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Music of the Great Depression
MUSIC CRAM KIT
YE AR S
AU TH OR
E DI TOR
A L PAC A- I N -C H IE F
Scholar’s Cup ®
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I. II. III. V.
WHAT IS A CRAM KIT?................................................................. 2 CRAMMING FOR SUCCESS...........................................................2 MUSIC THEORY............................................................................... 3 POPULAR SONG...............................................................................28
IV. JAZZ AND BLUES.............................................................................14 VI. CLASSICAL MUSIC.......................................................................... 37 VII. CRUNCH KIT.....................................................................................45 VIII. ABOUT THE AUTHOR AND EDITOR..........................................52 BY EDITED BY
WHITMAN COLLEGE OLYMPIA HIGH SCHOOL
HARVARD UNIVERSITY PEARLAND HIGH SCHOOL
DEDICATED TO MY FORMER COACH MR. "WILD BILL" CURTIS
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Music Cram Kit | 2
WHAT IS A CRAM KIT?
A Word from the Editor
COMPETITION IS NEARING... The handful of days before competition can be the most overwhelming. You don’t have enough time to review everything, so a strategic allocation of your resources is crucial. Cram Kits are designed with one goal in mind— to provide you with the most testable and most easily forgotten facts. The Music Exam offers the bittersweet combination of some of the easiest points to score (the first 12 listening questions) and some of the most difficult to gain consistently (the music theory questions). What you need is a Decathlete who loves music and who understands the ebb and flow of USAD Music exams. That's where Jonathan Spatola-Knoll, your guide for this Cram Kit, comes in. He has broken apart the Music portion of the curriculum, extracted the fluff, and left you with the essential details you need to score as many points as possible, even if—and especially if—you are short on time. STRUCTURE OF A CRAM KIT The main body of the Cram Kit is filled with charts and diagrams for efficient studying. You’ll also find helpful quizzes to reinforce the information as you review. The Crunch Kit condenses the entire subject into five pages or less of must-know facts. At the very end of the Crunch Kit, you’ll find a series of glossary-like lists to help you distinguish among different names and terms. Last, but not least, remember to relax. In the final moments before you open your test booklet, confidence is your most important asset. Good luck and happy cramming!
CRAMMING FOR SUCCESS
A Word from the Author
CURRICULUM SUMMARY SUMMARY The first section deals with music fundamentals. Unlike past years, all music theory questions will come from the official resource guide rather than independent study. While preparing for this part of the test, prioritize terms and concepts over topics related to reading music. The rest of the guide deals with American music of the 1930s beginning with blues and jazz, moving on to popular song, and ending with classical music. If you have only a few days left to study, make sure you know basic aspects of various styles like urban blues, modernism, and parlor song. Then, check your familiarity with the listening examples, particularly the classical ones. If you feel secure in both of these areas, review your knowledge of famous musicians like W.C. Handy and Ella Fitzgerald.
Classical Music 20% Popular Song 24%
Music Theory 24%
Blues and Jazz 32%
TIME IS TICKING! Don’t memorize USAD’s charts on each track. Memorize the basic forms of these songs, especially anything that strikes you as unusual.
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Physics and Classification
PHYSICS OF SOUND WESTERN MUSIC The western musical tradition began around 2,000 years ago. In 1750, equal temperament tuning became standard, dividing octaves into 12 equal parts. At about the same time, theorists codified common practice tonality, which has since remained the most common means of organizing pitches. HISTORY OF PITCH AND OCTAVES Percussion Percussion The new pitch is an octave higher and the frequency of the soundwave doubles to 440 Hz Brass Keyboard Idiophone Membranophone Aerophone Various
FAMILY CLASSIFICATION EXAMPLES
CLASSIFICATION OF INSTRUMENTS
Violin, viola, cello, bass Flute, oboe, clarinet, saxophone, bassoon Xylophone, cymbals, wood block, marimba Snare drum, timpani Trumpet, trombone, French horn Piano, organ
An open string vibrates at A 440, or 440 waves per second
A musician cuts the length of the string in half
AMPLITUDE AND VOLUME A sound wave’s height, or amplitude, determines volume • • Scientists measure volume in decibels Composers use dynamics to indicate what volumes to play
1. The ________ pitch usually dominates a sound. 2. _________ faintly color a pitch. 3. The __________ scale contains 12 pitches.
1. fundamental 2. Overtones 3. chromatic PERCUSSION INSTRUMENTS
TWO WAYS TO PERFORM ELECTRONIC MUSIC 1. Hang out with your buddies and jam on your handy theremin or another electrophone! 2. Record some sounds, manipulate the tape, and brag about your new musique concrète composition at parties!
•A stretched membrane vibrates to Membrano- produce sound phones
•The body of the instrument itself vibrates Idiophones
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Pitch and Scales
MAJOR AND MINOR SCALES THREE MINORS WALK INTO A BAR… MINOR SCALE Natural Harmonic Melodic LOWERED SCALE DEGREES 3, 6, 7 3, 6 3 RAISED SCALE DEGREES N/A 7 6, 7 (ascending)
Tonic: the “home base” of the scale Dominant: the second-most important scale degree Leading tone: lies a half step below the tonic and leads upwards A TALE OF TWO CONTOURS CONJUNCT Mostly steps Few leaps “Happy Birthday” DISJUNCT Fewer steps More leaps “The Star Spangled Banner”
Music Cram Kit | 5 Rhythm (Page 1 of 3) NOTATION MUSIC THEORY .
ANSWERS GET YOUR RHYTHM FUNKIES GOING! Syncopation: tap your feet to those grooves. A dotted quarter note contains _____ sixteenths. half downbeat pickup. 2. Accelerando: S p e e d UP!!!! 4. which punch on weak beats or between beats! Polyrhythm: pick yourself off the dance floor after literally falling for those conflicting rhythmic patterns! 1. 4. Poco a poco: change gradually 5. Ritardando: SL O W D O W 3. Rubato: change tempo expressively 2. HOW MANY BEATS AM I HOLDING UP? QUESTIONS SUDDEN change A dot by the note-head increases the rhythmic value by ________. 3. The first beat of a measure is the __________. 2. 3. or anacrusis six . Subito: N ! 1. 4.Music Cram Kit | 6 Rhythm (Page 2 of 3) TEMPO MUSIC THEORY TEMPO DIRECTIONS SHOPPING LIST 1. A(n) ___________ can start a tune before the first measure begins.
6/8 2. 2. A common duple compound meter is ______ time. Stir vigorously A METER-IC TON OF QUESTIONS PAN PETER REMEMBER HIS METERS? Duple – two or four beats per measure Triple – three beats per measure Compound – three subdivisions per beat Irregular – organizes beats unusually Mixed – quickly juxtaposes different meters Polymeter – multiple meters going on at once Unmetered – no clear tempo or steady beat QUESTIONS 1. 4/4 EXAMPLES TRIPLE METER DUPLE METER . Decide how many beats each measure will contain 4. a quarter note requires a 4) 3. Assign that note the appropriate number (for instance. Which time signature do swing composers most commonly notate? ANSWERS 1. Decide which note will receive the beat 2. Balance this second number on top of the first like a fraction 5.Music Cram Kit | 7 Rhythm (Page 3 of 3) MEASURES ANDTERMS DEFINITIONS Measures (Bars) EXAMPLES BAKING HOME-STYLE TIME SIGNATURES (FROM SCRATCH!) MUSIC THEORY • Organize beats • Organize rhythm and tempo • Separate measures Beats Barlines 1.
Music Cram Kit | 8 Harmony (Page 1 of 3) TRIADS KEYS KEY FACTS Chords3 or more simiultaneous notes MUSIC THEORY Triads3 Notes A set of accidentals (sharps or flats) called the key signature establishes a work’s key The key establishes the music’s scale Each of the 12 key signatures can indicate a major or a minor scale The circle of fifths describes the relationship between all 12 major and all 12 minor keys “Diatonic” describes music which sticks with the seven notes in a key Chromatic music uses notes outside of the key TRIAD-ITION 1 Major 3rd + 1 Minor 3rd = 1 Major Triad 1 Minor 3rd + 1 Major 3rd = 1 Minor Triad 1 Minor 3rd + 1 Minor 3rd = 1 Diminished Triad 1 Major 3rd + 1 Major 3rd = 1 Augmented Triad DISSONANCE Begs for resolution Leads to Consonance Example: Tritones CONSONANCE Sense of rest Provides aural resolution Example: Tonic Triad .
or change key Composers most easily modulate along the circle of fifths . or V7 chord The V7 chord contains a dissonant tritone between the third and the seventh The seventh resolves downwards by a half step CHORD PROGRESSIONS DID YOU KNOW? Predominant harmonies like the subdominant (IV) and the supertonic (ii) lead to dominant chords TRIADS’ CASES AND SYMBOLS SYMBOL OR CASE MEANING Uppercase Lowercase Lowercase with circle (˚) Major Minor Diminished A bass line reinforces a chord progression Composers commonly change the bass notes.Music Cram Kit | 9 Harmony (Page 2 of 3) DIATONIC TRIADS TWO IMPORTANT DIATONIC TRIADS 1. Dominant Composers most often add a seventh on top of a dominant triad. Tonic • • • • • • Uses the tonic pitch as the root Major in major keys (I) Minor in minor keys (i) Uses the dominant pitch as the root and the leading tone as the third of the chord Always major (V) Leads to tonic NEW HARMONIES ADDING NOTES TO CHORDS MUSIC THEORY 2. or ease of singing More complex progressions chromatically alter notes of chords. creating modal mixture Some progressions modulate. or invert chords in the progression These changes improve voice leading. creating a four-note dominant seventh.
More composers experiment Works reject commonpractice's forward motion Many compositions become more meditative or static . Works become longer and more chromatic Tonality reaches its supposed limit ARNOLD SCHOENBERG Schoenberg believed that common practice harmony had reached its limits.Music Cram Kit | 10 Harmony (Page 3 of 3) BEYOND COMMON PRACTICE ROMANTIC-ERA: HARMONIC EVOLUTION Music grows more expressive MUSIC THEORY BEYOND COMMON PRACTICE MODERN NON-ATONAL HARMONIES Non-functional harmonies require commonpractice chords. His methods nevertheless inspired composers like Anton von Webern and Alban Berg in the 1930s. but even form and rhythm. this dashing devil expanded the possibilities of composition beyond common practice CROSS-CURRICULUM REFERENCE Ruth Crawford Seeger. Claude composed outside of the box Igor Stravinsky – much like Debussy. but do not resolve them Some composers use unusual scales like octatonic or pentatonic scales Polytonal passages contain music in multiple keys simultaneously MUSICIANS’ BLIND DATES • • Luigi Russolo – this young gentleman sought to redefine music by categorizing noises Claude Debussy – a challenger of the commonpractice system. Schoenberg later created the twelve-tone method in 1925. Congratulations! Your new tone row will form the basis of your atonal. Aaron Copland’s Piano Variations is atonal. Schoenberg created atonal music. She not only organized pitches in series. composer of String Quartet. CREATE YOUR OWN TONE ROW! 1. Gather all 12 pitches of the chromatic scale 2. He decided to eliminate the need for dissonance to resolve and abandoned commonpractice tonality. twelve-tone masterpiece! • AS THE 20TH CENTURY WEARS ON…. Order these notes in any way you wish (remember that you are writing a serial composition in which you must adhere to the specific order) 3. which does not draw its pitch relationships from scales. adopted some of Schoenberg’s methods. In 1910. ATONAL FUN FACTS Schoenberg’s twelve-tone technique began to take off in popularity after World War II.
Dynamic markings tell musicians how loudly. Composers often notate a gradual decrease in dynamics by rotating a ________ counterclockwise ___ degrees. Instrumentation helps listeners distinguish between many musical genres. INSTRUMENTATION AND DYNAMICS MUSICAL TEXTURE TEXTURE DESCRIPTION MUSIC THEORY ARTICULATION. Accent marks indicate sudden force Tenuto indicates to stress notes. V. cresc. A gradual increase in dynamics is called a _________. several musicians can play together in unison Several musicians play the same melody. 90 4. A gradual decrease in dynamics is called a _________ or a __________ . dim. 4. ORNAMENTATION. AND DYNAMICS ARTICULATION Articulation describes the mechanics that produce a sound Staccato requires the musicians to play short notes very separately Musicians play smoothly when they see a legato A slur also indicates connected notes. forte. V. Composers often notate a gradual increase in dynamics by rotating a ________ clockwise ___ degrees. 3.Music Cram Kit | 11 Other Aspects of Sound and Music TEXTURE. to play Early in the instrument’s history. Each arrangement of a song assigns different music to different instruments. but slightly differently A distinct melody and accompaniment Multiple independent melodic lines INSTRUMENTATION Heterophonic Homophonic Polyphonic Musicians can change the instrumentation of a melody by arranging. crescendo. 2. 3. decrescendo. or softly. diminuendo. Composers do not always notate ornaments. QUIZ TIME! QUESTIONS 1. or abbreviated as ________. but without force String players play pizzicato when they pluck rather than bow the string ORNAMENTATION Ornamentation involves localized embellishments. ANSWERS 1. musicians called the piano the pianoforte because of its ability to play varied dynamics . This change can be abbreviated as __________. 90 Monophonic One unaccompanied melody. piano. but the melody maintains its identity. 2.
