From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Marketing Key concepts Product Pricing Distribution Service Retail Brand management Account-based marketing Marketing ethics Marketing effectiveness Market research Market segmentation Marketing strategy Marketing management Market dominance Promotional content Advertising Branding Underwriting Direct marketing Personal Sales Product placement Publicity Sales promotion Sex in advertising Loyalty marketing Premiums Prizes Promotional media Printing Publication Broadcasting Out-of-home Internet marketing Point of sale Promotional merchandise Digital marketing In-game In-store demonstration Word-of-mouth marketing Brand Ambassador Drip Marketing This box: view · talk · edit
Product placement, or embedded marketing, is a form of advertisement, where branded goods or services are placed in a context usually devoid of ads, such as movies, the story line of television shows, or news programs. The product placement is often not disclosed at the time that the good or service is featured. Product placement became common in the 1980s. In April 2006, Broadcasting & Cable reported, "Two thirds of advertisers employ 'branded entertainment'²product placement²with the vast majority of that (80%) in commercial TV
programming." The story, based on a survey by the Association of National Advertisers, said "Reasons for using in-show plugs varied from 'stronger emotional connection' to better dovetailing with relevant content, to targeting a specific group."
y y y y y y y
y y y y
1 Early examples 2 Placement in movies o 2.1 Self Promotion 3 Sports o 3.1 NFL 4 Categories and variations 5 Measuring effectiveness 6 Consumer response and economic impact 7 Products o 7.1 Automobiles o 7.2 Consumer electronics and computers o 7.3 Food and drink o 7.4 Travel o 7.5 Tobacco 8 Radio, television and publishing o 8.1 Reality television o 8.2 Public and educational television o 8.3 Television programs o 8.4 Advertiser-produced programming o 8.5 Comic publishing o 8.6 Music and recording industries o 8.7 Payola and legal considerations 9 Extreme and unusual examples o 9.1 Self-criticism o 9.2 Faux product placement and parodies o 9.3 Reverse placement o 9.4 Virtual placement o 9.5 Viewer Response 10 Product displacement 11 External links 12 Further reading 13 References
 Early examples
Product placement dates back to the nineteenth century in publishing. By the time Jules Verne published the adventure novel Around the World in Eighty Days (1873) he was a world-renowned literary giant to the extent transport and shipping companies lobbied to be mentioned in the story as it was published in serial form; however if he was actually paid to do so remains unknown. Product placement is still used in books to some extent, particularly in novels. Recent scholarship in film and media studies has drawn attention to the fact that product placement was a common feature of many of the earliest actualities and cinematic attractions that characterised the first ten years of cinema history  
 Placement in movies
Recognizable brand names appeared in movies from cinemas earliest history. Before films were even narrative forms in the sense that they are recognised today, industrial concearns funded the making of what film scholar Tom Gunning has described as "cinematic attractions" these were short films of no longer than one or two minutes. In the first decade or so of film history (18951907) audiences did not go to see films as narrative art forms but as fairground attractions interesting for the amazing visual effects they appeared to be. This format was much beter suited to product placement than the narrative form of cinema that came later when film making became a more organised industry. Taking this as a starting point, Leon Gurevitch has argued that early cinematic attractions share more in common with the adverts that emerged from the television industry in the 1950s than they do with traditional films. Gurevitch suggests that as a result, the relationship between cinema and advertising is more intertwined than previous historians have credited, suggesting that the birth of cinema was in part the result of advertising and the economic kickstart that it provided early film makers. Kerry Segrave details the industries that advertised in these early films and goes on to give a thorough account of the history of product placement over the following century. In the 1920s, the weekly trade periodical Harrison's Reports published its first denunciation of that practice with respect to Red Crown gasoline appearing in the comedy film The Garage (1919), directed by and co-starring Fatty Arbuckle. During the next four decades, Harrison's Reports frequently cited cases of on-screen brand-name products, always condemning the practice as harmful to movie theaters. Publisher P. S. Harrison¶s editorials strongly reflected his feelings against product placement in films. An editorial in Harrison¶s Reports criticized the collaboration between the Corona Typewriter company and First National Pictures when a Corona typewriter appeared in the film The Lost World (1925). Harrison's Reports published several incidents about Corona typewriters appearing in films of the mid-1920s. Among the famous silent films to feature product placement was Wings (1927), the first film to win the Academy Award for Best Picture. It contained a plug for Hershey's chocolate. Another early example in film occurs in Horse Feathers (1932) where Thelma Todd's character falls out of a canoe and into a river. She calls for a life saver and Groucho Marx's character tosses her a Life Savers candy.
where the plot revolved around. The BMW car. The earliest example of product placement in a computer or video game occurs in Action Biker (1984) for Skips crisps. the climactic crime is the payroll robbery of the Armour meat-packing plant. is another example of brand integration.The film It's a Wonderful Life (1946). depicts a young boy with aspirations to be an explorer. is another example of product placement. feature real retail stores as game destinations. Harrison's Reports severely criticized this scene in its film review and in a front-page editorial of the same issue. Harpo Marx's character cavorts on a rooftop among various billboards and at one point escapes from the villains on the old Mobil logo. L'Oréal. a television series featuring a talking Pontiac Trans Am. was a new model at the time. Knight Rider (1982±1986). packaged-goods companies such as Procter & Gamble or Unilever. The film brought in more than $300 million dollars. where a bottle prevented an image of the model from being pornographic. In the film noir Gun Crazy (1949). In 1995 one of the most successful movie product tie-in was when Karen sortito created a BMW campaign for the film GoldenEye. directed by Frank Capra. Heinekin. Ed (1961± 1966).. Video games. Afterwards. displaying a prominent copy of National Geographic. sometimes the economics are reversed
. When television began to displace radio. sales of the car spiked. In other early media. such as Crazy Taxi (1999). Absolut Vodka. and a billboard in Times Square. Incorporation of products into the actual plot of a film or television show is generally called "brand integration". while the film was number one at the box office. An early example of such "brand integration" was by Abercrombie & Fitch when one of its stores provided the notional venue for part of the romantic-comedy film Man's Favourite Sport? (1964) starring Rock Hudson and Paula Prentiss. which was sponsored by the Studebaker Corporation from 1961 to 1963. a Z3. in its era. Tomorrow Never Dies. the "Flying Red Horse". "Soap operas" are called such because they were initially underwritten by consumer. DuMont's Cavalcade of Stars television show was. Ericsson. radio in the 1930s and 1940s and early television in the 1950s. notable for not relying on a sole sponsor in the tradition of NBC's Texaco Star Theater and similar productions. The conspicuous display of Studebaker motor vehicles in the television series Mr. Avis rental cars and Omega watches. a campaign upon which one of the protagonists was working. programs were often underwritten by companies. For the next film in the James Bond franchise. Sortito created a $100 million promotional campaign that included tie-ins with Visa. However.g. among other things. A recent example is HBO's Sex and the City (1998±2004). a product by KP Snacks. Sponsorship exists today with programs being sponsored by major vendors such as Hallmark Cards. e. where a Bulova clock is prominently seen. In the film Love Happy (1949).
The NFL's strict policy contradicts several other policies on the uniforms. the league allowed sponsors on the practice jerseys of the uniforms. the league prohibits logos of sponsors painted onto the fields. and even on the local level with high school sports. product placement in online video is also becoming common.) This has subsequently followed with the uniforms the drivers themselves wear having sponsor logos.and video-game makers pay for the rights to use real sports teams and players. One notable example is the film Independence Day (1996). despite the Boston Red Sox having a sponsorship deal with Gulf Oil. (For instance. was originally built to have such advertisements. The newscaster or reporter in the scene will usually state that the audience is viewing Sky News. Outside of baseball (which had long had sponsors). a subsidiary of News Corporation. Massachusetts. with brands and advertisers. Online agencies are specializing in connecting online video producers. from professional sports to college sports. and several association football leagues eventually allowed sponsors of the uniforms. does have a disposable razor painted onto the field in honor of naming-rights sponsor Gillette. the main National Football League (NFL) has long been more stringent. which are usually individuals. This. This can be attributed to sports being prevalent on television. The Green Monster at Fenway Park in Boston. the league allowed the individual uniform suppliers to display their logo on the products they made in
. In 1991. which increases exposure to these products. has promoted its parent company's own Sky News channel through including it as a plot device when characters are viewing news broadcasts of breaking events. and reports from other channels are not shown. when NASCAR began to allow sponsors to cover the cars they were sponsoring with their logos. but since 1947 has largely been devoid of such advertisements.
