Archive Fever

Uses of the Document in Contemporary Art

Okwui Enwezor


Center of Photography,

New York Steidl

Oi rector's

Fa rewo rd

Photography's sheer ubiquity has shaped collective memory of social and cultural experiences to a degree that pictures can often appear to function as a substitute for the experiences themselves. Those born after the Civil Rights movement experience the dogs and hoses trained on African camps have powerfully Americans by police in Birmingham through Charles Moore's famous photographs for Life magazine. Photographs and film footage of Allied soldiers liberating the concentration shaped our sensa of the Holocaust. Tapping into this collective visual memory, the artists presented in Archive Fever; Uses of the Document in Contemporary Art mediate and interrogate such visceral and loaded photographs, posing a ranqe of questions and dilemmas about how we reconstruct and interpret the past. These works question the assumption that the photographic archive is a collection of "objective" documents and suggests how they shape our consciousness power. Archive Fever asks us to reevahrats the accuracy of seemingly straightforward "document," "photographic." photo-based clude film and video, but also sculptural interpretations, terms: "archival," The works presented here stretch the definitions of photography to inlarge-scale installations, and hand-drawn and function as tools of

work. Expanding boundaries is a particular domain of the organizer of Archive Fever, An internationally renowned curator of contemporary art and Adjunct Curator at ICP, to the gbbal scope of ICP's exhibition programs,

o kwu ilEnwezor.

Mr. Enwezor has made an immense contribution

beginning in 200<6 with his Snap Judgments.: Contemporary Issues in African Photography. An exhibition as ambitious as Archive Fever would not be possible without the commitment of many organizations and individuals. For their generous lead support, I wish to express my deepest appreciation to' the lOP Exhibitions Committee, and to Robert and Gayle Greenhill and Jeffrey A and Mar~orli,e G. Rosen. We are grateful also to the New York City Department of Cultural. Affairs for supporting this exhibition and its public programs, and to Robert and Meryl Meltzer, Artur Walther, and the ICP Publications Committee for their essential support. Additional funding was contributed by the British Council and the Cultural Services of the French Embassy. We thank these generous individuals and agencies for enablinq us to bring this ambitious project to fruition. I would also like to acknowledge the contributions of the many dedicated individuals who brought this complex project ito completion. They include Brian Wallis, ICP Director of Exhibitions and Chief Curator; Assistant Curator Vanessa Rocco, who played an important role in coordinating the exhibition; researcher James Thomas and interns Marilia Fernandes and Yulia Tikhonova, who provided invaluable assistance with myriad details of the exhibition and publication. I wish to express my gratitude to Philomena Mariani, Director of Publications, who supervised the preparation of the catalogue; Elizabeth Van Meter, Publications Assistant; and our publications partner Gerhard Steidl, designers

Bernard Fischer and Julia Melzner, and the entire staff at Steidl Publishing. I also wish to thank Registrar Barbara Woytowicz; Todd McDaniel1and Maanik Singh of the production staff for tlneir work on the exhibition; and Alicia Cheng and her colleaques at mgmt design, who expertly designed the exhibition installation and its accompanying graphics. Finally, I wish 10 extend my deepest thanks to the artists partlcipatinq in Archive Fever. Their works illuminate the workinqs of history, memory, mourning, and loss in these complex times. Wiillis E. Hartshorn

Ehrenkranz Director



An exhibition of this scope is realized with the assistance of persons

numerous to recount, but

I will try. At ~CP, I thank Willis Hartshorn, Ehrenkranz Director, for his trust and commitment to the projects on which I have worked at the museum. Likewise, I note with immense gratitude the pleasure of working with Brian Wallis, Director of Exhibitions and Chief Curator; I thank him for his unwavering support in this and all my projects. As, always, Brian's critical judgment and insight have proved invaluable. Arthur Walther and Meryl Meltzer, co-chairs of the Exhibitions Committee, provided the support and enthusiasm that allowed this project to move forward. Vanessa Rocco, Assistant Curator, has been a wonderful partner, mana.ging all aspects of this exhibition from its inception. I thank her for her collaboration. James Thomas, Researcher, has been invaluable in several projects on which he has worked with me; for Archive Fever, Ihe has more than exceeded the requirements of his task. Karen Hansgen and Philomena Mariani have .steered the publication beautifuilly; I am deeply indebted to their commitment Phil has my special gratitude for her unstinting editorial riqor and accommodation. I thank Deputy Director Evan Kingsley and his development team for their many efforts and I thank Phyllis Levine, Director of Communications, for her wisdom and advice. I also thank Suzanne Nicholas for her education programming. Todd McDaniel, Maanik Singh, and Barbara Woytowicz worked tirelessly to produce the exhibition, as has Alicia Cheng and her colleagues at mgmt design. Deirdre Donohue, Librarian, is always helpful in providing resources, and project interns Marilla Fernandes and Yulia Tiikhonova added crucial research and organizational support. I also thank my ICIP calleagues Christopher Phillips" Edward Earle, Carol Squiers, and Kristen Lubben. For their invaluable assistance, I thank the following: Marian Goodman, Lissa McClure, Catherine Belloy, Karina Dashkalov, Rose Lord, and Hannah Klemm of the Marian Goodman Gallery, New York; David Zwirner, Angela Choon, Cameron Shaw, and Jessica Eckert of David Zwirner Gailiery, New York; Mari Spirito, Barbara Corti, and Simon Greenberg of 303 Gallery, New York; Dirk Snauwaert, Wiels, Brussels: Michelle Reyes, Felix Gonzalez-Tones Foundation, New York; Deborah Wye and Emily Talbot, Museum of Modem Art, New York; Paula Cooper, Steve Henry, and Sarah Baron of Paula Cooper Gallery, New York; Matthew Gale and Catherine Clement, Tate Modern, London; Charlotte Schepke and Samantha Swan, Frith Street Gallery, london: Barbara Gladstone and Miciah Hussey, Barbara Gladstone Gallery, New York; Alex Galan, D.A.P., New York; Elizabeth Sussman and Anita Duquette, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York; Jenny Grondin, Tracy Williams Ltd., New York; Jocelyn Davis, Zoe Leonard Studio; Abaseh Mirvali and Michel Blancsube, Jurnex Collection, Mexico City; Nancy Spector, Jodi Myers, and Kim Bush, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York; Martine d'Anglejan-Chatilion and Xan Price, Sonnabend and Francois Chantala, Thomas Dane Gallery, London; Antonio Homem Gallery, New York; Vicki Gambill, Tile Broad Art Foundation, Santa New York; Suhanya

Monica; Mia Narell, Lorna Simpson Studiio; Esa Epstein, Sepia International,

South Brisba-ne. Peter MacGil1 and Kimberly Jones. Armelle Laborie. especially Chris Bratton. It has been ideas. von Brachel. sister Rita EnwezorUdorji. all the more so. Pace/MacGm. Malcolm Daniel. and Angela Smith Domzal. I would like to thank my mother Bernadette Enwezor. the artists are the reason why exhibitions happen. and Terry Smith for their continued support. Carlos Basualdo. 011 a personal note. Antje Ehmann. This book is dedicated my privilege to work with this diverse group of artists. Stef Momenta!. Daniel Faust. Queensland Art Gallery. whose philanthropic vision left behind a legacy of generosity and support for curators and artists . Douglas Eklund. Museum of Contemporary Art. Tom Sokolowski. As always. power. and work I extend my gratitude to all! of them for their inspiration.Raffe~. and Heather Kowalski at The Andy Warhol Museum.. Salah Hassan. New York. Okwui Enwezor December 2007 . and complexity of their visions. New York. Wachovia. Chicago. and Ron Eijkman. Philadelphia Museum of Art. to my daughter Uchenna Soraya Enwezor. I want to thank my colleagues at San Francisco Art Institute. Lea Green. and Julie Zeftel at lhe de Belder Metropolitan Greg Burchard. Francesco Bonami. Muna EI Fituri. Jennifer Rissler. and friends and colleagues Chika Okeke-Agulu. Pittsburgh. and to the memory of Linda Pace. Lucy Museum of Art. Australia. and Ma'ggie Moffitt. who continues to delight and inspire me. for the beauty. Jennifer Stein.

The standard view of the archive oftentimes evokes a dim. but they are grouped toqether in distinct figures. tices=photcqraphy and film-are interpreted. The principal vehicles of these artistic pracalso preeminent forms of archival material." Every photographic record has manifested "the appearance of a statement as a unique image has been endow~d with this principle of uniqueness. The capacity for mechanical inscription and the order of direct reference that links the photograph with the indisputable fact of its subject's existence are the bedrock of photography and fillm. The exhibition eng. as it were. -Michel Foucault" No single definition can convey the complexities of a concept like the archive such as are contained in Foucault's ruminations on the subject.Archive Fever: Photography Between History and the Monument Okwui Enwezor The. nor are they inscribed in an unbroken linearity. an inert repository of historical artifacts against the archive as an active. Photography and the Archive.ages with various modes of artistic production in which the traffic in photographic and filmic documents is not simply emblematic of the development of a vast mass-media enterprise. nor do they disappear at the mercy of chance external accidents. regulatory discursive system. maintained or blurred in accordance with specific regularities. Rather. and shelves laden with old documents. It is this latter formulation of the archive that has engaged the attention of so many contemporary artists in recent years. it delves into critical transactions predicated on open:ing up new pictorial and historiographic experiences against the exactitude of the photographic trace. like stars.archive is first the law of what can be said. But the archive is also that which determines that all these things said do not mulateendlessly aCGU- in an amorphous mass. but shine. reconfigured. the ability to establish dis- . that which determines that they do not withdraw at the same pace in time. Within that principle lies the kernel of the idea of the photoqraph as an archival record. filing cabinets. musty place fuH of drawers. What are the aesthetic and historical issues that govern photography's relation to the archive? From its inception. Archive Fever explores the ways in which artists have appropriated. The capacity for accurate description. the photographic event. and interrogated archival structures and archival materials. while others that are in fact close to us ar'€lalready growing pale. some that seem close to us shining briglhtly from far off. composed together in accordance with multiple relations. the system that governs the appearance of statements as unique events. as an analogue of a substantiated real or putative fact present in nature.

entertainment. The desire to make a photograph" to document an event. a "burning with desire" to transpose nature into a pictorial fact. to compose statements as unique events. every priori an archival object. His reflections took up more than the question of aura. Since Kodak's invention of commercial processing capacity at the end of the nineteenth century.. documents and pictorial testimonies of the existence of a recorded fact. an excess of the seen. fashion. Mitchell's notion of "the surplus value of imaqes. the photographic analogue derived from the negative has not only generated an endless stream of faithful reproductions-calling originality on which the pictorial aura of' hand-fashioned into question the foundational claims of images depended-it also set the entire world into an archival system. propaqanda.. the processes of permanent initiated an archival formation that would overtake all relations to the photographic and distribution digiitall archivization and inscription. Because eye/hand coordination organized by the camera gave reality a different look. a trul!y archival image.nstitutional. and cultural purposes=-qovemmental personal commemoration. The advent of mechanical and. he was concerned with how the shift from the hand-fashioned image to the mechanically produced and infinitely reproducible imaqe manifests.3 Many other desires soon followed. This archival madness. they would encapsulate the entire mode IOf thinking the world framed within a picture. T. image and statement. and consequently succinctly expressed in a letter written by Louis Daguerre to his business partner Nicephore Niepce: "I am burning with desire to see your experiments from nature. Photography is simultaneously the documentary €"Iidence and the archival record of such transactions. The traffic in the photographic the surplus value that an image can generate. The infinitely reproducible'. photograph. becomes. dupl. have come to define the terms of archival production proper to the language of those mechanical mediums. When Walter Benjamin published his essay on art? in the 1930s. industrial. the photographic image has become an object of bornplex fascination and thus appropriated for myradvertising. whether a still picture or a moving image. each of which give new phenornenoloqical account of the world as image."" in which the photograph also enters the world of the commodity. archive rests on the assumption of . These uses make photography and film critical instru- ments of archival modernity.Enwezor 12 tinct relations of time and event.icatable image. derived from a negative or digital camera. This change of artistic and pictorial parameters became a specific reproduction record: the systems of production phenomenon of modernity. is directly related to the aspiration to produce an archive. photography had been in use for a century. J. a sihin not only indexical but temporal. This is the fundamental reason why photography and film are often archival records. Accordinqly iad . is of users into a feverish pace of pictorial generation and accumulation. every film is a Because the camera is literally all archiving machine. and would 'go beyond nature. art. The character of this archive is captured in W. over time. more recently. a wholly new mode of pictorial distribution. in the realm of its mechanical reproduction or diqital distribution or multiple projection. tlhe liberation of the hand from image making had a deep impact on questions of cognition and action.