12-BAR BLUES Blues musicians will repeat a 12-measure chord progression with variations A performance of a 12-bar blues can theoretically last indefinitely A 12-bar blues includes three lines of text containing four measures each Every line of lyrics follows an aab pattern Most 12-bar blues include four beats per measure over a relaxed tempo 12-BAR BLUES HARMONIC PROGRESSION I IV V I IV V I I I I I I Multiple phrases make up a theme. forming a coherent whole: Antecedent Phrase often ends inconclusively Consequent Phrase differs slightly from the first phrase CADENCES Cadences function as resting points.literally repeats material Multiple motives make up a phrase. A prime mark next to a capital letter in a diagram indicates a variation: AA’A’’A’’’ etc. or variation.. . much like a comma or a period Half cadences end on the dominant (V) harmony Full or authentic cadences conclude with a V-I chord progression Each stanza of a blues performance repeats the same chord progression. PHRASES. AND DYNAMICS REPETITION VS.Music Cram Kit | 12 Musical Form (Page 1 of 2) ELEMENTS OF FORM MOTIVES. sometimes with alterations.repeats material at a new pitch level VARIATION Composers often repeat material with alterations. a coheherent musical though Sequence . SEQUENCE Repetition . or a longer melody A pair of symmetrical phrases construct parallel structure. ORNAMENTATION. Theme and variations form consists of a melody and then repetition of the melody with changes. AND THEMES Motives are small recurring ideas MUSIC THEORY ARTICULATION. Jazz musicians often improvise variations of a tune on the spot..
Music Cram Kit | 13 Musical Form (Page 2 of 2) CONTRAST AND FUGUE MUSICAL CONTRAST Ternary. How many movements does a typical symphony or string quartet contain? 3. minuet and trio The composer develops the material Sometimes another melody. or fugue subject Material repeats. A sonata’s finale usually uses either sonata or ______ form. the subject at a new pitch level SO-NAT-A QUIZ. or imitates. creating a polyphonic texture . or ABA form contains a contrasting middle section Rondo form contrasts material with a returning A section Common diagrams include ABACABA or ABACA 32-BAR FORM Many popular song choruses use a 4-part 32-bar form Each part lasts for eight measures The contrasting B section is sometimes called the bridge SONATA FORM MUSIC THEORY A A B A FUGUES Composer introduces the main theme. four 3. three 2. 4. rondo 4. or countersubject accompanies the subject Fugues combine multiple melodic lines using counterpoint. The third movement of a symphony is often a dance-like _______ and ________. ANSWERS 1. How many movements does a typical sonata contain? 2. OR IS IT? QUESTIONS 1.
” or “shade” the third. Instead. These notes often lie in between the 12 chromatic pitches of Western tuning systems. slides. NEW NOTES Musicians “flatten. Blues pianists cannot play blue notes at the exact pitch. DID YOU KNOW? Many states banned slaves from playing drums. fifth. Instead. the strong rhythms and theoretically endless qualities of work songs resemble the blues.Music Cram Kit | 14 Blues before 1929 (1 of 4) GENERAL TRAITS OF THE BLUES POETRY Each stanza of text in a blues performance corresponds with one 12-bar blues progression Each stanza includes three lines of text. The steady tempos mirrored the rhythm of their work. and movement JAZZ AND BLUES WORK SONGS The vocalist sings for less than four measures Instruments comment upon the lyrics with fills A call-andresponse effect results African-American workers sang work songs on the fields or in railroad yards. melodies. or emotional pain A FOUR-MEASURE SECTION CONTRIBUTING GENRES RING SHOUTS Slaves often gathered after church services Their ring shouts combined African and Christian elements These often lengthy performances involved improvisation. many slaves practiced body percussion. or seventh scale degrees to create blue notes. or other inflections Individual slaves sometimes broke out into improvised performances called field hollers These slaves expressed their moods and concerns Musicians simply sang whatever rhythms. or words which popped into their heads Although highly embellished. FIELD HOLLERS AN IMPROVISED PRACTICE Scores cannot account for all aspects of a blues performance Notation cannot reproduce blue notes at the exact pitch Many traditional blues musicians often improvise fills. call and response.” “bend. growls. they play crushed notes by pressing down two adjacent keys simultaneously. each of which includes four measures Blues musicians sing about everyday hardships such as physical. Additionally. or patting. Sometimes a leader called out lyrics. Work songs significantly exploited the idea of alternating forces. motives often recurred in the melodies . Sometimes two groups of workers alternated lines. economic.
You’ll have to wait until about 1850 to see African-Americans perform! W." a classic blues composition.C. is the older. CLASSIC BLUES Other names for classic blues include urban blues or vaudeville blues 1. syncopation. He hears the blues for the first time. W. travelling musicians called songsters helped spread the genre from the Mississippi Delta. DID YOU KNOW? Professional classic blues singers often sang the blues as part of a larger. Country blues musicians often accompanied their singing on guitar or harmonica at African-American social gatherings. Early in blues’ history. Harry Pace assists the composer and bandleader in founding a New York City publishing company. Classic blues artists turn away from emphasizing sheet music: "St. White performers skillfully begin their routine of dances. Handy begins his musical career. more varied repertoire. SOME HANDY MINSTRELS A DAY AT THE MINSTREL SHOW After much anticipation. a work that demonstrates the Tin Pan Alley Blues style Handy's "St. THE “FATHER OF THE BLUES” JAZZ AND BLUES W. and 12-measure chord progressions George Gershwin composed Rhapsody in Blue. Louis Blues" becomes a recording hit. and musical numbers as part of this variety show. professional setting This genre especially favored black female singers with experience in vaudeville TIN PAN ALLEY BLUES White songwriters sometimes drew inspiration from blues elements like flattened third scale degrees. playing stock characters in blackface. appears. and more “authentic” blues genre." an early attempt at capturing the spirit of the blues. blues musicians performed two main styles of blues. HANDY. 3. These musicians often traced their roots to minstrel shows or vaudeville. having prepared the home theater or toured the last stretch of a theater circuit. Classic blues performances took place in an urban. skits. A W. Actors make fun of an American minority. and would sometimes sing as part of an act. Handy writes "Memphis Blues. Louis Blues.C. the minstrel troupe gets ready to begin their performance! 2. also named downhome blues or folk blues.Music Cram Kit | 15 Blues Before 1929 (Page 2 of 4) TYPES OF BLUES COUNTRY BLUES By 1920. HANDY FEW “Joe Turner Blues” “Yellow Dog Blues” “Aunt Hagar’s Children” “Atlanta Blues” “Beale Street Blues” “Loveless Love” . Country blues. more rural.C.C.
while larger companies like Columbia featured departments called race divisions. a musician with a rowdy reputation. Her mostly black audiences compare her ability to work a crowd to that of a preacher. . Smith's popularity begins to falter. His elaborate guitar finger picking reflected the influence of ragtime. reached the peak of his career in the 1930s This legendary musician lead a wild life and died violently Johnson did not impact the musical world much while still alive After he died in 1938. Much like Charlie Patton. earthy voice BESSIE SMITH Bessie Smith performs in a minstrel troupe and later begins her own show. This hit inspired a wave of new race records for black audiences. ROBERT JOHNSON Robert Johnson. Smith records with artists who would later become famous. Records "Gulf Coast Blues" and "Downhearted Blues". Some independent companies like Gennet Records produced race records for black audiences. especially those involving black female singers of classic blues. Although many of Blake’s lyrics were light in nature. another Delta bluesman. MA RAINEY Ma Rainey had experience singing in minstrel shows Over 100 recordings from the 1920s demonstrate her emotional. Mamie Smith sang “Crazy Blues. Smith's career peaks. JAZZ AND BLUES BLIND BLAKE Blind Blake made his first recordings on the East Coast. sang his complex lyrics and rhythms with a raspy. however. Bessie Smith adapts to the swing era by performing Tin Pan Alley Repertoire. 1930s audiences considered his style outdated BLIND LEMON JEFFERSON Blind Lemon Jefferson came fromTexas. rugged voice Son House favored tremolos and bottleneck slides Although House inspired a retinue of later musicians. This recording became a surprise bestseller. his recording sales fell and he lost his contract during the early 1930s. Johnson exerted considerable influence on future blues and bluesrock artists In the late 1920s. for Okeh Records. Jefferson sang a repertoire outside of the blues and recorded for Paramount Records.Music Cram Kit | 16 Blues Before 1929 (Page 3 of 4) FEMALE CLASSIC BLUES SINGERS A BREAKTHROUGH IN CLASSIC BLUES In 1920. Columbia cancels her contract early in the Depression.” a Perry Bradford composition. he sometimes touched upon serious topics like lynching. Smith appears in the talkie St. Louis Blues. Columbia dubs her "Empress of the Blues" MALE COUNTRY BLUES SINGERS CHARLIE PATTON AND SON HOUSE Charlie Patton and Son House both hailed from the Mississippi Delta Charlie Patton. Much like many other blues musicians. like other blues musicians.
or bent scale degrees. In the 1920s. Louis Blues” lie in the 12-bar blues pattern. LOUIS BLUES” SECTION Intro A A B C BRIEF NOTES Features the polyphonic Dixieland style Features a twelve-bar blues structure Features a twelve-bar blues structure Departs from the twelve-bar blues progression and references tango Returns to progression the twelve-bar blues AUDIENCE SECTION A B C CRAWFORD SAYS…. Louis Blues” is today considered a jazz standard. ANOTHER HANDY THING TO KNOW W. Handy provided a written musical score for “St. Consumers bought sheet music to play on their pianos.C.C. Louis Blues” at music-reading consumers.C. . Although similar. Louis Blues” on the recording. many of her blues notes do not exactly share the same pitch. the composer did his best to capture the spirit of the older country blues style. the work enjoyed recording fame.Music Cram Kit | 17 Blues Before 1929 (Page 4 of 4) STYLE AND STRUCTURE WHY IS “ST. Louis Blues” and other classic blues compositions brought the blues to a mainstream audience. CROSS-CURRICULUM REFERENCE William Grant Still. an awkward key on traditional instruments The B Section References the recent tango craze PERFORMANCE STYLE Billie Holiday sings “St. SUBJECT MATTER A “confession of misery” A “St. Handy chose to alter many of the chords FUN FACT Even though W. composer of Afro-American Symphony.C. Handy aimed “St. middle. Handy and worked at the blues composer's publishing company. STRUCTURE OF “ST. LOUIS BLUES” A CLASSIC BLUES? W. Forgoes with the 12-bar harmonic progression SUBJECT AND AUDIENCE THE CONTRASTING B SECTION Contains four similar phrases JAZZ AND BLUES Changes key from G major to G minor. She often includes blue notes. “St. Louis woman” The pain of stolen love “St. Handy Based the C section of this composition off an earlier 1913 composition. Louis Blues” Performances of the work require a large ensemble of musicians The composition features a clear linear structure with a beginning. studied with W.C. and end Although the basis of the harmonies of “St. W. Due to the work’s long-lived status in the repertoire.
Famous blues artists often travelled to Grafton. she demonstrated an ability and willingness to adopt Tin Pan Alley works like “Tea For Two” and “Smoke Gets in Your Eyes” into her repertoire Smith succeeded Billie Holliday at a Harlem club in 1936 BLUES AND THE RECORDING INDUSTRY During the Depression. Nevertheless. record companies took far fewer risks When sales fell. Tampa Red. however. For instance. In the end. Broonzy could not make a full living from music until the folk music revival of the 1950s and 60s. talented artists lost their contracts Companies no longer sent talent scouts or recording equipment to the South The industry consolidated in Northern. In the 1930s. Musicians like Robert Johnson preserved the older country blues style. or party blues Hokum featured obscene lyrics. the “Father of Modern Chicago Blues. These musicians formerly required an ensemble merely for support. Smith continued to record In the mid-1930s. the classic blues tradition primarily survived through its infusion with jazz. and Thomas "Georgia Tom" Dorsey helped create hokum. “Southside Chicago” type of blues. audiences especially enjoyed the rural traditions of the genre. Broonzy also notably assisted Muddy Waters. . This style has been called the downhome blues sound. BIG BILL BROONZY Big Bill Broonzy helped create an urban. country blues became less “country” in style. female blues singers lost their stardom. urban areas DOWNHOME BLUES AND HOKUM COUNTRY BLUES: A CHANGE OF SOUND During the 1930s. Although he recorded for many labels. blues musicians increasingly grew to favor piano over guitar as an accompanying instrument. Benny Moten and Count Basie blended the two styles in their band’s dance music. Although downhome blues artists built their reputation in cities.” JAZZ AND BLUES A NEW GENRE Big Bill Broonzy. Wisconsin instead to record. while combining urban sophistication with rural wit Georgia Tom later pioneered the Gospel Genre DID YOU KNOW? Chicago lacked recording studios for a long time. BESSIE SMITH: A CHANGE OF STYLE Bessie Smith came closer to economic survival than any other black female blues singers during the Depression Although Columbia terminated her lucrative contract.Music Cram Kit | 18 Blues and the Great Depression (Page 1 of 2) URBAN BLUES AND RECORDINGS DECLINE IN POPULARITY The economic devastation of the Great Depression vastly reduced recording and performing opportunities for blues musicians—especially classic blues performers. Two or three instruments accompanied a male soloist with a rough sound. During the 1930s. bands more often incorporated a singer as a part of the ensemble.
