Philosophy without Freedom: Constantin Noica and Alexandru Dragomir
Cristian CIOCAN
University of Bucharest Romanian Society for Phenomenology

ABSTRACT: In this paper, I discuss about two major Romanian philosophers: Constantin Noica and Alexandru Dragomir. I narrate their spectacular biographies, in order to show how powerful can be the resistance through philosophy, even in the hard times of political totalitarianism, as they were, for the Eastern Europe, under the communist dictatorship. It is true that Noica and Dragomir are two of the most influential personalities for the history of phenomenology in Romania. However, their lives also seem to be exemplary for the philosophical life as such, which reveals its intrinsic value when facing the asperities of misfortune.

Let me start with a general question: Can philosophy exist without freedom? We usually believe that thinking, reflecting, and philosophizing need always a certain degree of freedom. Aristotle is the first to sustain, in the beginning of the Metaphysics, that philosophy started in
The copyright on this essay belongs to the author. The work is published here by permission of the author and can be cited as Phenomenology 2005, Vol. III, Selected Essays from Euro-Mediterranean Area, ed. Ion COPOERU & Hans Rainer SEPP (Bucharest: Zeta Books, 2007), available in printed as well as electronic form at www.zetabooks.com. Contact the author here: cristian.ciocan@phenomenology.ro

I am not referring here to a total freedom in an ideal republic of philosophers. the recent history of the countries . never met before. thus obtaining the necessary comfort for reflecting. and especially the case of the Romanian philosophy under communism. Under such a regime. we see that the flourishing of philosophy was possible in a free political climate. or it is suppressed. a more or less tolerant attitude of the authorities. But besides this comfort. When protection and freedom disappears. as was the case of Communism in Eastern Europe. an official ideology. philosophy dies too. This type of freedom made possible the most fertile stages in the history of philosophy. the civic or social freedom. without light or hope. allowing for a polyphony of voices and a dialogue of the various points of view. and again with the German Idealism. with the philosophy of the Middle Ages. And we ask again: Can philosophy exist without liberty? The Romanian case. as it is the case of the closing of the Neo-Platonic school of Athens by a Justinian edict. be they kings. popes or cardinals: this happened with the ancient philosophy. I refer to political freedom. Philosophy always developed under a certain protection. but a certain degree of liberty. emperors. it takes another type of freedom for the philosophical instinct deeply enrooted in man to be able to develop as a free philosophical exercise. When such a regime goes on for several decades.64 CRISTIAN CIOCAN Egypt. If we think of the Greeks. can be understood against the background of a larger social context. noblemen. for generations are born and die in a concentrationary universe. where the class of priests was exempted from labor. The terrible 20th century brought a totally different situation. this freedom from daily necessities. philosophy is reduced to an instrument of the propaganda. where the limitation of man’s liberty became a state affair. the transformations can be atrocious. in a live and creative philosophical culture.

firstly because of the historical vicissitudes. His works about the Ottoman Empire were immediately translated in several languages and were known by Voltaire. Even if his philosophical activity was rich enough. Byron and Victor Hugo. Concerning philosophy. acquiring therefore with them the philosophical ideas that circulated in Occident. At the beginning of the 20th Century. the first name that we must mention is that of Dimitrie Cantemir (1673-1723). the circulation of ideas increased and the Romanian Culture began to enter. the case of Cantemir rested a singular one. in a national language—is rather young culture. when the Romanian started to study intensively in Berlin. he was recognized in the world most for his work of historian. for the Mihaileana Academy of Iasi and was the first attempt to establish a philosophical terminology in Romanian Language. in Paris and in Vienna. The Romanian culture—as a national culture. Unfortunately. we must understand its specificity. himself very much influenced by the philosophy of Schopenhauer—to translate fragments of the Critic of the Pure Reason in 1878.PHILOSOPHY UNDER TOTALITARIANISM 65 destroyed by the imperialism of the Soviet regime. . The first philosophical course written in Romanian was elaborated on a German model by Eftimie Murgu in 183436. gaining its independence from the Ottoman Empire only in 1877. We can note also the attempt of Mihai Eminescu—a famous Romantic poet. Even if the national cohesion of the Romanians is older. a king of Moldavia who corresponded with Leibniz and who was elected a member of Academy of Berlin in 1714. step by step. And thus it went until the 19th century. because the Romanians have not known large periods of political stability where the humanist culture could develop itself. However. the Romanian Nation affirmed itself explicitly with the occasion of the historical events that traversed Europe around 1848.