Projects such as Atlas. however. Duchamp appeared to have been grappJing with a dilemma. on the historical coherence practices. valise (1935~41 archive is one of the many ways in which archival production has been developed within the context of art. have always seemed to conflict with the avant-qarde's self-perception as providing instantaneous presence. According copies of eagles and associated objects positioned his archive not in a. chronologies. By faithfully creating reproductions photographic facsimiles. It is the general system of the formation and transformation of ststements=s? d~rt Decades later. and temporal continuities _. Marcel Duchamp's miniaturization of his entire corpus into a deluxe edition of orqanized and codified in an archival system cum mobile museum titled La bette-en- ). and the various taxonomies that gov0-1 his works that approximate for their organization and and at the same time creating the conditions reception as an oeuvre and an archive.. Form The photographic reproductions. Department (1968). Broodthaera's tion of photographic homogeneous Broodthaers's unity but in a field of nonhierarchical heterogeneity.. images.11 La botte-en-vslise is not only a sly critique of the museum as institution and the artwork as artifact. as a site of reflection on the prodigious output of historical artifacts. shock. there has existed a fascination within art with the procedures of the museum as archive. he notes. of photocondition_14 compendium gambit ushered in what she terms the post-medium Writing about Gerhard Richter's Atlas (1964-pres€nt).. one which placed his works "between tradition and oblivion. and aspiration toward of such with its seemingly infinite multiplicity. loqic of to Rosalind Krauss. "15 Buchloh casts doubt. such a system was amplified des AigJes by Marcel Broodthaers in his Musee Modeme." to borrow an apt phrase from Foucault.EnWHzor 14 Archive as."16and concluding that "the didactic and mnemonic [racing of historical processes. it is fundamentally also about form and concept.9 is certainly not the first 0"1 such programmatic engagements of the work of art as 10 archive. the establishment of typologies. have "taken as the principles of a given work's formal organization conjunction comprehensive totality . tiviza1ion-an an open-ended graphic panels and tableaux initiated by the artist as a reflection on the relationship between the phoBenjamin Buchloh implicitly recognizes that the principle of collecbeen integral to photography's disciimportant function of museums and archives-has photography's plinary method from its inception.13 If the framework for endless Itera- Duchamp's box is the myth of a coherent monoqraphie artistic identity. tographic and historiographic.. ern their relationship to one another. innate structural order (its condition as archive) in capacity for serialization. Ever since he fashioned this ur-museum in a suitcase. labeling them "unclassifiable within the typology and terminology of avant-qarde art histo- rY. as "it reveals the rules of a practice that enable statements both to survive and to underqo regular modification."!? 8uchloh argues that Richter's Atlas inherited the conditions of this archival impasse: . but it remains one of the most rigorous. and perceptual' rupture.

Marcel Ducharnp. Paris I Succession Marcel Duchamp . La bOlte-en-valise. and orne"original" (Large Glass. New York I ADAGP. collotype on celluloid) (69 items) Overall: 16 x 15 x 4in. and color reproductions of works by Duchamp. 1935-41 Leather valise containing miniature replicas. photographs.6 x 38.1 x 10.2 em) © 2007 Artists Rights Socieiy (ARS). (40.

its reality-through a series of designs that unite structure by and function. and in tts presence it is unavoidable . . the theory both of the law which begins by inscribing iltself there and of the right which authorizes it'''n The archive achieves its authority and quali-ty of veracity. that the Atlas might give. and annotation of knowledqe and information could also be understood as a representative historical form. as such. "1 9 From the above we can establish that the archive is a compe-nsation (in the psychoanalytic sense) of the unwieldy. disappearance. The archive as a representation 0] the taxonomy.. The archive cannot be described in its totality. the logic of Atlas iis impeded by the impossibility of assigning a singular rationality to its existence as a unity: "Atlas hovers. the discursive order of this photographic documentary photoqraphy. since it is that which gives to what we can say-and to itself.. then. the ability to do so is often superceded by concerns governing the disjunction between systems and methods. that is to say. she writes. that the archive of a society. no doubt.' identified either 'With the private album of the amateur or with the cumulative projects of B Inasmuch as any sensibility may wish to impose a restrictive order on the archive. these rules that we speak. its evidentiary function. a journey through time and space." which "muat include the theory of . one whose methodoloqical the statements. since it is from within.21 How is the validity of statements posited in an archive to be judged? For Jacques Derrida." . On the other hand. "between the promise of taxonomic It order as divulged in the archive and the total devastation of that promise .tements. tabulated. however encompassing apparatus does not set "a condition of validity for judgements. institutionalization.It emerges in fragments.. or a civilization cannot be described exhaustively: or even. it is not possible for us to describe our own archive..Enwezor 16 Yet. diachronic state of photography and. statements acquire leglitimacy through "a science of the archive. its forms of existence and coexistence. and interpretive power-s-in short. and organized form of representation may appear. at the same time. which Foucault designates as a historical a priori. but a condition of reality for sta. regions. . a culture."20 Whatever its accumulated. defined as a field of archaeological inquiry. According to Lynne Cooke. exists as a representational form of the ungainly dispersion and pictorial multiplicity of the photograph. it is also true. indexed. the descriptive terms and 'genres from the more specialized history of photoqraphy-eall of them operative in one way or another in Richter's Atlas-appear Despite the first impression collection cannot be equally inadequate to classify these image accumulations. as Foucault notes. classification. The archival structure defines what Oerrida calls the principle of "domiciliation. the object of our discourse-its modes of appearance. historicity. . . levels. the archive of a whole period. its system of accumulation.

Gerhard Richter, Atlas, 1964-,

installation views, Oi a Genter for the Arts, New York, l' 995 Courtesy Dia Center for the Arts Photo: Cathy Carver

... - -..... ._- :;::'':::




which the institutional form is achieved, me archive as a physical entity is manifested in a concrete domain: "The dwelling, this place where they dwell permanently ... existence, the process 0"1 domiciliation, calls this function "consignation, cation, of identification,

He compares this condition of

to a house arrest.P' The archival form is fundamental to the

archive's ability to create the "condition of validity of judgements" (Foucault) to be undertaken. Derrida

the task through which the archive conducts "the functions of unifi"25

of classification,

and so on. However; consignation

is to be understood in

terms that "do not only mean, in the ordinary sense of the word, the act of ass,igning residence or of entrusting so as to put into reserve (to consign, to deposit), in a place and on a substrate, but here the act of consigning throuqh gathering together signs."26 The very activity of consiqnation, unity of an ideal configuration."27 The terms of reference for lDuchamp's La. boite-en-velise, Brooothaers's
Musee d'Art Moderne,


"aims to coordinate a single corpus, in a system or a synchrony in which all the elements articulate the

Department des Aigles, and Richter's Atlas correspond precisely to both Foucault's and Derrida's different takes on the archive. The portable box in which Ducharnp organized his then-extant works as reproductions, consignation

orthe heterogeneity of Broodthaers's

curatorial arrangement, or Richter's perpetual and

commentary on photography

as a mnemonic object, become and form a logic of domiciliation

(gathering topether signs that designate the artist's oeuvre), as well as a condition of

reality of the statements of each of the individual works, the narrative it has to convey, the a priori archive of the artist's practice. Such methods conform to what Hal Foster identifies as the "archival impulse"28 that suffuses current artistic practice. Artists interrogate the self-evidentiary archive by reading principles claims of the

it against the grain. This interrogation may take aim at the structural and functional

underlying the use of tile archival document, or it may result in 'the creation of another

archival structure as a means of establishing an archaeological relationship to history, evidence, information, and data that wiill give rise to its own interpretive cateqories.P?

InteIHgence Failure I Archival Disappointment Permit me to recall an important moment in recent history: the frantic search for evidence of Iraq's weapons of mass destruction (WMD) undertaken by a coterie of United Nations investigators in the months leading up to the Iraq War in 2003. The scramble to find the weapons included a search through the Iraqi archives for documents containing evidence of a weapons system's many components: designs, bills of procurement, budding plans, site maps, photographs of laboratories. The Iraqi administration presented the inspectors with volumes ol documentation, mantle the operational capacity 10 build an arsenal of future destruction. reams of paper, a mountain Meanwhile, the U.S. wanted of information showing the initial attempts to constitute a weapons program and later efforts to dis-

to retain exclusive hermeneutic authority over any "intelliqence": if the "intelligence" accorded with the U.S. view, then it fulfilled and consolidated the' Bush administration's. claims; if it contradicted those claims, the burden of provinq the negative rested on the other side. We witnessed this catch-22 in relation to both the United Nations inspectors led by Hans Bllix and the International Atomic Energy Agency officials, who were all but accused of being agents. of Iraqi dieinformaticn/'? administration's "slam dunk,,31 theory of an a priori indisputable fact-the As the Bush existence of WMD-unrav-

eled, it attempted (without success) ito bolster the moral imperative behind its threats to invade Iraq. We now know the full extent of the fraudulence of U.S. and British intelligence (truth) olairns.F The calculated manufacture of "intelligence" to fit the policy of Iraq's invasion disturbs the integrity of and confidence in the archive as a site of historical recall, as the organ through which we come to know what has been, that is to say, the raw material constituting read, verify, and recognize the past. The manipulation of evidence to justify war underscores the imperatives of modern intelliigence gathering as a fundamental drive toward acquisition and control of information and comprehensive knowledge. Of course, the idea of an empire that sees "intelligence" as the total mastery and domination of an adversary through its superior power oif clairvoyance' is not new, Thomas Richards, author of The Imperial Archive, locate's the origins of this archival impulse in nineteen'lh-century Victorian England, during the heyday of British imperialism. Induced into a fever of knowledge accumulation and intelligence gathering, the Victorian archival industry began a process whereby information concerning the known world was synchronized and unified.33 With the establishment of institutions such as the Royal Geogwaphical SOCiety, the Royal Photographic Society, the British MlJseum, and the Colonial Office, Victorian Britain initiated one of the most prodigious archive-making periods in modern history, Although it was an empire of vast territories, patrolled by mighty naval fleets and army regiments, imperial Britain was above alii founded on the production of paper, assorted documents, and images, all of which spawned other documents, along with the systems organizingl them and the rules for distributing their content. The process of archival synchronization and unification was accomplished by reconciling specific forms of discrete, quantifiable, and tested knowledge (positive knowledge) into universal principles of aggregated data. As Richards points out, the objectives of such unification were attended by ideological manipulation: "Unawares, the archival gaze has combined the triple register of inquiry, measure and examination to prepare data to be acted upon by the variable modalities of power."34 Overseeing this immense accumulation of data-photographs! taxonomies, classifications: the Western gaze-was images, maps; surveys, intelligence, the imperial periscopic eye. It that is, to imperial ambition and Oerrida's "science of the archive"-was knowledge and a reference in which to

was in this era that the impenetrable territory of Tibet-impenetrable,

mapped. In the absence of reliable maps of the Himalayan territory, and

unable to send British surveyors into Tibet, the British India Survey resorted to an ingenious plan



devised by one Major Thomas G. Montgomerie, and mapping of Tibet would be conducted dit spies from the Indian Himalayas. grims travelinq Hopkirk precision: through Tibet, compiled Beginning detailed

a member of the Royal Engineers around 1865, the pundits, statistics disguised

Corps: the survey as Buddhist pil-

with "native 8xplorers,"35 actually a network of Hindu punand measurements of their journey. Peter

traces this story of daring archival espionage

that may equal Google Maps for its pinpoint


first trained his men, through

exhaustive practice,

10 take a pace of known or on the level.

length which would remain constant

whether they walked uphill, downhill them to measure suspicion.

