Fourier’s theorem and its applications. Sound Waves: Audible, ultrasonic and infrasonic waves; propagation and speed of longitudinal waves; superposition principle; Lissajous figure; Doppler effect; Reflection of sound waves; refraction of sound waves; interference and diffraction of sound waves; beats. Books Recommended: 1. Halliday, D. and Resnick, R. : Physics (Vol. I ) 2. French, A. B. : Vibrations and Waves. 3. Sears.: Heat and Thermodynamics. 4. Main.: Vibrations. 5. Puri, S.B. : Fundamentals of Vibration PHY 125 ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM 3 Hours/week, 3 Credits System of Units: Different electrical units. Electrostatics: Coulomb’s law; electric field, electric potential and potential function; Gauss’s Law and its applications; electric dipole and quadrupole; electric field in dielectric media; permittivity; capacitance; Laplace’s and Poisson’s equations. Electric Current: Current density; Ohm’s Law; Kirchhoff’s laws and their applications; Magnetic Fields and Interactions: Magnetic force on charge and current; magnetic effects of current; Biot-Savart law and its applications; Ampere’s law; Faraday’s and Lenz’s laws; self and mutual induction - solenoids; growth and decay of current in the LC, CR and LCR circuits; Alternating Current: Power and power equations; L, C and R in ac circuits; vector diagram and use of complex quantities; polar representations of ac circuits; resonant and antiresonant circuits; Q-factors; transformers. Filters: constant k-type low pass, high pass, band pass filter. Books Recommended: 1. Halliday, D. and Resnick, R. : Physics ( Vol. II) 2. Kip, A. : Fundamentals of Electricity and Magnetism 3. Halliday, D. and Resnick, R. : Fundamentals of Physics 4. Theraja, B. L. : A Text Book of Electrical Technology 5. Sears : Electricity and Magnetism 6. Griffith: Introduction to Electrodynamics PHY 122A PHYSICS PRACTICAL - A 9 Hours/week, 4.5 Credits 50% of the following experiments. 1. Weighing by the method of oscillation. 2. Determination of moment of inertia of a flywheel. 3. Determination of "g" by and moment of inertia of a compound pendulum. 4. Determination of Young’s Modulus by the method of bending. 5. Determination of Rigidity Modulus by Static method. 6. Determination of Rigidity Modulus by dynamical method. 7. Using a flat spiral spring: a) Verification of Hooke’s Law and determination of stiffness constant; b) Determination of "g" and the effective mass of the spring; c) Determination of modulus of rigidity of the material of the spring. 8. Determination of elastic constants of the material of a wire by Searle’s method. 9. Determination of the surface tension and angle of contact of mercury by Quincke’s method. 10. Determination of the surface tension of water by capillary rise method (r-1/h) curve is to be plotted. 11. Determination of the frequency of a fork by Melde’s method (L-T graph to be plotted for both longitudinal and transverse arrangements). 12. Determination of specific heat of a solid with radiation correction. 13. Determination of thermal conductivity of a bad conducting solid by Lee’s method. 14. Determination of specific heat of a liquid by the method of cooling. 15. Determination of galvanometer resistance by half deflection method. 16. Determination of specific resistance of a wire by Wheatstone’s bridge (with end correction). 17. Measurement of high resistance. 18. Measurement of low resistance by the method of fall of potential. 19. Determination of the figure of merit of a galvanometer (calculated current versus deflection is to be plotted). 20. Determination of internal resistance of a coil by a potentiometer (I-R graph is to be plotted). 21. Determination of temperature coefficient of resistance of a copper coil.

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22. Investigation of the relation between the current passing through a tungsten and a carbon filament lamp and the potential applied across it. 23. Calculation of the cost of operation of an electrical appliance. Books Recommended: 1. Worsnop, B.L. and Flint, H.T. : Advanced Practical Physics 2. Chowdhury, S. A. and Basak, A. K. : Byaboharik Padartha Bidya 3. Ahmed, G. and Uddin, M.S. : Practical Physics PHY 122B PHYSICS PRACTICAL - B 9 Hours/week, 4.5 Credits The experiments not completed in PHY 122 A should be completed in this course. PHY 202 PHYSICS LAB 3 Hours/week, 1.5 credits: Experiments on Heat, Thermodynamics and Optics. PHY 201M HEAT, THERMODYNAMICS AND OPTICS (For MAT Majors) 3 hours/week 3 Credits Heat: Heat and temperature; principles of thermometry, gas thermometers, resistance thermometers, thermocouples and temperature scale; Newton’s law of cooling; kinetic theory of ideal gas; microscopic model of an ideal gas and different gas laws; equipartition of energy. Thermodynamics: First law of thermodynamics; isothermal and adiabatic changes; second law of thermodynamics; reversible and irreversible processes; Carnot’s cycle; absolute scale of temperature; entropy and change of entropy in reversible and irreversible processes; entropy of a perfect gas; thermodynamic potentials, Maxwell’s thermodynamic relations; black body radiation; Planck’s law and deduction of Wein’s Law and Rayleigh-Jean’s law from it. Optics: Nature and propagation of light, electromagnetic spectrum, interference, Young’s experiment; Michelson interferometer; Newton’s rings. Books Recommended: 1. Halliday, D. and Resnick, R.: Physics (Vol. I & II) 2. Jenkins and White,: Fundamentals of Optics 3. Hossain, T. : A text book of Heat 4. Brijlal , Heat and Thermodynamics 5. Zemansky, Heat and Thermodynamics PHY 203M ELECTROMAGNETISM AND MODERN PHYSICS (For MAT Majors) 3 Hours/week, 3 Credits Electromagnetism: Different electrical units; Coulomb’s law; electric field; electric potential and potential function; Gauss’s law and its applications; electric dipole; Ohm’s law; Kirchhoff's laws with applications. Faraday’s and Lenz's law of electromagnetic induction; self and mutual induction; Biot-Savart law; magnetic force on charge and current. Ampere’s law; alternating voltage and current and their graphical representation; rms values; ac voltage and ac current applied to circuits containing resistors, capacitors, and inductors. Modern Physics: Photoelectric effect; Compton effect; de Broglie waves; uncertainty principle; atomic models; atomic spectra; nucleons; nuclear size; binding energy; radioactive decays. Books Recommended: 1. Resnick and Halliday: Physics ( Vol. II) 2. Kip, A. : Fundamentals of Electricity and Magnetism 3. Beiser, A. : Perspectives of Modern Physics PHY 207 OPTICS, ELECTROMAGNETISM AND MODERN PHYSICS (For CSE Majors) 3 Hours/week, 3 Credits Optics: Nature and propagation of light, interference of light, Young’s experiment, Newton’s ring. Michelson Interferometer. Diffraction: Fraunhofer and Fresnel diffraction, diffraction grating. Polarisation of light, optical activity, polarimetry. Electromagnetism: Different electrical units; Coulomb’s law; electric field; Gauss’s law and its applications; electric potential and potential energy; capacitance, dielectrics and Gauss’s Law, three electric vectors, energy storage in an electric field. magnetic field and field strength; magnetic forces on a current; torque on a current loop; Hall effect; Ampere’s Law; Biot-Savart Law and their applications. Faraday’s Law of induction; Lenz’s Law; time-varying magnetic field; inductance; energy in magnetic field. Maxwell’s equations; EM energy; Poynting Vector; Scalar and vector potentials; the wave equations. Plane EM waves in non-conducting media; waves in conducting media; boundary conditions; reflection and refraction at boundaries of two non-conducting media; total internal reflections. Modern Physics: Atomic models; Bohr’s atom; atomic spectra; photoelectric effect; X-rays; Bragg’s law. atomic nucleus; nuclear forces; radioactivity; de Broglie wave; uncertainty principle. Books Recommended: 1. Halliday, D. and Resnick, R.: Physics (Vol. II)