Concerning the philosophers themselves. the Romanian culture became very lively. A disaster that unfortunately went on for decades and disfigured everything. Most Romanian intellectuals left Romania for the West and constituted a powerless diaspora. But with this occasion. the work of Blaga was not translated at the right moment and therefore it could not enter the circuit of the European ideas. being however nourished from the climate of Spengler’s philosophy of culture. We find many professors of philosophy who. a highly developing culture. who produced philosophic works of an originality somewhat limited by the mode of their time. we can mention some names such as Vasile Conta or Constantin Radulescu-Motru. students having studied in the most famous universities in Europe. because his philosophic oeuvre has an incontestable originality. briefly. a culture able to integrate organically into the European culture. Eugene Ionesco or Emil Cioran. which proved to be very fertile. professors with European diplomas. specialized academic journals. Leipzig and of Berlin. This period. as it without doubts deserved to be. However. became famous in the West. produced new and provocative voices. the disaster arrived. The war was over. at a certain moment. Between the two World Wars. the Russian army occupied Romania. ideas were spreading. We are now in the years 1945-47. as it is the case of Mircea Eliade. Unfortunately. the communists seized the power. Those . which after the Second World War. more or less. philosophy included. are compiling the occidental treatises of philosophy.66 CRISTIAN CIOCAN into the circuit of European Culture. very promising. The case of Lucian Blaga is more interesting. the philosophical vocabulary gradually growing and we can speak of a philosophical climate starting to consolidate. very ambitious and very high-spirited. very creative. offering an autochthonous variant of the scholar vulgate of Paris. the king abdicated and left the country.

tortured. First of all. The most famous of them are arrested. For them. But how can one arrive to such an incredible situation? The explanations are manifold. at his chalet in Paltinis. their goods are all confiscated and their families are terrorized. however. Hundreds of young intellectuals visited him. by reading between the lines of the destinies of Noica and Dragomir. the phenomenon “Noica” marked in a radical manner the contemporary culture of Romania. for the Romanian intellectuals. the greatest figure of the Romanian philosophy today. what now happened under Communism was certainly a hell. We can say this the other way: it is due to Noica that philosophy acquired in Romania in the 1960s and the ‘70s a great prestige. situated deep in a mountain village of Transylvania. Noica represented a link between contemporary Romania and the intellectually flourishing country that Romania was before the Second World War.PHILOSOPHY UNDER TOTALITARIANISM 67 who remain lived under the threat of political imprisonment. Noica himself was a central fig- . He is the Philosopher. although that Romania between the two wars had not been exactly a paradise. the possible or the impossible solutions. incredible for a country subjected to a totalitarian regime. and we can hope to find. that is. Nowadays in Romania. How about philosophy? We can ask again: How can philosophy exist without liberty? The answer is not at all easy. Noica is the most well known Romanian philosopher. Noica himself became almost a mass phenomenon: he had the force to pass to several generations of young people the virus of philosophysing: hundreds of young people started to dream of learning ancient Greek and German in order to access the fundamental sources of philosophy. in real pilgrimages. Briefly.

he and his colleagues specialized in various fields: Eliade studied the history of religions. Afterwards. Ionescu. along with Eliade. Cioran went on with his insolent and radical reflections on death. of poverty. liberty.68 CRISTIAN CIOCAN ure of the generation of intellectuals who animated Bucharest and its literary cafés in 1930s-‘40s. according to Lean Bloy. It came naturally that such a figure as Noica became legendary in the eyes of the intellectuals frustrated and anguished by the endlessness of the “scientific socialism. by translating and commenting upon Descartes. Socratism was at home in Romania. who forced upon people the supremacy of suspicion. but Noica chose to work. Cioran. where. a cultural excellence. and opposed to the rigid pedagogical style of his time. of the automatism of the slogans. His Philosophical Diary stands for all these ideas. Noica already published eight books and many articles. as a specialist. back in the 1940s. not wishing to immigrate to the Western countries. by Eugene Ionesco. to create a new type of philosophical school.” Until 1945. Leibniz. Not in classrooms. We was the living proof that our country once knew normality. he had the material liberty of pursuing his passion for philosophy. finitude and the absurd. of ideological confusion. without doctrines and school lessons.” He dreamed of making out of philosophy a way of life. Ionesco wrote theatre and literary critique. He began at 25 with a volume that received the prize of the Royal Foundation. at the same line as Cioran’s The Climax of Despair and the famous book entitled No. but in the famous literary cafés in Bucharest where . Kant and Hegel. he brought with him the symbolical heritage of a whole generation. in philosophy. as he was wealthy enough. not in the university. “you cannot say who gives and who receives. Mircea Vulcanescu or Petre Tutea. Since Noica chose to remain in Romania. completely opposed to the decades of communism. He dreamed. Moreover.