While the now-defunct NFL Europe allowed liberal use of sponsors with the team's uniforms. arguably gave the NHL a different look in the 1980s than compared with the 1970s. but not the game-worn uniforms. The National Hockey League began allowing sponsors to line along the interior walls of the ice rinks in the early 1980s. although Gillette Stadium in Foxborough. product placement in sports began to rise in the 1970s. The Arena Football League. combined with new rules mandating players to wear helmets (though some were grandfathered). Massachusetts. Today. In 2008. The Citgo sign overlooking Fenway Park can also be considered a form of product placement.
Product placement has long been prevalent in sports as well. For instance. NFL Europe.
 Self Promotion
Twentieth Century Fox. STP was a longtime sponsor for Richard Petty.
The Packers adopted the nickname "Packers" because they were sponsored by the Indian Packing Company. product usage is negotiated rather than paid for. a branded entertainment company. Barter systems (the director/actor/producer wants one for himself) and service deals (cellular phones provided for crew use. president of Feature This!. In this case an advertisement for the product (rather than the product itself) is seen in the movie or television series. In addition. We break it down. for instance) are also common practices. Product-placement companies work to integrate their client company brands with film and television productions. which owned the rights to the Steelmark logo. with products such as props. and since 2002.conjunction with the rest of the sports world. Another variant is the widespread use of promotional consideration in which a television game show would award an advertiser's product as a prize or consolation prize in return for a subsidy from the product's manufacturer. The Steelers adopted their current logo in 1962 as a productplacement deal with the American Iron and Steel Institute. for example. which ran for 145 TV episodes and a handful of specials. Going the other way. two of the league's flagship teams²the Green Bay Packers and the Pittsburgh Steelers²adopted some form of their identity from corporate sponsors. thereby saving them purchase or rental fees. Sometimes. NFL Japan was a sponsor of the football themed anime series Eyeshield 21. the league has been shown to place itself as the product. with this producer. a show's new season or other event. Some placements provide productions with below-the-line savings. Examples include a Lucky Strike cigarette advertisement on a billboard or a truck with a milk advertisement on its trailer. do you want it?" 
. clothes and cars being loaned for the production's use. A variant of product placement is advertisement placement. and products deliberately placed into productions in exchange for fees. with this director. and later had "ACME PACKERS" written on their uniforms in the early 1920s after the Acme Packing Company bought Indian Packing. We look for our clients' demographics and then we tell our client this movie is available with this actor. products used in exchange for help funding advertisements tied-in with a film's release. The Steelers later were allowed to add "-ers" to the Steelmark logo the following year so that they could own a trademark on the logo. Reebok has been the official uniform supplier for the entire league. explains the process: "The studio sends us the script. with. Jay May.
 Categories and variations
Actual product placement falls into two categories: products or locations that are obtained from manufacturers or owners to reduce the cost of production. Producers may also seek out companies for product placements as another savings or revenue stream for the movie.
2006 product placement was estimated at $3. many product-placement and brandintegration deals are a combination of advertising and product placement. The Writers Guild of America. arguing that most product placements are deceptive and not clearly disclosed. depending on a specific product's degree of presence in the market. sold in opaque. long or recurrent in exposure. rising to $10 billion by 2010. It advocates notification before and during television programs with embedded advertisements. One justification for this is to allow greater parental control for children. a trade union representing authors of television scripts. these figures are somewhat misleading in PQ Media's view in that today. associated with a main character. internet. with PQ Media predicting the 2009 figures to more than double by 2014.61 billion due to severe reductions in brand marketers' budgets resulting from the difficult economic environment. Commercial Alert asks for full disclosure of all product-placement arrangements. When the product placement that is bundled with advertising is allocated to part of the spending. as spending decreased 2. PQ Media estimates that product placement is closer to $7 billion in value. with both basic quantitative and more demonstrative qualitative systems used to determine the cost and effective media value of a placement. some consumer groups such as Commercial Alert object to the practice as "an affront to basic honesty" that they claim is too common in today's society. However. However.1 billion rising to $5. Media values are also weighed over time. its effectiveness tends to be assumed because advertisers continue to use product placement as a marketing strategy. when product placement is projected to be a $6. "PQ Media Global Branded Entertainment Marketing Forecast. In these deals.8% to $3. However. In a June 2010 research report. video games and other media ± declined in 2009 for the first time in tracked history.1 billion market." the research firm reported that paid product placement spending ± in television. the product placement is often contingent upon the purchase of advertising revenues. films. a consulting firm that tracks alternative media spending.6 billion in 2010." According to PQ Media. clearly identifiable. subliminal ways and sold in violation of government regulations. whom it claims are easily influenced by product placement. Measuring effectiveness
Quantification methods track brand integrations. Products might be featured but hardly identifiable. 
. verbally mentioned and/or they may play a key role in the storyline. Rating systems measure the type of placement and on-screen exposure is gauged by audience recall rates.
 Consumer response and economic impact
As with any advertising. had raised objections in 2005 that its members are forced to write ad copy disguised as storyline on the grounds that "the result is that tens of millions of viewers are sometimes being sold products without their knowledge. paid product placement is also one of the sectors poised for the most growth.
In the film XXY (2007) all vehicles depicted are Toyotas. For example.
Certain products are featured more than others. Liam Neeson's character drives Audi cars.A major driver of growth for the use of product placement is the increasing use of digital video recorders (DVR) such as TiVO. Other times. all the important vehicles in a film or television series will be supplied by one manufacturer. vehicles or other products take on such key roles in the film it is as if they are another character. A Ford Shelby GT500 is used extensively at the beginning of the film I Am Legend (2007) along with a Ford Expedition EL. Frequently. Almost every car was made by General Motors in the films Bad Boys II (2003). as do leading characters on the television series 24 (2001±2010).
The most common products to be promoted in this way are automobiles. The James Bond film series pioneered such placement. Three of the Bond films that star Pierce Brosnan feature a BMW car. and had the steering wheel on the wrong side of the vehicle for the country's roads. which enable viewers to skip advertisements. where AMC cars were not sold. In the film Taken (2008). The Matrix Reloaded (2003) and Transformers (2007). which was owned by Ford Motor Company at the time and thus brought in more product placement. first an A3 and then an S8 in the final high-speed scene on the streets of Paris. and tobacco products. Commonly seen are automobiles. France.[clarification needed] After pressure from fans. even though the film takes place in South America. The Bond film The Man with the Golden Gun (1974) features extensive use of AMC cars. consumer electronics and computers. the producers returned to using the traditional Aston Martin. a key chase scene is conducted between a brand new Cadillac CTS and a Cadillac Escalade EXT. even in scenes in Thailand. the television series The X-Files (1993±2002) uses Fords. the film's credits acknowledge the automaker as having funded portions of the film's production. This ad-skipping behavior increases in frequency the longer a household has owned a DVR.
. In the film The Matrix Reloaded. Nissan cars feature prominently in the television series Heroes (2006±2010) where the logos often zoom in/out of or whole cars are shown for a few seconds at the beginning of a new scene. The two prior Bond films use vehicles from Ford or its subsidiaries. The chase scene also features a Ducati motorcycle in the getaway.
production of The Office. only computers produced by Dell are used. In the March 31. and Bond uses a Cyber-shot camera to take photographs. all characters use VAIO laptops. episode of the television series Modern Family the new Apple iPad was used as part of the storyline and also displayed several of the features to entice consumers. Baby Blues.S.
 Consumer electronics and computers
The film Casino Royale (2006) features many Sony product placements throughout: A BD-R disc is prominently portrayed at one time. products that most often appear are placements for processors or graphics cards. laptops. including Alienware branded equipment and in later series the XPS range. the Extra-Terrestrial (1982). Similarly in the series Stargate Atlantis in first sessions all the laptops used were Dell Latitude and XPS laptops. In video games. BRAVIA televisions. In Quantum of Solace (2008). Apple's products frequently appear in films and on television. even though paid placement in comics is all but unknown. Stargate SG1 in its last seasons switched from traditional CRT monitors in the gate-rooms to Dell-branded LCDs. and FoxTrot. recognizable Apple products have appeared in newspaper comic strips. EA's The Sims contains in-game advertising for Intel and for McDonald's. a television set blares advertisements for (now-defunct) electronics retailer Crazy Eddie and for Bloomingdale's department store.) In a twist on traditional product placement. In WarGames (1983). Throughout the television series Smallville (since 2001). ads for Intel Core 2 processors appear on map billboards. Other WarGames product placements include the main character's mother being portrayed as a real estate broker at the behest of marketers at Century 21. Hewlett-Packard computers now appear exclusively as part of photo layouts in the IKEA catalog in addition to placing plastic models of its computers in IKEA stores. and Tanner are seen using a Microsoft Surface to display information on rogue agents.T. M. For example in EA's Battlefield 2142. the same Los Angeles product placement company that placed Reese's Pieces in Steven Spielberg's E. 2010. Sony Ericsson cell phones and global-positioning systems. Apple has stated that they do not pay for this. Bond. and would not discuss how its products make their way into television and films. (It was the first Bond film to be produced after Sony acquired the Bond franchise). the use of an IMSAI 8080 desktop computer was originally proposed by Cliff McMullen of Unique Products. In the film Splash (1984). (Notably.