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2. Lipson, S. G. and Lipson, H.: Light 3. Jenkins, F.A. and White, H.A.: Fundamentals of Optics 4. Griffith, D.J.: Introduction to Electrodynamics 6. Beiser, A.: Concepts of Modern Physics PHY 209 GENERAL PHYSICS (For Forestry Majors) 3 Hours/week, 3 Credits Mechanics: Motion in two dimensions, projectile and circular motion. Work, conservation of energy, centre of mass, conservation of linear momentum, angular momentum and its conservation. Simple harmonic motion, Kepler’s laws. Thermodynamics: The zeroeth law, principles of thermometry, the first law, Carnot’s cycle, the second law, Carnot’s theorem, the absolute scale of temperature, entropy. Optics: Nature of light, interference of light, Young’s double slit experiment, Newton’s rings. Properties of Matter: Elasticity, elastic modulii and their inter-relations, cantilever. surface tension: molecular forces, surface energy, capillary rise. Viscosity: critical velocity, Poiseulli’s equation. Modern Physics: Radioactive decay, half and mean life, radioactive dating. Special theory of relativity: postulates, Lorentz transformation, time dilation and length contraction. Concepts of Quantum Theory: Classical determinism and the uncertainty principle, two slit experiment and wave particle duality. Books Recommended: 1. Halliday, D. and Resnick, R.: Physics (Vol. II) 2. Jenkins, F.A. and White, H.A.: Fundamentals of Optics 3 .Beiser, A.: Concepts of Modern Physics PHY 215 INTRODUCTION TO BIOPHYSICS (For Genetics Majors) 3 Hours/week, 3 Credits Molecular design of life: Biochemistry and genomic revolution, the chemical component of cell, from single cell to multi cellular organism, DNA, RNA and flow of genetic information, Exploring genes, Method of replication, Mechanism of protein synthesis, Energy currency of cell, Structure of Macromolecules: Atomic and molecular forces, behavior of macromolecules, physical techniques for structure determination (X-ray diffraction, spectroscopy, and NMR). Properties of protein and forces: Protein folding, mechanical properties, Elastic properties of protein and DNA, Electrical and magnetic properties of proteins, Rigidity of actin filaments and microtubules, Elastic, viscous, electrostatic thermal and collision forces which act on the protein in cell. Mechanics of motor proteins. Different kinds of microscope: Bright field microscope, Fluorescence microscope, Electron microscope. Book Recommended:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Howard, J. : Mechanics of molecular motors Michel Daune: Molecular Biophysics Berg, J.M. : Biochemistry Michael P. Sheetz : Laser Tweezers in Cell Biology Mielczarek, E.V.: Biological Physics

PHY 204 BASIC PHYSICS LABORATORY 3 Hours/week, 1.5 Credits Same as PHY 222 PHY 221 HEAT AND THERMODYNAMICS 3 Hours/week,3 Credits Equation of State: Microscopic model of an ideal gas and gas laws; real gases ; Van der Waal’s equation; critical constants; concept of pressure and temperature in kinetic theory; mean free path; molecular collisions and transport phenomena; limitations of kinetic theory. Zeroeth law of thermodynamics: Concept of temperature and the ideal gas temperature scale. The first law of thermodynamics: Reversible and irreversible transformations; definition of heat; Carnot's cycle, refrigeration. The second law of thermodynamics: Carnot’s theorem; absolute scale of temperature; Clausius theorem; Entropy-- entropy changes in reversible and irreversible processes; entropy of an ideal gas. Applications of thermodynamics: Thermodynamic potential, Maxwell’s relations; Joule expansion, Joule-Kelvin expansion, liquefaction of gases, relations between thermal coefficients; equilibrium conditions, Clausius-Clapeyron’s equation; Gibb’s phase rule; The third law of thermodynamics: Applications. Books Recommended: 1. Adkins, C.J. : Equilibrium Thermodynamics. 2. Zemansky, M.W.: Heat and Thermodynamics PHY 223 OPTICS 3 Hours/week, 3 Credits Nature and propagation of light: Light and electromagnetic spectrum; speed of light; Doppler Effect. Plane Waves and Plane Surfaces: Huygen’s principle; Fermat’s principle. Interference: Two-beam interferometry--Young’s experiments; Michelson interferometer; multiple-beam interferometry-- thin film; interference from multiple

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reflections; Newton’s rings. Diffraction: Fresnel and Fraunhofer diffraction; diffraction--single slit; double slit; multiple-slit diffraction phenomena; diffraction gratings; crystal diffraction--Bragg’s Law. Holography: Fresnel diffraction; production of holograms; applications of holography. Polarisation and Optical Activity: Polarisation by reflection and refraction, plane, circular and elliptical polarisation--production and detection; double refraction; Nicol prism, optical rotation-- polarimetry, Fresnel’s theory of optical rotation. Books Recommended: 1. Lipson, S.G. and Lipson, H.: Light 2. Jenkins, F. A. and White, H.A.: Fundamentals of Optics 3. Halliday, D. and Resnick, R.: Physics (Vol. II) PHY 225 CLASSICAL MECHANICS 4 Hours/week, 4 Credits Lagrangian Formulation: Generalised coordinates; constraints; degrees of freedom; D'Alamberts principle; Lagrange’s equation from D'Alambert principle; variational principle; Lagrange's equation from Hamilton's principle; applications of Lagrange’s equation. Motion under a central force: Two body central force problem --reduction to equivalent onebody problem; equations of orbits; scattering problem and laboratory co-ordinates. Rigid bodies: Kinematics and dynamics of rigid bodies; degrees of freedom; matrix representation of rotations; Euler’s angles; force-free motion; Euler’s equation of motion; symmetric top. Hamilton's equations of motion: Legendre transformation and Hamilton equations; conservation theorem; derivation from variational principle; principle of least action and its applications. Canonical Transformations: Equations of canonical transformation; integral invariance of Poincare, Lagrange and Poisson brackets. Hamilton-Jacobi Theory : The Hamilton – Jacobi Equation for Hamilton’s Principal Function, The Harmonic Oscillator problem as an example of the Hamiltom-Jacobi method. Books Recommended: 1. Goldstein, G.: Classical Mechanics 2. Symon, K. R.: Mechanics 3. Spiegel, M. R.: Theoretical Mechanics 4. Wells, D.A. : Lagrangian Dynamics 5. Resnick, R.: Introduction to Special Relativity PHY 229 BASIC ELECTRONICS 4 Hours/week, 4 Credits Circuit Analysis: Network theorems - Thevenin’s theorem, superposition theorem, maximum power transfer theorem; equivalence of T, Pi, star and delta conversion lattice networks; wave filters: low pass, high pass, band pass. Semiconductor Diodes: p-n junctions; volt-ampere characteristics and rectifier equation; light emitting diodes; Zener diode; voltage regulators. Transistors: Junction Transistors: p-n-p and n-p-n transistors -- principle of operation, current components, alpha and beta parameters; transistor basic configurations; static characteristics; active, saturation and cutoff regions; Transistor model: transistor as four terminal network, re–model, h−model; Field Effect Transistors: FET structure; FET characteristics; FET parameters and equivalent circuits; Method of channel formation in MOSFET; Threshold voltage; MOSFET characteristics; Parameters and equivalent circuits. Transistor Biasing: Load line and operating points; Stabilisation of operating point; Fixed bias circuit; (emitter bas, voltage divider bias circuit); Transistor Amplifiers: Transistor DC Amplifiers: CB, CE and CC amplifiers and their equivalent circuits in h-parameter; Current, voltage and power gains; Transistor AC amplifiers: Classification of amplifiers. Analysis of RC coupled and transformer coupled amplifiers; Power amplifiers; Push pull amplifiers. Feedback Amplifiers: Current feedback and voltage feedback amplifiers; Oscillator and condition of sustained oscillation; RC oscillator; Phase-shift oscillator; Weinbridge oscillator. Books Recommended: 1. Millman, J. and Halkias, C.C.: Electronic Devices and Circuits 2. Allen Mottershead,: Electronic Devices and Circuits 3. Jacob Millman,: Vacuum Tube and Semiconductor Electronics 4. Brophy, J.J.: Basic Electronics for Scientist 5. Boylestad and Nashlesky: Electronic devices and Circuit theory 6. Shrader, R.L.: Electronics Communication PHY 231 ELEMENTARY QUANTUM THEORY 3 Hours/week, 3 Credits Shortcomings of Classical Theory, Quantization of Energy: Energy quantization and its implication on heat capacities of matter; Quantization of harmonic oscillator energy; Black-body radiation and Planck’s distribution; Photon and its properties; Quantization of Atomic Energy: The combination principle, The Bohr model of atom; Matter waves: The de Broglie relations; group velocity of a wave packet; Schrodinger Equation: Single particle wave equation, ground state of hydrogen atom; one dimensional simple harmonic oscillator; Probability Interpretation: Probability distribution in position; conservation of probability; collapse of the wave function; Momentum: Short review of Fourier transform; momentum measurement by time of flight; momentum wave function; Uncertainty principle; Expectation Values: Expectation values of position and momentum of a particle.