” For. it was a rather harmless matter: as Heidegger worked upon his thinking starting from the German language. which pass through several types of eventuality. the explicative force of the Romanian language was the soil for the roots of his meditation. of possibility and impossibility. a privileged way of expressing. concerning the sense and non-sense if life. he gave his ontology a national dimension. deep and speculative subjects. the destiny of mankind.PHILOSOPHY UNDER TOTALITARIANISM 69 people discussed vividly the most absolute. to his main work: The Treatise of Ontology. But Noica’s thinking individualized itself by its ontological preoccupation. He analyzed and articulated in a systematic manner these modulations of the verb “to be” into an ontology which kept a national trace. the Romanian language has. For Noica. who explain this richness encapsulated in language and who make the transition from the pre-ontological dimension to the ontological one. the various modulations of the verb “to be. between pure being and pure non-being. This lead. which is much contested by some contemporary critiques. four decades after. And this is the closest point between Noica and Heidegger. starting from the nuances of the Romanian equivalent of the verb “to be. However. In part. for both of them language is . always using the etymological exploration. Noica did the same with the Romanian language. The mainstream was a sort of vitalist and passionate existentialism. and its spiritual elites. Here Noica was preoccupied with the relationship between the spiritual dimension of a nation. according to Noica. as deposited in the language. the destiny of a nation. We can find the roots of these ideas in the 1940s. the voice of religion.” These ontological variations of the verb to be. with a very special richness. to sum up—the eternal issues of all days. constitute the foundation used by Noica to build his ontology upon. being probably the last philosophical system of the 20th century.

It was this particular preposition which enabled Noica to speak. by his works—the determinations—for and towards the horizon of the general—his art) and of a becoming within and towards becoming [Rom. we can talk of an accomplished Being.: devenirea întru devenire] (such as the case with the family life. of a becoming within and towards Being [Rom. First. the Being and the becoming within the horizon of Being. are always of a spiritual and cultural nature. a preposition difficult to translate. He used an ontological operator. For Noica. Here. made up from three fundamental elements: the individual.” “in regard of. close to the German zu and to the English into. his goods are confiscated. But let us return to our history. within his ontological system. întru. the other being shown in the most abstract Hegelian manner. We must also note that Noica’s national dimension of philosophy was just one side of his ontology. the determinations received by the individual. and the general in relation to whom the individual receives its determinations. But Noica’s passion for philosophy remained . we talk of the various ontological modulations or modalities. Noica discusses about an ontological model. it was the first measure of the Communist power: to annihilate the rich people. regarding the Being to be accomplished. simultaneously being contained and an orientation towards.: devenirea întru fiinţă] (such as the case with an artist—an individual—who situates himself. After 1945 the persecutions began and Noica was directly affected. Noica distinguished two modalities of becoming: a becoming regarding the Being accomplished. which is at the same time “in. which is within and towards procreation and generation).70 CRISTIAN CIOCAN the essential ground for all thinking.” and “for” (and “to”). and a becoming which failed to fulfill its Being. If the model is not saturated (through various modes of ontological failures or nonachievements). If the ontological model is saturated.

But these private philosophical sessions could not be tolerated for long by the officials. by simply making philosophy! In this time of forced domicile. We must say that this idea of resistance through culture is the fundamental idea of Noica’s attitude in front of the historical disaster he lived in. in one of his houses. He was compelled to forced domicile in Campulung. The economic elite was not the only obstacle for the Communist society. in 1958. He organized philosophical encounters with a circle of friends. at our question—how can one make philosophy without freedom?—Noica’s answer would be: well.PHILOSOPHY UNDER TOTALITARIANISM 71 unchanged: even if the political society was catastrophic. Noica and his colleagues are arrested and prosecuted. a private school of philosophy which was frequented by important Romanian intellectuals. when Noica was 40. But not even during this long period of reclusion. Consequently. but also the intellectual elite. Although he was 49 years old and having already passed . it is Hegel’s philosophy that constitutes the center of Noica’s preoccupations. because there were some “reactionary and bourgeois elements. the manuscript is intercepted by the Romanian secret services. Noica’s philosophical virus has not calmed down. in 1949. he is forced to leave Bucharest. Noica founded in 1945-46. of ten years. And if Noica was part of the intellectual elite. So. But.” as it was said in the epoch. having the certitude that only spiritual life—in which philosophy was the most important—can constitute a veritable form of resistance in front of the nothingness established by the new regime. he sent to a French publisher a manuscript containing a commentary on the Phenomenology of Mind. Three years after. In 1957. being considered as subversive. lived in a very poor material state. he was placed under strict surveillance. having an official interdiction to leave this village in the provinces.