. Hewlett-Packard also put their computers in the U. Non Sequitur. having taken over Apple's position in the Swedish furniture retailer's promotional materials several years ago. and Microsoft Surface²were used. including Opus. In the movie The Day the Earth Stood Still (2008) various Microsoft devices²including mobile phones.All the cars in the video game Tom Clancy's Rainbow Six: Vegas 2 (2008) are manufactured by Dodge.
In the television series Sex and The City. Minute Maid juice is displayed.
.R. In Eminem's music video Love the Way you Lie (2010). Three" (1961) Stars James Cagney as a Coca Cola executive in West Berlin. after which he and actress Megan Fox drink from it on the roof of the liquor store.
 Food and drink
In Beetlejuice (1988). are featured in various scenes. The twist at the end is he removes a bottle of Pepsi from a vending machine at the end of the film. entire formats of media have been created to feature individual brands within the context of a genre. in which this travelogue about wine and food features emerging destination estates and the wines they produce. in the Back to the Future trilogy. An example of this is The Corkscrew Diary (2006). Stolichnaya vodka was included in several scenes.E. Pizza Hut's future products include an instant pizza that can be hydrated for immediate consumption.In the video game F. as well as featuring an in-game iPod. and on various billboards. all of the laptops have a Dell screensaver on them and the other computers in the game also feature this screensaver. and most prominently Taco Bell. Similarly. including travelling vans with advertisements for Gillette Fusion razors and DIESEL clothing. In Godzilla (1998) Pepsi. Hershey's. The film "One. In the video game Burnout Paradise advertisements in the virtual Paradise City are placed as they may be in the real world. the character Carrie is shown using an Apple PowerBook G3 laptop. In American Idol Coca-Cola cups are always seen on the judges' table. Metal Gear Solid 4 features various Apple products such as laptop and desktop computers. In addition to placing brand specific elements within the context of a given program. Two. While the award of "an all expense-paid trip" to some destination as a game show prize or an acknowledgement in a show's closing credits that transportation for participants was provided by a specific airline had long been commonplace in commercial television.
The promotion of individual travel destinations and services ranges from subtle to overt.A. The product placement begins with actor Dominic Monaghan stealing a bottle of the vodka. a more refined approach to promoting a travel destination is to assist and subsidise film production companies willing to set their story in or shoot footage on-location at the destination being promoted.
One of the ways it
. Most movies. The studio's executives apparently believed that the placement triggered the American warning notice requirement for cigarette advertisements and thus the movie carried the Surgeon General's Warning at the end credits of the film. The ship bears Pan Am colors and the Pan Gal logo is nearly identical to Pan American's old logo.
Tobacco companies have made direct payment to stars for using their cigarettes in films. this product placement was valuable enough that printed advertisements for the line would employ the trademarked slogan "It's more than a cruise. where James Bond checks in for a Pan Am flight that he ultimately does not board." a commercial spaceplane called the Orion III. which has a product placement for Marlboro cigarettes. sex. This brought forth calls for banning such cigarette advertisements in future films. No. omit the Surgeon General's Warning. Later releases of License to Kill. The film's sequel. Seaside. was put on the map by 'The Truman Show [(1998)] Movies just keep playing year after year getting the images out there. had a prominent role in Stanley Kubrick's film 2001: A Space Odyssey. especially for video and television releases. wealth. As an advertisement." The television series The Love Boat (1977±1986) was set aboard the Pacific Princess. while a Pan Am 747 and the Worldport appeared in Live and Let Die. and Casino Royale. featured in the movie's poster. and power and as a means of expressing rebellion and independence. 2010. larger-than-life ads for where they are shot. excitement. generic pack. such as the youth-targeted Ramen Girl. the British Medical Journal concluded: The tobacco industry recruits new smokers by associating its products with fun. also featured Pan Am in a background television commercial in the home of David Bowman's widow. it's the Love Boat" until 2002. a ship of the Princess Cruise Lines. According to State of Florida film commissioner Paul Sirmons. had the Lark pack replaced with a similar-looking. "the movies create huge. Reviewing previously secret tobacco advertising documents. Documentation of $500.While critics of competitive film subsidies cite runaway production as a pattern of filming US productions in other countries for purely-economic reasons. In the sci-fi series Battlestar Galactica. The James Bond film Licence to Kill (1989) featured use of the Lark brand of cigarette and the producers accepted payment for that product placement. From Russia with Love. The airline's logo was featured in Licence to Kill. a movie set in an individual travel destination can be a valuable advertisement. CSI Miami draws people from overseas to Miami. one of the ships in the fleet is a "Pan Galactic" or "Pan Gal" starliner. A fictional Pan Am "Space Clipper.000 in payments to Sylvester Stallone to "use Brown and Williamson tobacco products in no less than five feature films"  is accessible online as part of the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library. The airline's 707 appeared in several James Bond films including Dr.
go one step further by also providing the tools used on-air to build the individual projects. ten cents off. encouraging celebrity use and endorsement.How the tobacco industry built its relationship with Hollywood. but requires very careful targeting to match a product to a show that naturally would already use that product. and sponsoring entertainment oriented events have all been part of the industry's relationship with the entertainment industry.1 Exposure to smoking in entertainment media is associated with increased smoking and favourable attitudes towards tobacco use among adolescents. Placing tobacco products in movies and on television (fig 1Go). it¶s integral to the subject family getting their lives back.
 Public and educational television
In the United States. this week only!") of the form used by commercial television are expressly prohibited as a condition of the station's license. Ford and Pella Windows to name three. It may therefore make good business sense for an underwriter of an educational programme to obtain greater visibility through a form of promotional consideration in which (for instance) a manufacturer of woodworking tools could. A
. -. Recently in the United States series The Real World/Road Rules Challenge participants often state a similar line. While the tobacco industry has routinely denied active involvement in entertainment programming. "Extreme Makeover has several sponsors with prominent placement deals: Sears. price comparisons or calls to action ("Buy X now. designing advertising campaigns to reflect Hollywood glamour.".has found to promote these associations has been to encourage smoking in entertainment productions. This approach is suitable both for commercial and non-commercial television. instead of merely donating money to fund production of a popular home-improvement show. television and publishing
 Reality television
Product-placement advertisements can be common in reality television shows. usually pertaining to the mobile device and carrier a text message has been received. is not just a sponsorship. makers of Y") is permissible and common on non-commercial educational stations. most educational television operates under a funding model in which local stations receive donations from "Viewers Like You" but do not interrupt programming directly with spot advertising. advertising in entertainment oriented magazines. BMJ 2002
 Radio. did you check out the new product X by company Y yet?" after which the camera zooms in onto the named product. While the use of underwriting as a form of indirect advertisement ("Production [or local acquisition] of this programme is made possible by X. It has been claimed that the participants get paid for it. previously secret tobacco industry documents made available in the USA show that the industry has had a long and deep relationship with Hollywood. For example the well-known Russian television show Dom-2 (similar to Big Brother) often features one of the participants stating something along the lines of: "Oh. Seeing the designers go off to Sears every episode and deck out the house with Kenmore appliances.
Non-commercial broadcasts such as PBS's The New Yankee Workshop would represent an ideal fit for power tool makers Porter-Cable. on the players' shirts. Central America. and allow for the comic's free distribution to its readers around the world. Egypt and Malaysia.807 One Tree Hill ± 2.program-like commercial The Learning Channel's Trading Spaces is an ideal fit for a vendor such as Home Depot. a long-running series of physical fitness lessons hosted by Montréal's Miranda Esmonde-White with the first three seasons distributed by New York PBS flagship station WPBS-TV. These brands are displayed as the shirt sponsors for the Supa Strikas team across Southern Africa.
 Television programs
List of television shows with the most instances of product placement (11/07±11/08. One unusual placement is American Public Television's Classical Stretch.575
y y y y y
Deal or No Deal ± 2. in reality. both family-oriented. the costs of relocating production and constructing necessary facilities are readily borne by the show's underwriters. television films which feature the characters using WalMart and Procter & Gamble.248 American Idol ± 4. and through the branding of locations or scenarios. Mexico. this could prohibitively increase a non-commercial program's production costs. Supa Strikas receives the majority of its support from Chevron. on a tropical beach. Product placement occurs throughout the publication. which sponsors the comic series through its Caltex and Texaco brands. In theory. Globally. a computing input device.