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Books Recommended: 1. P.J.E. Peebles: Quantum Mechanics 2. P.T. Mathews: Quantum Mechanics 3. Powell and Crasemann: Quantum Mechanics PHY 237 RADIATION AND STATISTICAL MECHANICS 2 Hours/week, 2 Credits Thermal radiation: Black body radiation, Kirchoff’s law, Stefan-Boltzmann laws, Wein’s law, Rayleigh-Jean’s law and Planck’s law. Classical Statistical Mechanics : Phase space; average properties of an assembly; Boltzmann probability distribution; Maxwell velocity distribution, Equipartition of energy; Entropy and disorder. Quantum statistical mechanics: Schrodinger equation; Free particle in a box; Volume of a state in phase space; quantum indistinguishability and the uncertainty principle; Bose-Einstein distribution, Photon gas, Derivation of Planck’s radiation law ; Fermi-Dirac distribution; Electron gas in metal and electronic specific heat. Books Recommended: 1. Saha and Srivastava: A treatise on heat 2. Mandl, F.: Statistical Mechanics 3. Reif, F. : Fundamental of Statistical and Thermal Physics 4. Singh and Singh: Statistical Mechanics PHY 222A PHYSICS PRACTICAL – A 9 Hours/week 4.5 Credits 50% of the following experiments. 1. Experiments on collision in two dimensions. 2. Determination of coefficient of linear expansion of metal. 3. Density of water at different temperatures and coefficient of expansion of water by Mathissen’s bulb method. 4. Surface tension of a liquid by the method of ripples. 5. Surface tension of a liquid by the Jaeger’s method. 6. Variation of viscosity of water with temperature. 7. Measurement of coefficient of expansion of air by constant pressure air thermometer. 8. Determination of the ratio of the specific heats of a gas by Clement and Desorme’s apparatus. 9. Determination of "J" by Callendar and Barnes’s apparatus (with radiation correction). 10. Experiment on thermal conductivity. 11. Calibration of an ammeter. 12. Preparation of one-Ohm coil. 13. Determination of refractive indices of thick and thin prisms. 14. Determination of refractive indices of transparent solid and liquid by total internal reflection method. 15. Determination of E.C.E. of silver/copper. 16. Determination of wavelength of light by Newton’s ring. 17. Determination of wavelength of light by diffraction through a single slit. 18. Determination of wavelength of light by biprism. 19. Determination of specific rotation by polarimeter. 20. Calibration of spectrometer. 21. Determination of wavelength by plane diffraction grating. Books Recommended: 1. Worsnop, B.L. and Flint, H.T. : Advanced Practical Physics 2. Chowdhury, S. A. and Basak, A. K. : Byaboharik Padartha Bidya 3. Ahmed, G. and Uddin, M.S. : Practical Physics PHY 222B PHYSICS PRACTICAL - B 9 hours/Week, 4.5 Credits The experiments not completed in PHY 222 A should be completed in this course. PHY 321 CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS 4 Hours/week,4 Credits Electromagnetic Field Equation: Maxwell’s equations; E.M. energy--Poynting vector; scalar and vector potentials; Gauge transformation; the wave equations. Propagation of E.M. Waves: Plane waves in non- conducting media; waves in conducting media; reflection and refraction at boundaries of two non conducting media; boundary conditions; total internal reflections. Propagation of E.M. Waves in Bounded Region: Propagation between parallel conducting plates; wave guides (rectangular). Radiation from an Accelerated Charge: Dipole radiation, the Lienard and Wiechart potentials; field of charge in uniform motion; fields of an accelerated charge; radiation at low velocities. Scattering and Dispersion: Scattering by individual free electron; scattering by a bound electron; absorption of radiation by an oscillator; Rayleigh scattering;

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Books Recommended: 1. Griffiths, D.J.,: Classical Electrodynamics 2. Reitz, J.R. and Milford, F.J.: Foundation of Electromagnetic Theory 3. Corson, D.R. and Lorrain, P.: Introduction to Electromagnetic Field & Waves 4. Jackson, J.D.: Electrodynamics PHY 323 QUANTUM MECHANICS -I 4 Hours/week, 4 Credits The two slit experiments; Measurements and observable; Commutation of observations; linear operators; Eigenvalue equations. Complementary Principle; Physical postulates of Quantum mechanics; Wave function and its interpretation; probability density and probability current density, Eigenstates; Orthonormality of eigenstates; Principle of superposition; Probability amplitudes and overlap integrals; Wave packets and uncertainty principle, Ehrenfest’s theorem. Correspondence Principle; The Schrodinger wave equation and one dimensional potential problems -- particle in a potential box, potential step, tunneling through potential barrier, rectangular potential well; Linear harmonic oscillator; Angular momentum: Orbital angular momentum; Rotation operator, Spherical harmonics, Spin angular momentum; Three dimensional Schrodinger equation for spherically symmetric potentials: Solution of the Schrodinger equation for Hydrogen atom. Books Recommended: 1. Matthews, P.T.: Introduction to Quantum Mechanics 2. Schiff, L.I.: Quantum Mechanics 3. Powell, J.L. and Crasemann, B.: Quantum Mechanics 4. Harun ar Rashid, A.M.: Quantum Mechanics 5. Merzbacher, E.: Quantum Mechanics 6. Feynman Lectures, Vol.3, Chapters 1-3 7. Griffith: Introduction to Quantum Mechanics 8. Bransden and Joachain: Quantum Mechanics 9. S. Saha: Lecture notes on Quantum Mechanics, 2007 (A project work) PHY 325 ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS 4 Hours/week, 4 Credits The Atom: Atomic models; Rutherford nuclear model of atom; atomic spectra; the Bohr model and the structure of atoms; atomic excitation; the Frank - Hertz experiment; the correspondence principle; correction for nuclear motion; hydrogen-like atoms. The Particle Property of Waves: The photoelectric effect -- Einstein’s photoelectric equation and its experimental verification; Production and intensities of X-rays; Bremsstrahlung; Continuous and characteristic Xrays; X-ray absorption; Moseley’s law; Compton effect. The Wave Nature of Particles: Wave particle duality; de Broglie waves; Experimental verification of particle waves; Wave and group velocities. The Quantum Theory of Hydrogen Atom: Use of Schrodinger equation for the hydrogen atom -- total, orbital and magnetic quantum numbers; The hydrogen spectral lines. Electron Spin and Complex Atoms: Spin angular momentum; The periodic table; SternGerlach experiment; Spin-orbit interaction -- fine structure; Total angular momentum of atoms; Zeeman effect. Molecular Physics: Molecular spectra; Raman effect; Rotational and vibrational energy levels of diatomic molecules. Books Recommended: 1. Beiser, A. : Concepts of Modern Physics 2. Beiser, A. : Perspectives of Modern Physics 3. Enge, Wehr and Richards : Physics of the Atom 4. Ohanian : Modern Physics PHY 327 RELATIVITY: SPECIAL AND GENERAL 3 Hours/week, 3 credits Special Relativity: Galilean relativity and Newtonian mechanics; Michelson-Morely experiment; Postulates of the special theory of relativity; Lorentz transformations; Length contraction and time dilation; Proper time; Transformation of velocities; Twin paradox; Space-Time and four vectors; Relativistic Mechanics: The principle of least action; Relativistic Lagrangian; Energy and momentum; Decay of particles; Invariant cross-section; Elastic collisions of particles; Four-tensor of angular momentum; Magnetism as relativistic phenomenon, invariance of electric charge, covariant form of electrodynamic equation; Four-potential of electromagnetic field. General Relativity: Particle in Gravitational Field; The principle of equivalence; Gravitational field in relativistic mechanics; Curvilinear coordinates; Distance and time intervals in general relativity; Covariant differentiation; Motion of a particle in a gravitational field; The constant gravitational field; The Gravitational Field Equations: The curvature tensor; The Einstein equations. Books Recommended: 1. Landau, L.D. and Lifshitz, E.M. : Classical Theory of Fields 2. French, A.P.: Special Relativity 3. Weinberg, S.: Gravitation 4. Chandrasekhar, S.: Mathematical Theory of Black Holes 5. Hartle, J.B.: Gravity: An Introduction to General Relativity