Next he taught them ways of a precise but discreet paces taken during a day's march. This enabled with remarkable pilqrirns, accuracy and without arousing Buddhist

count of the number of such immense distances they traveled as Often

many of whom regularly crossed

the passes to visit the holy sites of which he spun as he walked, convenient 100 ..At the circuit of had some-

the ancient Silk Road, Every Buddhist Both of these Montgomerie beads, not enough to hundredth

carried a rosary of 108 beads on which to count From the former he removed eight

his prayers, and also a small wood and metal prayer-wheel turned 10 his advantage.

be noticed, but leavinq a mathematically
10,000 paces. with any other discreet

pace the Pundit would automatically

slip one bead. Each complete observations,

the rosary thus represented

The total' for the day's march, together how to be logged somewhere with its copper hand-written of a compass, Montgomerie cylinder,

safe from prying eyes .. It was here that the prayer-wheel, in this, fn place of the usual which

proved invalluable. For concealed

scroll of prayers, was a roll of blank paper. This served as a log-book, for the Pundit decided was required altitudes, to take regular bearings were hidden

could easily be go1 at by removing the top of the cylinder ... Then there was the problem as he journeyed. Thermometers, to conceal this in the lid of the prayer-wheel. an artificial

which were needed

for calculatinq for setting

in the tops of the pilgrims'

staves. Mercury, essential

horizon when taking sextant readings,

was hidden in cowrie shells .... "35

This arduous operation, undertaken such knowledge trol. Constructing ata distance."38 "classified"

in which archive making Was subtendsd insatiable appetite "classified,"37 of knowledge

by the principles


was coninto

in service to the empire's had to be compiled, these "paradigms

for knowledge

of the unknown,

Beyond that,

unified, and submitted

to tools of regulatory

... seemed to solve the problem at imperial control of the state. "39

By the turn of the century, the details of the Tibet archive had been transformed

information "placed under the jurisdiction

"4o The archival construction of Tibet. The artists presented here are flat concerned simply with accumulation. or knowledge is today a pervasive method of regulatory control of the archive. From that. the "pure fantasy" of an intelligence agent.S. for instance. data-are are we· not reminded of how deeply embedded the processes of archival production are in the modern state form? For the qathernothing more than the obsessive Archive as Medium The artworks that comprise this exhibition represent some of the most challenging interpretive.ccordingly the imperial archival system positioned "itself not as the supplement of power but as its replacement. This is the proper context in which to read the battle over archival information between the U. They are also motivated by a process described by Foucault as a "tracing-back to the original precursors. accurately. allows some aspects of its spatial modeling to be public while others are suppressed in the interest of national security. the "great game" of imperial expansion was an acquisitive glame of spatial dominance but one invested with the superior capacity to control the flow of information through the archive. Richards cites Rudyard Kipling's novel power and authority-vas Kim-a book ordered around the pursuit of classified knowledge and an example of the obsession with correlating national security. generation. The document supporting Powell's claim was soon revealed to be a forgery. and to excise from public view archive material it deemed too sensitive. and probing examples of contemporary art's confrontation with and examination of the historical legacy of archival production. analytical. In this story of archives and counter-archives. Let us recall another episode in that spectacle of archival disinformation: when then-U. or describing images.Classifying information. began as a work of map making and geography linked to espionage and intelligence gathering."41 Here we witness firsthand . data. and the Iraqi government arbitrated by the United Nations. though they surely do engage these practices.S. Knowledge was equated with national security. towards the search for a new type of rationality and its various effects. Secretary of State Colin Powell announced that a document obtained by British intelligence and in the possession of American officials showed indisputably that the Iraqi regime was actively seeking to buy "yellow cake" uranium from the African nation of Niger. And this control over the flow of informa1ion is strengthened by other networks of archival manipulation or data. Google Earth. the intimate knowledge gained of this dosed society. interpretinq. that became the paramount legacy of imperial archive making. an information society was created. sorting. Tibet is but one of many examples of the attempt to construct an empire of archival knowledpe as part of the regime of national security. ing and interpretation of intelligence-more principle of archival formation. a. But it was the foundational principle of the state's power to monopolize knowledge. Throughout the nineteenth century.

And it came to determine the status of the documentary apparatus. and the ways in which they are arrayed before us. The aim is not to produce a theory of the archive but to show the ways in which archival documents. we experience firsthand their effects.q. the mode by which many came to know. and artistic models become historicizing constructs.the resilience of the archive as both form and medium in contemporary art. curatorial. Foster writes that the early modernist uses of the photographic index and the archival attributes they establish between public and private. and temporal principles that each undertakes. were "even more variously active in the postwar period. critique and analysis. archive and trauma. power and subordination. archive and ethnography. As many historians have argued. archive and public intorrnation. particularly in some of the formats of the early avant-garde in Russia and Germany between the world wars. The variety and range of archival methods and artistic forms. between documentation and commentary.." Hal Foster elaborates on the Iiong history of archivizatiion as a structural mode of organizing the proliferating images of photographic media.. In his essay "An Archival Impulse. the principle of the archival was anticipated by the regulative order of the photo'graphic dispersal throuqh mass media.42 These various modes of deployinq appropriated images and using photographic documentation to inform the principle of the artwork were largely what gave rise to the conceptuall system of archival photography. and much more inform and infuse the practices of contemporary artists. and feminist art). so that in the works. through documentation. The "archival impulse" has animated modern art since the invention of photography. the projection of the social imagination into sites of testimony.Enwezor 22 how archival legacies become transformed into aesthetic principles. varied actions or performances of contemporary art that relied on the archival reproductions of the artistic event or action.P Without the photographic or filmic . This dispersal had ideological implications. Archive Fever does not simply organize for the viewer the visual effects of the archival form or medium. information glathering. the mediatory structures that underpin the artists' mnemonic strateqies in their use of the archive. a world of practices staged as much for itself as for the carnera. point to. the photofiles of Rodchenl<o and photomontages of Heartfield. institutional critique. In the works. Nor is its central preoccupation with assessing the cleverness of the critiques of archival truth inherent in some of the examples presented here. for instance. Taking us 'into the era of Richter'S generation. and the conceptual. the invention of counter-archives and thus counter-narratives. These are some of the issues this exhibition seeks to illuminate. data-driven visual analysis. in the pinboard aesthetic of the Independent Group. and the informational structures of Conceptuall art. archive and time. Mass media enabled the public manipulation of photography. witnessing. archive and identity. especially as appropriated images and serial formats became common idioms (e.. the contradictions of master narratives. we are confronted with relationships between archive and memory. remediated representations hom Robert Rauschenberg through Richard Prince. especially with regard to forms of propaganda.

. According Much of the photographic document and monument. The issue grappled art address Fever's ref- the urqency of visual information much the artist's employment in the age of mechanical with here is not so to images or instruof of archival logic but. what men tions stand as 1wo separate systems. are examples of an this kind... such as the emblematic action and its archival photographic the photographic document . Working with a large-format camera. in some cases. history is now trying to define within the documentary series. a fundamental question persists: it concems in themselves. But this relationship 1101 past event and its document. he claims. he traveled to pre-Solidarity antiheroic trial city of Krakow. Richard were only possible the work of Ana Mend~eta. cal as well as analytical the users and receivers. theatrically . then in the throes of industrial ing a series of ponderous decline and Ilabor agitation. In an illuminating "burning desire" behind some of these types of archivization. this relationship much so. that "in our time. Durational pieces that rely on recording Fulton. such as of Long. typollogical. other than what they actoally say between temporality and the is a prevalent one. unique artistic production to Foucault. There he began shoot- and. totalities. Here. We are fundamentally and archaeological readings in the digital arena-as taxonomnew historicaptures the of visual data in infinite calibrations with the overlay of the iconographic.record of events or performances. In others.. not merely a record of it. transform them into documents. but the exhibition also extends in which the formats of contemporary reproduction. is the physical work and its citaobject or event. ic. and Gabriel would not have existed. between and temporalito the indusphotographs around the governing relationship ty. "The which it tries to reconstitute is no longer for history an inert material through material itself unities. Foucault means by which artists derive and generate of the archive. between representation. "46 are often not verbal.v'" Documents into Monuments: Archives as Meditations on Time45 The enumeration erential sources. depended inscription the condition of reality on which their received effect as works of art or documentation. passage. relations. in which artists undertake to '''memorize' and lend speech to those traces which. the artist's relationship sharing.. the events of which only the trace remains. document trace. investigations. is one of Archive beyond it. the object and its past. simply the act of citing a preexisting is a replacement of the object or event. and recombining concerned ments of mass culture or media in which the archival is sought out-especially part of a broad culture of sampling. whose activities throuqh the medium of photographic work of Robert Smithson. or which say in silence something the relationship image. rather. so monuments of the past. specifically black-and-white and exists in these splices of time and image. history is that which transforms of Craigie Horsfield Horsfield In the late 1970s. indexical. of these various archival registers. commenced documents lnto monutnents+t? ollie of the most sustained photography Poland. have done or said. or. Hamish Orozco. rather.

that Well Street. each staring so intently at the camera that it appears they were themselves witnesses in such a way that the background With their stern. The second print of a reclining female nude. Horsfield insists on the viewer's ability 10 decipher the' denotative aspect of the Overture-presented here that captures the archival of time. he calls our attention to the importance of the image. solemn. tonal contrasts around the shadowed. stubborn E. the caption indicates the exact date of its making. In this rich black-and-white As with many of Horsfield's in the consideration Horsfield's photographs. again. photobetween image as a literal archive of time. exemplary of Horsfield's of employment of photographic of the photographic portraiture" approach as the weight of time. materialist photographic medium of the archive: first. portraits. deserted street scenes. Newojki. the depiction imperative of Horsfield's to image making. July 1984 (1990) is a haunting double portrait of a couple. the archival time of the image. mien. next to the as a shadow archive next to the both a slice a fact made year of its full realization as a work. two examp'es+the potential graphs-unique. they stand before us as the condemned. the time lag between photographing and printing is often protracted+sornetrmes clear in the captioninq.Enwezor 24 cornprisnq subject. ---'":1 I LI on the very nature of time and how it between the it and slowinq it down. Krakow. defines 1he traditional aspect of his production the surrounding in this instance.eszek Mierwa-ul. Magda Mierwa and l. Horsfield's temporalities. Printed in large-scale format with tonal shifts between sharp but cool whites. and machinery. as if touching the sentient melancholy of the man and woman. workers and lovers. empty factory floor. East London. The principle the body. and second. of photographic as fundamentally an archaeology unrepeatable=-operate encompassing at the break between archival time and linear time. a passing age. the archival register of its reproduction. as if the' exposure is drawn out over many years. careful. years elapse before an irnaqe is conjured. The scene is lit literally dissolves around the sitters. Horsfield. August 1987 (1995) is. slightly turned face. to. of archival time takes it further: it sketches the subtle time ~ag between the creation of the irnape and its realization a few years later. or portraits of young men and women. rather than specimens of. The artist worked as if he were bearing witness to the slow declension of an era. along with a whole category of people soon "EO be swept away by the forces of change. manifest in the analogical conditions . They are often active meditations acts on memory and experience. illustratinq of time and its slow imrnensity. Here. enveloping' them in inky black- ness. lin so doing. these images underline the stark fact of the whether of a lugubriously lit street corner or a. The disjunction and the moment it is finally printed produces two instances of of the tactile. annotative as weH as denotative presses upon the image. The image emits an eerie silence. the time of making functions print48 flat panel of the large-scale work is engaged with a conscious temporal delay of the archive. and velvety blacks. field is rendered in sharp. His work is one of other being Stan Douglas's technology uneditioned. Even if not quite a longue duree. instant in which the image is recorded The difference. a bearded man and a woman.

of time passing as a moving image.. output comprising tens of thousands of is contemporaneous Douqlas employs an audio track of recited passages from Marcel Proust's insomniac novel. the other White Pass in British Columbia. suturing breaks in time and images. which proceeds through repetition. only to emerge on the other end where the manipulated editing posits a steady continuation. the loop allows the experience of the film to occur as an endless revolution of image and time. in an experience of time-depth and repetition."52 The careful calibration of mechanical and mnemonic temporality begins at the first emergence of the film as a self-corrsciously driven operation through the camera's sweeping views of the landscape up to the point where the train carrying it plunges into the blankness of the tunnel. hypnotic effects on the viewer. the filmic narrative appears seamless. the establishing shot of the first sequence becomes the anchor for the circularity of the loop to suggest nonlinear temporality.t? Stan Douqlas's Overture (1986) is similarly concerned with the relationship of archive and time.50 That Proust's book about time and its disappearance Company's film is not coincidental.."! Scott Watson argues that this endless rotation is not merely a technical representation of time. and the passage from Proust is incorporated as six separate segments. which ls known through rnernory. as a narration. shot in 1899. ture.At the same time" aocording to his mode of working.'"53 Jef Geys's work Day and Night and Day and . transforming the filmio space into a closed circuit. (2002) belongs to this temporal category in which the archive is used to elicit the boundless procession of discrete levels of time. which are constituted around perceptual breaks in linear time. as a juncture between past and present.. 16mm film that stitches together two separate footages shot by the film division of the Edison Company in the Canadian Rockies: one shows Kicking Horse Canyon. prediqital photography of noninstantaneous reproduction that allows the irnaqe togel in the artist's own consciousness long before meditation on the very logic of time as it bears on the question of history and identity. The break in linearity that is crucial to Douglas's proposal delinks the film from its narrative construction. It is both a personal and cultural meditation on time and the archive . Overture is a looped. shot in 1901. Time. the looping device becomes the means by which a confluence occurs between "mechanical time. In Search of Lost with the Edison since Douglas has carefully synchronized text and image as a kind of old-fashioned. a mode that Douglas has explored in other projects: rather. Geys's work provokes an interaction with the archive as a chronotope-tha1 Constituted out of more than forty years of photographic is. a coordination of space and time. In contrast to Horsfield's photographic projects.. positivism and romanticism. nature and cul- . Douglas's Overture emphasizes cyclical temporality. By deploying a looping mechanism.. Though the film is stitched together in three sections. and human time. Through this continuation. through two rotations. showing instead "its rhythmic. new technology does not permit us to do just what he has been so adept at accomplishing-a it emerges from its glacial substrate. To explore the theme of temporality as it structures experience and consciousness.

and color reproductions of works by Ducharnp. and one "oriqinal" (Large Glass. photographs.2 cm) © 2007 Artists Riqhts Society (ARS). Ul botte-en-velise. collotype on celluloid) (69 items) Overall: 16 x 15 x 4 in.1 x 10. (40. New York j ADAGP. Paris / Succession Mflrcel Dllchamp . 1935-41 Leather valise containinq miniature.6 x 38.Marcel Ducharnp.replicas.