. Delta Machinery and VermontAmerican while a program like The Red Green Show could represent an once-in-a-lifetime opportunity for a manufacturer of duct tape.241 Last Comic Standing ± 1. through placed billboards and signage.292 America's Next Top Model ± 2.636 Extreme Makeover: Home Edition ± 3. Classical Stretch endeavours to differentiate itself from the many existing programmes in its genre by having everything take place outdoors.993 Kitchen Nightmares ± 1. a travel company and a luxury resort in Riviera Maya.branded products.853 Hell's Kitchen ± 1.371 America's Toughest Jobs ± 2.
 Comic publishing
South African football comic Supa Strikas uses product placement within its pages to promote a variety of brands. As the market for physicalfitness advice is largely saturated. The Jensen Project also features a preview of a not-then-released Kinect. with unobtrusive classical music in the background.807
 Advertiser-produced programming
In 2010 Wal-Mart teamed with Procter & Gamble to produce Secrets of the Mountain and The Jensen Project. Nielsen Media Research)[clarification needed]
y y y y y
The Biggest Loser ± 6.
Réunion. South Africa. 1960. Guatemala. The tune purports to be the lament of a would-be immigrant left to die in the Arizona desert by coyotes (people smugglers). Due to the repetitive nature of a popular song and its effects on pop culture as a whole. Egypt. Nike. and Asia (Malaysia). Uganda and Zambia). leading to the creation of a number of other titles which use the same system. and Henkel's Loctite brand in Brazil. in Europe (Finland. in Latin America (Brazil.C. These companies include Metropolitan Life. Kenya. leading marketers in some cases to attempt to get advertisers' brands mentioned in lyrics of popular songs. The Supa Strikas model has shown considerable successes. other brands also receive advertising in the comics and animation. which is distributed in India and Pakistan. including Visa in Kenya. the comic is available across Africa (Botswana. a violation of commercial bribery laws. Cameroon. In addition.
 Music and recording industries
While radio and television stations are at least in theory strictly regulated by national governments. Honduras and Panama). Product Placement or what the music industry calls "Brand Partnerships" are becoming a more effective way to create a trend practically overnight. Mauritius. a baseball comic based in Panama. producers of printed or recorded works are not. with Supa Strikas now reaching an estimated ten million readers a week worldwide. An investigation launched in November 1959 into allegations that some radio disc jockeys had accepted bribes in return for radio airplay led to the indictment of disc jockey Alan Freed (of WABC and WINS) on May 9. among others. Uganda and Tanzania. Nigeria. with their logos included as both billboard and background advertising. and New York City. Today.
 Payola and legal considerations
Much of the current body of broadcast law pertaining to the obligation of licensed broadcasters to disclose to audiences when they (or their staff) receive money or valuables in return for on-air promotion of a product dates to the payola scandals of 1950s broadcast radio. No disclosure was made to the radio stations that the U. Spur Steak Ranches and the South African National Roads Agency.S. Tanzania. an album Migra Corridos with five songs including accordion ballad "El Mas Grande Enemigo" had received airplay on twenty-five Mexican radio stations. a Hispanic advertising agency based in Washington.500 to play certain songs. and through the branding of locations and scenarios. This innovative approach to comic publication has seen the brand grow dramatically over the last few years. and Strike Zone. GTBank in Nigeria. In January 2009. These include cricket comic Supa Tigers. Colombia. he would be fined for accepting $2. El Salvador. Norway and Sweden). D. Border Patrol had commissioned the compact disc with content devised by Elevación. and would ultimately lose his employment in
.In other markets²where Chevron lacks a presence²other headline brands sponsor the team's kit. Namibia. Ghana. A recent popularity of product placement in music videos and actual song lyrics can be accredited to The Kluger Agency.
vintage 2004. including that of the use of product placement by advertisers in broadcast programming. remains open. Audi.1212. whereas in the past it was only regulated by OFCOM. the issue was raised in 2005 by FCC commissioner Jonathan Adelstein. Dos Equis. the Audi RSQ.commercial radio. product placement is currently banned. Under current U. A recent EU directive would have allowed it. the station so broadcasting. the Federal Communications Commission gave notice of proposed rulemaking. . all of them introduced within the first ten minutes of the film. including one 2005 investigation by New York State Attorney General Eliot Spitzer into Sony BMG and other major record companies. and that is the FCC¶s business.S. but will remain in force in children's TV and on the BBC. though set in the future.. and for a time it appeared likely that the UK would introduce laws to fully outlaw it. A crawl at the end of the show shrunk down so small the human eye can't read it isn't really in the spirit of the law.. Robot. Section 73. Ovaltine. however culture secretary Andy Burnham refused to accept it. be announced as paid for or furnished. the U. It was expected that the placement would increase brand awareness and raise the emotional appeal of
. . a broadcaster will claim to have complied with the regulation by placing some form of acknowledgement of promotional consideration in an inconspicuous place in a broadcast . law. One particularly infamous scene borders into an actual advertisement in which a character compliments Will Smith's character's shoes to which he replies "Converse All-Stars. This news has been greeted with enthusiasm by British media companies like Independent Vision who are looking to further enhance the current business model for Advertiser Funded Programming. government acted to ban payola in broadcasting. that is payola.such as embedded within a portion of a programme's closing credits." (the year of the film's release). from any person. it is probable that a regulation requiring advertisements and advertisers to be clearly identified has far broader implications in many areas. on the grounds that "some will tell you that if broadcasters and cable companies insist on further commercialising new and other shows alike. Section 317 of the Communications Act[clarification needed] states that "All matter broadcast by any radio station for which money. as the case may be.
 Extreme and unusual examples
The film I. however. Audi invested the most on the film. and JVC among others. On September 13. While these provisions have been taken into legal consideration in subsequent payola investigations." Within the United Kingdom. "You shouldn't need a magnifying glass to know who's pitching you. The question of whether adequate disclosure is being provided." In 2008. or other valuable consideration is directly or indirectly paid. or promised to or charged or accepted by. According to Adelstein. that is their business. in which it proposed to require more disclosure of product placement. However in September 2009 it was announced that the OFCOM ban would be lifted in an effort to raise funds for commercial broadcasters. makes heavy use of product placements for Converse trainers. at the time the same is so broadcast." with similar and related provisions reflected in Federal Communications Commission regulations as CFR 47. Often. shall. by such person.S. 1960. going so far as to create a special car for the film. But if they do so without disclosing it to the viewing public. service. FedEx.
the Audi TT and the Audi A2 can be seen sprinkled throughout the film. Michael Bay claims he added the advertisements for realism purposes. "Beautiful. directed by Michael Bay.
. The company's logo also appears throughout the series. "Omega. The film was highly criticized for this. Bill Cosby's film Leonard Part 6 was widely criticized for its Coca Cola product placements. The film's general message can also be construed as an anti-consumerist one. an official sponsor of the Bond franchise. Despite the fact that the series is set in an alternate reality. It was intended to mock the controversy with NASCAR fans under the Unified Television Contract 2001-06 where they criticised the excessive number of commercial breaks during races. The 2001 film Josie and the Pussycats featured a large amount of blatant product placement for brands such as Puma. The producers neither sought nor received compensation for featuring the brands in the film. and auto mobiles. This appears to be done ironically. shoes." she purrs. Characters repeatedly mention brands under the disguise of NASCAR sponsorship. sandwich fillers. the characters use a large amount of Head & Shoulders dandruff shampoo as a source of selenium disulfide. ice cream. credit cards. The film Catch Me If You Can makes heavy handed use of a Sara Lee placement by mentioning it six times throughout the movie. The film The Island. had insisted on the line's inclusion. objectives that were considered achieved when surveys conducted in the United States showed that the Audi RSQ gave a substantial boost to the image ratings of the brand. which is poisonous to the creatures. and even a search engine. The movie contains possibly the first instance of an actual television commercial in a movie. The film 17 Again makes heavy use of product placement featuring cereals. It is not clear whether Omega.the Audi brand. as was The Wizard for Nintendo products. beer. In the movie's DVD Commentary track. When mutated lifeforms attack earth. including cars. McDonalds and TJ Maxx. features at least 35 individual products or brands. I. as the plot of the film revolves around subliminal messages in advertising. although other Audis like the Audi A6. at least one main character is depicted ordering and receiving a Pizza Hut pizza on several occasions. stereo systems. The 2001 film Evolution features product placement integral to the entire film. Target. The Audi RSQ is seen during nine minutes of the film. The film Casino Royale features peculiarly blatant product placement during a exchange between James Bond and Vesper Lynd in which she enquires seductively whether he wears a Rolex watch. bottled water. Robot was ranked "the worst film for product placement" on a British site. The comedy film Talladega Nights: The Ballad of Ricky Bobby also contained a high amount of product placement. chips. The Japanese animated series Code Geass is sponsored by the Japanese branch of Pizza Hut." he replies suavely.