the folk music enthusiast John Hammond organized a concert series at Carnegie Hall entitled “From Spirituals to Swing. in which he plays notes successively rather than simultaneously Rhythm •The steady tempo of "Midnight Special" resembles a railroad song •Lead Belly interestingly treats meters flexibly •He shortens the last line of each verse •He also lengthens the last line of the refrain by a beat •A metaphor for the train theme. authentic black folk culture. V. the blues piqued the interest of white folksong collectors These collectors discovered and promoted artists and music which went on to enjoy lasting popularity Many of these collectors believed in left-leaning ideals like the “common man” JOHN LOMAX John Lomax was an especially important folksong collector. I chord progression under each line of text Form •"Midnight Special" contains four stanzas of lyrics •A refrain concludes each stanza Accompaniment •Lead Belly accompanies himself on his 12-string guitar. I. this guitarist preferred the name Lead Belly John and Alan Lomax discovered this artist at a Louisiana prison This skilled bluesman could sing a varied repertoire of around 500 songs •Lead Belly repeats a IV. For example. left-leaning whites felt that the artist symbolized pure.Music Cram Kit | 19 Blues and the Great Depression (Page 2 of 2) FOLKSONG COLLECTORS FOLKSONG COLLECTORS In the 1930s. Lead Belly even sang the leftist song “The Bourgeois Blues.” This set of performances traced the history of African-American music from the time of slavery to the present and included black artists such as Lead Belly. As whites became interested in this genre in the 1930s. blacks tended to gravitate more towards jazz with blues elements. “MIDNIGHT SPECIAL” A CONCERT SERIES In 1938. He made field recordings with his son Alan and even worked at the Library of Congress.” . LEAD BELLY SINGS “MIDNIGHT SPECIAL” Subject Matter •This Texan black song refers to a train that shone its light through prison cells at night Harmony LEAD BELLY Although named Huddie Ledbetter. On the other hand. many blacks considered Lead Belly’s style old fashioned. Lead Belly speeds up as the performance continues JAZZ AND BLUES Some scholars believed that this old-style musician provided a valuable link to the past DIVIDED OPINIONS Black and white audiences could not agree upon the best type of blues. closely following the beat •His complex accompaniment effectively interacts with the melody •The intricate guitar work even holds equal prominence to the singing •Lead Belly commonly alternates a bass line with broken chords.
two or four phrases often made up a strain. Because strains limited formal and metrical variation. Irving Berlin 3. black and Creole cultural boundaries began to blur. including three phrases per strain rather than two or four. disjunct melodies A steady bass line alternates low notes and notes in the middle register SCOTT JOPLIN Biography •Scott Joplin was the most famous ragtime pianist •This composer learned about classical technique and music notation from his German-born teacher •He especially succeeded financially after moving to New York during the ragtime craze Composer's Music •Most popular or parlor song composers expected performers to adapt their music depending on the style and situation •Scott Joplin. “Jelly Roll” Morton contributed to _______. Around 1900. “That Mysterious Rag” and “Alexander’s Ragtime Band” features a _______ _______ _______ style. Creoles descended from former French colonists and their slaves. on the other hand. a cultural and economic center on the Caribbean. syncopation STRAINS Many pre-jazz styles demonstrated similar traits. and enjoyed a middle-class lifestyle. . spoke their own dialect. melody. What rhythmic effect do “That Mysterious Rag” and “Alexander’s Ragtime Band” feature? ANSWERS 1. NEW ORLEANS: THE MUSICAL SCENE Classical musicians often visted New Orleans by boat RAGTIME RAGTIME Ragtime was enormously popular throughout much of the early part of the 20th century This style featured syncopated. Their performances also showed the influence of the 12-bar blues structure. Some locals traced their ancestry to the former French and Spanish colonists or black slaves. or rhythm as well as contrast between strains. the interest of a performance more likely lay in dynamics. 2. 4. For instance.Music Cram Kit | 20 Jazz Origins (Page 1 of 2) JAZZ: ORIGINS NEW ORLEANS – A DIVERSE COMMUNITY New Orleans. contained a wide array of cultural groups. Tin Pan Alley 4. ragtime 2. melodies. and rhythms. Creole musicians like Sidney Bechet and Jelly Roll Morton began to listen to black musicians. These musicians improvised blue notes. Many African-American dance bands in New Orleans became influenced by the blues. Who composed “That Mysterious Rag” and “Alexander’s Ragtime Band”? 3. Creoles considered themselves European. wind and brass bands exposed audiences to the latest dance and classical compositions Individual ethnic groups also held individual musical identiies A RAG OF A QUIZ QUESTIONS 1. expected musicians to play his music exactly as notated JAZZ AND BLUES Like in many towns.
Louis Armstrong developed the “hot” sound on his trumpet. the first true jazz piano style. invites the younger musician to join his Chicago band Armstrong features on a race record with Oliver’s band. He founded a band in Chicago that eventually included Louis Armstrong. a mentor of Louis Armstrong. the all-white Original Dixieland Jazz Band became the first group to record jazz. the Dixieland Style. receives more solo opportunities. incorporated elements of jazz and blues into his compositions Gershwin considered many of his works symphonic jazz Concerto in F. listeners heard a sense of freedom and spontaneity. incorporated jazz elements into standard dance band arrangements.Music Cram Kit | 21 Jazz Origins (Page 2 of 2) DIXIELAND AND THE HOT SOUND LOUIS ARMSTRONG AND OTHER MUSICIANS LOUIS ARMSTRONG THE DIXIELAND STYLE In 1917. and begins developing his “hot” sound JAZZ AND BLUES A DIXIELAND BAND Melody Instruments •Trumpet or cornet •Clarinet or saxophone •Trombone Supportive Instruments •Piano •Drum set •Percussion like wood blocks or cowbells •Sometimes banjo or guitar JOE “KING” OLIVER Joe "King" Oliver was a famous trumpeter. ASPECTS OF THE “HOT” SOUND Uneven eighth notes Four smooth beats per measure Blues inflections Emphasis on improvising soloists . Rhapsody in Blue. 1923 1924 STRIDE PIANO James P. GEORGE GERSHWIN George Gershwin. a white bandleader. The Dixieland style featured a polyphonic texture in which everybody played at once. Though similar to ragtime. Despite the lack of solos or improvisation. In 1918. stride piano featured a fluid sound and required virtuosic skill. Other musicians soon began to imitate their style. in the 1920s. and the opera Porgy and Bess fall into this category PAUL WHITEMAN Paul Whiteman. which became the first black jazz group to record Armstrong plays in Fletcher Henderson’s band in New York. This bandleader famously arranged a concert in New York during which he conducted the premiere performanace of Gershwin's Rhapsody in Blue. Other white bandleaders followed Whiteman's example. Oliver became one of the first black bandleaders to enjoy success outside of New Orleans. This sound provided the basis for swing jazz. a white songwriter. DATE 1922 EVENT “King” Oliver. Johnson and Fats Waller helped create stride piano.
played big band jazz. the swing craze began in earnest in August 1935. white audiences particularly enjoyed elegant sweet jazz.Music Cram Kit | 22 JAZZ AND BLUES Swing (Page 1 of 2) BIG BAND JAZZ SWING TRAITS Unevenly played eighth note pairs Frequent harmonic changes Smooth. . Sweet Jazz •Some ensembles emphasized sweet jazz. SWEET VERSUS HOT SWING ENSEMBLES A SWING BREAKTHROUGH Although some recordings may have contained elements of swing as early as 1926. •This style concentrated among African-American musicians. His cleancut image and skill with the media helped him popularize the swing genre. •Sweet jazz arrangments adapted and notated popular songs for the appropriate ensemble. •White musicians most often played in this style. This musician goes on to gain a reputation for skilled improvisation as well as skill playing both sweet and hot jazz. the ensemble gains a more hot sound which becomes the standard style for big-band swing. THREE BLACK BANDLEADERS Duke Ellington Count Basie Jimmie Lunceford SHORT STAT Hundreds of professional big bands thrived in the United States by the time the country entered World War Two. BENNY GOODMAN DATE EVENT Benny Goodman begins performing saxophone and clarinet in white dance bands. About 50 of these ensembles enjoyed national popularity. At this time. fast beats A sense of forward propulsion DANCE BANDS Dance bands. •These ensembles began to hire musicians who had experience playing blues or hot jazz. 1925 1934 Hot Jazz •Dance bands increasingly drew inspiration from a hot sound. Benny Goodman’s orchestra broadcasted swing music from the Palomar Ballroom in Los Angeles. In result. or big bands. Their style both appealed to the public and gave talented musicians room to innovate. Goodman’s band begins to use Fletcher Henderson as an arranger. •Similarly. DID YOU KNOW? Benny Goodman successfully brought African-American music to America’s white majority population. These ensembles dominated the mainstream music scene. Most dance bands in the 1930s drew at least a little inspiration from jazz. The Palomar Broadcast introduced swing to Americans across the country and this style of music became a national phenomenon. Swing began to dominate the realm of popular music until about 1945.
but different notes within each chord 3. some of your band’s instruments will now be playing as a choir! 1. the only rhythm instrument to take solos. but only plays the chord progression. These popular song choruses also often gave jazz choruses 32-bar form.Music Cram Kit | 23 JAZZ AND BLUES Swing (Page 2 of 2) CHARACTERISTICS SWING TRAITS The band clearly presents the main tune. which comes in soprano. saxophones or clarinets. Instead. or changes of the original tune The rhythm section reinforced the beat and the harmonies •The bass usually played one note on every beat •On weak beats. or chorus. at the beginning ENSEMBLE A 1930S SWING BAND Melody instruments could play one note at a time •Bands commonly contained two trombones •Three trumpets also played •Four reeds. tenor. Assign several of the same instrument the same rhythms. and baritone varieties is an especially good choice 2. alto. Some jazz choruses do not borrow material from 32-bar choruses. THREE ELEMENTS OF AN ARRANGEMENT Riffs – short repeated phrases Call-and-response – alterations of material between forces Shout chorus – climactic chorus in which the full ensemble plays CROSS-CURRICULUM REFERENCE The shout chorus of a swing performance takes its name from the ring shout. or walking bass •A guitarist usually filled out the music texture while playing the chords •The pianist. some bassists played nonharmonic notes to create a low melodic line. a standard ensemble contained 13 pieces by 1932. Congratulations. This practice gave rise to the name “chorus” for the primary tune of an arrangement. these performances usually follow a 12-bar blues progression. HOW TO ARRANGE A CHOIR FORMAT Select which melody instrument a. The saxophone. functioned similarly to the guitar •The rhythm section additionally contained percussion VARIATION METHODS FOR REPEATED CHORUSES New melodies and rhythms over a constant tempo Changes in instrumentation Altered harmonies which retain the original basic functions DANCE BANDS Swing arrangements commonly borrowed their melodies from popular song choruses. Although a swing band could contain between 10 and 15 instruments. rounded out the melody section The ensemble then repeats the chorus several times with variation. a religious musical practice among African-American slaves. .
consistently drew first-rate performances from his travel-weary instrumentalists. He learns about harmony. His willingness to adapt to new musical styles contributed to his band’s enduring fame. D. who led his ensemble from the piano. For instance.C. theater pieces. He could skillfully work with both the sweet and hot jazz sounds 3. STYLE ASPECTS OF THE ELLINGTON EFFECT Duke Ellington took full advantage of the unique sounds and styles of each of his musicians 2. Ellington. •Ellington works like Cotton Tail combine Ellington's unique sound with standard popular dance styles JAZZ AND BLUES Duke Ellington grows up in a middle-class neighborhood in Washington. and suites 4. He deviated from the standard arrangement methods of his time. Duke Ellington arranged “Diminuendo and Crescendo in Blue” specifically so the work would last six minutes—and therefore fit on two sides of a record. Ellington combined instruments from different families rather than have multiples of the same instrument play as a choir DUKE ELLINGTON – COMPOSITIONAL GENRES The Jungle Style •This style appealed to white perceptions of a "primitive" culture •Dancers performed fake tribal dances in grass skirts while the band performed •The band played thick minor key chords •Musicians also used special effects like the growl effect •Ellington's "Ko-ko" exemplifies the jungle style The Train Theme •Trains inspired musical qualities and titles of many Duke Ellington compositions •"Daybreak Express" imitates the chugging and whistling of a train Mood Pieces •Many Ellington compositions demonstrate the influence of jazz •One of the composer's mood pieces is "Mood Indigo" Jazz Influenced Dances A FACT ON RECORD Each side of a 78-rpm record could hold three minutes of music. . Furthermore. Ellington favored large compositional forms like fantasies. piano.Music Cram Kit | 24 Duke Ellington (Page 1 of 3) LIFE DUKE ELLINGTON 1. from the 1920s until the 1970s. and various musical styles He soon becomes the band's leader. Ellington joins the Washingtonians in Harlem and begins to arrange and compose for the group New manager Irving Mills secures Ellington's band a gig at the Cotton Club Ellington's band leaves the Cotton Club to go on tour for the rest of the 1930s LONG-LIVED FAME Duke Ellington remained a central figure in jazz for decades. The composer and bandleader balanced musical artistry with the tastes of the public.