Warhol grasped tile potential of such irnaqes as a means of plumbing the psychic ruptures in tile American collective imaginary. in a masterful reading ot Warhol's paintings and prints made from a photo-essay by Charles Moore initially published in Life. Nothing much happens in the film apart from shifts in tone. tragedies.i56what Wagner calls the "registration of the glamour a. Though seemingly interested in celebrity and media spectacle.Enwezor 26 images taken by the artist from the late 1950s 10 :2002. public memory and private history. and traumas of the American self. the photographs are activated as moving pictures by slow dissolves. by virtue of its languorous movement. artists have interrogated the status of the photographic archive as a historical site that exists between evidence and! document. it is an inventory of ephemeral irnaqes. rather.54 Building on archival analyses of visual history. gradations of muted glfay and lightness. In recent years. electric chairs. as the images unspool in a horizontal band. oftentimes generated in the media+as is the case with Race Riot (ca. day and night and day . Anne Wagner. in almost chronological register. Geys's work is not one of accumulation and collecting. Few have matched Andy Warhol's profound reflections on photoqraphy's morbid hold on the modern imagination. the thirty-six-hour film is not only structurally about the flow of images hom a time past into the present. the form of its delivery is also intended to confound the ability to distill the film into all index of a life's work. as a speculum for examining the violence. as the through sheer density.nd redundancy and immanent violence of American life under late capitalism."57 But the trauma explicated in Race Riot is of a different order than that found in the . 1963)-considerations of the relationship between documentary information converge with aspects of witnessing and collective memory. car crashes.. Unlike Richter's Atlas. racist police officers and vicious dogs) delineate a grid of social lives. Warhol's images culled from media reports of misfortune a. Archive and Public Memory For nearly a century.. and next. artists have turned to the photographic archive in order to generate new ways of thinking through historical events and to transform the traditional ideas surrounding the status of the photographic document. endless pursuit-as The temporal relationship between each image is established history as the passage of time. unfolding one panel at a time. The basic means of this proto-cinematic work belie the conceptual nature of its in the monologue to Douglas's Overture-of relentless inscription of private memory onto the space of a collective public culture. The uses to which Warhol! subjected the archive of mass media have engendered and encoded some of the most sustained reflexive accounts on photographs as an incunabulum of public memory. Working with the basic format of an inventory.nd privation (suicides. makes the case for Warhol as a history painter.55 Warhol's Race Riot is emblematic of the connection between archive and trauma. slowly and arduously exposed one frame followed by the next.

and gouache on heavyweight paper 20 x 22 112 in... Mechanical (UThe Dogs' Attack is Negro€sJ Reward. © 2007 Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts I Artists Rights Society (ARS).(_~ . w f: t . t:(.8 x 57. 1963 Newsprint clippinq.eII -€A /. graphite.[ riLL.2 em) The Andy Warhol Museum._ UI 1 "f J I B t: ~ #. 1963).." from Life magazine. Inc. May 17. Founding Collection. Pittsburgh. Contribution The Andy WaJlhol Foundation for the Visual Arts. tape. New York f 1\ J !)PL .Andy Warholl. (50..

Nir70 Perdido functions as a kind of pre-obituary for the lost who may never be found. such a crisis constitutes the sociological ground for the glossary of images in Felix Gonzalez-Torres's Untitled (Death by Gun) (1990). The work's somber content-images of the dead stare back at the viewer.58 The latter embody a kind of popular against wind- grotesque. a series of drawings based on photographs of missing children whose disappearances were reported in local Mexican newspapers. First." Wagner observes. The photographs are organized on the white sheet of paper in no apparent order or hierarchical arrangement. as an image of identification of the document as history painting.One Can also argue that the second effect of the work.. lit is a token of . In this collation of obituaries. Gonzalez-Torrea's archive of random deaths memorialiizes the victims. This running tally illuminates the images within the reportorial or documentary boundary specific to the account of each victim. irrespective of victim. Revisiting traumatic violence in this way. an index of grainy black-and-white photographs ofr464 people who died from gunshots during a oneweek period. llan Lieberman also enlists the archive as a form of commemoration in Nino Perdido (20. shif1ing from the archival to the monumental and from that to the documentary. information and photography. a wound is exposed as the sign of a shocking collective trauma. without regard for race. trapped in burning cars. as a literal archive. here subtly transformed from mere representation to a kind of altarpiece . The allusive character of this extraordinary but deceptive work operates at the level of two kinds of archival practice. the seeming randomness of relationships between victims coalesces into a unity through the time frame of theiir deaths. is a reversail of the first. across the cities of Arnerica. "is images caught between modes of representation: between alleqory and history.s? Like all of the artist's stacked offset pieces. "The result. Yet this work differs from Warhol's in a crucial respect. The democracy of death is spotlighted here. and Lieberman's use of newspaper photographs of the rrussinq children alerts us to the wide-ranging deployment of the photographic portrait as an index of memory. from May 1 to May 7. a fascination with a cartoon ish kind of horror in which the victims-smashed streets-become shields. the stranded somewhere scenes of death and their various archival returns become part of everyday spectacle. Untitled consists of several hundred sheets of pnnted paper endlessly available for viewers to take away and endlessly replenished to maintain an ideal height. age. 1989. and therefore Untitled oscillates between document and monument."o9 If Race Riot alleqorizes a peculiarly midcentmy American crisis. Like Warhol.06-7). Alternating between document and monument. or circumstance of death {suicides and homicides}. with numbing silence-transforms its structure from archival printed sheet to sculptural monument.Enwezor 28 luridly sensationalist images of the Saturday Disasters series. impaled on electrical poles on dark American highways and suburban fodder for the entertainment industry. it embodies Foucault's idea of the document turned into a monument. If Race Riot represents the rnonurnentalization remembrance and a work of mourning. gender" class. Gonzalez-Torres addresses a peculiarly American issue.

archive to traumatic public memory. '10 say more with revisit. To broach the event that spawned iconic images is to touch a living wound. 9/12 Front Page to (2001). private and public.. Feldmann's "anti-pbctoqraohic'"? as in regulated approach is undera work mined by the gravity of the subjects dealing with images ofterrorism ibrates his collected or produced he engages-such Die Toten. images format in which he recal- into new structures 9112 Front Page. Mixing the high and low. tus is beyond their initial documentary Have the images. he has painstakinqly a memorial recreated the exact format of the original image. tile footage and the for documentary linking September 11 created a new iconomy. of It is difficult to come to terms. to experience berates around the world. seven years after the fact? This is Feldmann's Feldmann abandoned painting in the late 1960s to focus exclusively first. The destruction the World Trade Towers in Lower Manhattan tile site. of interpretation. need The traumatic images became accounts grew. into a memorial and monuso many ment. he has been concerned. in news- papers and magazines.61 a vast economy of the iconic unabated. and the evacuation of meaning that ensued as images became seemingly empty signs. The breaching ed an indelible iconography the vividness with which its memory still reverplanes creatwere of the two towers structures by the force of the exploding burning and coll'apsing.sometimes pictorial disidentiftcation. an installation hem for the first time) documenting the media response September 11 through a collection publlished (an archive) of some 100 front pages of European and other inter- national newspapers on September 12. Ground Zero became a shrine and a sacred ground. As the ciirculation of these images continues purpose as evidence it is fair to ask what their staacts of violence. archival the instant every anniversary. with numbing repetition.2001. we must grapple (presented with in Hans-Peter Feldmann's new project. of the massive The images instantly broadcast across the world.Do the fiutterinq sheets of newspaper illuminate impact? the dark events of September Is September 11 principally 11. and continue first to be replayed surfaced on television and the Internet. like Die Toten. the artful and offhanded. impact or its political Does seemeanhap- ing the events from distant ing in America? shores change its fundamental and collective And what about showing these front pages in the very city where the carnage provocation. or do they banalize and ultia media event for the global pubmately diminish their projected . on the photographic pened. images of September These are questions manifestation? 11 is already to say too much. as if also creating to the lost child. artistically" with the events of September instantly transformed 11. compels a different register of ethical and political disclosures . and second. not the event itself. WIth photography's with the disjuncture medium. 2001. but its aftermath. Since then. to lapse into cheap vulgarity. anti-aesthetic. a private cult of commemoration. become emblematic of two incomprehensible more of the aftermath its rnediatized than of the event itself? How does one For many. text of public culture. a day after the horrors unfolded. social and political the ubiquity meaning in the conof the photographic between image as it developed photographic kitsch. in Germany-and photcqraphic the systematic. In each carefully newspaper drawn image. 1967-1993 (1998).

Enwezor 30 lie? With no accompanying collected from different commentary. its role in the histoncal d'etermination of public memory remains unsettled by mnemonic ambivalence. and languages. "the photographic image in qeneral was now defined as dynamic.ndthe serial structuring of visual information implicit within it emphasized open form and a potential infinity. .. and object relationships. the powers of the archive as a fundamental site through which we remember remain undiminished. Buchloh's formulation of the "anomie archive. event and image.. In Christian Boltanski's meditation on mourning and loss..." exemplified by Richter's Atlas. New York! VG Bild-Kunst. not so much as a way to enter the logic of remembering but to explore and expose how photographic images trouble remembering. while the status of the archive today may not be ambiguous. cities..1998 90 works nation of President John F. it also explores tile terms around which photography mediates history and document. and in their inconsistency perforate the membrane of private .v'" Modes of artistic reception have engendered and mobilized discursive spaces in which spectators playa signal role in interpellatinq the work of the archive into highly structured forms of witnessing. photographically activities. For nearly forty years. wide range of artists who continue to deploy archival images of media as reflexive and documentary responses to events. • l of public testimony. 9112 Front Page addresses the intersection of iconographic shock and spectacle-e-such as Zapruder's footage of the assassiHans-Peter Feldmann. Or how media intervene into the archive and public memory. Boltanski has posed conceptual and philosophical questions about the stability of the' archive as a means by which we come to know and understand the past. a. even if the images he deploys and the narratives that he constitutes are more allusive and evocative of an archive than that they represent an actual existing archive. 1967-93. versus the utopian project of photomontagists of the later "63 Dimensions variable Courtesy 303 Gallery. of contingent. Kennedy. • I. not only of photographic subjects eligible in a new social collective but. New York © 2007 Artists Rights Society (ARS). Die Totea. and contingent. As a work concerned with public memory and media imagination. Bonn 19208 is relevant here: "the organizational' and distributional form will now become the archive . nations. implicitly asks the viewer whether it can be treated as a work of art or merely a kind : '111'1. One of Archive Fever's premises is that. far from the experience of anomie. squally. social relationships. This aspect of Feldmann's practice. The fascination with the archive as a facet of public memory has retained its power over recordable details and facets that would constitute each individual subject within perpetually changing altered a.11. bound photocopied filesis developed from the understanding that. newsprint editions. contextual. in which images and their contexts are constantly shuffled and represented in new forms of reception+-in book works. this material lin different media sources.

28 x 110 1/2 x 22 ~12 in. New York I ADAGP. he draws from a popular French magazine of the same name that details a world of infamy in which crime is vicariously experienced through the spectacle oi media Christian Boltanski.7 x 5'7.and public memory. (325. New York © 2007 Artists Rigllts Society (ARS) . or they may be transformed into fetisihized. 1990 Photographs. sometimes pushing his concerns to perverse extremes. lamps. individuated units on which a dim spotlight is fixed. remarkably. blurring the line between the fictive and the historical a series of works titled In Detective.2 Gin) Courtesy Marian Goodman Gallery. in a panoply of sentimental configurations that. Boltanski often treats photographic documents in contradictory ways: sometimes they are collected in a hnear structure forming a se'emingly coherent narrative. lending them an almost devotional character. In the diverse arranqements to which their assemblage is subjected. are designed to evoke shrines. BoI1anski'$ work oscillates between inert collections and arrangements of conservation.1 x :280. white linen. wooden shelves 1. Paris . Archive Dead Swiss.

lence.. monumental. The sequence documents). 1945 IWM negative #BU 4027 Printed with the permission of the Trustees of the Imperial War Museum..."65 are images of individuals iinvolved in crime and which as historical of the work know that these photographs [they] have no way of distinguishing Archives: Detective (1987). by contemporary and history of of the qenealoqy As the fascination Photographer unknown. The collectivized of individual to the discourse reflection singularity. building lives to illuminate however. [Corpse of mother at Berqen-Belsen]. collatbut while the In Lessons of such as juxtaposition which also privilege tivized arrangements and decontextualizatlon take precedence the reqularized over the specificity over the singular and unique. or Archive Dead Swiss (1990). on history. the collecof images. disappearance the anonymity subordinated of ths images and their dilated. April H. This is the essence perly historical Artistic ambivaarchival.66 children for instance. dealing the configuration Darkness: with crime. Here. the same images are reused in other ways. women. linear arrangements a mnemonic on public memory. the general takes precedence over the specific. for one never knows what is proassessments of photographic have contributed of archival artifacts to broader and media documents to reconsiderations as evidence connected inquiries into the theme of public memo- ry. between suggests criminals ed from a variety of sources (sometimes tion to issues of their authenticity "spectators murder. Again. soft-focus mechanism pictorial ism proThe darkness between on ambiguity. These inquiries have in turn inspired critical artists archival appraisals practices. alludes to the Holocaust. archive becomes and recall-into by which we come to expehovering that become meditations rience the transformation of men. and victims. a community. in this gallery of individual of Boltanski's or semantically the images are genuine historical or merely images that stand ill for such individuals. it is impossible documents Given Boltanski's propensity tional and the documentary. . a mode in which devices flow of pictorial narrative but of the siqn. Detective appropriates a democracy the norms of the photographic interrupt of relationships montage. thus calling attensuch relationships. a kind of generalized to tell whether but OM nonetheless to mix the ficlives of a group. London .Enwezor 32 excess. is treated through the structural of private images-snapshots powerful. duce an unsettling of the Holocaust.