 The 1988 film Return of the Killer Tomatoes utilised the concept in a parodic manner²at one point. This was followed by several scenes with blatant product placement. directed by David Fincher. Deeds shows the main character Adam Sandler purchasing a Chevrolet Corvette for every resident of his town. which was viewed as product placement by some but said to be a joke by the show's creator.
 Faux product placement and parodies
. starring Will Ferrell and Molly Shannon. The comedy film Kung Pow! Enter the Fist also attempted to spoof its product placements. The Finnish phone maker is even offering Star Trek applications. Gap. The film The Cat in the Hat (2003) contained product placement where all residents of the town drive a Ford Focus. In a similar vein. The show has gone on to parody product placement. he operates a Nokia touch-screen smartphone. Director Steven Spielberg also uses one scene to demonstrate the potential intrusion of one-to-one electronic advertising: the main character (Tom Cruise) is harassed by personalized advertisements calling out his own name. a thinly veiled dig at Starbucks. again with the line "It's a Sony". the scene in which Brad Pitt and Edward Norton smash the headlights of a new Volkswagen Beetle. including a Pepsi billboard installed in front of the villain's mansion. audiences will hear the Nokia trademark ring tone. clearly pointing out the anachronistic inclusion of a Taco Bell in the film. suggesting product placement as a way to recoup the losses. by having one character give another a Blu-Ray disk with the tagline "It's a Sony".The 2009 film Star Trek. to which the character responds by producing a copy in Betamax. in a scene where young James Kirk drives and crashes an old corvette. the film stops. The film Minority Report. the film Mr. Similarly. as money to produce it ran out.
The pilot episode of the NBC sitcom 30 Rock featured the General Electric (and 80% owner of NBC) Trivection oven. makes heavy use of product placement. it is possible that this was done for comic effect. and Lexus. shows every resident in town driving VW New Beetles. The film's producer (portrayed by George Clooney) steps in. only for them to complain that they don't have a Blu-ray player. The film Fight Club. including Pepsi. However. Examples include the scene where the Apple Store is broken into. and trying to blow up a 'popular coffee franchise'. bit the hand that fed it by depicting acts of violence against most of the products that paid to be placed in the film. in Looney Tunes: Back In Action the main characters stumble across a Wal-Mart while stranded in the middle of Death Valley and get all necessary supplies for their endorsement of the company. The film Superstar. The television show Kannagi: Crazy Shrine Maidens poked fun at its sponsor Sony in one episode. Before the car crashes.
Big Kahuna Burger Robert Rodriguez ± Chango Beer Pixar Animation Studios ± Pizza Planet. a 24-hour television broadcast called "The Truman Show" that focuses on the life of Truman Burbank. Pizza Boy. The company producing Morleys was also involved in a cover-up conspiracy in episode 18 of season seven. Another spoof was made in GTA: San Andreas with Zip). which includes numerous references to the series Codename: Sailor V. such as Svetlana Chmakova's Dramacon. which feature fictitious stores such as Ammu-Nation. see Fictional brands. Chewlees Gum. going so far as having an animator on a Codename: Sailor V feature film be a victim in one episode.For further information. The TV series X-Files (1993-2002) frequently featured the fictional Morley brand of cigarettes. etc. although in a manner different than other films. the anime makes further use of this meta-referential gag. This practice is also common in certain "reality-based" video games such as the Grand Theft Auto series. Examples include:
y y y y y y y y
Kevin Smith ± Nails Cigarettes. holding up the product. and sometimes giving a thumbs-up. Discreeto Burritos Quentin Tarantino ± Red Apple Cigarettes. Mooby Corporation. Vinyl Countdown. uses faux product placement. the choice of the Cigarette Smoking Man. His wife places products in front of the hidden cameras. smiling widely. Gash (spoofing Gap. (a modification of the name of the Japanese snack "Pocky". which makes several product-placement-esque usages of "Pawky". The 1992 film Wayne's World included a parody in which both Wayne and Garth decry product placement while at the same time blatantly promoting many products by looking directly at the camera. even naming certain products in dialogue with her husband. The film's premise. popular among the anime and manga fan community in which the story is set) or Naoko Takeuchi's Sailor Moon. Brand X (Original Air Date²16 April 2000). Dinoco Warner Brothers ± Acme Corporation Coen Brothers ± Dapper Dan Hair Wax JJ Abrams ± Slusho Drinks Spike Lee ± Da Bomb malt liquor
This practice is also fairly common in certain comics. The 1998 film The Truman Show utilized the concept. Jack Rabbit Slim's Restaurants. which Sailor Moon was spun off of.
 Reverse placement
. The 1984 film "Ghostbusters" had a Faux product in the climax of the film when the team faces the Stay Puft Marshmallow Man. all of which increases Truman's suspicion as he comes to realize his surroundings are intentionally fabricated. Some filmmakers have responded to product placement by creating fictional products that frequently appear in the movies they make.
Acme Communications was created as a chain of real television stations. the firm is named for the fictional Acme Corporation of Warner Brothers fame. completed the circle by depicting a Crazy Ernie using a hard sell of "buy this car or I'll club a seal" as a TV ad campaign. "Drink". marketers gain the ability change displayed in-game advertisements on the fly. Second generation product placement or dynamic product placement is more focused upon commercial products. in 2007. startups are offering or developing the ability to switch product placement. appeared in 1984 as advertising placement in Splash.
 Virtual placement
Virtual product placement uses computer graphics to insert the product into the program after the program is complete. In the 1984 cult film Repo Man. First generation virtual product placement has tended to be based upon sports arenas where the geometrical relationships of camera and the surface of the flat area onto which the billboard is projected. psychographics or behavioral information about the consumer. 2009. selling some real-life versions of products seen in episodes of the Simpsons such as Buzz Cola and Krusty-O's cereal. As of 2007. a reverse form of product placement is used. As of 2007. a 1989 parody. "Dry Gin" and "Food . Previously post production tools have permitted one time insertion of new product placement images and billboard advertising. For example.Meat Flavored").
 Viewer Response
This means of advertisement triggered an unusual viewer response in April. such as individual player ID's and data about what was on the screen and for how long. can be easily calculated. Crazy Eddie was created as a fictional car dealer in the film A Letter to Three Wives. when fans of the television series Chuck took advantage of product placement in the series by the restaurant chain Subway as part of a grassroots effort to save the show from cancellation. 7-Eleven rebranded 11 of its American stores and one Canadian store as "Kwik-E-Marts". the development of capabilities that permit dynamic or switchable product placement. Where game software has access to a user's Internet connection. notable in televised at baseball and hockey games. Also of interest are hypervideo techniques that can insert interactive elements into online video. More controversially. in-game advertising vendors such as Microsoft-owned Massive Incorporated may use software to transmit user information to their servers.So-called "reverse product placement" takes "faux product placement" a step further. In 1949. a new trend is emerging in product placement. with an exaggerated form of 1980s era generic packaging used on products prominently shown on-screen (these include "Beer". Third generation virtual or dynamic product placement allows targeting of customers with different products that can be dynamically switched based upon such factors as demographics. In 1997. bestowed in 1971 upon a real-life electronics chain in New York City. The movement
. That name. by creating products in real life to match those seen in a fictional setting. UHF.
 Product displacement
According to Danny Boyle. they objected to their products been shown in a slum setting. Leon. however. and garnered significant attention in online media.
 External links
Changes to UK Product Placement Rules Twentieth: Placing More Product
 Further reading
Balasubramanian. Issue 57. 29±46.