clear beat. known as rhythm changes. has since become a standard harmonic structure for jazz compositions. if at all. even strong ones. You won’t find him round my door. commonly performed this song. In this case. I got starlight I got sweet dreams. and they will only prove useful for much less serious students. The latter will only seem to assist students. a 1930 Broadway show.Music Cram Kit | 25 Duke Ellington (Page 2 of 3) “I GOT RHYTHM” FORM OF GERSHWIN’S “I GOT RHYTHM” “I Got Rhythm” begins with an instrumental introduction A verse in a minor key follows the introduction Next. Audiences and musicians became so familiar with the chorus that many performances omitted the melody. I got music. Duke Ellington uses rhythm changes. who could ask for anything more? Old man trouble I don’t mind him. for instance. the chord progression from the chorus of Gershwin’s “I Got Rhythm. Typical Traits Innovations . Swing bands. The chord progression. who could ask for anything more? I got daisies. Like many hit songs. “I Got Rhythm” outlasted the immediate context of the Broadway show.” The difference between a good and bad Cram Kit is that the former will actually help students. Ethel Merman sang the song at the premiere. or refrain The chorus contains four phrases which follow an AABA pattern in 32-bar form Some musicians call the contrasting B section the bridge Gershwin also added a two-measure tag at the end of chorus in order to repeat the last line of lyrics "I GOT RHYTHM" SECTION A CHORUS “I got rhythm. the singer sings two iterations of the more memorable chorus. I got my man. FORM IN "COTTON TAIL" Clear Statement of the tune JAZZ AND BLUES Several repetitions of the chorus A B Alterations with each reiteration create variation form A Tag A HIT SONG COTTON TAIL AND BIG-BAND SWING George Gershwin and his brother Ira first produced “I Got Rhythm” for Girl Crazy. I got my man. in green pastures I got my man. who could ask for anything more? Who could ask for anything more?” •Easy for dancing •Steady tempo and mood. and symmetrical phrases •Changes in instrumentation and texture emphasize changes in the form •Syncopated melodies with intermittent rests •Fast rhythms •Angular melodies COTTON TAIL A JAZZ CONTRAFACT Duke Ellington’s Cotton Tail is considered a contrafact because the work borrows its chord progression from that of an earlier composition.
and today transcriptions of his solos occasionally appear on concert programs. who also sometimes sang Arthur Whetsol. Webster's signature sound was the raspy growl effect Jimmy Blanton •The bassist Jimmy Blanton produced more than 100 recordings with Duke Ellington's band •Blanton creates a low-pitched melodic line with walking bass technique Harry Carney •Harry Carney was among the first musicians to demonstrate the potential of the baritone saxohpone as a solo instrument •He solos briefly in Cotton Tail A FEW OTHER MUSICIANS IN ELLINGTON’S BAND The Creole musician Sidney Bechet played clarinet James “Bubber” Miley brought the Ellington orchestra a more “hot” swing sound on his trumpet Joseph “Tricky Sam” Nanton played trombone and used growls and a plunger mute to create many special effects Nanton’s special effects influenced the trumpeter Cootie Williams. Even pianists in the classical world admired Art Tatum. Ray Nance finally begins working with the Duke Ellington band JAZZ AND BLUES ART TATUM Older jazz pianists like Jelly Roll Morton. COTTON TAIL AND BIG-BAND SWING Quentin Jackson played trombone in two famous groups in the 1930s He first played for McKinney's Cotton Pickers He then joined Don Redman's band . however. Johnson still performed during the 1930s. a sweet jazz trumpeter. Fats Waller. Tatum’s solo piano performances featured brilliant passagework. and James P.Music Cram Kit | 26 Duke Ellington (Page 3 of 3) MUSICIANS IN THE BAND MUSICIANS IN COTTON TAIL Ben Webster •Ben Webster played tenor saxophone •He plays a solo in Cotton Tail •This musician interestingly provides a bluesy atmosphere in Cotton Tail by playing notes between pitches of the chromatic scale •Although he skillfully used vibrato. the band also employed the talents of Juan Tizol. and considerable virtuosity. had been friends with Duke Ellington since childhood From 1929-1944. At the time. adventurous harmonies. a Puerto Rican valve trombonist OTHER MUSICIANS RAY NANCE Ray Nance plays trumpet and cornet in his Chicago jazz sextet He moves to New York to play in the Earl Hines Band Nance then joins Horace Henderson's band In 1940. none of these musicians attained the fame of Art Tatum.
most audiences for big-band jazz were white. JAZZ GENRES AS OF C1930 White bands favored sweet or symphonic jazz Black ensembles. but not individuals. previously an authentic AfricanAmerican genre. By the time the United States entered World War Two. Fletcher Henderson and Duke Ellington primarily began to perform for a white audience. the club usually only admitted whites. but audiences considered this style outdated As the 1930s wore on. some Americans even considered jazz appropriate for music schools. Although the Cotton Club featured famous black musicians like Ellington. In response.Music Cram Kit | 27 Jazz Outside Big Bands COMBO JAZZ COMBO JAZZ Small groups called combos played combo jazz. black musicians like King Oliver and Louis Armstrong drew most of their income from white audiences. ADVANTAGES OF COMBO JAZZ Combos could fit into smaller venues •Many combos played in small clubs or speakeasies •New York audiences visited clubs with music not to dance. After a club closed for the day. these musicians created the bebop style. In around 1924. however. Even the ensembles themselves were segregated. Beginning in the 1920s. . but to listen •Even ensembles as small as a solo pianist could draw a profitable crowd for club owners Combos provided recording opportunities •Big bands. big-band jazz increasingly dominated In the 1940s some younger blacks felt that whites had taken over jazz. drew inspiration from leftist ideals o Many white intellectuals believed in racial equality and viewed capitalism with suspicion Jazz also gained political capital in America when fascist governments in Europe condemned the genre JAZZ AND BLUES BECOMING MORE MAINSTREAM Jazz gained a more mainstream and respectable status in the 1930s. Even as early as 1926. After prohibition. became attracted to the hot sound Some musicians still played Dixieland jazz. and a few blacks played in white bands. white jazz criticism began to appear in magazines like New Republic. musicians could extend solos JAZZ AND WHITE AUDIENCES JAZZ AND WHITES By 1939. commonly held recording contracts •Combos allowed musicians from various bands to mingle and even record together Combos did not rely on detailed arrangements •Combos decided upon head arrangements •Musicians would establish the order of solos ahead of time and remember them Combos gave more room for improvisation •Solos stopped naturally •When appropriate. jazz moved out of the realm of the underground world. critics viewed jazz musicians as genuine artists. At the same time. Combos often played in smaller venues like clubs. Even still some white musicians were “hot” enough to get jobs in mostly black bands. however. WHY DID WHITES LIKE JAZZ? Many whites appreciated jazz for its musical content and suitability for dancing The interest of some. a combo would often hold a jam session.
Congregations could sing these texts to familiar tunes. ANSWERS 1. Modern scholars know the most about colonial religious singing. organizers would produce the concert. Travelling salesmen sold instruments and sheet music 6. airs 4. If customers pledged enough money ahead of time. Only a few cities could support fulltime musicians 3. actors sang songs called _______. These works included spoken dialogue and song alongside ______ plots. Audiences paid for tickets. For instance. Colonists gathered to practice singing for Sunday services and to socialize. Colonial Americans especially enjoyed the theater work ______ by _______. 3. England 2. Love in a Village. A THEATRICAL QUIZLET 2.Music Cram Kit | 28 Popular Song Before the Depression (Page 1 of 3) COLONIAL MUSIC COLONIAL SONG Music played a part in the daily life of American colonists. teachers preferably specialized in multiple instruments 5. formulaic 3. TWO COLONIAL GROUPS Mennonites •Mennonites emphasized congregational singing •The Mennonites did not allow instruments into services until the 1960s Moravians •These German speakers brought instruments of all kinds from Europe •Moravians also composed instrumental music of all kinds in the styles of popular European composers QUESTIONS 1. The Bay Psalm Book became the first book printed in the American colonies in 1640. PROFESSIONAL MUSIC MUSICAL PROFESSIONS 1. Singing schools functioned during the week. thin. They also taught customers basic musical skills SUBSCRIPTION CONCERTS Subscription funded many colonial concerts. ahead of time. Before the 1830s. or promised to pay. Musicians commonly earned an income from various sources 4. Many popular songs traced their origins to theatrical works from _______. which were books that adapted the Psalms of David into rhymed verse. Many colonists brought Psalters to America. who brought to the New World musical traditions from their own countries. the lines between professional and amateur musicians were blurred POPULAR SONG 2. At certain points. Thomas Arne FOLKSONGS Some colonists lived in isolated commercial communities These settlers often performed the same folksongs for generations . 4.
“HOME SWEET HOME” For decades. Although sheet music primarily distributed parlor song. Kelly's "Home on the Range. wrote the song's music. a British composer. Dan Emmett’s Dixie also has Southern themes. especially in the Southwest.Music Cram Kit | 29 Popular Song Before the Depression (Page 2 of 3) PARLOR SONG PARLOR SONG – COMMON FORM The chorus features four-part harmony. Many families purchased pianos as a source of entertainment and status. Each iteration of the verse features different lyrics. sang folk songs •Nostalgic songs like Danks' and Rexford's "Silver Threads Among the Gold" idealize antebellum America •One cowboy song was "Ole Chisholm Trail" POPULAR SONG Strophic verses alternate with the chorus in unison. Although musicians performed various arrangements of this song in many settings. American Actor John Howard Payne provided the lyrics. many of these works found their way into theatrical productions like operettas and melodramas. "Home Sweet Home" was the most popular song in America." however. "Home Sweet Home" premiered in the British operetta Clari or The Maid of Milan. Parlor songs were simple enough that amateurs could perform parlor song in the home. Musicians often adapted parlor songs for new ensembles and situations. genle tone •Examples include William Bradbury's "Jesus Loves Me" Other Genres Lowell Mason •Lowell Mason has been called America's father of musical education •Mason earned a living from selling instruments and instructional material •Americans. Walter Kittredge's "Tenting on the Old Campground" recognizes the negative emotions of the conflict •The beginning of George Frederick Root's "The Battle Cry of Freedom" imitates marching feet in the piano Songs of Westward Expansion •Most songs of Westward expansion deal with the depravity of moving west •Daniel E. GENRES PARLOR SONG GENRES Patriotic Parlor Song •Francis Scott Key set his poem "In Defense of Fort McHenry" to the British popular tune "To Anacreon in Heaven" to create "The Star Spangled Banner Civil War Songs •Although most Civil War songs gloss over the horrors of the war. Foster’s finely crafted works made him perhaps the first American to live entirely off of sales of his works. Foster’s minstrel songs provided 90% of his income. PARLOR SONG – CONTEXT Parlor songs’ lyrics could deal with various subjects. Although he hesitated to write them. STEPHEN FOSTER Stephen Foster was the most popular songwriter in 19th-century America. Henry Bishop. . idealizes the West Gospel Songs •These songs demonstrated a sentimental.
During the Depression. For instance. The most famous song plugger was George Gershwin. they humorously adapted operas by Italian bel canto composers like Rossini. and Donizetti. adapted the minstrel song "Old Man Tucker" into an abolitionist anthem by including new lyrics. THE HUTCHINSON FAMILY SINGERS THE DEPRESSION HITS POPULAR SONG AROUND 1900 Triple meter lent songs a waltz feel Catchy choruses follow long verses Verses were more musically unstable o They served to increase tension or tell a story Examples of these popular songs include “The Sidewalks of New York” and “The Band Played On” OVER TIME… Popular music choruses grew in importance. while the verses shortened. including Broadway shows The phonograph and the radio became increasingly important means of spreading music In 1927.Music Cram Kit | 30 Popular Song Before the Depression (Page 3 of 3) MINSTRELS AND TIN PAN ALLEY MINSTREL SHOWS Minstrel shows provided the most popular American musical entertainment for decades. Only a few businessmen. Recording sales plummeted. and Broadway premired fewer musicals. Tin Pan Alley functioned as a publishing district in New York City. NEW TECHNOLOGIES TWO WAYS TO DISSEMINATE SONGS In the mid-1920s. Bellini. The Stock Market Crash devastated the music industry. THE MUSIC INDUSTRY AND THE DEPRESSION TIN PAN ALLEY During the late 19th and early 20th centuries. These stable choruses often could stand alone. The Jazz Singer. Ragtime and waltzes became less popular. A group of instruments provided a soundtrack for the show. Broadway and Tin Pan Alley also increasingly promoted songs in duple meter. POPULAR SONG The Hutchinson Family Singers promoted a variety of social causes. Publishers placed pianos outside of their shops. the music business changed forever Publishing sheet music Including songs in live performances. for instance. Actors ridiculed all types of music. Constantly trying to outdo each other. These comedic variety shows featured actors in blackface. Musicians called song pluggers used these instruments to advertise the latest songs. including Irving Berlin managed to survive in the sheet music business. Both consumers and producers found these media more economical than live performance. the first talking picture starred Al Jolson . This group. radio and film became more the most important means of spreading popular song. As tastes changed. these musicians created considerable noise.