a silkscreen references a subject version of the Berqen-Belsan by Robert Morris. Fudher interventions paintings. cated from a material called Hydrocai and holocaust parts and objects. Untitled is part of a or and writers. and cultural speculation. the difference its properly situated historical present57 between a purely semantic two photographic toward reading of the archive and placed side by side . in the Unit."72 Close inspection a reliquary. the firebombing event." as Toby Haggi1h argues. tcqraph.?" body of work in which he reconsiders of German Morris (again like Warhol) with almost expressionistic appearance images associa. is heightened their impact and no doubt contributed Untitled (1987). suggesting the sculptureliks standing used by Morris in the 1980s of the carved frame reveal's fragments What was Morris attemp1ing to convey through the juxtaposition frame? Does this decontextualization of that event? Or does it rupture linear mnemonic of the transformed a straight photograph and forty years after the event enhance our undercontinuity. torture. discordant carved frame..?" Like Warhol's use of Charles Moore's photographs Alabama.round the chest by a torn horror.flB!) to the fascination pho- blanket. treated with encausnc: include an elaborately in a "'baroque' selenium tint that gives it the jarrinq. her eyes fixed in the contortions and many other documentations images have remained "the most influential of any record orrartefact documenting tion camps. The image offered for comparison. One is a documentary Bergen-Belsen ~ photograph shot on April 17. projective a blue-purple fashion.P'' One reason these the Nazi. scandal shows. political. 1945. It of Consider images. then. scenes of unbearable more complex consciousness. This photograph provide vivid accounts of unimaginable shows the splayed. and abuse. However. so as to fill the frame in a looming. artistic on the relationship represent between the photoqraphic historical weight social. as a art While the Abu Ghrajb images have served an instrumental generated Gountetr-archive to bureaucratically interventions document and therefore can activate and historical amnesia about the Iraq War. ethical. concentraand disturbing. by photographers made some alterations verve-with ~o the oriqinal Bergen-Belsen image: it has been and splashed- cropped.ted with World War II. reflections Archives open up a productive space for artists in the form of aesthetic. We need to reckon with. Projected photograph. emaciated the liberation of Berqen-Belsen a. there are philosophical antagonism and political interests at there is a more profound toward the status of such images in venues of purpose in a public controversy. Morris explicitly a historical of the Civil Rights march in Birmingham. such as the Holocaust recorded cities like Dresden.n body of an Olld Master print. fhe end of World concentration camp by a member of the British Army's Film and Photographic body of a young mother partially covered of death. War II. line to that site in conscious- which the body of the young mother was photographed? ness through the daring' reconstitution of a documentary back into historical Morris's work derives its power . fabriphase of firestorrn of huma. is that they "are some of the most grotesque Their wide public dissemination with their iconography.with the image·s of the Abu Ghraib work.

usually elicit. is an intervention The filmmaker's laborious es lends drama to the otherwise trial. in an image that is an almost sacred. in English. presenting phrase lithe banality of evil. color.- ~~e_statiQ1:l~ai. as present is to past."? of the trial. such that the "distorted not only into the archive itself but also into the historical chronology The struggle between prosecutor occurs.75 Sivan's film establishes Ilike Eichmann. Courtesy the artist What frus- trates the reading of Morris's work is not its delibrecomposition troubled and decontextualization but the insistent location of the image withcontext. . or to Finkelstein indusreading relaengage Bergen-Bel Does hils engagement owe to a broader enchantment the disputed claim made by Norman that images of the atrocity have been manipulated as part of a process try?73 W. 128 min."78 and ithe State of Israeli pitted against Eichmann . process ity and narrative continuity.erc'hival erate aesthetic in its historically directly archive. Mitchell's moves Morris's tionship holocaust meditation on atrocity far from Finkelstein's critiique by spelling between frame and image: the "hydrocal frames with their imprinted OF body parts and postaround the Frame is to detritus stand as the framing 'present' of the works. whose very innocuousness tactics of deconstruction would lead the philosopher and reconstruction Hannah Arendt to coin the memorable notes that "Sivan Arendt's the chronology claims a f~lmic articulatiorr."74 is also the subject of Eyal Sivan's film The Specialist: the efficient deportation a distance Eichmann in Jerusalem (1999). image as body is to the destructive entirely of footage element. Morriis does not sen but. EyallSivan. Specialist editorial survivors. its with this image with atrocity. Germani and French wlith English subtitles. Sivan restructures it out of sequence reshaping process and thus denying the logic of archival lineara series of editing choicAccording to Raz..Enwezor 34 not merely from its subject-Nazi the way it establishes ambivalence barbarity=but sense in of a heightened l'pecilficity. the catastrophe Nazi atrocity comprised that left the fossills as the imprints in which it is enframed. who coordinated that images of the Holocaust ordinariness of perpetrators of Jews on a mass scale to various death from the traumatic It focuses instead camps during the war. 1999 Video. Gal Raz uses cinematic-linquistic to give Wielding the sharp knife of deconstruction. T. of the notorious emotional Nazi officer responses on the shot during the 1961 trial in Jerusalem Adolf Eichmann. trophies relics encrusted past event."76 In a review of the film. Hebrew. not only at the level of entire scenes but also on the and detendant+the and the entire Nazi death apparatus-viti- scale within the scene[s]. particularly among survivors. he calls the Holocaust ililuminating out the temporal J. rather. The of the court. The Specialist: Eichmann in jerusalem. of the event through of a judicial proceeding.

social. by gripping climaxes. not only a profound the nature of the archival form found in photography tions on the past. the horror the beast. has been con- who concluded' that Eichmann was at common rather than an antisemite. between The the and accusers as they confront each other with accusations of evil incarnate. museums. suggests muteness. its social incommunicability conscious if only to expose the archive's rational voice of truth. Here photographs serve as more than repre- sentations of the catastrophe.sO All these has become a commadness of the archive. inspiration. Sivan intorrcqates atrocities from which Morris's the moral certainty of a judicial the defendant image stems..?? power of the archive as is also ostensibly to At issue here is how the works of Sivan and Morris offend the categorical the principal diminish insight into a truth. So thoroughly that it has come to serve as a shorthand and magazines or downloaded for memory. his editorial demned for minimizing the testimony of witnesses decontextualization. or. Viewers accused footage immersed in the sparring. they have come to be seen as unmediated of artists insofar as the archival evidence of it. upon its users and viewers new kinds of ethical. Morris's chronology decontextualization of the Berqen-Belsen imaqe trial fracture the concordance photography of archival which documentary gives it in relaa selfas the and Sivan's out-of-sequence truth to historical tionship of the Eichmann account event and the sensational Morris's modified to memory ambiguity. the war criminal and muted. Morris and Sivan's separate to examine this troubled Both projects are jarring because they seek memory. whether its from diqital cameras. of the archive Morris deploys an image that for many shacks trial that connects and wounds to the memory. image. considerations monplace in contemporary art.Memories of testimonies.ates any insight becomes into the horror of the camps. and film but art's relationship to historical . zone. in the dramatic is fixed on Eichmann punctuated turns of the triall. like Arendt. of the Holocaust and cultural have been passed down to us in a steady stream etc. to historical seems also to be a critical culture's events. even secondary. but the principal knowledge narratives. drawn from the archival index of horror. along with the power that archives exert on public draw from that vast iconomy of images to which the archive belongs. at least for the generall public. rather. Holocaust humanizing the perpetrators. has been largely visual. history. posing and denials of responsibility. films. Showing an aqueous the prostrate figure of the woman lying in a field of what appears to be or in the process attentiveness of submersion. interest in reflec- are part of the activity impulse The fascination with the archive. as if recently exhumed contemporary device for challenqinq rary art's active interpellation of history and document as a way of working interventions between trauma and memory. of whether of the trial conveys the obverse is representable without instead the question On this question. become Jew hater. suggest the constant return to lit for verification. the inimitable and source. and memory . rituals of witnessing. tion. To refute the sinqular authority the trauma that it represents. contempothrough the difficult zone liquid. relationships has the archive been domesticated images are lifted from newspapers it presses to informaof it. as all attention In fact.. criminal through Sivan. political.

Enwezor 36 This exhibition punctum address reconsider Afghanistan is manifestly a conversation between about such reflections. the representative of a house plan. Here the nearly illegible written bombing ments. The hands reach out. in gestures nonetheless marked by the daunting this exhibition of affection of death. Fakhouri's of 225 notebooks Dr. even-as scious fiction. of injustice. represents a turn culled from a fictive carimage fragby horizontal bands of enigmatic toward abstraction as a strategy. (1997) generations It shows the diverse approaches. for one subject. Yet it the status of the archive. her subjects drawing to select an object that represents memories in her video Objects of Rather than focus on images from photo albums.82 for instance.ultimate hermeneutic Borrowing value will in any case be disputed Raad I The Atlas Group direct us to the contradictions the conventions deploys fictional characters-historians.81 a temporal mechanism for enacting hisvehicle for reconstituting whose history as self-conongoing inquiry into Pushed iln other directions. the Atlas and archivistscompiled by the in Beirut an officiall documentary account. its history is a minefield manipulation forces. We can make rain. methods that serve its varied accounts. Joreige instead asked each of for him or her a memory of the war and to speak about object is an old group photograph. and genealogies the traversed photographs But it also articulates of images. push the archive toward and of defiance in which to loss. Fazal Sheikh's from the series The Victor Weeps: zone of unbearable to swallow up the individual's remembered photo- an incommensurable remains a site of vigilance. Against graphs of hands holding tiny passport remembrance those who-the lost but must be constantly the edicts of forgetting. included in this exhibition. subjected ferent factions. Fakhouri of the thousands were "donated" ito the Atlas Group "evidence" upon his death in 1993. based on the testimony affliction of their beloved-have tyred. and fantasof interpreta- mic invention. While the Lebanese tion. Lebanon's civil war of the 19708 to 19908 is a work of deep perplexity. wounding by ideological and sectarian humor. whose investigations and commentary historian notebooks the disputed terrain of the war's recollections. for another a its importance. historical between grounds. but no one came to ask (2008). Rather than draw us into by difin the historiicall record and the of the historical witnesses. Sheikh's images of lost or dead family members The hands extend to the viewer hover in the gray zone images of sons and been marthat are and eommemoration. for yet another a large blue plastic vessel. and martyrdom. of the events that threaten memories of loved ones. and methods. a kind of modes of in that reflection. who seem to have been irretrievably as emblems between brothers. novel. Such the archival form can become d-emonstrates-a is the case of Walid Raad and The Atlas Group. investiqation floats in a sea of whiite topped Lamia Joreige explores the impact of the same war on Lebanese War (1999-2006). whose. torical events. as if to touch us with a searing memory. nobility. The and other "evidence" of car bombs detonated Archive Fad! Fakhouri File. consists wholly imaginary Lebanese during the war. illuminate interpreters. captions tell us. The objects triggler a deep archival . Group Archive to constant civil war may have been real.

has come under suspicion as a collaborator. the opening of the vast archives of the Stasi. he takes the film back to Paris and proceeds to restore it.. precipitated a prolonged period of melancholic reflection and bitter controversy. Harun Farocki and Andrei Ujica.. the state secret police. constitute archival fascism. With no access to a film projector. Albania's communist leader whose distrust of the Weslled him to literally seal the country off from the rest of the world. In Poland. formerly prohibited images emerge from the cellar. A hejqhtened sense of urgency surrounds the demand to remember and commemorate in societies where social codes of communication have been historically unstable or preempted by state repression. attempts to recapture orders of normality that predate the shock of historical rupture and the loss of access 10 the archive. he discovers footage of his mother meeting Enver Hoxa. Homo Sovietlcus: Poslcommunisl Archives Archival returns are often conjoined with the struggle against amnesia and anomie. The film dates to the communist era but neither of his parents can recall its contents or the circumstances of its making. and. All these rituals of archival retrieval and performance have been a prominent feature of Eastern European societies since the fall of communism. exercises in mass rnelancholy. in which the archive is perversely activated as a tool of disremembering in the service of official paranoia.Several years after the end of communism. an attempt to pmge Poland's historical memory and political landscape of the taint of communist collaboration as well as undermine the' moral position of the Kaczynskis' political adversaries. former president of Poland and leader of Solidarity during the dissident rebellions of the late 19708. pseudo-legal approach to the past through the so-called law of lustration. Diaries are published.ation of memory.. and Nomeda and Gediminas Urbonas.. he finds an unprocessed 16mm film in plastic wrapping. the right-wing govemment~ed by the Kaczynski brothers has taken a sinister. returns to Tirana to visit his parents. In their home. when liberated from these conditions. all of which deal. for instance. Even mare startling is a scene of his mother delivering a speech to a Communist Party congress held in Albania in the . attics are rummaged. revealla layer of lived experience that confounds official accounts of the war's history. boxes unburied. a young Albanian art student studying in Paris.with the collapse of the communist imperium and the archival leqacy of that seismic break with the past Ami Sala's video lntervista (1998) begins like a detective story .------------~-retrieval. Such conditions can produce tendencies to the excessive collectiviz. To his surprise. His curiosity piqued. This is the exact opposite of the projects of Anri Sala. Joreige"s method elicits very personal testimonies that operate at the level of object relations and .. Sala. while manifestly political. These official attacks. Even Lech Walesa. dissident films surface. testimonies of victims are heroically recast. Sala 'examines the negative by hand and discovers images of his mother at about the age of thirty. In the former East Germany.