. (2010). a Walgreens would become a Toys " " Us. Online Journal AFI/RMIT. Liverpool University Press. with series star Zachary Levi leading hundreds of fans to a Subway restaurant in Birmingham. the makers had to resort to something he calls "product displacement" when companies such as Mercedes-Benz refused to allow their products to be used in non-flattering settings. Gurevitch. Leon. 115±141. 23 (4). Liverpool. 143-158. Boyle did not. Siva K. Journal of Advertising. 11 (5). While they did not mind having a gangster driving their cars. "Beyond Advertising and Publicity: Hybrid Messages and Public Policy Issues". Gurevitch. (1994). (2009). "Audience Response to Product Placements: An Integrative Framework and Future Research Agenda". director of film Slumdog Millionaire (2008). Siva K. Forthcoming (December) in Senses of Cinema Journal. The Cinemas of Interactions: Cinematics and the µGame Effect¶ in the Age of Digital Attractions. 35 (3). United Kingdom. Signage belonging to tenants of the mall when it was operational (1966±1978) was in some cases removed and replaced with that of other vendors. comment on the disproportionately common on-screen reference to the cigarette brand Marlboro Lights in the same film. were reconstructed in façade and used as the scene of an indoor car chase. Journal of Television and New Media. This forced the makers in post-production to remove logos digitally. Similarly. New York. Balasubramanian. Journal of Popular Narrative Media. 367-385. 2 (2). Leon. "Problematic Dichotomies: Narrative and Spectacle in Film and Advertising Scholarship". "The Cinemas of Transactions: The Exchangable Currency of Digital Attractions Across Audiovisual Economies". Gurevitch. in the film The Blues Brothers (1980).gained support from several cast and crew members. Vol. costing "tens of thousands of pounds". for instance. Melbourne. James Karrh and Hemant Patwardhan (2006). (2010). Sage Publications. leading some commentators to question whether there was significant funding from the said company for the film.Journal of Advertising. Illinois. portions of the defunct Dixie Square Mall in Harvey.
73±92. Fribourg 2007 Russell. Mark Crispin (April 1990). Arranged Product Placement Product Placement in the Movies The "I.de/#presse
Inside this Article
1.thedrum.. "Hollywood: The Ad²The Techniques and the Cartoon-Like Moral Vision of Television Advertising Are Exerting More and More Influence over American Moviemaking". 7± 18. Robot" Movie Car: Audi RSQ See more »
. 29 (3).co. Introduction to How Product Placement Works 2. Pascal Schumacher: Effektivität von Ausgestaltungsformen des Product Placement. 2010. Realistic Product Placement 4.productplacement. 306±318. Russell. Journal of Advertising Research.com/doc/199004/hollywood. Product placement blurring the editorial line http://www. Journal of Advertising. Retrieved September 4. The Atlantic. http://www. 35 (1). and Barbara Stern (2006). 6. and Michael Belch (2005) "A Managerial Investigation into the Product Placement Industry". Journal of Consumer Research. Russell (2002) "Investigating the Effectiveness of Product Placements in Television Shows: The Role of Modality and Plot Connection Congruence on Brand Memory and Attitude".uk/indepth/1947product-placement/ Product Placement mit Startschwierigkeiten (Matthias Alefeld) http://www. Cristel A. "Consumers. and Products: A Balance Model of Sitcom Product Placement Effects". 7.y
Miller. Cristel A. 45 (1). What is Product Placement? 3. Cristel A. Characters. 5.theatlantic.
radio..latest trend in advertising is to make it. The ABC network did it for "Gideon's Crossing" in 2000 and for "Alias" in 2001.we see ads all day.
. Even television networks that depend on advertising dollars to stay in business know that it can be useful to ditch the interruptions and present a show without ads from time to time. less advertorial. but really. See more movie making pictures. And these are just the usual suspects. From people walking down the street wearing signs. it's quite simple.com
The DeLorean played a prominent role in the "Back to the Future" movies. well. the Internet. where the product is the star. The tendency is to move away from in-your-face ads. to ads on the ATM screen as we wait for it to dispense our cash -. every day.
Movie Making Image Gallery
Photo courtesy Amazon. More and more ad-space is popping up every day. to flyers on our cars and in our mailboxes.. buses.
This may seem a bit confusing.where ads are imitating the practice of product placement. FOX did it for its hit series "24" in 2002. billboards. magazines. newspapers. The majority of us are getting tired of ads. Some would argue it's a sort of "art imitating art imitating life" scenario -. Today's consumer is inundated with advertising everywhere: television. to mini-movies or quasi-documentary vignettes that feature "real-life scenarios" with the product(s) hovering in the background.
So. Once mainly found only on the big screen. does it? Of course they don't drop the advertising dollars all together. we'll explain what product placement is and examine how it is used in movies.not to mention in video games and even books. when is an ad not an ad? When it's a product placement. then you've been the victim of bad product placement. If you watched that "ad-free" version of "24" you know what we're talking about. television shows and other media. drives a Ford Expedition. Ford sponsored the show with two three-minute spots opening and closing the episode. Jack Bauer.networks turning down cold. There's certainly
. product placement has been making quite a few appearances on TV -. hard advertising cash? That doesn't sound quite right.Photo courtesy Isabella Vosmikova/FOX
Apple laptop computer on "24"
Wait a minute -.
What is Product Placement?
Have you ever watched a television show or a movie and felt like you were watching a really long commercial? If so. Ford vehicles have been integrated into the show -. And. In this article.the main character.
but not in your hand). market in the first month of the movie's release. Red Stripe sales saw an increase of more than 50% in the U.
Photo courtesy Isabella Vosmikova/FOX
Perhaps the producers of "24" did not find a phone company that wanted to sponsor this episode.S. television show. You can probably remember quite a few examples. When done correctly.a line that can be crossed when presenting brand-name items as props within the context of a movie. The product needs to fit. or music video. this prime spot essentially catapulted these tiny peanut butter morsels into mainstream popularity. a Jamaican-brewed beer.
. in the movie "The Firm. A slightly more recent and easily as effective example is the placement of Red Stripe. there have been countless placements in thousands of movies. Clever marketing folks try never to cross that line. Think about it. but not the focus.T.
Product placement is something that dates back to at least the early 1950s when Gordon's Gin paid to have Katharine Hepburn's character in "The African Queen" toss loads of their product overboard. Since then. One of the most commonly discussed is the placement of Reese's Pieces in the movie "E. product placement can add a sense of realism to a movie or television show that something like a can simply marked "soda" cannot. They want their products to be visible within a scene. almost seamlessly (almost being the key word here) into the shot and context of the scene." According to BusinessWeek Online." Originally intended for another product (they melt in your mouth.
product placement is a vehicle for everything from foodstuffs to electronics to automobiles. Shirt. It's arranged." and "Beer" appearing in most scenes. drink certain wines. Sometimes product placement just happens.. there are three ways product placement can occur:
y y y
It simply happens. The one uber-evident product that is placed in frame after frame are tree-shaped air fresheners.com motorcycle has one. So. Therese Van Ryne." "Whiskey. A set dresser. we can create a less controversial scenario." "Cigarettes. According to an article in USA Today. producer.
. let's take a look at some of the basics involved in leveraging a product placement arrangement.in an episode of the popular HBO series "The Sopranos.." genericized foodstuffs and other consumables rule. it's obvious that the producers had almost no luck with product placement deals.an ant killer made by the SC Johnson company -.. In making the character's life seem real. Usually this has to do with boosting the level of credibility or realism of the story being told. the company that makes the air fresheners was one of the sponsors of the movie.even the police Amazon. or even an actor might come across something he thinks will enhance the project. From this description. director.Now that you have an idea of what product placement is. It's arranged. According to The Internet Movie Database. Let's say the main character in a program or movie is an unmarried. successful.the four-wheel drive would come in handy when visiting building sites. exactly? It's actually pretty simple. Car or Soda Fits. welltravelled architect in his thirties. eat certain foods. One example can be found in the surprising use of a can of RAID -. and there is financial compensation.
Realistic Product Placement
A worldwide trend in advertising." The poisonous prop was used in a particularly violent fight scene in the show. said the company was not approached about the use of their product and they would not have given it a thumbs-up. Maybe he'd drive an SUV -. a spokeswoman for SC Johnson. Basically.
In the 1984 cult classic "Repo Man. These fragrant props hang in just about every Photo courtesy moving vehicle in the movie -.
If the Shoe. With plain blue and white labels that simply read "Food.. and a certain amount of the product serves as compensation. products necessarily come into play. He'd read particular magazines. For illustrative purposes throughout the rest of this article. how does it work. it's easy to start thinking up things to enhance the feel of this character.