The Jazz Singer. Rodgers famously collaborated with lyricist Oscar Hammerstein II THE WINDS OF CHANGE In the mid-1920s. the music business changed forever The phonograph and the radio became increasingly important means of spreading music In 1927. only Cole Porter consistently challenged Rodgers and Hart’s dominance over Broadway theater o Rodgers and Hart even appeared on the cover of Time in 1938 After Hart died.Music Cram Kit | 31 POPULAR SONG Great Songwriters FIVE GREAT SONGWRITERS COMPOSER’S AND PERFORMER’S MUSIC JEROME KERN Composer's Music •Many composers expect musicians to play their music exactly as notated •Musical scores fully preserve the composer's instructions for examples of composer's music Performer's Music •Some composers write works which various musicians and ensembles can easily adapt •Broadway and Tin Pan Alley songwriters expected artists to influence performer's music with their individual performance styles Jerome Kern composed the landmark musical Show Boat with lyricist and librettist Oscar Hammerstein II in 1927. the first talking picture starred Al Jolson ." "Begin the Beguine. teamed up with his lyricist brother Ira to write many hit songs in the 1920s and 1930s." and "Anything Goes. This work set a standard for the modern musical by featuring more substantial character development and plots. Kern began to produce songs for film musicals." referenced Stephen Foster's "Old Folks at Home. Porter spent a decade in Paris. Gershwin's opera Porgy and Bess introduced "Summertime. In the 1930s. GEORGE GERSHWIN George Gershwin. Gershwin's first hit. After World War I. He won his first Oscar in 1936 for “The Way You Look Tonight. "Swanee. RICHARD RODGERS Richard Rodgers wrote music for over 900 published songs and 43 musicals Rodgers teamed up with lyricist Lorenz Hart in the 1920s o From 1935 to 1943. born Jacob Gershovitz." demonstrating the continued influence of minstrelsy over popular song." COLE PORTER Cole Porter failed to establish a reputation as a songwriter during his years at Yale and Harvard." Porter is known for his own witty lyrics.” from Swing Time." Gershwin considered this work an "American folk opera. He acheived his fame in the 1930s with songs like "Night and Day.
The Chick Webb Orchestra commonly performed at the _________ Ballroom. The verse of “Bei Mir Bist Du Schön” begins with a pickup. Ella Fitzgerald improvises wordless vocal lines using ______ technique.” ONE CONTROVERSIAL SONG FORM FORM OF “BEI MIR BIST DU SCHÖN” The band plays an introduction which repeats the main motive four times. which translates to “To Me You Are Beautiful. Billie Holiday sometimes caused a stir with her choice of repertoire. ANSWERS 1." which set an Abel Meeropol poem critical of lynching. featuring a bent #4 scale degree Fitzgerald joins the orchestra for the two-part verse Three choruses feature the vocalist and the ensemble A short coda concludes the performance POPULAR SONG Unlike Ella Fitzgerald. Savoy 4. QUESTIONS 1. She sang with the Chick Webb Orchestra and led the band after Chick Webb died. 3.” EIN QUIZ Musicians perform the song on the Yiddish theater circuit. . Holiday incited a ruckus whenever she sang the controversial song "Strange Fruit. Jacobs and Secunda sell the work to a publisher for $30. anacrusis 2. including “Bei Mir Bist Du Schön. scat 3. or _____________. harmonic After radio and Hollywood reject the song. Saul Chaplin and Sammy Cahn translate "Bei Mir Bist Du Schön" into English. 2. The English translation of “Bei Mir Bist Du Schön” only retains the original title. The rhythm at which chords changed is called _______ rhythm. 4.Music Cram Kit | 32 "Bei Mir Bist Du Schön" HISTORY ELLA FITZGERALD Ella Fitzgerald launched her musical career as a danceband vocalist. Fitzgerald went on to enjoy a career as a famous soloist. The Yiddish language combines elements of Hebrew and German. Decca Records releases a surprise hit recording of the Andrews Sisters singing the song. A HYBRID LANGUAGE HISTORY OF “BEI MIR BIST DU SCHÖN” Sholom Secunda composes the song "Bay Mir Bistu Sheyn" using lyrics by Jacob Jacobs. Fitzgerald preferred to apply her signature style to mainstream repertoire.
Many of these songs have become standards that have outlived their immediate context in films or shows. Leo Forbstein and Ray Heindorf arranged Henry Warren’s songs for a large orchestra Al Dubin provided lyrics ”CHEEK TO CHEEK” FRED ASTAIRE Fred Astaire. Charming. including “Cheek to Cheek” from Top Hat.The Gay Divorcee OVERALL FORM OF “CHEEK TO CHEEK” Chorus (with singer) Brief instrumental introduction Chorus (instrumental only) Some composers wrote musicals specifically for the screen Jerome Kern . . whereas the rest of the chorus employs C major. elegant songs helped Americans forget about the bleakness of everyday life. born Frederick Austerlitz. which became standard throughout the decade Also significantly.Music Cram Kit | 33 POPULAR SONG Film Musicals FILM MUSICALS A NEW ERA IN FILM MUSICALS The Warner Brothers film 42nd Street set a new standard in filming and recording technology in 1933 Director Busby Berkeley choreographed mass dance numbers. In the 1930s. A A B C A The C section provides the most contrast in the chorus of "Cheek to Cheek.Swing Time Geroge and Ira Gershwin . Fred Astaire introduced various songs to the public. FILM MUSICAL GENRES Hollywood sometimes adapted Broadway Musicals Cole Porter .High Wide and Handsome "Cheek to Cheek" Hollywood began to produce dance musicals in 1933 Irving Berlin ." Astaire sings this section in C minor. he insisted that dance sequences move along the plot of a film.Shall We Dance? FORM OF THE FIRST CHORUS OPULENT ESCAPISM Musicals of the 1930s featured opulent escapism.Top Hat Jerome Kern and Dorothy Fields . Astaire performed in 11 movie musicals. Astaire became so popular that he could insist upon artistic standards. For instance. began his career in vaudeville then moved on to Broadway. He produced his first musical with Ginger Rogers in 1933 with Flying Down to Rio.
the instruments play the vocal melody from the B sections Chorus (Instrumental) CHORUS LYRICS “Once I built a railroad. brick and rivet and lime – Once I built a tower now it’s done. Can You Spare a Dime" “BROTHER. Composed in a minor key. They used to tell me I was building a dream with peace and glory ahead. Within a few months. Can You Spare a Dime” addresses the hardships of the Depression. CAN YOU SPARE A DIME” BACKGROUND Unlike most popular songs of the time. Can You Spare a Dime” significantly contrast those of other popular songs of the day. “Brother. Why should I be standing in line.” COMPOSER AND LYRICIST Jay Gorney •Jay Gorney's original name was Jacob Gornetzky •This Russian-Jewish immigrant drew upon the lullabies of his youth while composing "Brother. made it run. Can You Spare a Dime" •He later worked with songwriter Harold Arlen on The Wizard of Oz TRACK ANALYSIS POPULAR SONG Introduction •The instrumental introduction slows down melodramatically after beginning quickly Chorus (Insturmental) •The instrumental chorus follows an AABA' form •The dance band plays the music while Rudy Vallee speaks an introduction •At the end of the chorus. Can You Spare a Dime. now it’s done. Brother can you spare a dime?" •The final chorus only contains an A' section then a trumpet call HARMONY The harmonies of “Brother. When there was earth to plow or guns to bear I was always there right on the job. but transposed to B minor VERSE LYRICS “They used to tell me I was building a dream. Brother can you spare a dime? Once I built a tower to the sun. . and so I followed the mob. “Brother. Once I built a railroad. the music modulates from the starting key of C minor to D minor Verse •The Verse follows an XYXZ form •Three instrumental chords at the end of the verse modulate to B minor Chorus •Rudy Vallee sings during the next chorus •This chorus employs the same chord progression as the first. just waiting for bread?” Bridge (Instrumental) •The instruments in the bridge follow the same harmonic progression as earlier B sections •Furthermore. Can You Spare a Dime” features many examples of modal mixture and diminished chords. This song premiered in the 1932 show New America. Bing Crosby and Rudy Vallee released the two most popular recordings of “Brother. made it race against time.Music Cram Kit | 34 "Brother. Can You Spare a Dime" Yip Harburg •Yip Harburg wrote the lyrics of "Brother.
banjo. often held a paternalistic or condescending view towards folk music. which would later become Folkways o This label featured many famous folk musicians. or other instruments •Audiences first called this genre hillbilly music. Hollywood and Broadway. and later country. begins playing virtuoso fiddle and guitar in 1935 Monroe and his brother play string band music in their band. still thrived outside of New York Country and Hillbilly Music •Rural white Americans played country and hillbilly music at social gatherings •These styles drew influences from English and Irish folk music •Non-professional musicians often played this music on mandolin. which features on national radio . including Woody Guthrie and Lead Belly THREE CLASSICAL COMPOSERS USING FOLK TUNES 1. Moses Asch founded Asch Records. for instance. Traditional folksongs dealt with more day-to-day woes like poverty and other hardships. William Schuman 3. •Other popular styles. one British organization sought to “save something primitive and genuine from extinction. or country and western •The Carter family and Jimmy Rodgers were famous early country musicians Bluegrass •By the end of the 1930s. including bluegrass. commercial markets for folk music grew After World War I. folk radio shows gained fans o Alan Lomax. record companies also become more interested in folk music In 1939. however. on the other hand. country and hillbilly music had become more mainstream •Several styles. sought to return this music to its rural roots Ethnic Music •Ethnic immigrant groups brought their own music to America •Yiddish and Irish musical influences particularly permeated mainstream music •These groups concentrated in New York • FOLK MUSIC CONDESCENDING ATTITUDES Folksong collectors preserved much valuable information. a pioneer in bluegrass. Aaron Copland 2. For instance. Grand Ole Opry. spent many years working on shows like “Your Ballad Man. fiddle. the Blue Grass Boys Monroe joins a different group. These educated men.” and “Transatlantic Call” • In the 1920s. some fans of folk music sympathized with social causes.” “Well-springs of America. usually shied away from advocating social causes. th BILL MONROE Bill Monroe.Music Cram Kit | 35 Popular Music Outside New York POPULAR SONG POPULAR SONG GENRES Hollywood and Broadway •Hollywood and Broadway produced many of the most popular songs of the 1930s.” On the other hand. harmonica. Virgil Thomson SOCIAL ACTIVISM 19 -century singers like the Hutchinson Singers anticipated the 20th-century protest-song movement. however. POPULAR SONG FOLK MUSIC AND MASS MEDIA • • While recording technology improved.
a now-legendary folk hero. West Texas in 1935 The guitar begins the work alone and then provides the singer with simple accompaniment The song features simple harmonies with no chromaticism and little dissonance Woody Guthrie alternates verses and choruses The work resembles an Anglo-American ballad in that Guthrie repeats melodic material to tell a sad story The verse takes its melody from the cowboy tune “Billy the Kid” Guthrie delivers his performance straightforward. COMMUNISM AND BACKLASH During the Great Depression and World War II. Protest singers like Bruce Springsteen and Bob Dylan drew upon the music and ideals of Guthrie. guitar interludes vary in length April 1940 •This recording features on the CD •This more streamlined and polished versionrepresents more of a performance than an activity in a Guthrie grows up in an unstable Oklahoma family Shortly before the Depression.Music Cram Kit | 36 POPULAR SONG Woody Guthrie WOODY GUTHRIE BACKGROUND • “SO LONG. House of Representatives) both questions suspected communists. Americans tolerated socialist ideals.S. unembellished fashion TIME LINE March 1940 •More informal and spontaneous •Contains some spoken verses over accompaniment •Guthrie lengthens or shortens most of the phrases •Between verses. . It’s Been Good to Know You” draws its inspiration from a severe dust storm which Guthrie witnessed in Pampa. Guthrie becomes a wandering hobo • • • Guthrie composes songs while hitchhiking to New York in 1940. After the war. IT’S BEEN GOOD TO KNOW YOU” GENERAL TRAITS “So Long. The Senate Subcommittee of Joseph McCarthy and HUAC (The UnAmerican Activities Committee of the U. the film version of The Grapes of Wrath inspirses him to compose the ballad "Tom Joad" overnight A FEW OF WOODY GUTHRIE’S 1000+ SONGS • • • • • “Union Maid” “This Land is Your Land” “Roll On Columbia” “Pastures of Plenty” “Reuben James” DID YOU KNOW? Woody Guthrie influenced a new generation of singers during the resurgence of radical folk music in the 1960s. and then performs at the Grapes of Wrath Evening concert • Guthrie's experiences in the Dust Bowl and in California committ him to social causes • • Guthrie records two versions of "So Long. including songwriter Jay Gorney. It's Been Good to Know You" in 1940 In the same year. faced fewer employment opportunities due to increase fears of communism The McCarthy Era was a difficult time for Americans who advocated social or political causes. many left-leaning musicians.