and therefore they all enter in a scenario of cultural and philosophical pedagogy. Finally. being fifty-six years old. Noica was a singular and fascinating figure. He starts to translate and to interpret Plato. Noica works another ten years at the Institute of Logic in Bucharest. These young philosophers are much attracted by his intellectual charm and by his philosophical virtuosity. until his retirement. until the privation of all liberty. For Noica. Even if he will be always under the strict surveillance of the Securitate. While Hegel is forbidden. where he encounters some researchers from the young generation: Gabriel Liiceanu. Noica is set free and somewhat rehabilitated. Noica is allowed to come back to Bucharest and he entered the Institute of Logic as a researcher. and therefore he could hope to remake his life and his philosophical dreams. For them. and he reads Marx all along. the pre-Socratic and the Aristotelian com- . the only personality one could chose in Romania as master in philosophy. Andrei Plesu. Aristotle. because in 1965. But the game was not over. In 1965. with the occasion of the first relaxation of the Communist system. Tireless and incorrigible. these young scholars were an irresistible temptation for his vocation of cultural trainer in philosophy. Sorin Vieru or Victor Stoichita. as were all the others.72 CRISTIAN CIOCAN through ten years of forced domicile. he can however ask the permission to read Marx. And it seemed to succeed. he held some private seminars on Plato. but after a time the authorities allow him to read. he still received twenty-five years in prison. Philosophy seems to be the demon who wishes to destroy Noica’s life. Noica was of course tortured in the prison. Kant or Hegel. in the last twenty years of his life Noica benefits of a certain tolerance from the part of the Communist regime. he goes only through six years of prison.

Andrei Pleşu and Sorin Vieru—regularly pay him visits at Paltinis. the impact of this Diary is immense and the work gains a great celebrity. and German. The Diary had an enormous influence on several generations of young people. Noica became “the Phenomenon Noica” and. Noica retreats to Paltinis. even under the conditions of a political submission. was his constant answer in front of historical vicissitudes and in front of the nothingness of totalitarianism. Noica’s firm belief in philosophy.PHILOSOPHY UNDER TOTALITARIANISM 73 mentators. in a pure and intangible solitude. The Păltiniş Diary by Gabriel Liiceanu. Noica persuades his disciples to learn Greek and German. he gives them cultural tasks to carry out. a mountain village near Sibiu. now translated into English. After 1975. he makes their reading and research program. they live and work together under the direction of Noica. His disciples—precisely Gabriel Liiceanu. This adventure lasts more than a decade. in the kingdom of spirit. in cultural life and in spirit. At its publication. not only before the Fall of Communism in 1989. whose actual liberty had been confiscated for several decades by Communism. but also after this historical event. paradoxically.2 He also starts to publish his own works on his own ontological project. draws the passionate and dramatic story of this adventure. philosophy became the queen of the Romanian Culture. inspiring them with the philosophical pathos and the passion for philosophy. His resistance through culture before the desert of ideological non-sense was his surviving . assuming therefore the position of master who does everything for his disciples to reach excellence in philosophy. The liberty of spirit showed by this Diary fascinated the Romanian public. they translate and interpret classic philosophical texts. where he begins one of the most beautiful adventures that Romanian Culture has ever known. French.