The camera pans down to show a slight tap of the actor's foot.Arranged Product Placement
As we mentioned earlier. the camera pauses just long enough for you to really see the wristwatch. the wristwatch casually appears in several scenes. Imagine that the marketing team at Tag Heuer has heard about this project and feels that.. Tag Heuer manages to reap the benefits of conventional advertising without being overly obvious or intrusive to the audience/consumers. Eventually. arranged product placement deals fall into two categories:
Trade-off of integration or placement for a supply of product Financial compensation for placement or integration
The most common type of deal is a simple exchange of the product for the placement. In a pivotal scene. so money powers the deal. The camera pans out and swings around. Reportedly. let's say the production team wants The Architect to display a quirky affinity for a particular type of beverage. the cast and crew are provided with an ample supply of various Honest Tea drinks at work. Next.which means the chosen product could get a lot of air time. Consider this scene: Our male character (The Architect) stands outside a movie theater waiting to meet a friend. stainless steel Tag Heuer luxury sports-watch. One particular example of product placement gone awry is the Reebok/Jerry Maguire fiasco. Now there are specific corporate positions and entire agencies that can handle the job. given the starpower of the actor playing The Architect. After switching from the actor's face to the face of the wristwatch. Someone from Tag Heuer approaches the set dresser with a financially lucrative proposal. He's wearing a link-style. The movie people approach the Honest Tea folks with a proposal and a deal is made.. it moves up and zooms in to show him checking his wristwatch for the time. Using our existing example. Sometimes.
It's a Miss!
Like lots of advertising methods. This will come across rather strongly over the course of the program (because the character even collects the drink's labels) -. Remember. During the next hour of the program.the integration of the Tag Heuer product is a success.'s character makes disparaging remarks about the company. Getting the Job Done Before product placement really saw a surge in the mid 1980s.but something else regarding Reebok did. in exchange for the airtime. the advertised product's role is to be part of an ensemble cast rather than the (obvious) star. It turns out that someone on the crew knows someone who works for Honest Tea. a gift of the product isn't an appropriate form of compensation. they come to an agreement. it was pretty much a DIY effort. Reebok had a placement agreement to integrate one of its commercials at the end of the film "Jerry Maguire. product placement can be hit or miss." The commercial didn't make it to production -. this project would be a great vehicle for showcasing its product. introducing a beautiful woman into the scene. Cuba Gooding Jr.
Both teams are happy -. Some larger corporations will dedicate personnel to scout out opportunities for product integration or
Product placement in movies is so ubiquitous that it's even become something to parody on the big screen. see how many other scenes include that product.
Cars in the Movies
Herbie. Pringles. and T. Target..Ray-Ban sunglasses Back to the Future .America On-Line (AOL). Entertainment Weekly Magazine. Billboard Magazine. smiles straight at the camera. Gatorade. Ray-Ban. The movie "Josie and the Pussycats" takes the joke several steps further.Pepsi and Starbucks Cast Away . Steve Madden. Pepsi. Bebe. You'll probably recall at least a few of these now-famous product placements:
y y y y y y y
Risky Business . "can the actor hold the Coke can just the right way every time so that the logo is perfectly visible?" Take a minute to comb through your movie memories. Bugles. the Love Bug RoboCop
Volkswagen Beetle Ford Taurus
. The amusing part about this is that the product placement vignette takes place while the characters Wayne and Garth are lambasting the very thing they're doing. Motorola.) You've Got Mail . Ford. Pizza Hut and Reebok. "Josie and the Pussycats" manages to satirize name-brand integration throughout the film. This site provides suggestions on how to pick a product placement agency. here's a taste of what you can see in just the trailer alone (Keep in mind that the trailer is only two minutes and twenty-five seconds long!): America Online. Coke. Milky Way.. the two main characters hawk a variety of stuff.placement within films.
Product Placement in the Movies
The next time you watch a movie. Sega." he is opening a Pizza Hut box and pulling out a slice of pizza. everything is Taco Bell. Two movies that do a good job of this are "Wayne's World" and "Josie and the Pussycats. To get an idea of just how saturated with brands.Ray-Ban sunglasses. Pepperidge Farm Cookies. Maxx.J. Starbucks. American Express. Pizza Hut. I will not bow to any corporate sponsor. McDonald's. Is it Coke? Pepsi? Snapple? Once you've spotted something. Puma. try to keep an eye out for products or brand-names you recognize." you'll wonder. It's highly likely that you'll see one of the major soft drink companies represented. Kodak. A send-up on the music industry. Mercedes Benz. Evian. Campbell's Soup. You'll start to see a trend.Taco Bell (In the future. "How. logos and products this movie is.Pepsi products Demolition Man . As Wayne says "Contract or no. Krispy Kreme. IBM and Starbucks Austin Powers . holding the slice of pizza lovingly beside his face. including Nuprin. Apple. television shows and even games and music. The camera lingers on the Pizza Hut logo and Wayne." In Wayne's World. Sprint.FedEx and Wilson Men in Black II .
Robot" Movie Car: Audi RSQ
In 2004. so the heroic and extreme environment in which Lara Croft uses her custom Wrangler Rubicon in Tomb Raider is accurate.Back to the Future Smokey and the Bandit The World Is Not Enough Lara Croft: Tomb Raider
DeLorean Pontiac Trans Am BMW Z8 Jeep Wrangler Rubicon
Photo courtesy DaimlerChrysler
According to a 2003 Chrysler press release. This is more than just a product placement."
The "I. We have created a 360-degree integrated marketing campaign around the movie and the debut of the Wrangler Rubicon Tomb Raider model. product placement reached a new level with Audi's involvement with the movie "I.. ROBOT."
.. "The Jeep Wrangler Rubicon is the most capable Jeep ever built.
it wasn't just a question of promoting the right car in the right movie. Audi created the RSQ for the movie. Audis have been featured in such movies as "Ronin. And since this custom job was also a product-placement job. the car had to fit seamlessly into the movie world while still screaming "Audi.com
Will Smith and the Audi RSQ
The Audi RSQ concept car plays a central role in the futuristic action film."
." "The Insider. It was a full-blown custom job. though.Photo courtesy Audi. So how is this different from the placement of the BMW Z8 in "The World is Not Enough" or the DeLorean in "Back to the Future"? Audi didn't just place the RSQ in the movie." This time.
Photo courtesy Audi." and "Mission Impossible II.com
The Audi automotive brand has been involved in movies before.
It has a fully developed interior and exterior.Photos courtesy Audi.those have been done before.
The RSQ is not just a movie car -. Audi put the same amount of thought and detail into designing the RSQ as they do into designing any other concept car. with movie designers creating a car and simply attaching the highest-bidding car logo to the hood.
butterfly-action doors. most notably. spherical wheels.Photo courtesy Audi. but products that are created to fill that role. a color-changing. The result of the collaborative effort is the futuristic RSQ sports coupe. Alex Proyas.com
The carmaker worked with the director of the movie.name-brand products that are not simply chosen to fill a role that benefits both parties. featuring.
Photo courtesy Audi. we may be looking at the future of this type of advertising -. and with set designers to achieve a concept that both Audi and the movie people were happy with -.Audi designers toured the movie sets and got their hands on the futuristic props used in the film. mid-engine design. luminescent paint job and a low.
Product Placement on TV
Back to Basics
Radio and television dramas
In the creative partnership between a carmaker and Hollywood. sleek profile.
In a story-line that spanned several months. More commonly referred to as product integration in this medium. the folks at AMC opted for cosmetics. The very best example of this is the popular talent show "American Idol." Not only are segments of each episode sandwiched between ads for Coca-Cola. advertisers have shelled out the big bucks to promote their products and brands.and now a word from our sponsor -.
Photo courtesy Ray Mickshaw/FOX
L-R: Judges Simon Cowell. also known as the 30-second spot. Does that mean there can only be one winner in the television advertising arena? Not necessarily. the current trend is a combination of the two.Each of the three judges sits behind large red cups emblazoned with the Coca-Cola logo. Old Navy and Ford.
. but that doesn't mean there's only room for one of these vehicles on the advertising block. perched on a Coca-Cola sofa. Yes. In addition to the standard 30second spots -.
known as soap operas acquired their moniker from the products advertised during their shows. but some of these companies' brands and products are evident (REALLY EVIDENT) in each episode. this process has to share its advertising space with traditional advertising. Here are some examples:
Coca-Cola . "All My Children. One of today's most popular soap operas." recently managed to revisit its advertising roots. Paula Abdul and Randy Jackson
In the "elimination episodes. In fact. Since the beginning of televised programming." contestants nervously await their turn in the Coca-Cola room. But. famous cosmetics company Revlon was front and center in Pine Valley's plotline.Product placement is not quite as widespread in TV land as it is in the movies.
There's a big difference between product integration and a standard 30-second advertising spot. The 30-second spot has been the reigning champion for a very long time. This trend can in large part be attributed to many of today's reality-based television shows. which seem to be a perfect match for product integration. instead of soap. AT&T Wireless. both are a means to a similar end.the products were often integrated into the story line. but it is a rapidly growing industry.