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PHY 331 NUCLEAR PHYSICS – I 4 Hours/week, 4 Credits The Nucleus: Rutherford atom and atomic nucleus; Nuclear size; Packing fraction and binding energy and semiempirical mass formula; separation energy, Nuclear force (introduction). Radioactivity: Radioactive decay laws, Carbon dating; Half life and mean life; Secular and transient equilibrium; Radioactive series; Alpha, Beta and Gamma Emission: Theory of alpha decay (semi classical ) and its experimental verification; Beta decay and its energy measurement; Conservation of energy and momentum in beta decays; Neutrino hypothesis; Orbital electron capture. Positron emission; Gamma radiation; Mean lives for gamma emission; Internal conversion. Nuclear Reaction - Different types of reactions; the energies of nuclear reactions; Cross section; Nuclear Fission and Fusion: Fission process; Energy release in Fission; Chain reaction; Nuclear fusion; Interaction of charged particles and radiation with matter: Ionisation; Multiple scattering; Stopping power; Energy loss of electrons and other charged particles; Positronium; Pair production and annihilation;. Nuclear Detectors: Ionisation chambers; Proportional counter; Geiger - Muller counter. Particle Accelerators: Linear accelerator; Cyclotron; Synchrotron. Elementary Particles: Introduction to elementary particles. Books Recommended: 1. Kaplan, I.: Nuclear Physics 2. Halliday, D.: Introductory Nuclear Physics 3. Sengupta, H.M. : Nucleo Padartha Bidya 4. Evans, R.D.: The Atomic Nucleus 5. Burcham, W.E.: Nuclear Physics 6. Meyerhoff : Nuclear Physics 7. Islam and Islam: Nucleo Padartha Bidya PHY 333 MATHEMATICAL PHYSICS 3 Hours/week, 3 Credits Review of Vector Analysis: Gradient, Divergence and Curl of Vectors. Integral theorem: Green's theorem, Stoke's theorem and Divergence theorem. Complex variable: Definition of general rules, Geometric aspects of complex variables, Cauchy-Riemann equations and Cauchy's theorem, Contour integral(Residue theorem). Special Functions: Fourier and Laplace's transform, Dirac delta function and its properties, Legendre and associated Legendre function and spherical harmonics with application in atomic physics, Hermite polynomials with application to quantum oscillator, Laguerre and associated Laguerre polynomials, Green's function, Hypergeometric function with application, Bessel functions. Books Recommended: 1. Arfken and Weber: Mathematical Methods for Physicists 2. Pipes,: Mathematical Physics for Physicists and Engineers 3. Gupta, B.D.,: Mathematical Physics 4. Margenau and Murphy,: Mathematical Physics 5. Rajput,: Mathematical Physics 6. Luke, Y.L.,: The special functions of Mathematics for Engineers 7. Spiegel, : Schaum Series, Vector Analysis 8. Haque, B.: Vectors 9. Ross, S.L.: Differential Equations PHY 335 SOLID STATE PHYSICS -I 4 Hours/week, 4 Credits Crystals: Classification of materials, crystals, amorphous, polycrystals, liquid crystals. Lattice translation vectors and lattices, Unit cell, Bravis lattices, Different types of crystal systems, Representation of crystal planes: Miller indices, Symmetry elements, symmetry groups, Point group, and space group. Different crystal structures, packing fraction. X-Ray diffraction: Bragg’s law, Laue equations, geometrical structure factor, atomic scattering factor, Reciprocal lattices, Reciprocal lattice vectors, Brilloin zones, Ewald construction, diffraction conditions, Lattice vibration, Monatomic lattice, Diatomic lattice, Bonding Mechanisms: Ionic, Covalent, Metallic, Van der Waal, bonded crystals; equilibrium separation of atoms, Lattice energy of ionic crystals; Theories of lattice specific heat: Classical theory of heat capacity, Einstein’s theory and Debye approximation. Free Electron Theory: Energy levels and density of states; Fermi Dirac distribution; Fermi energy; Heat capacity of free electron gas; Electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity of metals; Wiedemann-Franz law. Band theory of Solids: Formation of energy bands in crystal; Bloch theorem, Kronig-Penney Model, Dispersion relation in extended and reduced zone scheme, Nearly free electron model, Metals, semiconductors and insulators in terms of energy gaps. Fermi energy, Carrier effective masses, Hall effect. Theory of Semiconductors: Intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors, Impurity states of semiconductors, Free carrier concentrations semiconductors, Fermi level and carrier concentrations in semiconductors, Effect of impurity levels, Mobility of charge carriers. Books Recommended: 1. Kittel, C.: Introduction to Solid State Physics 2. Beiser, A.: Perspectives of Modern Physics 3. Dekker, A.J.: Solid State Physics 4. Omar, M.A. : Elementary Solid State Physics 5. Blakemore, J.S. : Solid State Physics

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6. Singhal, R. A.: Solid State Physics 7. Ashcroft and Marmin: Solid State Physics 8. Grove, A.S.: Physics of Semiconductor Devices PHY 322A PHYSICS PRACTICAL – A : 9 Hours/week, 4.5 Credits : (50% of the following experiments) 1. a) Practice of technical drawing. b) Cutting of metal to a definite size and shape. c) Filing. d) Drilling. e) Taping. f) Turning and thread cutting using lathe machine. 2. Determination of dispersive power of a prism and a grating. 3. Determination of Cauchy’s constants and hence determination of resolving power of a prism. 4. Determination of resolving power of a grating. 5. Determination of Rydberg constant using a spectrometer. 6. Determination of wave length of light and separation of D1 and D2 lines by Michelson interferometer. 7. Determination of delta and boiling point of a liquid by a platinum resistance thermometer. 8. Calibration of thermocouple. 9. Calibration of electromagnet by an exploring coil. 10. Determination of self-inductance by any suitable method. 11. Determination of ballistic constant of a moving coil type galvanometer. 12. Determination of mutual inductance by direct throw method. 13. Determination of absolute capacity of a condenser. 14. Charging and discharging of capacitors and study of their various characteristics. 15. Determination of e/m of an electron. 16. Determination of ionization potential by Frank-Hertz experiment. 17. Construction of a transistor radio receiver. 18. Construction of a transistor radio transmitter. 19. Study of variation of reactance due to L and C with frequency. 20. Determination of resonance in LRC circuit with a) L and C in series and b) L and C in parallel. 21. Calibration of a cathode ray tube for both AC and DC sources. 22. Vector representation of voltage in a circuit containing L, C and R. 23. Measurement of i) an unknown frequency and ii) phase angle between two AC sources using cathode ray tube. 24. Study of the characteristics of a p-n junction and a Zener diode. 25. Determination of a transistor characteristics in common emitter configuration and Determination of hybrid parameters. 26. Construction of a full wave Bridge rectifier using semiconducting diodes and study of the effect of filters. Books Recommended: 1. Worsnop, B.L. and Flint, H.T. : Advanced Practical Physics 2. Chowdhury, S. A. and Basak, A. K. : Byaboharik Padartha Bidya 3. Ahmed, G. and Uddin, M.S. : Practical Physics PHY 322B PHYSICS PRACTICAL - B 9 hours/Week, 4.5 Credits The experiments not completed in PHY 322 A should be completed in this course. PHY 421 QUANTUM MECHANICS –II 4 Hours/week, 4 Credits Matrix formulation of quantum mechanics: State vectors in Hilbert space; bra and ket notations; operators and their representation; transformation theory; Schrodinger, Heisenberg, and Dirac representations. Theory of angular momentum: Angular momentum operators and their commutation relations; eigenvalues and eigenvectors of angular momentum operators; parity operation on the angular momentum vectors; addition of angular momenta; ClebschGordon coefficients; Pauli’s exclusion principle and spin matrices. Theory of scattering : Two-body systems; scattering by spherically symmetric potentials; partial- wave analysis; Born approximation and its applications. Approximate methods: Stationary perturbation theory; time dependent perturbation theory; variational method; WKB approximation. Identical particle : Symmetric and antisymmetric wave functions; exclusion principle; spin and statistics; spin matrices; scattering of identical particles. Relativistic wave equations : Klein-Gordon and Dirac’s relativistic wave equations; solution of free particle equations; negative energy states and hole theory. Books Recommended: 1. Schiff, L. I.: Quantum Mechanics 2. Mathews, P. M. & Vankatesan, K.: Text book of Quantum Mechanics 3. Dicke, K. H. & Whittke, J. P.: Introduction to Quantum Mechanics 4. Greiner, W.: Quantum Mechanics -an Introduction 5. Messiah, A.: Quantum Mechanics Vol I and Vol II 6. Harun ar Rashid, A. M.: Quantum Mechanics

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7. Dirac, P. A. M.: Principles of Quantum Mechanics 8. Brink & Satchler ,: Angular Momentum 9. Sherwin, C. W.: Quantum Mechanics 10. Ziock, C.: Basic Quantum Mechanics 11. Wu, T.Y. : Quantum Mechanics 12. Rose, E.M. : Angular Momentum 13. Sakurai, J.J. Quantum Mechanics 14. Powell, J.L. and Craseman, B. : Quantum Mechanics PHY 423 DIGITAL ELECTRONICS 4 Hours/week, 4 Credits Digital electronics; Numbers: (a) Decimal, binary, octal and hexadecimal binary coded decimal; Logic operation: NOT, OR, NOR, AND, NAND, EX-OR operation; Combinational logic operation; Parity generator; Laws of Boolean algebra; De-Morgan’s theorem; Sum of product; Product of sum; k-maps, Multiplexer; demultiplexer; decoder; encoder; half-adder; full-adder; adder-subtracter. Logic circuits: DTL, TTL,CMOS, ECL. Flip-flops, registers & counters: R-S, D-type, Edge-triggered, J-K and J-K master slave flip-flops; serial and parallel shift registers; Synchronous and asynchronous counters; Up & down counters; Mod-3 and Mod-5 counters, decade counters. Memory: Matrix addressing, typical memory cell. Digital Computer: Basic computer system; microcomputer; microprocessor – Intel 8085. Pulse circuit: Pulse characteristics, RC differentiators & intregrators, Astable, Monostable and bistable multivibrators and Schmitt trigger. Books Recommended: 1. Millman and Taub : Pulse, Digital and Switching Waveforms 2. Taub and Schilling : Digital Integrated Electronics 3. Bartee, T.: Digital Computer Fundamentals 4. Malvino and Leach : Digital Principles and Applications 5. Gothman , W. H.: Digital Electronics,: An Introduction to Theory and Practice 6. Maurice Mano: Digital Design PHY 429 REACTOR PHYSICS - I 3 Hours/week, 3 Credits Nuclear reactions by neutrons : neutron cross section; energy dependence of neutron cross- section; fission crosssections. Diffusion and slowing down of neutron : thermal neutron diffusion; diffusion length and diffusion equations; fast neutron diffusion and Fermi age equation; energy distribution and cross -section of thermal neutron; slowing down of neutron - transport mean free path and scattering cross-section; critical equation and reaction buckling. Reactor theory: the steady state; multiplication factor; four factor formula; neutron leakage and critical size; calculation of k for homogeneous reactors; Classification of reactors; Research reactors; various types of research reactors, Power Reactors; Various types of power reactors and breeder reactors; heterogeneous reactor; calculation of k for heterogeneous reactors . Books Recommended: 1. Lamarsh , J. R,: Introduction to Nuclear Engineering 2. Lamarsh, J. R,: Introduction to Nuclear Reactor Theory 3. Glasstone, S. and Sesonske, A.: Nuclear reactor Engineering 4. Murray, R.L.: Introduction to Reactor Physics 5. Liverhant,: Fundamental Introduction to Nuclear Reactor Physics PHY 431 NON-LINEAR OPTICS - I 3 Hours/week, 3 Credits The Non-linear Optical Susceptibility: Introduction to Non-linear Optics; Description of non-linear optical interactions; Formal definition of non-linear susceptibility; Non-linear susceptibility of a classical anharmonic oscillator; Wave-Equation Description of Non-linear Optical Interactions: The wave equation for non-linear optical media; the coupled wave-equations for sum-frequency generation; The Manley-Rowe relations; Sum-frequency generation; Difference-frequency generation and parametric amplification; Second-harmonic generation; Phasematching considerations; The Intensity Dependent Refractive Index: Description of the intensity-dependent refractive index; Non-linearities due to molecular orientation. Books Recommended: 1. Boyd, R.W.: Non-linear optics. 2. Butcher, P.N. and Cotter, D.: The Elements of Non-linear Optics. 3. Shen, Y.R.: The Principles of Non-linear Optics. 4. Newell, A.C. and Moloney, J.V.: Non-linear Optics. 5. Guenther, R.: Modern Optics. 6. Bloembergen, N.: Non-linear Optics. 7. Baldwin, G.C.: An Introduction to Non-linear Optics. PHY 433 NUCLEAR RADIATION AND HEALTH PHYSICS - I