therefore.74 CRISTIAN CIOCAN formula in the impossible universe where he was forced to live. Those who had the chance to meet him during the last decades of his life said that he possessed a fabulous philosophical knowledge. with its journals and its public. having a prodigious activity and an effervescence of action even during hard times. Indeed no one knew if he ever wrote anything. studying for a PhD degree in Freiburg. He constantly refused. because Dragomir never wanted to make himself known. and had an insightful and lively mind. he had a sort of aversion towards the idea of becoming a public figure. At the opposite of Noica. The case of Alexandru Dragomir starts from some different premises. Until his death in 2002. because it constitutes a modality in which philosophy was able to survive in spite of the lack of liberty. Dragomir situated himself outside any culture industry and outside any philosophical Gestell. to enter in any cultural and public enterprise. Hence he constantly refused to enter the cultural industry. that he was brilliant as a thinker. Dragomir conceived philosophy as a purely individual effort. with its modes. the Romanian model of Noica plays a remarkable role on the stage of contemporary philosophy. All that we knew of him comes from those who actually met him. and all he was interested in was understanding. congresses and . who was an essential cultural figure. It was known that back in the 1940s he had been a student of Heidegger’s. what greatly intrigued those around him was the fact that he never cared to publish a single page in his life. which seems to be in fact its necessary condition. Indeed. However. He always said that publication was of no importance to him. an episode that deserves maybe more attention. we were aware of Alexandru Dragomir only as a strange figure who moved more or less mysteriously in Romanian intellectual circles. The same as the Czech model of Jan Patočka. in a complete solitude.

He quickly understood that his relationship with Germany could be a reason for political persecution and that his philosophical endeavors might very well result in his being imprisoned. and intimate friend of Heidegger. remembers that Heidegger highly appreciated Dragomir’s sharp intelligence. Walter Biemel. He anticipated all this and understood that his life depended on being able to dissimulate his philosophical concerns and his connection with Germany. he did not want to have any contact with the official philosophical area contaminated by ideology.PHILOSOPHY UNDER TOTALITARIANISM 75 conferences. It was wartime. the famous editor of Husserl and Heidegger. .3 And when Romanian history took that terrible turn in 1945. Dragomir found himself confronted with the impossibility of continuing his studies with Heidegger. and also he did not want to adopt Noica’s formula that the proper place of philosophy is always culture. the fatal enemy of thinking. he had to join the army. Heidegger still recalled Dragomir very well and was asking for news on him. Alexandru Dragomir took part in Heidegger’s private seminars and it is said that when the discussion came to a dead-end. as the myth of Theuth at the end of Plato’s Phaedrus shows. Twenty years later. believing that writing is. Dragomir was forced to leave Freiburg and Heidegger’s seminars and to return to Romania for recruitment. Therefore. That is why he did not want to publish even a single line during his lifetime. Dragomir considered that the Socratic manner of interrogating oneself is the highest form of thinking. Heidegger used to turn towards Dragomir asking: “Well. what do the Latins say?” At the end of 1943. Although Heidegger insistently demanded that Dragomir should be allowed to continue his studies. when the end of the Second World War coincided with the Russian occupation and the establishment of Communism in Romania.

as his inconvenient political file led to frequent dismissal. The ways of Dragomir and Noica seemed for the moment much too separate.76 CRISTIAN CIOCAN He participates for a few times. And while Noica started to publish. he sent his books to Dragomir. . being always very anxious about Dragomir’s opinion on his works. in 1945-46. German. rehabilitation. Dragomir had systematically rejected his proposals. between their visions on world and philosophy. in the clandestine philosophical encounters organized by Noica in his underground philosophical school. closing himself in an insurmountable solitude. what did he do? Apparently nothing. But maybe there were profound differences between Noica and Dragomir. Dragomir never ceased to exercise his brilliant philosophical intelligence. he kept having to change his job. For decades he lived a double life: his everyday social life on one hand and his life of solitary philosophical research on the other. He finally managed to work. For in private. It might be tempting to say: “Behold a failed destiny!” But this would be far from the truth. Why? Maybe it was only a question of human psychology. He continued to work upon the fundamental texts of philosophy in Greek. After 1965. French and English. after Noica’s release from prison. Dragomir worked variously as a welder. between their manners of understanding oneself in front of the totalitarian universe beginning to impose itself everywhere. a vendor. Nothing related to philosophy. prison. a clerk or an accountant. until his retirement in 1976. but he is not very convinced. Latin. We know already what Noica’s trajectory was: forced domicile. as an economist in a company exporting timber. he and Dragomir have evidently met. Continuously covering the traces of his past. because it might be difficult to accept Noica as master after two years in discussion with Heidegger. In spite of Noica’s efforts to win Dragomir as a collaborator for his philosophical projects. But Dragomir.