whom she later married He resolves to take the next step in advancing musical progress by making music atonal Ruth Crawford Seeger later turned away from modernism and she and her family remained active in the folk music revival of the 1930s and 1940s MODERNIST OR MODERN? • DISSONANT COUNTERPOINT Many modernist compositions. including String Quartet use a technique called dissonant counterpoint This technique structures pitches not according to a scale. The public did not even need to like modernist art. a valuable object of truth and beauty. Patrons and practitioners of all the arts began to promoted modernist ideals. Ensemble •String Quartet uses the standard ensemble of a string quartet •This group includes two violins. but rather acted as a self-contained unit. Composers. . for instance. abandoned 19th-century romanticism. to the American public in 1913. A work of art did not require a function. a Viennese composer. this interval creates some sense of repose or familiarity. but according to the relationships of the pitches themselves Melodies using dissonant counterpoint form a coherent whole without incorporating commonpractice harmonic progressions. This older style drew chromatic harmonies towards a tonic pitch. however. especially with repeated listenings •Ruth Crawford Seeger wrote that "the melody line must be heard continuously throughout the movement" on the title page of String Quartet ARTISTIC AUTONOMY Modernists believed in the concept of artistic autonomy. and one cello Melody •The work features four main melodies which the composer presents one at a time •Each melody contains a normally-dissonant melodic major seventh •In this atonal work.Music Cram Kit | 37 Modernism (Page 1 of 2) A NEW STYLE ARNOLD SCHOENBERG Arnold Schoenberg. one viola. contrasting their music with that of more popular composers Modern composers did not demonstrate this self-conscious stance • • HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The Armory Show introduced modernist visual artists. OTHER ELEMENTS OF STRING QUARTET Modernists made a point of rejecting past musical ideas. decides that common-practice tonality has become as complex as possible STRING QUARTET RUTH CRAWFORD SEEGER Ruth Crawford Seeger studied with European modernist composers in the 1920s CLASSICAL MUSIC In the 1930s she moved to New York and began to study with Charles Seeger. including Pablo Picasso.
or cell •Copland chose to present these four notes alone at the beginning of the work Atonality •The modernist. These musicians experimented with timbres. Cowell helps gather folk music. EXPERIMENTALISM EDGARD VARÈSE • • Edgard Varèse moved to New York from his native France In works like Hyperprism he tried to achieve the pitch continuum of all possible pitches—not only those in the standard chromatic scale Varèse also employed unorthodox ensembles o • Ionisation requires 13 percussionists Ecuatorial draws inspiration from an indigenous South American Prayer o This work requires a then-recent electronic instrument called the ondes martenot HENRY COWELL Henry Cowell becomes familiar with varied types of music. and other techniques. He inserted objects like erasers or bolts between the strings inside of the instrument. some modernist composers considered themselves experimentalists. EXPERIMENTALISM Beginning in the 1910s. CLASSICAL MUSIC • ELEMENTS OF PIANO VARIATIONS Form •Piano Variations uses a traditional theme-andvariations form •The 20 variations take a total of 9 to 11 minutes to perform Material •Almost all of the material from Piano Variations comes from a four-note motive. implies C major harmonies Octave Displacement •Some notes in the melody are transposed up or down an octave or two using a technique called octave displacement Counterpoint •Sometimes Copland presents two melodies at once. creating a contrapuntal texture In the 1920s. In the 1940s. atonal harmonies lcak a pull to the tonic Tonality •The seventh variation. Rosenfeld noted the composition’s clean. unlike earlier ones. tuning systems. After release. Cowell experiments with special effects on the piano and tone clusters in works such as The Banshee and Aeolian Harp In the 1930s. JOHN CAGE In the 1930s. but not classical music. Cage invented the prepared piano. Both of these compositions lack standard melodies or harmonic tension. rhythms. In 1939 he began to find his personal voice with works like First Construction (In Metal) and Imaginary Landscape No. a "morals charge" lands the composer in San Quentin prison. John Cage performed some of his earliest compositional experiments. efficient construction and lack of ornamentation. unusual scales. 1.Music Cram Kit | 38 Modernism (Page 2 of 2) PIANO VARIATIONS PAUL ROSENFELD Journalist Paul Rosenfeld compared Aaron Copland’s Piano Variations to modernist skyscrapers. . Their experiments helped expand the possibilities of musical composition. as a youth. He later studies East Asian music before world music trends take off. musical mechanics.
put about 16. and lower ticket sales. Spain. about 70% of American musicians faced unemployment from 1929 to 1934 •In 1935. the Forum supported new works in a variety of genres The Federal Theater Project •Musicians found work through the Federal Theater Project by directing. but do not dominate FASCISM In the 1930s. the Works Progress Adminstration began to put musicians and other artists to work The Federal Music Project TRAITS OF COPLAND’S POPULIST COMPOSITIONS Copland included tuneful melodies •The Federal Music Project. PUTTING MUSICIANS TO WORK Background •Due largely to the Depression and the advent of talking pictures.000 musicians to work •The organization supported 28 symphony orchestras The Composers' Forum-Laboratory •The Composers' Forum-Laboratory functioned as part of the Federal Music Project •The forum organized performances of new American compositions •After a performance. composing. Publications such as the Daily Worker and New Masses debated upon the nature of new American communist music. fascist regimes grew in power in Italy. Additionally. ORGANIZATIONS THE COMPOSERS’ COLLECTIVE American communists sponsored the Composers’ Collective. Communists in particular spearheaded this anti-fascist movement. part of the Works Progress Administration. This group work to infuse musical composition with socialist ideology. many modernist composers began to reevaluate their roles in society. . composed music for The Cradle Will Rock SOME POPULIST COPLAND COMPOSITIONS • • • Music for the Radio The Second Hurricane. including Aaron Copland. or performing music for the stage •Marc Blitzstein. and Germany. Aaron Copland and Marc Blitzstein even entered mass songs in composition contests sponsored by the Daily Worker. many composers. membership in anti-fascist organizations grew in America. for instance. As a result. Modernist performances also suffered from long rehearsal times. however. Adolf Hitler’s anti-Semitic policies inspired many Jews to move to America. reduced patronage. bringing their musical talent with them. the audience asked the composer questions about the music •During the 1930s. a children’s play-opera Three ballets including: o o o Billy the Kid Appalachian Spring Rodeo Harmonies clearly pull towards tonic Modern elements add spice. turned away from modernism in favor of a simpler populist or Americanist style.Music Cram Kit | 39 CLASSICAL MUSIC A Change in Style NEW SIMPLICITY MODERNISM MOVES ON Soon after the onset of the Depression.
a small pump organ. ." War and the Tractor Thomson combines this style with American folksong. the Doxology or "Old Hundredth" •Thomson decided to set this usually major tune to minor-key harmonies •The original score for the film calls for the harmonium. Virgil Thomson composed scores for The Plow that Broke the Plains and later The River. which relocated struggling farmers. not a logical message. This film appealed to audiences emotionally...Music Cram Kit | 40 The Plow that Broke the Plains GOVERNMENT DOCUMENTARIES GOVERNMENT DOCUMENTARIES In the 1930s.the rains failed them.. the music references jazz and becomes bitonal Wind and Dust •Loud open fifths symbolize the beginning of the dust storm in "Wind and Dust" The severe music later emphasizes a dissonant tritone •Eventually. The 27-minute film promoted the Resettlement Administration. Aaron Copland’s The City promotes green towns: communities that provided families with an alternative to unhealthy urban living. Farm Security Administration officer George Stoney observed that audiences. simple school of French composition •In "Warning" the narrator repeats ". Prelude •The four-minute "Predule" outlines the geography and history of the Great Plains Pastorale (Grass) •"Pastorale (Grass)" provides a feeling of optimism •Diatonic brass figures rise in a major key Cattle VIRGIL THOMSON Virgil Thomson spends a large part of the 1920s and 1930s in Paris •"Cattle" features the cowboy tunes "Get Along Little Dogies" and "I Ride an Old Paint" •Aaron Copland used both of these tunes in the ballet Billy the Kid The Homesteader Warning Thomson draws inspiration from a mocking. the government used the relatively new film medium to inform the public of its programs.. mournful tune and then a woodwind joins with a similar melody •Later in the movement. acted as if they had just heard an evangelical sermon. For instance. The powerful music and images. creating the Americana sound Speculation (Blues) Drought •The strings begin "Drought" with a minor. the music quotes a popular hymn tune. but many recordings use a small group of woodwinds instead Devastation •The four-minute "Devastation" concludes Thomson's score STRUCTURE SECTIONS OF THE FILM CLASSICAL MUSIC OVERVIEW The Plow that Broke the Plains tells the story of how poor management and bad weather contributed to the Dust Bowl. inspired sympathy towards struggling farm families. having viewed the film.
particularly within the steel industry John Houseman and Orson Welles become the production's producer and director. and socialism. USA Violent labor unrest insues in America. Two German composers. plunging the premiere of The Cradle Will Rock into theater legend The crowd travels 21 blocks to a new theater . PREMIERE PREMIERE CLASSICAL MUSIC Marc Blitzstein comes up with the idea for the musical in 1934.” or folk music. In order to skirt around union rules. unions. Hanns Eisler and Kurt Weill particularly inspired the organization’s members. the FTP postpone's the musical's June 16. capitalism. premiere Upon finding the theater locked on opening night. respectively Mr. 1937. the work does address the question of what American composers could do to best serve their country in the midst of social and economic disaster. They considered modernism a symbol of the “bourgeois elite” and favored the influence of “everyman’s music. the actors began performing their roles from the audience The audience responds ecstatically. Many American composers began to favor a simpler musical style.Music Cram Kit | 41 The Cradle Will Rock (Page 1 of 2) OVERVIEW THEMATIC OVERVIEW Marc Blitzstein’s The Cradle Will Rock underscores many Depression-era themes including poverty. joining the Communist party and turning towards simpler music. Mister's Liberty committee illegally and unethically surpresses freedom In order to avoid causing a riot. Mister or the workers lead by union organizaer Larry Foreman Blitzstein begins to perform all of the parts at the piano to a packed house RADICAL POLITICS AMONG AMERICAN COMPOSERS Members of the semi-secret Composers’ Collective sought to create music for the American working class. Welles and Houseman look for a new venue The middle class must choose whether to support Mr. Even though the musical borders on propaganda. These two men abandoned “elitist” modernist composition. Mister in fictional Steeltown. completing it in 1936 The Federal Theater Project provides funds for the first production in 1937 OVERVIEW OF THE PLOT The Cradle Will Rock describes the struggle between steelworkers and the wealthy magnate Mr.
Mister. "The Cradle Will Rock. Mister desires prestige and attention. and unexpected shifts in ahrmony •Despite frequent modulations. Imprisoned with them. SCENE 7 EVENTS IN SCENE 7 Several Liberty Committee members find themselves in jail by mistake. The two men then sing to her about how much they would love to spend a weekend at her country home and the words turn ugly. Foreman breaks into the title song of the musical. the song remains tonal Philosophy •"The Cradle Will Rock" does not draw inspiration from modernist philosophy at all •The song clearly intends to inspire opressed workers to act against the status quo . After criticizing the Liberty Committee. Mister's arrival. while the two artists want food and shelter •Marc Blitzstein does not excuse Yasha and Dauber from moral responsibility STYLE OF THE TITLE SONG The Composers' Collective •"The Cradle Will Rock" resembles the workers choruses which the Composers' Collective promoted in its early years •The music features strong rhythms and an emphatic march-like beat Performers of Workers Songs •Composers probably did not intend all workers to sing a workers song •Workers signed up for regular singing groups and performed at scheduled gatherings A Blend of Broadway and Modernism •"The Cradle Will Rock" includes modernist dissonance. irregular meter. intentionally caused a fatal explosion at union headquarters in the previous scene Beethoven •Also ironically. union organizer Larry Foreman describes his arrest to the prostitute Moll. Mister. Mrs. announcing Mrs.Music Cram Kit | 42 The Cradle Will Rock (Page 2 of 2) SCENE 6 EVENTS IN SCENE 6 Yasha the violinist and Dauber the artist bump into each other in a hotel lobby. Mister's car horn frivolously quotes a fragment of Beethoven's Egmont Overture •This overture draws inspiration from a play by Goethe Comparisons •Marc Blitzstein directly compares Beethoven to Yasha and Dauber •The Egmont motive and Yasha and Dauber's "art for art's sake" motive resemble each other Characterization •Blitzstein portrays Mrs. Yasha. Mister's lines refer to death and killing •Her husband. Mr. and Dauber as immoral sellouts •Mrs." ANALYSIS Death and Killing •Mrs. CLASSICAL MUSIC A car horn plays a fragment of Beethoven. odd melodic leaps.
Tchaikovsky. Igor Stravinsky popularized this clear. Brahms. Schumann. early Beethoven Romantic •Late Beethoven.Music Cram Kit | 43 CLASSICAL MUSIC Music and Media OCHO POR RADIO AMERICAN INTEREST IN MEXICO Mexican composers like Silvestre Revueltas and Carlos Chávez helped inspire American composers like Aaron Copland. percussion. Regular radio broadcasts also helped the Metropolitan opera survive the Depression. Verdi. only short classical compositions could conveniently fit onto records. Classical music better thrived on radio. Neoclassical compositions feature sudden musical shifts and a steady pulse. Rossini. but effects like polymeter or irregular meter obscure the sense of downbeat. Haydn. bassoon. Schubert. Wagner. trumpet. double bass. Richard Strauss. FORM A •The A section conveys a festive mood over a quick tempo •Cheerful folk melodies pervade throughout the A section •Ostinati in different keys provide a polytonal texture •Rhythmic effects sometimes even obscure the sense of meter B •The slower. NBC broadcast Serge Koussevitzky conducting the Boston Symphony to one million Americans. Some passages are bitonal and brief snippets (ostinati) repeat. In 1926. Dvorak. and clarinet THE NEOCLASSICAL STYLE Ocho por Radio features many neoclassical elements. Puccini Modern •Igor Stravinsky . Verdi Late Romantic •Rachmaninoff. FAMOUS CONDUCTORS CONDUCTOR Serge Koussevitzky Arturo Toscanini Leopold Stokowski ORCHESTRA Boston Symphony New York Philharmonic NBC Orchestra Philadelphia Orchestra MUSIC AND MEDIA INSTRUMENTATION Ocho por Radio requires eight musicians who play two violins. Sibelius. languid B section provides contrast •The bassoon plays a melody which begins on a repeated pitch A •The final A section resumes the party atmosphere of the first A Coda •A short flourish ends the composition POPULAR COMPOSERS IN AMERICA Classical •Mozart. and quirky style. playful. Revueltas’ Ocho por Radio helped inspire Copland’s El Salon México. Mahler. Berlioz. NEW MEDIA Before the advent of the long-playing record in 1948. cello. Mendelssohn.