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3 Hours/week, 3 Credits Detection of nuclear radiation: (a) detection of charged particles; nuclear interaction with matter; bubble chamber; photographic emulsion, spark chamber; scintillation detectors; Cerenkov detector; p.m. tubes; semiconductor detector; track etch detector; thermoluminescent dosimeter; (b) neutral particle detection; neutron detection; detector based on boron reaction; time of flight technique; proton recoil telescope; neutron detection by activation foils. Detector efficiencies: standardisation of radioactive sources; calibration of detectors; absolute counting; source geometry; source absorption; air and window effects; source dilution; measurement of very short and very long half lives. Books Recommended: 1. Knoll, G.F.: Radiation Detection and Measurements 2. Price, W.J.: Nuclear Radiation Detection 3. Fremlin, J.H.: Application of Nuclear Physics 4. Cameroon, J.R.: Medical Physics 5. Barnes, D.E.: Radiation Hazards 6. Putman, A.: Isotopes 7. Segre, E.: Experimental Nuclear Physics ( vol.1-3) PHY 435 MEDICAL PHYSICS 3 Hours/week, 3 Credits Ultra Sound Imaging: Nature, production and detection of ultra sounds; A-scan, B-scan, M-scan; clinical applications. Other Imaging Techniques: Rectilinear scanner; gamma camera; CAT scanner, CT scanner, clinical applications. Audiology, Hearing aids. Vascular Measurements: Blood pressure; blood flows; blood velocity. Cardiac Measurements: ECG; ECG planes; Einthovens triangle; elementary ideas of heart disorder, pace maker. Neuromuscular Measurements: EEG, EMG, stimulation of neural tissue; nerve conduction measurements. Bioelectrical Amplifiers, Patient safety. Radiation and Health : Radiopharmaceuticals, radiotherapy; radiation protection; radiation dosimetry. Books Recommended: 1. Cameron J.R. and Skofronic,: Medical Physics 2. Cember, H.: Introduction to Health Physics 3. Brown, B.H. and Smallwood,: Medical Physics and Physiological Measurements PHY 437 GEOPHYSICS 3 Hours/week, 3 Credits The Solar System: The planets; meteorites and their compositions; cosmic ray exposures of meteorites; the PoyntingRobertson effect; compositions of terrestrial planets. Rotation and the Figure of the Earth: Figure of the earth; precession of the equinoxes; the Chandler wobble, tidal friction and the history of the Earth-Moon system, fluctuation in rotation and the excitation of the wobble. The Gravity Field: Gravity as gradient of the geopotential; the satellite geoid; crystal structure and the principle of isotasy; earth tides. Seismology and the Internal Structure of the Earth: seismicity of the earth; elastic waves and seismic rays; travel time and velocity depth curves for body waves; internal density and composition; free oscillation. Geomagnetism: The magnetism of the earth; fundamental equations; measurement of the magnetic field; the method of Gauss; saturation induction magnetometers; the proton precision magnetometers; alkali vapour magnetometers; introduction to magnetometers. The Earth’s Internal Heat: The geothermal flux; thermal conduction in the mantle; temperature in the interior of the earth; energy source for the geomagnetic dynamo. Radioactivity and the Age of the Earth: The pre-radioactivity age problem; radioactive elements and the principle of radiometric dating; growth of continents and atmospheric argon; age of the earth and the meteorites; dating the nuclear synthesis. Books recommended: 1. Stacey, F.D.: Physics of the earth 2. Garland G.D.: Introduction to Geophysics – Mantle core and crust 3. Grant, F.S. and West, G.F.: Interpretation Theory in Applied Geophysics 4. Parasnis, D.S.: Principles of Applied Geophysics 5. Dobrin, M.B., Introduction to Geophysical Prospecting 6. Telford, E.M., Geldart, L.P., Sheriff, R.E. and Keys, D.E.: Applied Geophysics PHY 439: COMPUTATIONAL PHYSICS − I 3 Hours/week, 3 Credits [A sound basis on any of the Computer languages ForTran77/ForTran90/C ++ is the prerequisite for this Course.] Introduction: Physics and Computational Physics; Overview of use of computer computation in Classical and Quantum Physics: Introduction to computer algorithms and languages. Basic numerical methods: Interpolations and approximations; Differentiation and integration; Zeroes and extremes of a single-variable function; Classical scattering; Iterative procedures for special functions; Discretization; Numerical quadrature; Random number generators. Numerical methods for matrices: Basic Matrix operations; Linear Equation systems; Zeroes and extremes of a multivariable function; Eigenvalue problem; The Faddev-Leverrier method. The Lanczos algorithm and the many-body problem; Random matrix. Ordinary differential equations: Initial-value problems; The Euler and Picard

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methods; The Runge-Kutta method; Boundary-value and eigenvalue problems; Linear equations and Sturn-Liouville problems; The one dimensional Schrödinger equation; Numerov’s algorithm for the radial Schrodinger equation. Books Recommended:

1. 2. 3. 4.

Tao Pang,: An Introduction to Computational Physics. Thijssen, I.M.: Computational Physics Harvey Gould and Jan Tobochnik : An introduction to Computer Simulation Methods part 1 and 2, Wolfram, S. : The Mathematica Book

PHY 441 BIOPHYSICS − I 3 Hours/Week, 3 Credits Molecular design of life: Biochemistry and genomic revolution, the chemical component of cell, from single cell to multi cellular organism, DNA, RNA and flow of genetic information, Exploring genes, Method of replication, Mechanism of protein synthesis, Energy currency of cell, Structure of Macromolecules: Atomic and molecular forces, behavior of macromolecules, physical techniques for structure determination (X-ray diffraction, spectroscopy, and NMR). Properties of protein and forces: Protein folding, mechanical properties, Elastic properties of protein and DNA, Electrical and magnetic properties of proteins, Rigidity of actin filaments and microtubules, Elastic, viscous, electrostatic thermal and collision forces which act on the protein in cell. Mechanics of motor proteins: Introduction to Kinesin, Myosin, Dynin, F1-ATPase, Force generation by the motors and cytoskeletal filaments, mechanics of the cytoskeleton, method for the measurement of the velocity and force of motor molecules. Different kinds of microscope: Bright field microscope, Fluorescence microscope, Electron microscope, Atomic Force microscope, Confocal microscope etc. Book Recommended:

2. 3.