were so amazed at his performances of philosophical virtuosity. on how things get worn out. One can find texts on the mirror.PHILOSOPHY UNDER TOTALITARIANISM 77 It is said that Noica feared of Dragomir’s very exigent lecture and extremely severe his judgment. Dragomir could have remained for ever a brilliant Socratic spirit. on waking up in the morning. and very precise and insightful philosophical descriptions. Dragomir’s interlocutors. commentaries on classic philosophical texts. Most of these texts are phenomenological microanalyses or subtle and incisive clarifications of various concrete aspects of the world in which we live. to some extent. without a real. And what is even more important. on the spectrum of ugly and disgusting things. i. more than one hundred notebooks were found in his apartment. as the hidden king of Romanian philosophy. It is said even that Noica has re-written his Treatise of Ontology after the numerous critical comments by Dragomir. on error. Dragomir remained unwilling to write and publish. Dragomir’s name started to spread. At that time. thus saving his name from total oblivion. Andrei Plesu. with Gabriel Liiceanu. transmissible philosophical work.e. already well-known Romanian cultural personalities. Even when the political climate became. After 1985. Sorin Vieru and other prominent Romanian intellectuals as audience. on forgetfulness. that they started recording and taking extended notes of his lectures. containing notes. he agreed to make a “compromise” regarding the absolute silence of his philosophical activity: he decided to hold several private lectures and seminars. It is probably thanks only to this breach that we are able to speak today of Dragomir. more permissive. But soon after his death in 2002. on making . however. essays of phenomenological research and analysis. on attention. many of them are original texts which have turned him from a legend or a mythical figure of Romanian philosophy into a philosopher whose work can be transmitted and shared. in spite of all the proposals he received.

on making distinctions among things. Dragomir is an unique case of philosophical rectitude. . on writing and speaking. while the last notebooks date from the 1980s and ’90s. even if so many things are so divergent concretely. Even more radical than Noica. within the most concrete experiences we deal with daily. It may be that this book on time will prove to represent Dragomir’s most important work. Utter Metaphysical Banalities. in which Dragomir thematically and systematically pursued the problem of time over a period of several decades: the first notebook dates from 1948 and contains many notes written directly in German. The Humanitas Publishing House has already published three volumes. So. to our question—can one make philosophy without freedom?—Dragomir’s answer’s is similar to Noica’s. within those aspects which we deem to be the most self-evident and implicit. His genius was to discover within the banality of the everyday events of our lives. on being unique. While I know of no other comparable philosophical destiny. Five Departures from the Present and The Time Notebooks. as though Dragomir watched the diversity of the world through his acute phenomenological lens. which he then analyzed with a fascinating sharpness. because it manifests the intrinsic vital value that philosophy has. After the crucial discovery of his notebooks. I believe that his life deserves to be known. even in the worst times of history. and so on. who was himself a champion of philosophical tenacity. for the sole purpose of his own desire to understand. Yet one topic remains constant: there are several notebooks. called Chronos. it was possible to start recovering his work.78 CRISTIAN CIOCAN mistakes. Dragomir lived his philosophical life in such a vivid way that no totalitarian regime could stop him. There are very different and heterogeneous topics. the profound layers of meaning and fundamental significance.

He directs also the first complete edition of Plato’s works in Romanian. More information about the Romanian Philosophy can be found at www. Latin and German. Noica translates Porphyry. CEU Press. Biemel and Dragomir have translated together the conference Was ist Metaphysik? And they proposed the translation to a Romanian publishing house. Unfortunately. Walter Biemel served himself as Heidegger translator in French. who was German by his birth. After this unfortunate start in Romanian. but Romanian by his education. we refer to the book of Gabriel Liiceanu. Under his guidance the first systematical translations from Heidegger begin.ro. 2 3 . In 1943. Budapest and New York. Biemel has already published in a Bucharest journal some fragments from a Heidegger translation. Heidegger was persona non grata… The translation was published 13 years later. their proposition was refused. having done his studies in Brasov and Bucharest. 2/2003.romanian-philosophy.PHILOSOPHY UNDER TOTALITARIANISM 79 Endnotes 1 For the life of Noica. in a journal of Romanian Diaspora in Paris. translating with Alphonse de Waelhens De l’essence de la vérité (1948) and Kant et le problème de la métaphysique (1953). 2001 and to the articles of our colleagues Laura Pamfil and Sorin Lavric in the electronic journal Arguments vol. Dexippus and Ammonius. The Paltinis Diary: A Paideic Model in Humanist Culture. in 1956. he forms translator teams from Greek. Dragomir was intimate friend with Biemel. because of political reasons: in a Romania occupied by the German Army.

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