between muteness and language. one taken up ina more archaeological fashion by the Lithuanian artists Nomeda and Gediminas Urbonas. This recursive interaction stages fntervista as an archive existing alongside a running commentary on its status as a historical archival footage and the color object. a number of interlocutors-in lectuals-were this case. social." The project began with an examination of more than fifty Lithuanian films made between 1947 and 1997. deconstruct the patriarchal structure of communist society and. These relays and contextual changes. The resultinq video alternates between the black-and-white video interviews. and ideollogical pressures that young men and women of his mother's ge·neration endured in a closed system? These questions give the archive a new kind of interpretive structure. as the place to examine accounts of collective memory." Having lived in a single-idealogy-based from product to state-of-being. as the film's sound reel is missing. between self and other. he splices together the multiple frames of the original footage with subtitles. filmic image and its historical meaning. during the period of Soviet control of the cinematic apparatus.P To read this transaction. Sala employs lip readers from an Albanian school for the deaf to decipher his mother's speech and therefore provide the film with a more complete narrative" and implicitly its testimony. Lenin's slogan on cinema as "of utmost importance of all the arts" was furthered by Stalin's statement: "cinema is illusion." employed by tlhe artists to.Enwezor 3·8 1970s. Lithuaniran feminist intelmass culture that scripted the space of the homo Sovieiicus. the back-and-forth also occurs between conditions of archival production and historical reception. artist and mother. the fjlm archive frames an interrogation of the very conditions inherent in the reception of Soviet ideology and the subordination of what was deemed "Lithuanianess. In their multipart work Transaction (2002). between image and memory. on the one hand. on the other. as it were. although it dictates the life of its own laws. explore the purported "authenticity" of the Lithuanian feminine . are inaudible. who is now compelled to shift from the private world of familial affection to the arena of public confession. The artists explain: Most of these films were produced in the ideoloqical currents belonging to the Soviet period. impose a heavy burden on Sala's task as a filmmaker. On another level. Once this is accomplished. there is the question today as to what could have been "authentic. Is the mother to be judged as a collaborationist or a patriot? Can an intervention into the historical past such as Sala's video adequately convey the complexity of the political. Will this fortuitous discovery unlock the secret of Albania's communist past for the artist? Determined to reconnect the visual archive to its proper temporal context. The reconstituted footage is then supplemented with videotaped conversations between Sala and his mother. and the audience applause. The speech. a shifting of temporal and historical positions between the communist past and the politically ambiguous present.

of the Soviet legacy and contemporary postcommunist that must past to remain a vital aspect of the assessment of the films. This dialectic from the political culture the communist directs our attention the fact that. to transof popular by Videograms is structured sentiment. although In a 1970 recording.Twenty years later. it exploits the techniques refutes conventional spectacle as models of media critique of a tool with which to construct and view history. Fusinq all of these modes of insight into the televised and subject Farocki and Uji'ca offer a penetrating fi. the filmmakers Harun Farocki that formulation on its head. as an example oflintertextual The Ethnographic Conditions of the Archive The assumption histcrical that archival forms have specific mnemonic functions and hold a key to the door of ethnographic condi- experience also pertains to what may be designated as the archive's . ~ out on the streets. position. its social and cultural repercussions avant-qarde African American Released musician and poet Gil Scott-Heron proclaimed: Will Not Be Televised. October (1927). the gathered Ai! a pivotal moment revolutionaries between declared: in the uprising. "We are victorious! reporting TV is with us. with every Romanian a partici- pant in the spectacle. camera and included in Videograms. archival video footage captured on The Vldeograms is a montage drawn from 125 hours of amateur and professional shot during the ten days of the IRomanian Revolution.voice. amateurs between lntercuttinq camped power with the same methods used by Eisenstein the subjectivity form the events at the 1917 Russian protessional into a film that expresses studio broadcasts. As the film oscillates and indeterminate security forces. events." And so it was. the in rela- and Black Power recording and the radical political represented one of the most astute critiques of political subjectivity and dissections of the media spectacle tion to radical expressions and Andrei Ujica stood . both as a means of excavating national allegory.lmmaking. the Civil Rights projects of American countercultures. the grotesque. The result a film that harks back to Sergei Eisenstein's of editing and montage Revolution footage. critical dialoqisrn.P'' television and raw data recorded and popular and elabo- instead utilizes the expressive rating forms of theatrical multiple voicing revolution heteroqlossia.. ambivalence the artists point to a conundrum and of building a post-Soviet. at the heiqht of the Vietnam War. has disappeared of Lithuania. and sweeping it appears that the revolution is television marching anchors the shifting and' battling views of crowds through the streets is literally broadcast live. Moving back and forth between the old film archives and their translation Lithuanian into the present. "The Revolution communism remain. Farocki and Ujica use the archive to rework the relationship forms of representatiion in a mode that moves beyond spectacle instruments of Miikhail Bakhtin's notion of the carntvalesque. Videograms of a Revolution (1993) not only and theories of spectacle.Y" movements.

and siQll1sexists in a murky sensorium. the 163 imaqes that comprise Floh can be generally categorized as amateur rather than professional photography . and transmission of images. Each of of cultural lends ethnographic insiqht into the production of domestic photography. Accumulated over a period of seven years from secondhand bins in flea markets across Europe and the United States.c image emerged from the master classes of Bernd and Hilla Becher at the DUsseldorf Academy beginning in the late 19708. Dean uses Floh to demonstrate the logic of the "artist as ethnographer. Vivan Sundaram. Since the mid-1980s. artists enact the archival fantasy as well as the archcntic " function of the historian. maddening attention to the archive that this exhibition derives its operating set of idioms. and Thomas Struth. as a cultural habitus. the other members of this group are Candida Hofer. as The archive today rests in a state of in historical reenactTerry Smith's neoloqisrn describes it. This field of pro- duction might be described. Thomas Ruff. as much as for their typological differentiations between image species. these images were carefully selected and resourced for the specificity of their cultural meanings. historical incarceration.86 in memorabilia concessions. images. Or. It is from this sense of the feverish.. museums of art. ill old Jibraries. Wielding a sophisticated curatorial acumen. curator. Be it the scripted spaces of homo Sovieticus or the drive toward the arnassrnent shape . Lorna Simpson.Archives constitute of snapshots.They are consistent with types of images common 10 most domestic photographic production: portraits of individuals and groups (some quasi-institutional). translator. exchange. played out in media experiences. and ethnoq- raphy. and Tacita Dean operate around the conditions 0'1 visual etbncqraphy."92 Thomas Ruff belongs to that small group of German artists whose systematic rethinking of the photographi. The projiects of Zoe Leonard. domestic photo-graphy allows us to see the archive as a site where society and its habits are given an economy of production.. Derrida's designation for this ethnographic condition is archive iever. pictures of objects. natural history. in private a~bums.P" an ethnographic condition. pedagogue. are organized. This economy of icons."90 However. on computer hard drives. Under this condition. Sherrie Levine. blanketing the social and culturallandscape. These functions also include the compulsive hoardings and accumulations that defy the temporal legibility around which certain archival projects. vacation shots.91 the concerns of this accumulated cache are fundamentally cultural. an iconotny. Though the line between amateur and "fine art" photography is indeed blurred.Enwezor 40 tion. the so-called de-skilling of the photographic in contemporary art is not at issue here. They are what Mark Godfrey ca~ls "species of found photography. as popular entertainment. though "found" in the conventional sense. in the manner of Pierre' Bourdieu. each of the works formulates a temporal these projects is concerned exchange. these artists have devoted their practice to explor- . ments" as monuments and memorials. snapshots 0"1 pets or family. Glenn Ligon. and specifically ethnographic in nature. Tacita Dean's Floh (2000)89 with the status of images as materials especially as transaction and and iconographic assessment of the archival past. Andreas Gursky. such as that ot Jef Geys.

Writing about this body of work. and glenerating significantly larger prints than were initially produced for the brochure of the company's product line. in a kind of renewal of the Neue Sa.. The idea of direct. unrnodulated images of industrial structures on the verge of obsolescence. As such. To this aesthetic Ruff's generation responded with images that. Machines (2003) continues Ruffs interest in investigating tile cultural values. advertising photography) .P'' structures of archivization: on the one hand. grain silos.Ruff's approach to photography is the most heterogeneous. and seemingly unrnediated subjectivity of the Bechers' work. despite their variety. iRuff enhances their photo- lence: having turned the machines into decontextualized become iconic markers of industrial fetishization. the archival. the theoretical and conceptual horizon of her complex examination of race and identity takes on two concomitant what Frantz Fanon terms epidermahzaticn. and the correspOonding aesthetic and social meanings. unrnediated recording of objects was given a serial. Caroline Flosdorff observes that "the context in which Ruff's photographs are now shown is no longer bound to a particular objective (product photography. is rife with ambivapictorial objects. the way such marking is reproduced and documented in social and cultural practices . By scanning. on the other hand. and the forensic. Ruff's Machines are "found" images. coloring. The machines lose all specificity as objects of ethnoqraphic fascination. Of the Bechers' former students. "9<1 This shift in context. from product brochure to art photography. all of whom have developed their own critical Ilangua'ge. The language of her pictorial analysis always seems to play out in the interstices of the historical and psy~ chic constitution of the black subject. making clear its status as an Object of ethnographic and anthropological interest. Recently.. the manner ill which the body of the black subject is culturally marked through the process of the idea that race is literally inscribed on the skin. as well as endowing it with episternoloqical and aesthetic functions. cropping. obtained by acquiring the photographic archives of Rohde und Dorrenberq. such as picture files drawn from lnternet pornographic sites from which Ruff produced his Nudes series. direct.clllichl<eit principles of objective observation developed in Germany in the 1920s by photographers ranqinq from August Sander to Albert Renger-Patzsch. a defunct machine and tool Gompany that operated in DUsseldorf-Oberkassel. and. as they provide a glimpse into a distant industrial past Lorna Simpson's layered works encompass the new formats for conceptual approaches to image making. decontexualization graphic presence. enlarging.'il3 While Dean leaves her images larqely in the state in which they are found. combine a dry. embedded in the archive. to the archival aggregates in which formats of photography have been orqanlzed. it is in this juncture between andfenshization that Ruff's Machines most resemble his teachers' blast furnaces. and mine shafts. like Dean's Floh. gathered from the detritus of the photographic economy. Huff invests the machines with a totemic presence. his concerns have shifted to photography's socially embedded contexts. reductive documentary sensibility and ethnographic subject matter. conceptual rigor in the Bechers' photographs of flat. They have Although his reading of the images deviates from the dry. in other words. Ruff intervenes in the archive.

one describing the gulf between the portrayed black woman in Untitled and a man in Study. the author beinq. In this body of work. each photographed in a profile style reminiscent portraits-and the scenes of representation found in American films and art. she uses tootaqe from one such film-a three-minute intervai in which a teacher instructs a young white boy to draw on a piece of address the invisible ways in which mental health institutions retrain certain segments of paper-to the American population. she has recently turned to the thriving online economy of ebay auctions. are likewise dependent on the function of their manifest authority as the principal source of historicall truth. The same strategy obtains in Study. it called into question the relevance of the modernist category of the author. in its etymological sense. and literature. Simpson adopts the photographic subjects-a what will turn out to be an archival realignment. Plexiglas. Each of the documented paintings is to be found in the collection of an American museum. but here the titles are taken from paintings in which the black male figures as SUbject or object-underscored by such titles as Study of a Black Man. as I have indicated. art. as Simpson would studio as the place to construct insist. her concerns are informed by an analysis of the archival remains of what Toni Morrison describes as American Africanlsm. Glenn Ligon's biting critique of Robert Mappiethorpe's homoerotic photographs of black men in The Black Book resides in this gap . Appropriation was at the forefront of the postmodernist dialectic in contemporary art that sought to obliterate the space between an original and its copy.Archives.. have consistently animated the critical paradigm of a range of postconceptual photographic practices. of certainty . Incised on the left and right sides of the Plexiqlas of nineteenth-century Untitled undertakes this structural repositioning by way of aligning the forty-three avail portraits in vertical rows underneath semitransparent surface are titles of American films produced from the tum of the twentieth century to the late 1960s. the source of authority. Simpson's practice often rigorously specifies the importance of a Foucauldian archaeology of knowledge as a means through which the archival relationship between the black subject and American culture is shorn of sentimentality. Moreover. especially one dependent on the lanquaqe of appropriation. In so doing. Similarly. the relationship between race and identity in historical representations popular entertainment (2002)~are 97 of blackness in American high art and The photographic works included here-Untitled (guess who's coming to dinner) (2001) and Study embedded in this landscape generated from popular depictions and. Simpson takes a courrter-ethnoqraphic entering the archive of the American imagination. the misperceptions proper to the discourse of misrepresentations that produce stereotypes of black subjects. African Youth. A Negro approach as a way of Prince.?" that is. In both works. In Jackie (2007). The ethnographic conditions of the archive. Working sometimes under the auspices of the artist as ethnographer.Enwezor 42 such as the cinema. and instead revealed as a source for understanding the codes of the racialized image in popular culture. where she has been researching and acquiring institutional films produced during the late 1950s and early 19608.