1. Howard, J. : Mechanics of molecular motors Michel Daune: Molecular Biophysics Berg, J.M. : Biochemistry 4. Michael P. Sheetz : Laser Tweezers in Cell Biology 5..Mielczarek, E.V.: Biological Physics PHY 443 NUCLEAR RADIATION DETECTION AND MEASUREMENT - I 3 Hours/week, 3 Credits Radiation Sources: Fast electron sources, Heavy charged particles sources, Sources of electromagnetic radiation, and neutron sources; Statistics of Radiation Counting: Characteristics of data, Statistical models, Applications of statistical models, Propagation of errors, Optimization of counting experiments, Limits of Detectability, Distribution of time intervals, and Curve fitting; Characteristics and Utilization of Various Detectors: Simplified detector model, Modes of detector operation, Pulse height spectra, Sensitivity, Energy resolution, Detection efficiency, Dead time; Radiation dose measurements of ionization chambers, Variants of the proportional counter design, G-M survey meters; Books Recommended: Will be given by the concerned teacher PHY 445 NUCLEAR PHYSICS - II 4 Hours/week, 4 Credits General Properties of Nucleus: Nuclear density distribution; isospin; magnetic moments; g-factor. The Deuteron : Ground state of deuteron; deuteron ground state wave function; magnetic and quadrupole moments of the deuteron; Tensor forces and the deuteron problem; Two- body Problems at Low Energy: Scattering of a beam of particles by a Centre of force; Partial wave analysis; Neutron-proton scattering at low energies; Scattering length; spin dependence of n-p scattering; Effective range theory in the n-p scattering; Coherent and incoherent scattering; Salient features of the n-p scattering at intermediate and high energies. Nuclear Force: Central and non-central forces; Exchange forces; Nuclear stability conditions; Symmetry and charge effects; Charge independence of nuclear force; mirror nuclei and Coulomb energy. Nuclear Reactions : Reaction cross-section; Breit-Wigner dispersion formula for l=0 state; Compound nucleus reaction; Optical model; Direct reactions: Definition and classification; the methods of direct reaction theory: Analysis of stripping and pick-up reactions; Nuclear Models: Salient aspects of different nuclear models; Magic numbers and nuclear shell model; Single particle potential; Harmonic oscillator well; Spin-orbit potential; Shell model predictions; Spin and magnetic moments; Nordheim’s rule; Total spin for various configurations; Individual particle model; L-S coupling scheme; j-j coupling scheme; Collective model- Vibrational and rotational states; Nuclear deformation; Nilsson potential. Theory of Gamma Transitions: Gamma-ray energies and lifetime of excited states; Theory of gamma emission; Internal conversion. Books Recommended: 1. Roy, R. R. and Nigam , B. P.: Nuclear Physics : Theory and Experiment 2. Preston and Bhaduri,: Stucture of the Nucleus 3. Segre, E.: Nuclei and Particles 4. Enge, M. A.: Introduction to Nuclear Physics 5. Cohen , B. L.: Concepts of Nuclear Physics 6. Blatt, J.M. and Weisskopf , V.F.: Theoretical Nuclear Physics 7. Elton, L.R.B.: Introductory Nuclear Physica

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8. Waghmare,B.: Introductory Nuclear Physics 9. Pal, M.: Theory of Nuclear Structure 10. Hodgson P.E., Gadioli, E and Erba, E.G. : Introductory Nuclear Physics 11. MacCarthy, I.E.: Introduction to Nuclear Theory 12. Bohr, A. and Mottelson, B.R.: Nuclear Structure I and II 13. Macfarlane M.H. and Elliot J.P.: Collective Motion in Nuclei 14. Tobocman W.: Theory of Direct Nuclear Reactions 15. Satchler G.R.: Direct Nuclear Reactions 16. Sen Gupta H.M.: Nucleo Padartha Bidya

PHY 447 SOLID STATE PHYSICS -II 4 Hours/week, 4 Credits Electrical properties in metals: electrical conductivity at high frequencies; dielectric response of an electron gas; motion in magnetic fields; electron in a periodic potential; approximate solution near a zone boundary ; number of orbital in a band; construction of Fermi surface. Dielectric Properties: Macroscopic electric field, Local field; Dielectric constant; Electronic, ionic and orientation polarizabilities; Clausius- Mossotti relation; Measurement of dielectric constant, general properties of ferroelectric materials; dipole theory of ferroelectricity; spontaneous polarization; ferroelectric domain; piezoelectricity & pyroelectricty ; relaxation and dielectric losses; electromechanical transducers. Magnetic properties of solids : Langevin’s dia- and paramagnetism; quantum theory of paramagnetism; paramagnetic susceptibility of conduction electron; ferri and ferromagnetism, anti-ferromagnetism, ferrites; Curie-Weiss law; Heisenberg model; spin waves; magnetic relaxation and resonance phenomena. Superconductivity : basic properties of superconductors, Type-1 and Type-2 superconductors; critical field; Meissner effect, thermodynamics of superconductors; London equations; penetration depth; coherence length; superconductors; modern theory. of superconductivity; high TC superconductors. Optical phenomena in solids: colour of crystal; excitons; photoconductivity; phosphorescence; excitations and emission; electro-luminescence. Defects in solids : Point defects; lattice vacancies; diffusion ; dislocations. Books Recommended: 1. Kittel, C . : Introduction to Solid State Physics 2. Dekker, A.J. : Solid State Physics 3. McKelvey, J.P. : Solid State and Semiconductor Physics 4. Madelung, O.: Introduction to Solid State Physics 5. Wart, C. A. & Thomson, R.M. : Physics of Solids 6. Seitz, F.: The Theory of Solids 7. Blakemore, J. S.: The Modern theory of Solids 8. Sachs, M. : Solid State Theory. 9. Ali Omar,: Solid State Physics PHY 449 REACTOR PHYSICS – II 3 Hours/week, 3 Credits Reactor fuel: fuel cycle; production of reactor fuels; sources of uranium; separation of uranium isotopes; processing of irradiated fuel; radioactive waste disposal . Energy removal : thermal problems in reactor design; design of cooling system; heat sources in reactor systems; reactor coolants. Control of nuclear reactor kinematics : general features of reactor control; effect of temperature on reactivity; design of control system and reactor operation; fission product poisoning; burnable poisons; Reactor safety and accidents. Books Recommended: Same as in PHY 429 PHY 451 NON-LINEAR OPTICS - II 3 Hours/week, 3 Credits Process Resulting from the Intensity-Dependent Refractive Index: Optical phase conjugation; Self-focussing of light; Optical bistability; Two-beam coupling; Pulse propagation and optical solitons. The Electro-optic and Photo-refractive Effects: Introduction to the electro-optic effect; Linear electrooptic effect; Introduction to the photo-refractive effect; Photorefractive equations of Kukhtarev et al.; Two-beam coupling in Photorefractive materials; Four-wave mixing in Photorefractive materials. Books Recommended: Same as in PHY 431 PHY 453 NUCLEAR RADIATION AND HEALTH PHYSICS-II 3 Hours/week, 3 Credits Counting statistics : binomial , Poisson and normal distribution; correlation and regression; least square method of fitting; chi-square test and its applications. Health physics: radiation hazards; biological effects of radiation; Effects of non-ionising radiations: its harmful effects; radiation units; relation between dose and source intensity; mpd; calculation for dose rate from point and distributed source; radiation dose from beta and gamma emitters; dosimetry health monitors; rules for operation of a radiation laboratory; protective materials; shielding calculations; waste disposals; decontamination. Utilisation of x-rays and nuclear radiation: radiation therapy; diagnosis and treatment

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using radioisotope; use of isotopes as tracers ; isotope dating; pacemakers; nuclear battery and uses in agriculture and industry. Books Recommended: Same as in PHY 433 PHY 455: COMPUTATIONAL PHYSICS − II 3 Hours/week, 3 Credits [A sound basis on any of the Computer languages ForTran77/ForTran90/C ++ is the prerequisite for the Course.] Partial differential equations: Partial differential equations in Physics; Separation of variables; Discretization of the equation; The matrix method for differential equations; Initial value problems; The Monte Carlo method: Introduction; Monte Carlo integration; Monte Carlo for the Ising model; Monte Carlo simulation of a monatomic gas; Renormalization with Monte Carlo simulation; Variational quantum Monte Carlo simulations; Green’s function Monte Carlo simulations; Path-integral Monte Carlo simulations; Quantum lattice model. Symbolic computing: Symbolic computing systems; Basic symbolic mathematics; computer calculus; linear system; non-linear system; differential equations; computer graphics. High-performance computing: The basic concepts; High-performance computer systems; Parallelism and parallel computing; Data parallel computing; Distributed computing and message passing. Books recommended: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Tao Pang: An Introduction to Computational Physics. Thijssen, I.M.: Computational Physics Harvey Gould and Jan Tobochnik : An introduction to Computer Simulation Methods part 1 and 2, Wolfram, S. : The Mathematica Book Cook, D.M. and others,: A Comparison of Several Symbol Manipulating Programs, Part I and Part II

PHY 457 BIOPHYSICS − II 3 Hours/Week, 3 Credits Protein structure and function: Primary, secondary and tertiary structures of amino acids, Protein function, protein synthesis. Forces: Mechanical forces, Thermal forces and diffusion, Chemical forces, Optical tweezers: Basic laser tweezers, Optical tweezers set up, calibration of trap by measuring trap stiffness, Forces of the gradient trap on spheres, arbitrary trap location. Physics of muscle proteins: Myosin super family, Cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, ATP hydrolysis, active potential, actomyosin interaction, Processive and non-processive movement of protein molecule and duty ratio. Motility Models: From crossbridges to motion. Single molecule biophysics: Observation of the mechanism of a single molecule under an optical e microscope, Motility of single molecules, unconstrained movement of single motor molecules, force, velocity, and step size measurement, single-molecule fluorescence. Basic enzyme behavior: Michelis Manten mechanism, and MWC model. Introduction to Membrane biophysics, physics of nervous system and electrophysiology. Book Recommended: 1 2. 3. 4. 5. Howard J. : Mechanics of molecular motors Michel Daune: Molecular Biophysics Berg J.M. : Biochemistry Michael P. Sheetz : Laser Tweezers in Cell Biology Mielczarek E.V.: Biological physics