Coca-Cola. rather than limiting their presence to commercials. on the Coca-Cola couch y
AT&T Wireless . Ford Motor and Coca-Cola. Fans can submit their vote as a text message if. you may be wondering "product placement on a Web site?" "Isn't that just an ad?" Well. though.AT&T Wireless.Photo courtesy Ray Mickshaw/FOX
Contestants in the Coca-Cola room. Bill Carter writes:
Searching for ways to thwart any trend toward skipping commercials on programs recorded on personal video recorders like TiVo.Host Ryan Seacrest mentions AT&T wireless each time a contestant finishes his/her song. In fact. Yes."
According to AdAge magazine. Now. There are actual sections of the Web site that integrate the brand or sponsor's name entirely:
y y y y
Coca-Cola Behind the Scenes AT&T Wireless Old Navy Fun and Games Section Herbal Essences Music Section
Cars on TV
. after visiting the "American Idol" Web site. the networks are increasingly integrating their sponsors and their products into the shows themselves. the phrase "millions of dollars" mentioned above actually refers to about $26 million per integration/sponsorship deal. not exactly. that means that EACH of the companies -.
In an article for the New York Times.dished out 26 million dollars. These companies do get a lot of bang for their bucks. and only if. it makes you wonder if the product placement there is included in that bill. no. are two of the advertisers that have paid millions of dollars to have their logos prominently displayed during episodes of "American Idol. they have AT&T wireless. for example. and Ford -.
paid noted British author Fay in the theater community by Weldon to write a novel that would feature Bulgari products. Luhrmann surprised many famous jewelry company. The displaying billboard-style ads for pens and Pipercommissioned work was to be given as a present to an elite group Montblancchampagne in his Heidsieck of Bulgari clientele. Undoubtedly. Puccini brand and products. product placement in a The headlines might have read book or a video game is pretty difficult to imagine. by Barbara Barbieri McGrath. Bulgari. Sound a bit far-fetched? It's not.I.style. The world. video games and on the Internet. Roger Glass
. Let's take a look at how product placement is being used in these other arenas. "The Bulgari Connection" Bohème. Weldon has set a precedent that other authors and publishers will follow. Luhrmann (Strictly Ballroom. Let's start with books. It turns out that even a modest amount of investigation can unearth several other productprominent published works. Read All About It! Acapella Advertising To some. You'll find it in books. Romeo + Juliet. one of the largest genres to feature product placement is children's learning books. Not only did Weldon agree to the deal. Here are just a few examples of what you can find at your local library or bookstore:
Skittles Riddles Math. Starsky & Hutch Dukes of Hazzard Knight Rider Charlie's Angels Hardcastle & McCormick 24
Ferrari Testarossa Lotus 8 Ferrari 308i Ford Grand Torino Dodge Charger Pontiac Trans Am Ford Mustang Cobra DeLorean Coyote Ford Expedition
Product Placement in Books and Video Games
Product placement isn't just for movies and television anymore. Where exactly "Product placement takes Broadway by storm" when Baz would they place the products? It turns out there's plenty of opportunity for this manner of advertising." has met with skepticism and praise from Weldon's colleagues and fans alike. Actually. music videos. Moulin Rouge!) -->Imagine a well-known company commissioning an equally decided to perform a little renowned author to write a book that prominently features its product placement. especially if you haven't seen it. but stage production of "La she eventually took her work public.TV Show
Miami Vice The Prisoner Magnum P.
According to USA Today. Sega's still onboard with product placement. Apparently.. you may be assuming that the companies are merely sponsoring the book and that the content is pretty standard fare -.. Back then.making the "environment" of the game more lifelike.possibly not even incorporating the product into the content of the book. Just as product placement in movies promotes credibility and realism in the movie. In Sega's Super Monkey Ball. it's actually pretty easy to understand the advertising possibilities available within today's video games.until there are none!
A quick flip through the pages confirms that Oreo cookies are indeed featured prominently on every page! Product Placement in Video Games As they continue to become more and more realistic. by Jerry Pallotta.and you'll see Zippo lighters and Motorola cell phones. artists such as Dirty Vegas and Phil Collins are clueing consumers in on their product-endorsement pastimes by placing "as seen in
.. by Barbara Barbieri McGrath Twizzlers Percentages Book by Jerry Pallotta.. The USA Today article What's in a name: Product placement in games states:
Play Crazy Taxi and a lot of your passengers will ask you to take them to Pizza Hut or KFC (both owned by Tricon Global). the bananas sport Dole Food Company stickers.
Product Placement in Songs
On the Flip Side
In an interesting turn of events. music artists who have been promoting products on television are using those promotions to their own advantage. Rob Bolster The Cheerios Christmas Play Book. In "The Oreo Cookie Counting Book. nibbled.com. by Lee Wade
After reading these titles. a surfboard wax. Zog's Sex Wax." the back cover reads:
Children will love to count down as ten little OREOs are dunked. this kind of product integration isn't about the cash. According to AdAge. Think again. UbiSoft's Surf Riders has G-Shock watches and banners for Mr. Sega was placing banners advertising Marlboro in its auto-racing arcade games. Surprisingly. Dive into Die Hard: Nakatomi Plaza.y y y y
The Hershey's Kisses Addition Book. and stacked one by one. Rob Bolster The M&M's Brand Counting Book. product placements in video game software have been around since the 1980s. it does the same thing in the video game -.
some have even garnered top billing. three strikes. Not only did it have its little toy surprise going for it. Whatever the future holds.
As products are finding their way into movies. a brand has found its way into a rap song because of artist preference or through an organic. But with digital technology continuing to skyrocket in both form and function.
. Let me root. Take me out with the crowd. check out the links on the next page. According to AdAge: Marketers Explore Product Placements in Music:
In an attempt to further leverage its diverse artist roster. At the old ball game. there's no doubt you'll continue to see many of your favorite stars holding.): Take me out to the ball game. handling and using products of all kinds on the big and small screens for years to come. root. many of today's music professionals are striking deals and getting paid. For example.One of the earliest examples of product placement within a song TV commercial" stickers on their albums. Long before Biggie Smalls and Jay-Z were giving props to Cristal champagne. Island Def Jam Music Group [incidentally. books and video games.. in an unprecedented paid product-placement deal. it would seem like there's nowhere else to go. Run-DMC was giving a lot of air time and screen time to the fashionable footwear. brother of Joseph Simmons -. They weren't only singing about their Adidas. Consider Run-DMC's track "My Adidas" from their multiplatinum album. can be found in Take Me Out to the Ball Game. you're out. For it's one. the tennis shoes were a prominent element in their dress. creative predilection and not because of a record label dictate to appease an advertiser. Cracker Jack also had a memorable mention in the chorus of this (now) immortalized melody. If they don't win it's a shame.
AdAge also reports:
In almost all cases. I don't care if I never get back. many products have popped up in tunes around the world -. appearing in the title. and Norworth and Tilzer weren't paid to promote Cracker Jack. While Adidas didn't commission Run DMC. there's a seemingly endless stream of new and innovative ways to put products in front of potential consumers. root for the home team. according to the company. the chorus goes like this (feel free to sing along. Since then. two. music. Buy me some peanuts and Cracker Jack. For more information on product placement and related topics. This relationship has had a significant boost on sales of the Allied Domecq brand. Written in 1908 by Jack Norworth and later scored by Albert Von Tilzer. television.Run of Run-DMC] is in formal talks with Hewlett-Packard Co.. not until Busta Rhymes' recent single "Pass the Courvoisier Part Two" moved a healthy number of units was a promotional deal with Allied Domecq completed. Raising Hell. Def Jam Music was founded by Russell Simmons.
Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows: Part 1Date: 19-28 Nov. The business of product placement had begun. Samsung. Sanyo Comments: The penultimate installment in the Harry Potter films had a blockbuster opening weekend and brought limited love to muggle brands ² except for Harry Potter's leather jacket-maker. Nike. from a product placement perspective. is placed in the foreground between the camera and the parade. Special K. Source: Institut Lumiere in Lyon / Jay Newell.. Marlboro. Iowa State University / iTVX Product Placement Measurement
Avatar Date: 29 Jan-1 Feb. U. In the film titled "Défilé du 8e Battalion" (Girel. 2010 Studio: Fox Weekend gross: US$ 594 M Featured brands: Jujubes. Royal Enfield. 1896). the film is forgettable as the the only notable product placements are t-shirts that underscore character development. 2010 Studio: Warner Bros..4 million (two-weekend gross) Featured brands: Amaretti Del Chiostro. Weekend gross: $175. a wheelbarrow displaying the Sunlight Soap logo and accompanied by a tuxedoed Lavanchy Clarke.S. Marine Corps Comments: Though Avatar breaks ground in the realms of special effects and visual technology. Jenny Parkham. Stanford University. Avon Tires. Did we miss something?
Product placement originates back to its film debut in the 1800's. Belstaff.