Still conducts the Los Angeles Philharmonic. These intellectuals debated upon which music best fit their goals. violin. believed that this music should reflect the freedom and spontaneity of traditional performances. DuBois sought to prove the value and potential of AfricanAmerican art and depict the heritage of black America by using mainstream white artistic forms. an English horn plays a lyrical solo •The first major idea of the exposition features an AAB 12-bar blues pattern •The second idea is a lyrical melody which resembles black spirituals Development •A violin solo dominates the movement's development Recapitulation THE HARLEM RENAISSANCE Harlem Renaissance intellectuals like W. Louis Blues" while studying under Edgard Varèse FORM Exposition He wins a prestigous grant from the Guggenheim Foundation and relocates to Los Angeles. and oboe at Oberlin College and Wilberforce University AFRO-AMERICAN SYMPHONY AFRO-AMERICAN SYMPHONY William Grant Still decided to include blues elements into Afro-American Symphony because the genre does “not exhibit the influence of Caucasian music. Others.B. becoming the first African-American to conduct a major orchestra A FEW FINAL TIDBITS William Grant Still’s Afro-American Symphony uses banjo and vibraphone. Afro-American Symphony becomes the first work by an African-American composer to be performed by a major orchestra In 1935. Handy. composer of "St. DID YOU KNOW? Although not directly involved in the Harlem Renaissance. where he sets a new standard in film scoring •Before the exposition of this sonata-allegro movement. believed that singers like Paul Robeson should sing spirituals in an operatic style. Still even attached poetry by black poet Paul Laurence Dunbar to each of the work’s four movements. but jazz did not enjoy comparable artistic status to classical music at the time. cello.E. Some thinkers. including Alain Locke. Many African-Americans had gained mainstream fame through jazz. William Grant Still’s music nevertheless reflects some of the movement’s goals •The CD only contains the recapitulation •The recapitulation reverses the order of the two main ideas of the exposition •The movement ends with a bass clarinet solo In 1931. like Zora Neale Hurston.C.Music Cram Kit | 44 The Harlem Renaissance WILLIAM GRANT STILL WILLIAM GRANT STILL William Grant Still studies composition. referring to jazz past and present Afro-American Symphony represents the first of Still’s five symphonies o The later four demonstrate a more modernist style Still’s varied output composed eight operas and numerous dance-band arrangements . CLASSICAL MUSIC William Grant Still works for the publishing company of W.
minor. or fifth scale degree. which is common in popular songs Fugues are contrapuntal. or triads. resolves unstable dissonance into consonance A bass line reinforces a progression Chord progressions commonly resolve to tonic harmonies The dominant seventh chord (V7) pulls particularly strongly to tonic. or modulate. can be major. its pitch Doubling frequency increases the pitch by an octave Using equal temperament tuning. creating atonality and later the twelve-tone method COMMON MUSICAL TEXTURES Homophonic texture results when a melody and supporting accompaniment function separately Multiple independent voices sound melodies at once in polyphonic textures TWO OTHER ELEMENTS OF MUSIC Dynamics indicate how loud or soft a musician should play Articulation refers to the mechanics of producing the music itself COMMON FORMS A composer presents a main theme then repeats it with variations in theme and variations form Twelve-bar blues also uses variation techniques ABA form exploits musical contrast. or augmented Sometimes composers invert triads by putting the third or the fifth of a triad on the bottom instead of the root KEYS A key describes the main scale of a passage of music A set of accidentals called the key signature indicates the key A key signature can refer to a major scale or its relative minor Music can change key. or a harmonic progression. but different pitches CONTOUR Contour describes the profile of a melody Conjunct melodies contain many steps. most often along the circle of fifths HARMONIC PROGRESSION A progression of chords. Arnold Schoenberg decided to abandon common-practice altogether. diminished. as does 32-bar form. the chromatic scale divides an octave into 12 equal parts A FEW SCALE DEGREES The tonic is the “home base” of the scale The dominant. while three beats indicates triple Irregular meter features atypical groupings of beats Syncopated rhythms emphasize notes in between beats or on weak beats CHORDS Three or more simultaneous pitches make up a chord Three-note chords. is almost as important The leading tone leads upwards by a half step to the tonic COMPARING TWO SCALES Relative major and minor scales contain the same notes. imitative pieces with a main theme called a fugue subject SONATA FORM The composer introduces two main themes and modulates in the exposition The development explores the possibilities of these themes The recapitulation restates the material of the exposition without modulating CRUNCH KIT . composers began to use more and more chromatic pitches outside of their music’s key In around 1910. while disjunct melodies include more leaps METER AND RHYTHM Rhythm describes the duration of musical notes The beat provides musical pulse Meter organizes beats into measures using a time signature Two beats per measure indicates duple meter.Music Cram Kit | 45 Music in Four Pages (Page 1) INSTRUMENTAL FAMILIES Any instrument whose strings vibrate to produce sound is a chordophone A vibrating column of air produces sound in aerophones like woodwind or brass instruments All drums are membranophones Striking the body of the instrument itself produces sound on an idiophone Electrophones such as the Theremin produce sound electronically PITCH AND TUNING The frequency of a sound wave determines the highness or lowness of the sound. in part due to its dissonant internal tritone BEYOND COMMON PRACTICE Common-practice tonality is the most intuitive Western system of organizing harmonic progressions Over time. but have different tonics Parallel major and minor scales use the same tonics.
spontaneous field holler Variety shows like vaudeville and the minstrel show contributed to the later blues business model Minstrel shows often featured white performers in blackface TYPES OF BLUES Country blues featured itinerant male singers and was considered more “authentic” and rural Classic blues showcased more professional musicians and flourished in cities W. a more obscene type of blues Boogie-woogie piano also developed with the Depression LEAD BELLY Lead Belly could sing a large repertoire of songs. Mamie Smith released a hit recording of “Crazy Blues” Other black female singers. Louis Armstrong’s trumpet playing helped shift the focus towards solos in jazz Armstrong’s “hot” sound and uneven swing rhythms inspired musicians GEORGE GERSHWIN White songwriter George Gershwin composed jazz influenced works he called “Symphonic Jazz” Examples include Rhapsody in Blue and the opera Porgy and Bess BIG BANDS AND SWING Big bands. Louis Blues” Unlike country blues. Benny Goodman’s Orchestra’s Palomar Broadcast ushered in the swing era PERFORMANCE CONVENTIONS Many jazz performances use a 32-bar form borrowed from a popular song chorus After stating the tune. or changes. this work contains an established structure and requires a score BLUES SINGERS In 1920. subsequently featured on race records The Depression lost many blues musicians recording and performing opportunities HOKUM Big Bill Broonzy played a large role in creating hokum. Louis Blues” Billie Holiday sang “St. from Gershwin’s “I Got Rhythm” MORE MUSIC AND MUSICIANS Some musicians played combo jazz in smaller ensembles called combos Art Tatum enjoyed fame as a virtuoso solo jazz pianist Jimmy Blanton showcased his walking bass technique in Duke Ellington’s band on his bass CRUNCH KIT . or seventh scale degrees. HANDY W.Music Cram Kit | 46 Music in Four Pages (Page 2) BLUES TRAITS The blues uses the three-part twelve-bar blues harmonic structure Blues performances features call and response effects between performers Notation cannot capture the improvised elements of a performance Musicians common flatten third. including the blues He accompanied himself singing “Midnight Special” on his twelve-string guitar Lead Belly came to the attention of folksong collector John Lomax JAZZ ORIGINS Jazz draws influence from various musical styles popular in New Orleans including brass band music Scott Joplin’s syncopated Ragtime piano compositions also helped inspire the genre The all-white Original Dixieland Jazz Band recorded jazz for the first time in the polyphonic Dixieland Style LOUIS ARMSTRONG Assisted by Joe “King” Oliver.C. or dance bands. the musicians repeat the chord progression and played variations or solos on top The rhythm section maintains the beat Melody instruments like the saxophone often play different notes of the same chords all at once by playing as a choir DUKE ELLINGTON Duke Ellington remained an important figure in jazz for many years He composed and arranged for his band in innovative ways Ellington’s composition Cotton Tail borrows the chord progression. slaves often gathered to participate in a musical ring shout While working slaves often sang steady work songs An individual slave sometimes improvised an elaborate. in particular Bessie Smith. Handy has been called the “Father of the Blues” Handy established a publishing company and composed classic blues works like “St. played the most popular music of the 1930s White musicians favored sweet jazz while blacks performed hot jazz Swing features a fast pulse and uneven eighth notes In 1935. fifth. creating blue notes PRE-BLUES GENRES After church services.C.
It’s Been Good to Know You” draws inspiration from a dust storm This ballad relies on storytelling and subtle variation. however. Can You Spare a Dime” Lyricist Yip Harburg later worked on songs for The Wizard of Oz Unlike many popular songs.Music Cram Kit | 47 Music in Four Pages (Page 3) COLONIAL SONG We know the most about American colonial religious singing The Psalter The Bay Psalm Book became the first book printed in America in 1640 Various colonial groups brought their own ethnic musical traditions to the New World PARLOR SONG Parlor song dominated the 19th-century popular music scene Amateur musicians could play these simple songs at home One popular parlor song was ”Home Sweet Home” The most popular American songwriter of the century was Stephen Foster who only wrote lucrative minstrel songs reluctantly TIN PAN ALLEY New York City was a center of the music industry Song pluggers played the latest sheet music along the publishing district Tin Pan Alley PERFORMER’S MUSIC Composers writing composers' music intended musicians to perform the music exactly as written Musicians could adapt works to fit their personal styles while performing performers' music GREAT SONGWRITERS OF THE 1930S Jerome Kern famously teams up with lyricist Oscar Hammerstein II to compose the musical Show Boat Richard Rodgers famously collaborated with Lorenz Hart. could only play the piano in F-sharp. including modal mixture Rudy Vallee sings on the CD OTHER POPULAR MUSIC Rural white musicians played country. improvise wordless melodies FILM MUSICALS Film musicals like 42nd Street provided entertainment in the 1930s Musicals generally featured a degree of spectacle and offered a route for escapism FRED ASTAIRE Fred Astaire starred in 11 movie musicals in the 1930s He insisted upon high artistic standards for dance numbers Astaire introduced many new songs to the public through film. IT’S BEEN GOOD TO KNOW YOU Guthrie’s “So Long. or hillbilly music Bill Monroe pioneered bluegrass Ethnic groups like the Irish and Jews influenced mainstream culture with their unique musical traditions FOLKSONG COLLECTORS Many organizations collecting folk music viewed the genre condescendingly Collectors like John Lomax helped preserve and promote American folk music Classical composers like Aaron Copland even drew upon folk material WOODY GUTHRIE The Dust Bowl and the Depression galvanized folk singer-songwriter Woody Guthrie towards social activism Guthrie performed in the Grapes of Wrath Evening concert alongside Alan Lomax and Lead Belly SO LONG. notably Irving Berlin’s “Cheek to Cheek” from the movie Top Hat BROTHER. not chromaticism and dissonance Guthrie recorded the song twice POLITICAL FALLOUT Many musicians saw their opportunities wane due to a fear of communism during the McCarthy Era In the 1960s. and lived to age 101 BEI MIR BIST DO SCHÖN Sholom Secunda and Jacob Jacobs produced the original version of “Bei Mir Bist Du Schön” in Yiddish The Andrews Sisters made the song famous in its English translation Ella Fitzgerald also sang the song with the Chick Webb Orchestra Her performance shows off her ability to scat. a group of younger protest singers rose to prominence Woody Guthrie inspired figures such as Bob Dylan and Bruce Springsteen CRUNCH KIT . Can You Spare a Dime” admits to the hardships of the Depression The work also includes unusually chromatic harmonies. and later Hammerstein Only Cole Porter could challenge Rodgers and Hart’s dominance on Broadway after 1935 George Gershwin composed a large number of hit songs with his lyricist brother Ira Irving Berlin owned a publishing company. “Brother. CAN YOU SPARE A DIME Jay Gorney drew upon lullabies while composing “Brother.