PHY 459 NUCLEAR RADIATION DETECTION AND MEASUREMENT - II 3 Hours/week, 3 Credits Radiation Spectroscopy with Scintillation Detectors: General characteristics in Gamma-ray spectroscopy, Properties of scintillation Gamma-ray spectrometers; Semiconductor Detectors: Basic semiconductor properties, Detector characteristics of semiconductors, Semiconductors as radiation detectors, Semiconductor detector configurations, Operational characteristics, Applications of Silicon Detectors; Detection and Spectroscopy of Fast Neutrons: Counters based on neutron moderation, Detectors based on fast neutron-induced reactions, Detectors that utilize fast neutron scattering. Books Recommended: Will be given by the concerned teacher. PHY 461 ORBITAL MECHANICS-I 3 Hours/week, 3 Credits Newton’s law and the Kepler Problem; The gravitational two-body problem; reduction of two-body problem into onebody problem; Kepler problem in time; Kepler’s equation. Perturbation Theory: General statement of perturbation theory; the Lindstedt-Poincare perturbation theory and its application to the theory of orbits; Canonical perturbation theory and its use in the Doffing oscillator; Floquet theory and its use in the Sitnikov problem. The Restricted ThreeBody Problem: The problem; Jacobian integral, Lagrange points, Motion of Trojan asteroids. Order and Chaos: Definition of order and chaos; Determination of presence of chaos in orbital motion, Liapunov exponents; deterministic chaos. Books Recommended: 1. Hand and Finch: Analytical Mechanics 2. Jose and Saletan: Classical Dynamics

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3. Boccaletti and Pocacco: Theory of Orbits 4. Szebehely: Theory of Orbits 6. Landau L.D., and Lifshitz E.M.: Classical Theory of Fields PHY 463 ORBITAL MECHANICS-II 3 Hours/Week, 3 Credits Relativity: Special & General: Lorentz transformations; Special relativistic kinematics; the general theory of relativity; the Schwarzschild and Kerr metrics. Geodetic Motion: Geodetic equation of motion and its solution in Schwarzschild field; the Carter’s equations and dynamics of test particle orbits around rotating stars. Post-Newtonian Celestial Mechanics: Bending of star light, perihelion shift of Mercury; photon orbit. Special Topics: Post-Newtonian two-body problem; the effective one-body problem in relativity; gravitomagnetic clock effect; gravito-electromagnetism. Books Recommended: Same as in PHY 461 PHY 465 MICROELECTRONICS: Physics and Processing 3 Hours/Week, 3 Credits Semiconductor theory: Band model and Fermi energy of insulator, intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductor, law of mass action, donor and acceptor levels of extrinsic semiconductor. Introduction to semiconductors: Elemental and binary semiconductors, bonding in Si and GaAs crystals, diamond and zincblende structures as two interpenetrating FCC crystals, alloy semiconductors (ternary and quaternary), bandgap engineering, Vegard’s law, substrate and epitaxial layer, semiconductor heterostructure and heterojunction, lattice-matched heterostructures, pseudomorphic heterostructures. Semiconductor crystal growth and doping: Bulk crystal growth of elemental (Si) and compound (GaAs) semiconductors: Bridgman method, Czochralski method, Floating zone method; wafer preparation, epitaxial material growth: liquid phase epitaxy (LPE), vapour phase epitaxy (VPE) or chemical vapour deposition (CVD) by organometallic CVD (OMCVD), molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), mechanism of carrier generation by doping in elemental and compound semiconductors, 1 impurity atom per 10 6 semiconductor atom raises conductivity (at room temperature) of Si and GaAs crystals by 6 and 10 orders of magnitude respectively, modulation doping and 2DEG, delta doping, doping by diffusion: limited source diffusion and error function diffusion, doping by ion implantation, annealing. Theory of junctions: Physics of p-n junction, p-n junction: band model and rectification, metalsemiconductor junction: band model and rectifying action, band model and ohmic contact, semiconductor heterojunctions: band model. Lithography and microprocessing: Resist: sensitivity, contrast and resolution, optical lithography, photoresist materials and processes, electron beam lithography, x-ray lithography, etching: wet versus dry etching, plasma etching, reactive ion etching, undercutting, overcutting, vertical etching, etching of Si, SiO 2 and GaAs, ion beam milling, thermal oxidation, physical vapour deposition (PVD) of metal: evaporation and sputtering, rapid thermal annealing (RTA) of metal contact. Structure, fabrication and physics of microdevices: Fabrication of p-n junction, fabrication of Si based npn bipolar junction transistor (BJT), band model and transistor action of BJT, MOSFET: device structure and fabrication of NMOS, high electron mobility transistor (HEMT): device structure of GaAs-AlGaAs HEMT. Books recommended:

**1. Syed Shafayeat Hossain: “Lecture Notes on Microelectronics: Physics and Processing”, 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.
**

submitted in 2003 as an M.Sc. project to Department of Physics, Shahjalal University of Science and Technology, Sylhet, Bangladesh. Hong H. Lee: Fundamentals of Microelectronic Processing Pallab Bhattacharya: Semiconductor Optoelectronic Devices T. F. Bogart: Electronic Devices and Circuits R. L. Singhal: Solid State Physics M. L. Riaziat: Introduction to High Speed Electronics and Optoelectronics J. D. Giacomo: VLSI Handbook S. M. Sze: VLSI Technology David Elliot: Microlithography

PHY 422 PHYSICS PRACTICAL-I 9 Hours/week, 4.5 Credits Electronics: 1. Low voltage regulated power supply -- Zener diode regulation and simple transistor, variable output stability with load variations. 2. FET and MOSFET characteristics. 3. Experiments on operational amplifier. 4. Transistor amplifiers : (a) emitter follower (b) RC coupled amplifier and feedback effect. 5. Transistor oscillator-phase-shift and Weinbridge. 6. Transistor pulse generator and pulse shaper : (a) A stable multi vibrator (b) Schmidt trigger (c) mono stable multi vibrator. 7. computer electronics : (a) OR, AND, NAND, NOR, EX-OR and EX-NOR operations (hardware connections) and universal gate operation. (b) FF operation, RS, JK, D, Master-Slave. (c) FF as counter operation, Asynchronous counter, Ripple and self-stopping counter. (d) Register operation : parallel and series. (e) Half adder and full adder circuits.

20

Nuclear & Particle Physics: 8. Determination of the plateau and operating voltage of a Gieger-Muller counter. 9. Determination of the resolving time of a GM counter by the double-source method. 10. Determination of the efficiency of a GM tube for beta counting. 11. Verification of Inverse square law for gamma rays and comparison of source intensities. 12. Study of the absorption of gamma rays by matter; determination of absorption coefficient. 13. Determination of the maximum energy of beta particles emitted from a source and to estimate the thickness of an unknown foil. 14. Study of the back scattering of beta particles and to determine the effect of atomic number of the back scattering materials on back scattering. 15. Investigation of the statistics of radioactive measurements. 16. Determination of the half-life of a radioisotope using a mCi Ra -Be neutron source. 17. Thermal neutron flux determination using Indium foil activation method. Solid State Physics: 18. Measurement of magnetic susceptibility of aluminium and plastic rods. 19. Measurement of dielectric constant of a liquid by standing wave. 20. Calibration of a cathode ray tube for both AC and DC sources. 21. Measurement of Hall constant and Hall angle. 22. Determination of energy gap parameter of a solid sample. 23. Study of (i) conductivity, (ii) electron drift velocity, (iii) mobility and (iv) temperature coefficient of resistivity of some solid samples. 24. Measurement of drift mobility of charge carrier in a semiconductor. Books recommended: 1. Millman & Taub Pulse and Digital Circuits. PHY 426 PHYSICS LABORATORY-II 9 Hours/week 4.5 Credits Remaining experiments of PHY 422 or thesis on any of the above fields in Semester VII and Semester VIII NONMAJOR COURSES FOR PHYSICS UNDERGRADS MAT 101B VECTOR ANALYSIS AND TENSORS 3 Hours/week, 3 Credits Vectors: Scalars and vectors, algebraic operations on vectors, null and unit vectors, components of vectors, scalar and vector products of two vectors, angle between two vectors, product of three and four vectors their applications. Spherical polar and cylindrical coordinate systems unit vectors and vector components in spherical and cylindrical systems. Vector calculus: Derivative of vectors with respect to scalars, vector operator DEL, gradient, divergence and curl their physical significance. Outlines of line, volume and surface integrations. Green’s theorem, Divergence theorem, Stokes theorem and their applications. Tensors: Definitions of tensors, fundamental metric tensor, covariant and contravariant tensors, Christofel’s symbols, covariant differentiation of tensors. Books recommended:

1. 2. 3.