original and copy. became the centerpiece of his analysis. The issues surrounding postmodernist appropriation. the problem of authorship shadows the license taken by Ligon in using Mapplethorpe's pages of The Black Book. and critiques of authorship and aura. and the explicit deconstruction of both in Levine's work. Positioned in double rows beneath the images. the nature of authorship itself. Evans may be the photographer of these works but not the singular author of the sociai and cultural phenomenon that engendered them. Richard Dyer. At the same time. both in its straightforward archival referencing. and Frantz Fanon. with implications artifact. to the very nature of thelr treatment by Levine as so much archival . It must be acknowledged that Levine's rephotographing of Walker Evans's Farm Security Administration (FSA) images was a deliberate provocation. over time. the postmodern echoes Benjamin's explicit point to suggest that what withers is the aura of Mapplethorpe'a iconoqraphyof black male sexuality. setting it off-kilter. confounding likeness and resemblance. the black male as a popular ethnographic object in American discourse. placing The Black Book in archival remand. conventional archival methodologies Mapplethorpe's of cultural analysis.P? Ligon's reading of Mapplethorpe is against the grailn. it is striking that Howard Singerman would make an argument for the explicit authorial and auratic character of of their ethnographic content writ large·. and its circumscription of gay male sexual agency. tile text panels describe the contested qround of this complex issue. In a single cut. In testing images. Given this tension between authorship and aura. He was equally interested in taddirng the homophobic invective spewed by right-wing politicians and fundamentalist Christians. drawn directly from the of the putative aura of work of appropriation issues of authorship must be weighed against the the assumption conservative brand of studio photography. the troubled relationship between race and sexuality. 100 are of the modernist myths of originality101 in central toO Sherrie Levine's daring. and the sanctity of copyrighted material. more pro103 foundly. Isaac Julien. In other words. seminal deconstructions many of her refabrications of well-known works by a gallery of male artistic eminences.betwee'l"1authorship and authority. one is able to go from Evans's work as a set of documentary photnqraphs. Originally.l'P and. the relationship of white enjoyment to debasement of black male sexuality was not Ligon's only concern in this work. Levine's Aher Walker Evans (1981) lis a controversial work because its principal conceptual strategy goes beyond simple appropriation. Here. Kobena Mercer. Lilgon engages in a concerted deconstruction of Mapplethorpe's objectification of the black male body as a signal source of sexual. bluntly challenging the authenticity of a work of art. Looming over the field of representation in which the images of the tenant farmers and their families are contained is a cultural Weltanschauung. Essex Hemplhill. In Notes on the Margin of the Black Book (1991-93). stereotyping by usil1lga series of textual commentaries drawn from theorists and commentators such as James Baldwin. in the silent power of its analysis of the somber fetishization of impoverishment.98 However. one which belongs to the archival memory of the American Depression of the 1930s.

to the archive's ethnoare graphic climate. cultural amnesia. and 43.eventy-eight images that comprise story from the earfiest images of her as a teenager as an older Woman in 1973. story. we follow in Philadelphia Richards's carefully in the early 1920s. and performing whose accomplishbecause of her blackannotated an archive of lost stories moldering in trunk boxes in damp basements. The studio never allowed these photographs 'Watermelon Woman' irnaqe. an object to be seen. the studio lady. x Miss Richards more money and a new contract to appear as a mammy in another Southern melodrama." The caption in a screentest for images 89 and for the film 'Merry-Go-Round. staging. Singerman or a ghost object writes that Levine's work challenges "Against notion of it being mere appropriation by maintajninq I wanted a distinction: what II to perceived as the reduction of the work to its strategy. The Fae Richards Photo Archive imagines the existence of such Leonard. Ransin. the caption reads: "Fae Richards as photographed house 'photographer by Max Hetzl (Monsieur Max). Under pressure but she refused. for example. Richards is accompanied by a range of other people: mood. in collaboration with casting.jhat is to say. (nee Richardson). an object.' and Martha Page to give from both Fae Richards . Handwritten notations add another on lost history and memory. a unique way of reading Levine's After Wa/kef Evans under the explicit manufacture Appropniation and parody are key devices ground the operative logic of these projects Leonard's in many uses of the archive.Enwezor 44 After Walker Evans as a singular work. friends. and. an image that must be taken into Levine's archival project is at odds with dominant theories that reference account. and the studios siblings. periodically noted in thEj!typed scripts to indicate where. Costume. and the ethnographic of an archival artifact Here. lovers. Each imaqe is coupled with a caption typed on a vintage typewriter. stages an archival ruse throuqt: scripting! the life of an imaginary black Hollywood actress Fae Richards ments have disappeared into the pit of American ness. to her heyday as to the final image of her a screen ingenue in the 1930s and '40s. Ransin offered to be released. namely through the combination tihe space of 100st or forgotten stories. as she appeared which was never completed. 42. that she could playa claiming they 'clashed' leading with the graphs privately. styling. photographic where the images were supposedly photographed specific designed to correspond to the period being reterenced. in my view. an object that can be detached framing referent-the from its the work of Walker Evans. In the s.. 40 reads: "Fae Richards (center). Zoe The Faa Richards Photo Archive (1 993-96) draws from a radically different methodologiof object. in a sequence of photographs as 4. A typical caption ters in the photograph. in an attempt to show H. no doubt this work.:"?" This claim for Benjamin. and more than that. Max was the in- for Silverstar Studio and also a good friend of Fae"s . 1938.Fae posed far these photohead. to this exacting fleshing includes annotation identified out the charac- For example. and parodic invocation of the archive as cal process. to insist that there was sometlling look at.. it is important underlying to tore- methods them. to the Civil Rights era of the 1960s. the typewriter layer of authenticity a detailed misspellings skipped a line or commentary dropped a letter. filmmaker Cheryl Dunye. R. are Ilighting.

(38." Period authenticity is further augmented by giving the resulting photographs a treatment of patina-intentionally aged.not least because leonard shows viewers the castIng list of the characters. with her dancing in several different 'jungle' costumes while Cassandra Brooke sang the title song.105 . cracked.Vivan SUlldaram. the character of a young vaudeville d ancer wa s written into the scree nplay. contradictorily. 20002 Gelatin silver print 15 x 20 in. This is certainly the impression one derives from viewing Vivan Sundaram's images in The Sher-Gil Archive (1995-97).1 x 50.. The script we nt throuxgh numerous revisions and the title was changed to 'That Voodoo Mag~c. ripped and serrated at the corners. originally written for Fae. Willa Clarke (on Fae's right) was cast as Fae"s dance partner and sidekick. it is leveraged elsewhere as a form of melancholic return. (1938). they highlight its produced nature. Fae left Silverstar Studio durinq filming. Whereas the archive is turned into a parody of historical unity and an instrument of social identification in Leonard's work. breaking her contract and severinq aliities with Hollywood.' Fae's part was cut back to little more than a cameo. "Red" indians.8 ern) Courtesy SEPIA and the artist Richards a 'leading lady' role. including her relationship with Martha Page. or sepia-toned with a hint of solarization. These strategies are intended to enhance the believability of the overall work but.

Sundaram uses well-worn devices of presentation: boxes. Buchloh noted the "post-humanist post-bourgeois organized under the auspices of Archive and subjectivity" informing the work. This dialectic structured by humanist and posthurnanist traditions casts the whole range of archival production within an epistemological text that far exceeds the issues of taxonomies. "the telling of history as a sequence of events acted out by individual agents is displaced by a focus on the simultaneity of separate but contingent social fra. Despite the degeneration of the photograph under the rapacious machines of mass media. and tour lightboxes each bearing an image of a member of the Sher-Gil family. all the images are printed from the patriarch's negatives and photoqraphs. . the conceptual strategies used to transform the evidentiary and documentary modes of archival materials into profound reflections on the historical condition. ethnicity. the archive unfolds a narrative journey of loss and desire" of the twists and turns of wande-ring between India and Europe. place in which concerns with the past are touched by the astringent vapors of death. and the resultinq types of social and cuitural interactions specific to each particular moment. who will become a modernist artist in Pads. Umrao Singh Sher-Gil. To construct this archival meditation. The images are drawn from the rich photographic archive of the family patriarch. its evocation of cosmopolitan pleasure laced with ambivalence.106 This observation can be applied to the works Fever as well. its banalization in popular culture. The images consist of the patriarch. Throughout this essay. Amrita Sher-Gil. we have been exploring the various conditions of the archive. and inventories generated by the artists."1 07 Within Archive Fever. Sundaram's work of memory is also a sly peak into the circumstances of a hybrid Indian family that allows the archive to question the issue of authenticity.Enwezor 46 a work that simultaneously evokes the family album and scraps of found photographs. a lin. Through these links. with their names etched onto the gilass cover of the box.e of closely arranged photographs. a noticeable humanist COI1l- concern drives the analyses found in . the matriarch. taken together these works probe the complex interests artists have developed. the artist serves as the historic a. and two of memory. Vivan's mother. itypologies. be it of race. On a difterent level. particularly as it pertains to photography.individual projects. his Hungarian wife. class formations and their ideologies. and its cult of sentimentality. tracing an arc from colonialism to postcolonial ism. the artist's grandfather. Marie Antoinette. It is both a public commemoration and an inquiry into identity and the meaning of bonds that tie famil'y to race and nationality. In his incisive reading of Richter's Atlas. and Indira Sundaram. or natlonality. a Sanskrit scholar who over many years took turns at the camera photographing himself and his family. as well as mnemonic mediation. while the archive emerges as a. The Sher-Gil Archive details the story of Sundaram's family in turn-of-the-twentieth-century India and Europe. especially in the manner in which the archive often serves to classify and unify concerns of disparate provenance. Here.meworks and an infinity of participating agents. and the process of history is reconceived as a structural system of perpetually changing interactions and permutations between economic and ecological givens.

ss. 2007 1 Micl1el Foucault. (emphasis For discussions Benjamin the new teclmology events. Buchloh.destruction." (New York: Pantheon "The Body and the Archive. j 999). in original).: Harvard University 10 of the archival form. Demos. The World Viewed: Reflections on the Marcel Ductuunp (Cambridge.: MIT Press. it is also within the archive that acts of remembering and regeneration occur. Mass . "The Work of Art ill the Age in Illuminations: Books. Mitchell. discussion of the photographic archive. edited by Richard Bo!ton ~ (Camoridge. see gars were obtained mobile from a passenger This development who recorded contains them on his the implication as users may not be 14 H. digital archives. The Conception Mass. 1972). on the impact 1 gee). 4 veiiee as an occasion archivalform knowledge. See Stanley Ontology Press. (Chicago: 5 . in the indeterminate zone between event and image. J. and the practice WIJat Do Pictures Want? The Lives end Loves at Images University Cavell. p.. Krauss. (Cambridge. on Lan9uage z Walter ReprodLlction. Marcel Broodlhal. T. 129. document and monument. 1992). ed. Batchen. viii. see T. and degeneration. J. have ln 11 12 13 and the archive. pp. especially of candid 19(9). December 5. where a suture between the past and present is performed. For a fascinating museum exploration MOl. see Douglas Mass. Art in the Age to situations where professional of the Post-Medium Condition (London: Thames & Hudson. against the tendency of contemporary forms of amnesia whereby the archive becomes a site of lost origins and memory is dispossessed. 2005). lbid.BulJ)/llg with Desire. of the relationship Crimp. "A Voyage on the North Sea ". phone camera. Tile Archaeology of Knowledge end the Discourse Books. p. enl. p. D. Mass. journalists See Rosalind 2000). of sell-curation. 76-106. La bone-en" of of Phol09raphy (Cambridge. MIT Press.fs (Cambridge.. Mass. 2007). 01 Mecha~iclll 8 Me'anin!}: Cnticel Histories of Pl1olOgraphy. become Ruins (Carnbridqe. pp." in The Conlest of Benjamin. On rhe Museum's TI 30.: MIT Press. Yet. Ibid. p. For an excellent study 01 the history of Ducharnp's Essays and Reffsclions (New York: Schocken ~ QUQled if! Geoffrey See the chapter. The Archaeology of Know/edge. 353. 01 displacing respond present. from mobile camera phonee. ed. the roving documentary photographer." in W. . Value of Images. and the The Exiles of between the "Tile Surplus in artistic practice. of Chicago Press. the first images practice. 343-89.: MIT Press. of Broodthaers'a cases of serious London SLIGh as the suicide terror attack of trapped in the paasen- Underqround in 2005. dispersal 10 think sirnoltaneously its relationship on the legacy of the to the ordering taxonomy. transmission. of film. 1993). 1968)..: MIT Press. Foucault. 6 lncreasinqly. 7 for a critical' lind extensive see Allan Sekula.