but her melodies are not traditional. mocking French style with American folk music to create an Americana sound THE PLOW THAT BROKE THE PLAINS Virgil Thomson composed a score for the government documentary The Plow that Broke the Plains This film sought to promote the Resettlement Administration. and one cello PIANO VARIATIONS Aaron Copland’s Piano Variations is atonal. a technique that organizes pitch relationships according to a set of pitches rather than to a scale Seeger emphasized the importance of melody. the Composers’ ForumLaboratory. which relocated families who suffered as a result of the Dust Bowl The film describes how inferior management and unfortunate weather contributed to the Dust Bowl The film appealed to audiences not on a logical.Music Cram Kit | 48 Music in Four Pages (Page 4) MODERNISM Arnold Schoenberg helped inspire musical modernism in America The 1913 Armory Show introduced Americans to modernist visual art. the “Dean of African American Composers” wrote Afro-American Symphony. including Pablo Picasso Modernists did not seek to satisfy an audience. promoting conductors like Toscanini. emphasizing normally dissonant the melodic major seventh The string quartet contains two violins. the audience found a new theater The actors participated from the audience in order to avoid union rules Mrs. Stokowski. but believed in artistic autonomy. playful neoclassical style This work helped inspire Copland’s El Salón México MASS MEDIA Radio proved an especially good medium for spreading classical music. yet uses the traditional theme and variations form A four-note motive provides the basis of the entire work EXPERIMENTALISM Experimentalists sought to advance the possibilities of composition Edgard Varèse experimented with pitch and unorthodox ensembles The works of Henry Cowell include piano special effects and tone clusters John Cage inserted objects between piano strings to create the prepared piano A NEW SIMPLICITY Modernist composers moved towards a simpler style during the Depression Aaron Copland’s populist or Americanist works include the ballets Rodeo. Charles Seeger Eventually they abandoned modernism and acted in the folk music revival STRING QUARTET Ruth Crawford Seeger’s String Quartet features dissonant counterpoint. one viola. the first work by a black composer to receive a performance by a major orchestra The first movement of this symphony uses sonataallegro form and incorporates blues elements CRUNCH KIT . but on an emotional level Thomson’s score interestingly quotes the Doxology hymn RADICAL POLITICS Many composers participated in the communist Composers’ Collective This organization debated what music best served American workers Active composers admired folksong material THE CRADLE WILL ROCK Marc Blitzstein’s musical The Cradle Will Rock describes the struggle between steel workers and the wealthy magnate Mr. organized free concerts of works by new American composers Many musicians also found work through the Federal Theatre Project VIRGIL THOMSON Virgil Thomson lived in France for a period of his life He combined a simple. Mister’s car horn quotes a fragment of Beethoven in scene 6 OCHO POR RADIO Mexican composer Silvestre Revueltas wrote Ocho por Radio in the balanced. the idea that works of art were self-contained objects of beauty RUTH CRAWFORD SEEGER Ruth Crawford Seeger married one of her modernist composition teachers. Mister This work carries a leftist message On the night of the premiere. and Billy the Kid THE WORKS PROGRESS ADMINISTRATION The Works Progress Administration supported the Federal Music Project One branch of the FMP. the Federal Theatre Project locked the venue to avoid causing riots Instead. and Koussevitzky AFRO-AMERICAN SYMPHONY William Grant Still. Appalachian Spring.
Paul White conductor who led the first performance of Rhapsody in Blue Koussevitzky.C. Conductor of the Boston Symphony who broadcast the first-ever life performance Serge of a full symphonic concert Ring shout 10 GENRES A gathering of slaves after worship services Work song A steady song genre which slaves sang on the fields Field holler An improvised. Bessie A famous black female blues singer Broonzy. Stephen C. saxophonist.Music Cram Kit | 49 CRUNCH KIT List of Lists 10 HIGH PRIORITY WORKS Appalachian Spring Rodeo Billy the Kid “Crazy Blues” “Dixie” Ecuatorial “Home Sweet Home” Rhapsody in Blue “Strange Fruit” “Tom Joad” An Aaron Copland ballet An Aaron Copland ballet An Aaron Copland ballet A Perry Bradford composition which Mamie Smith recorded in 1920 An originally mocking Dan Emmett song which Southerners adopted as their own An Edgard Varèse work which uses the ondes martenot An enormously popular parlor song from the operetta Clari. Scott Famous ragtime pianist and composer Goodman. embellished song sung by single slaves Tin Pan Alley blues A blues genre among white songwriters like George Gershwin Dixieland jazz An early. and bandleader who helped usher in the swing era Foster. Benny White clarinetist. polyphonic jazz style Boogie-woogie A blues piano genre Sweet jazz Elegant jazz favored by white musicians Jungle style A “primitive” Duke Ellington style Combo jazz Jazz performed by small ensembles called combos Bluegrass A country style pioneered by Bill Monroe . Probably the most famous American songwriter of the 19th century Whiteman. Handy’s Music Premiered Irving Berlin’s “Cheek to Cheek” 10 HIGH PRIORITY MUSICIANS Blanton. Louis Blues Top Hat Starred Al Jolson and became the first talking picture in 1927 A Thomas Arne work popular in colonial America George Gershwin’s “American folk opera” A Broadway musical-turned-film which earned Jerome Kern his first Opera A Kern and Hammerstein musical which set a standard for plots and character development A short film which featured Bessie Smith singing W. Big Bill Chicago blues musician who helped create hokum Joplin. Ella Sang “Bei Mir Bist Du Schön” Schoeberg. Arnold Pioneered atonality and the twelve-tone technique Smith. or The Maid of Milan An orchestral work by George Gershwin which incorporates some jazz elements A controversial song in Billie Holiday’s repertoire which criticized lynching A Woody Guthrie ballad which summarizes the story of The Grapes of Wrath 10 THEATER AND FILM WORKS 42nd Street Film which set technological standards Annie Get Your Gun A 1946 success of Irving Berlin Girl Crazy Musical which premiered George Gerhswin’s “I Got Rhythm” The Jazz Singer Love in a Village Porgy and Bess Roberta Show Boat St. Jimmy Bassist in Duke Ellington’s band who used the walking bass technique Fitzgerald.
Oscar II Hart. Mister Composer and husband of Ruth Crawford Seeger Stokowski. Gertrude “Ma” Seeger. Lorenz Jefferson. sentimental religious songs Promoted the causes of workers Longed for the antebellum past Patriotic compositions like “The Star Spangled Banner” Typically described the misery of travelling west An example of Duke Ellington’s jungle style “Mood Indigo” A Duke Ellington mood piece The River A Virgil Thomson film score “The Star Spangled A patriotic parlor song which uses Francis Banner” Scott Key’s lyrics “Tenting on the A Civil War song which admits to the Old Campground” war’s negative side “To Anacreon in A British song which provided the tune Heaven” for “The Star Spangled Banner” 10 MEDIUM PRIORITY MUSICIANS Chávez.Music Cram Kit | 50 CRUNCH KIT List of Lists 10 MEDIUM PRIORITY WORKS “Alexander’s Ragtime Band” “The Battle Cry of Freedom” The City “Daybreak Express” “Ko-ko” Irving Berlin’s first big hit A famous Civil War song An Aaron Copland film score A Duke Ellington work with a train theme Civil War Songs Folksongs Gospel songs Labor songs Nostalgic songs Patriotic parlor songs Songs of Westward Expansion PARLOR SONGS Usually glorified the war Most important in the Southwest Gentle. USA A jailed prostitute to whom Larry Foreman relates the story of his arrest A wealthy magnate who leads the oppressive Liberty Committee Wife of Mr. Mister Yasha An artist who meets Mrs. Carlos Debussy. Charles An important Mexican composer and conductor Used non-functional harmonies and unusual scales Wrote lyrics and libretti for Kern and Rodgers Wrote lyrics and libretti for Richard Rogers A Texas bluesman Starred in the first-ever talking picture. Claude Hammerstein. Leopold Conductor of the Philadelphia Orchestra who exploited mass media early Tatum. Blind Lemon Jolson. Art A virtuoso jazz solo pianist . Al Rainey. The Jazz Singer A famous black female blues singer CHARACTERS OF THE CRADLE WILL ROCK Dauber Larry Foreman Moll Mr. Mister A worker who tries to organize a union in Steeltown. Mister Mrs. Mister who desires prestige and attention A violinist who meets Mrs.
including those outside of the chromatic scale Describes music which contains multiple keys at once A Tin Pan Alley song which Bessie Smith incorporated into her repertoire 5-15 LOWER PRIORITY MUSICIANS Arne. yet short-lived downhome blues artist Morton.C.Music Cram Kit | 51 CRUNCH KIT List of Lists 8 LOWER PRIORITY WORKS Aeolian Harp Concerto in F First Construction (In Metal) Hyperprism Ionisation “Memphis Blues” The Second Hurricane “Tea For Two” A Henry Cowell work which instructs the pianist to strum the instrument’s strings An example of George Gershwin’s “Symphonic Jazz” A John Cage composition which only features percussion An Edgard Varèse composition which strives for the “pitch continuum” An Edgard Varèse composition which uses 13 percussionists An early W. Handy attempt at writing a classic blues An Aaron children Copland play-opera for Atonal Bitonality Dissonant counterpoint Non-functional harmonies Octave displacement Ostinati Pitch continuum Polytonal 8 MODERN MUSICAL TECHNIQUES Describes music without any key Occurs when music sounds in two keys at once Allows composers to derive pitch relationships from the notes themselves. repeated snippets common in neoclassical music Edgard Varèse’s name for the entire spectrum of possible pitches. not from a scale Use common-practice chords. strident instrumental effect The practice of assigning multiple instruments from a section different notes of the same chords in the same rhythm Enables special effects on instruments like the trombone and trumpet The chord progression from Gershwin’s “I Got Rhythm” which forms the basis of many jazz compositions A climactic. Blind A ragtime-influenced bluesman Dorsey. Kurt A German composer who inspired the Composers’ Collective Chorus Changes Growl effect Playing as a choir JAZZ TERMS The name given to repeated harmonic progressions The chord progression of a chorus A raspy. Thomas A. Robert An influential.C. “Jelly Roll” A Creole pianist who helped develop the ragtime style Pace. William A classical composer who drew inspiration from folksong Weill. Count Composer of Love in a Village Led a Kansas City band which incorporated blues elements Blake. The father of gospel music who helped “Georgia Tom” create hokum Johnson. but do not resolve them in the typical fashion The technique of moving some pitches of a melody up or down by an octave or two Short. full ensemble chorus Innovative bass technique in which the bassist deviates from the basic harmony on weak beats Plunger mute Rhythm changes Shout chorus Walking bass . Harry A college-educated African American who helped W. Thomas Basie. Jimmy An important early country music musician Schuman. Handy set up a publishing business Rodgers.
Daniel’s other musically inclined friend has been far more successful: Sasha ZamlerCarhart (who wrote the 1998 Music Resource) is premiering his first opera in New York City this October. Pushing personal limits. and is absolutely terrified about applying to graduate schools this fall. but do not prioritize subgenres. They are pictured here during a recent reunion in Sasha’s hometown. (If you want Daniel to tear up. composer Burch Wang. given that there are no longer teams in the state. Sasha and Daniel are quite brotherly. Teamwork. The 2011 collegiate race season won't begin until March 2011 but who knows what might happen. no other Washington decathlete has broken 8. In her senior year of high school. . she gave up leadership of her high school Debate team to captain her Academic Decathlon team. try songs from Aladdin and The Little Mermaid. which probably explains why they often argue and have very different taste in clothes.com/dan. Specificity. He’d rather be practicing piano. She likes to think that it turned out well! In that year. and some viola. Francis of Assisi and puppets made of garbage. As far as he knows. but do not emphasize details Know the general instrumentation of each listening excerpt for the listening section of the exam Don’t stress over the details of each track..com. or pursuing free food. ABOUT THE ALPACA-IN-CHIEF DANIEL BERDICHEVKSY Daniel Berdichevsky had a short-lived musical career as a would-be lyricist for musicals and Disney movies.facebook.berd. Sophy gave up her position as captain of the Harvard University Mock Trial team—the top-ranked program in the country—to serve as President of the Harvard Cycling team. they might confuse you ABOUT THE AUTHOR Jonathan Spatola-Knoll graduated from Olympia High School and now attends Whitman College in Walla Walla.wordpress. know the big picture Remember the major historical trends of how large genres evolved.com. It involves St. If you do not already know them all.) He and his one-time collaborator. where Burch is now a World Scholar’s Cup coach. she welcomes your thoughts and questions at sophy@demidec.Music Cram Kit | 52 FINAL TIPS AND ABOUT THE AUTHOR FINAL TIPS Review major concepts in music theory. In her sophomore year of college.000 points—nor is one likely to. As different as Academic Decathlon and cycling might seem. Washington. Sophy swears that the two disciplines share the same lessons and principles. recently reunited in Taiwan. Pearland High School won its first-ever State Championship and 3rd place at Nationals. Jonathan is a music history major who plays piano. feel free to check on her and her team's progress at thefullmontee. And love for what you're doing! As always. and classical music Pay special attention to the musicians and composers on the listening examples themselves Review important genres. especially blues. ABOUT THE EDITOR SOPHY LEE Sophy Lee has quit her way into some of the best decisions of her life.. You can find Daniel at dan@demidec. He loves to nerdfully research music nobody really knows or cares about. violin. jazz. Paris. Competition.com or on Facebook at www. writing his thesis on an obscure Russian composer.
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