Spiegel, M.R. : Vector analysis and Introduction to Tensor analysis Jaffreys, H and Jaffreys, B. : Methods of Mathematical Analysis Spain, B : Tensor Calculus MAT 102B TRIGONOMETRY, MATRICES AND COMPLEX VARIABLES 3 Hours/week, 3 Credits Trigonometry: Complex numbers and functions, De Moivre’s theorem and its applications, summation of finite trigonometric series, hyperbolic functions. Matrices: Types of matrices, null and unit matrices, algebraic operations in matrices, Determinants of square matrices, Matrix equivalence, adjoint and inverse of a matrix, orthogonal and unitary of matrices, Linear equations, vector spaces, Linear transformations, similar matrices, Characteristic roots and vectors, diagonalization of matrices. Complex Variables: Complex numbers and their properties, functions of a complex variable, limit, continuity, analytic functions, Cauchy-Riemann equations, Cauchy’s theorems, simple contour integrations. Books recommended:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Sarder and others: Higher Trigonometry Ayers, F.: Matrices Hamilton, A.G.: Linear Algebra Rahman, A.: College Linear Algebra Khanna, M.L.: Linear Algebra Sokolnikoff, I.S. and Redheffer, R.M.: Mathematics for Physics and Modern Engineering

21

7. 8.

Kodaira, K.K.: Introduction to Complex Analysis Jaffreys, H. and Jaffreys, B.: Methods of Mathematical Physics MAT 103B CALCULUS AND DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS 3 Hours/week, 3 Credits Differential Calculus: Function of a real variable and their graphs, Limit, Continuity and Derivatives, Physical meaning of derivative of a function, successive derivatives, Leibnitz’s theorem, Rolle’s theorem, Mean value and Taylor’s theorem (statement only), Taylor’s and Maclaurin’s series and expansion of a function, Maximum and Minimum values of functions, Functions of two and three variables, Partial and Total derivatives. Integral Calculus: Physical meaning of integration, Integration of as an inverse process of differentiation, Definite integral as the limit of a sum and as an area, Definition of Riemann integral, Fundamental theorem of theorem of Integral Calculus and its application to Definite Integrals, Reduction formula, Improper Integrals, Double Integration, Evaluation of areas and volumes by integration. Differential Equations: Definition and solution of Ordinary Differential Equations, First order ordinary differential equations, Second order ordinary linear differential equations with constant coefficients, Initial value problems. Books Recommended:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Thomas and Finley: Calculus and Analytic Geometry Sxokowski, E.W.: Calculus with Analytic Geometry Mohammed and Bhattacharjee: Differential Calculus Mohammed and Bhattacharjee: Integral Calculus Das and Mukherjee: Differential Calculus Das and Mukherjee: Integral Calculus Ayers, F. : Differential Calculus ENG 101 ENGLISH LANGUAGE THEORY 2 Hours/Week. 2 Credits Developing Writing, Reading, Listening and Speaking Skills: Problems with Main Verbs and Tense (25 Marks); Modals and Modal-related patterns, Causatives, Conditionals, Subjunctives, Infinitives, Have + Participle, Auxiliary Verbs; Parts of Speech: Pronouns, Relative Pronouns, Nouns and Adjectives, Nouns functioning as Adjectives and other Parts of Speech; Determiners, Comparatives, Prepositions and Prepositional Idioms; Point of View of Syntactical Pattern; Agreement of Verbs, Introductory Verbal Modifiers; Sentences and Clauses; Word Choice: Vocabulary- Antonyms and Synonyms; Homonym, Homograph and Homophone; Wh. Questions; Punctuations: Full Stop, Comma, Colon, Semi Colon, Apostrophe, Capital Letters, Hyphen, Question Marks, Exclamatory Marks, Report Writing: Titles; Different parts of a report, Proofreading. Comprehension and Paragraph Writing: One Reading Comprehension of 15 Marks (6 Questions carrying 2.5 marks each); One Paragraph with 10 Marks. Books recommended:

1. 2.

Barron’s TOEFL Standard Grammar book of Instructor’s choice ENG 102 ENGLISH LANGUAGE PRACTICAL 2 Hours/Week, 1 Credit Five students to be brought on the dais at a time. Other students of the class will be interrogating and likewise every student should be brought to the dais in turn and questions should be asked from the fields of literature, science, current politics, international affairs, games and sports, etc. The instructor will act as a conductor. CHE 101P GENERAL CHEMISTRY 4 Hours/week, 4 Credits Atoms, molecules and ions: Atomic Theory, components of atoms; Electronic Structure: The quantum theory, The atomic spectrum of hydrogen and the Bohr model, Quantum numbers, Energy levels and orbitals, Electronic configuration, Chemical bonding and molecular structure; The Periodic Table: Development of the periodic table, Electron arrangements and the periodic table, Summarized chemical properties of s-block, p-block, d-block and fblock elements; Chemical Formulas and Equations: Types of formulas, Percent composition from formula, Formulas from experiment, Formulas of ionic compounds, Names of compounds, Writing and balancing chemical equations, Mass relations in chemical reactions, Limiting reagent and theoretical yield, Concept of mole, Solution, Different concentration units; Acids and Bases: Theories and modern definition of acids and bases, Dissociation constant, strength, pH, Buffer solution etc.; Gaseous State: Measurement on gases, Ideal gas law, Volumes of gases involved in reactions, Gas mixtures, Partial pressure, Kinetic theory of gases, Real gases; Introduction to Chemical Kinetics: Rate laws, Rate constant, Equilibrium constant, Order of reaction etc.; Introductory Electrochemistry, Surface Chemistry and Colloids. Organic Chemistry: Introduction, Classification of Organic Compounds, Nomenclature, Synthesis, Physical and Chemical properties and application of (i) Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, (ii) Alcohols and amines, (iii) Carbonyl compounds, (iv) Carboxylic acids and their derivatives, (v) Carbohydrates (mono- and disaccharides) etc.; Modern Perspective of Chemistry: (a) Fuels e.g. Hydrocarbon, Hydrogen (b) Fertilizer (c) Medicine ( Electronic Industries e.g. LCD, Pure Silicon for IC, Semiconductor, Insulator, Etching materials etc.

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Books Recommended:

1. 2. 3. 4.

Haider, S.Z.: Introduction to Modern Inorganic Chemistry Haque and Nawab: Physical Chemistry Morrison, R.T. and Boyd, R.N.: Organic Chemistry (6th Edition) Chang, R.: General Chemistry

CHE 102P CHEMISTRY PRACTICAL 3 Hours/Week, 1.5 Credits Inorganic qualitative analysis Books Recommended: 1. Vogel, : Qualitative Inorganic Analysis STA 208 BASIC STATISTICS AND PROBABILITY 3 Hours/Week, 3 Credits Frequency Distribution of Data: Population and sample, Collection and presentation of statistical data, Tabulation of data, Class intervals. Frequency Distribution – Discrete, Continuous and Cumulative Distribution. Histograms and frequency polygons, Graphical presentation of data. Statistical Measures: Measures of central tendency, Arithmetic mean, Median, Mode, Geometric mean, Harmonic mean, Weighted average. Measures of dispersion, Range, Standard Deviation, Variance, Coefficient of variation, Moments, Skewness, Kurtosis. Correlation Theory: Linear correlation, Measures of correlation and its significance. Regression and Curve Fitting: Linear and nonlinear regression, Method of least squares, Curve fitting. Probability: Definition of probability and related concept, Laws of probability, discrete and continuous random variable, Mathematical expectations, Conditional probability. Probability Distribution: Binomial, Poisson and Normal Distribution and their properties.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Books Recommended: Barlow, R.J.: Statistics Chisholm, J.S.R. and Morris, R.M.: Mathematical Methods in Physics Hoel, P.G.: Elementary Statistics Loveday: Practical Statistics and Probability Melnyk, M. : Principles of Applied Statistics Mostofa,M.G. : Methods in Statistics Mosteller, Rourke and Thomas: Probability with Statistical Applications, 2nd Edison, Addison-Wesley, USA Spiegel, M.R. : Theory and Problems of Statistics, McGraw Hill, NY, USA Topping: Observation of Errors CSE 203F INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER LANGUAGE 2 Hours/Week, 2 Credits Software: Basic concept and its classification; Overview of programming languages: C – Language: Preliminaries, Program constructs variables and data types in C. Input and Output: Character and Formatted I/O; Arithmetic Expressions and Assignment statements; Loops and Nested loops; Decision making; Arrays; Functions; Arguments and local variables, Calling Functions and arrays. Recursion and Recursive functions; Structures within structure. Files; File functions for sequential and Random I/O. Pointers: Pointers and structures; Pointer and functions; Pointer and arrays. Operation and Pointer: Pointer and memory addresses; Operation on Bits; Bit operation; Bit field; Advanced features; Standard and library. Books Recommended:

1.

Books will be suggested by the Instructor CSE 203F INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER LANGUAGE LAB 6 Hours/Week, 3 Credits Computer Basics: Students will learn the basic concepts of Windows operating system, Word Processor software, Spread Sheet software and Presentation software. C-Language: Laboratory works based on the theory classes. Books Recommended:

1.

Books will be suggested by the Instructor

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