Horsfield 54 .

unique photograph 61 x 57 1/2 in. Krakow. .July 1984. 1949 Lives in London Magda Mierwa and Leszek Mierwa-uf .Craigie Horsfield Born Cambridge. Paris . em) Tate Collection.55 x 146. ADAGP. New York . printed 1990 Gelatin silver print. Society (ARS). England..Nawojki. (1. London lrnaqe courtesy the artist © 2007 Artists Rights.

printed 1995 Photographic paper on aluminum 68 xl 00 in. . (175 x 273 em) Courtesy Frith Street Gallery. Paris. Well Street.Horsfield 56 E. East London. New York I ADAGP. london © 2007 Artists Rights Society (ARS). August 7987. Horsfield.

New York . with looping device and mono optical soundtrack Edition AP2 of 2 Courtesy David Zwimer.Stan Douglas Born Vancouver. Vancouver Overture. B. 1986 16mm mm. 1960 Lives..C.

Douglas 60 .

Overture. 1986 .

Douglas 6::2 .

Overture. David Zwirner. [New York . 1986 lnstallation view. 199. Louisiana Courtesy Museum of Modern Denmark" Art.6 Humlebsek.

Geys 64 .

Gays 66 Day and Night and Day and .. "' 2002 .

. .Gays 68 Day and Night and Day and .. 2002 .

Geys 70 Day and Night and Day and" " "' 2002 .



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" 2002 . .Gays 80 Day and Night and Day ena .

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Andy Warhol Born Pititsburgh. 1987 . 1928 Lived and worked in New York Died New York.

1963 Sere enprint on Strathmore paper 30 1'18 x 40 in. New York .5 x 101.- Warhol 86 Race Riot" ca.(76. Inc.6 em) The Andy Warhol Museum. Contribution The Andy Warha. Pittsburgh Founding Collection. © 2007 Andy Warhol Foundation for ths Visual Arts I Artists Rughts Society (ARS).lndation for the Visual Arts..1FOl.

Cuba. 1957 Lived and worked in New York Died Miami. 1996 .Felix Gonzalez-Torres Born Guairnaro.

1 x 83.6 em) The Museum of Modem Art. (22. 1990 Stack of photolithographs Stack: 9 )(4415/16 >:3215/16 in. New York Purchased in part through the generosity of Arthur Fleischer Courtesy the Felix Gonzalez-Torres Foundation .9 x 114.Gonzalez-Torres 90 Untilled (Death by Gun).

... D...w lUll ........ I~~ --- .._...... .....n -!!II ~ ~I~ ~ ~ .~ r • ... .. c_ . -- ... "--iiiIiDil'l't"Jl .. 1IltI_1I'!"""""'...

83 in.6 x 2.llan Lieberman Born Mexico City.1 em) . 2006-7 30 drawings from a larger series Graphite Courtesy on paper the artist Each 1 x 0. 1969 Lives in Mexico City Nino Perdido (LoSI Chi/d). (2.

Characteristics: Dateo of disappearance: Neighborhood. 'I::>years Characteristics: Does hot pronounce the letter "W correctly Date of disappearance: Neighborhood. Sinaloa. 80 centimeters Black mole on len leg Characteristics.Lieberman 94 Veronica Cristjna Ochoa Ortiz Andrea MLJn. Zaragoza. ALJgLJst 8. 2004 Municipality ot Matamoros.2004 lzcalli lxtapaluoa State 0'1 Mexico. Date of disappearance: Neighborhood. 2006 Irma Zapata Bautista Edgar AI~~is Carla Rodriguez Age: 12 years Hsight: 1. January 23. SIa. 2006 . January '18. July 3.oz Miranda Age: 17 years Height~ No information Oharacteristios: No information Ag...le of Me~ioo. State of Puebla.55 meters Small scars on both arms San Martin de Porres of Atizapan de Age~ 4 years Height. Mllnicipality lxtapaluca. EI Jardin Dale O'f disappearance: Hciaachez.

State 01 Mexico.' . 80 centimeters I'ong. Hair: Thin. 2005 Ana Jazmln Moreno Age: Lopez Osvaldo Gomez Flores Age: 6 years Heig'ht: 1. March 4.Nino Perdido (Lost Child). December . Complexion: Characteristics: on left cheek Date of disappearance: Guanajuaro.od. 1 6 years Heiglll: Height: 1. '2005 Huixquilucan. Angel Nandxo Guerra Age: 13 years H!light: Cruz Miguel 'Ortiz Ortiz Age: 14 years Height: 1.. Cl'laracteristics: Characteristics: Has language difficulties Alvaro Obreg6n of lztapalapa.. of Mexico.. Borough Los Reyes Ocotitlan. 2006-7 ..45 meters Andoni Escobar Vazquez Age: 1 year Height: 1. 2004 Date of disappearance: Slate of Mexico.10 meters dark brown Guanaiuato. JLJly 28. Date of disappearance: Neighborhood. 2005 City. .58 meters Hair: Straight. February 15. Mexico Eyes: Small. black Date of disappearance: Barrio San Migluel.00 meters Regular Scar on left brow and rash Dolores Age: Blancarte Gonzalez 5 years 1.69 meters black SCar on lefl side 01 forehead Ceylan Neighborhood. Jesus de Monte State Date of disappearance: Tlanepantla. December 23. 2005 of Xochimilco. October 14. Borough Hair: Straight. straighl.. lighl brown Hair: Straight. 2005 Mexico City.. light brown Date of disappearance: Neighborho.. 3.

Date of disappearance: Neighborhood. State of Me~ic. State 01 State 01 Mexico. years Height: 1.Lieberman 96 Viridiana Carro Ordonez Jose de Jesus Ortega Age: 5 years Height: on lace and chin 1.10 meters Pican Age: 13. 2002 lxtapaluca. 2006 Ecalepec. dark brown large stutters Hair: Straight.o. June 16.53 meters Freckles Characteristics: dimple Characteristics: permission His father took him without Date 01 disappearance: San Pablo Tultepec. July 9.200 meters. Hank Gonzalez State of Me~ico. Eyes: Dark brown. Characteristics: Date ot disappearance: Neighborhood. February 27. 2006 Noe Sau~ Bravo Lopez Age: 7 yean> Height: 1. Date of disappearanoe: Mexico. Complexion: Medium Luis Hernal'loez Age: 4 years Haiqht: Vina~obos 1. Ecatepec.00 meters dark brown Ciudad Cuauhtarnoc Hair: Straight. 20006 . April 2. Scar on right cheek.

Complexion: straight. Hair: Siraight. dark brown Dale Hair: Straight. Mexico City. November La Paz" State of Mexico.65 meters brown Centro of Cuauhternoc. 2006 Characteristics: Scar on left brow Borough of 26. lztapalapa. May 15. August Chicoloapan. 2006-7 Emma Celestina Age:. lztapatapa. 2006 Date of disappearance: lztapalapa.40 meters Thin. brown Borough of 17. light brown Unidad Floresta.3 years Height: Silava CrLJZ Adriana Age: Rodriguez Armenta JOS€ Allahua Age.10 meters Thill dark brown sian led Complexion. 2006 1. January Fernando Romero Vargas Katerin Esplndola Valdes Guadalupe Jazmln Patii'lo Solo Age: 9 years Height: Age: 1 year Heiqht: 60 centimeters short. Date of disappearance: Eyes: Dark brown. Los Date of disappearance: Reyes. Hair: Siraight. Characteristics: Mole right side 01 neck Dale of disappearance: of Mexico.2005 Age: 18 years Height: UA5 meters Hair: Slraig~t. 2006 . April 18. Hair: Dark brown small and Eyes: Small. Mexico City. Marcil 4. 11 years Chipahua 16 years 1. or disappearance: Date 01 disappearance: Neighborhood. State 13. Mexico City. Mexico Borough Eyes:· Light brown. 2006 City.Nino Perdido (Lost Chifd) . 80 centimeters Borough of Height: Heignl: 1.

ay 30. Hair: light black small 011riglnt side of Blimp Eyes: Dark brown. large Characteristics: Moles. May 26. September Characteristics: Mole left side of upper lip Date of disappearance Borough 01 Benito Juarez. 2006 .Lieberman 98 Angel Palacios Ramirez Sandra Garcia Ontiveros 1. 23. 2006 State Cuauhtamoc. Characteristics: forehead Date of disappearance: of Mexico. curly Complexion: Hair: Straight. 2006 Luis Enrique Ccrtes Yanez Miriam Llzeth Rosales Zavala AgB: 10 years Height: 1.30 meters Thirn Age: 15 years Height: 1. Borough of Eyes: Dark brown. dark brawn Date of disappearance: lztapalapa.48 meters. Complexion: Tilin Age: 4 years Height: Age: 14 years Height: Hair: Dark brown and straight Borough of 8. December Mexico City. one on right side of chin and the other 011 right cheek Date of disappearance: Chirnalhuacan. small 1. 2005 Eyes: Dark brown.55 meters brown. Mexico City. M. Mexico City.00 meter Eyes: Large.

Characteristics: Has spot on back Borouqh 01 Gustavo Date of disappearance: Veracruz. Ccmplexlcn. Complexion: Hair: Siraight. Me~ico City.2:006 Karen Aline CI1:!lV9Z Garcia Estefanra Age: Hernandez RodrigLJez Pamela Navarrete Flores Age: 15 years Height: 1 . January 01 28. State 0. round Characteristics: Red scar on nape Coatzacoalcos. medium Hair: Straight. 1. 2006 A. Allg~st Chllpa. November Tlalrnanalco.15 meters.44 meters. approx. large. 1 meter. 2006-7 Oaniela Xcchitl Aga: 6 yearrs Height: Elizarraras Rojas Jcsmar Ouintana Espinoza Liliana Martinez Alvarez Age: 2 ~ears Ocrnplexion. 6 years Heighl.30 meters. Thin 1. approx. May 5. December Date of disappearance: Date 01 disappearance: Cuauhtemoc. Eyes: Light brown.Nino Perdido (Lost Chi/d). large Characteristics: and another Small scar on the nose on one arm Borough City. Complexion: IRegular dark brown large Hair: Black and straight Eyes: Dark brown. black 1 year 70 centimeters. dark brown Eyes: Black. Me)ico 13. Madero. Mal' 31. Thin Height: Age: 13 years Height: 1. Thin dark brown Ilarge Height: Complexion: Thin Hair: Curly. Mole below the navel Tultepec. Eye s: Lig h t brown.2006 Characteristics: Spot on right arm Date 01 disappearance: Mexico.56 meters Complexion: Thin Hair: Straiqht. Tultitlan. 2007 Eyes: Dark brown. blond IEyes: Honey. CharacleristiC$: large Hair: Straight. State 15. State 01 6. 2006 Date of disappearance: Mexico.. 2002 . approx. Age.1 Characteristics: Large mole on waist Date of disappearance: of Mexico.

Bonn e . New York J VG Bild-Kunst. New York 2007 Artists Rights Society (ARS). Gallery. 1941 Lives in Dusseldorf 9112 Front Page. 2001 100 newspapers Dimensions variable Courtesy 303.Hans-Peter Feldmann Born Dusseldorf. Germany.

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UL~rg. Bolsas mlutruMes suspenden operaciones para controlar el desplome de las arxiones."".=.:Ir ~_ (~ " lio<Io!bitAM. =~~~~ I':'::=~~ A"'.9/12 Front Page" 2001 EL MERCURIO Aterrador ataque a EE.. ehlenes .das de EE.. t!:=~r' ~r.UU. vanos tetKmes.dEde Nueva York Cilia de rnuertos podrra llegar "a mas alia de 10soportable". inrormaron de lilsiluacit'in Policia refuerza la Vigilancla en embajO.n~ !:~Bartemr-il SIISpll~~5!WIJiirll duekl!l~. !5I"<I~1'I Arabia SalJdila ~ern."".5.. ferronstas estrellan aviones con pasajeros contra las Thrres Gemelas yel Pentagono" Nueva York y Washington: AlCaJ. ~ii<I!l"'t.b.U~. ~MIU: ~ desde sus ealulares..I"".

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Christian Boltanski Born Paris. 1944 Lives in Paris .

New York I ADAGP~ Paris . and framed collages Dimensions variable Courtesy Marian Goodman Gallery.Boltanski 124 Reserve-Detective Ill. New York © 2007 Artists Rights Society (ARS). 1987 Wooden shelves wilh cardboard boxes and pho[ographs.

Missouri. 1931 Lives in New York ..Robert Morris Born Kansas City.

Morris 128 .

1987 Silkscreen. 1987 Untitled. encaustic on aluminum.3 x 146 x 11. (175.Detail of Untitled. fell 69 x 57 1/'2 x 4 1/2 in.4 em) Courtesy The Broad Art Foundation. Santa Monica © 20071Robert Morris J Artists Rights Society (ARS). New York . fiberglass.

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