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laundry products. Unpigmented HDPE bottles are translucent and have good barrier properties and stiffness. They are well suited to packaging products with short shelf lives such as milk. Pigmented HDPE bottles generally have better stress crack and chemical resistance than bottles made with unpigmented HDPE. These properties are needed for packaging such items as household chemicals and detergents, which have a longer shelf life. Made via a low-pressure process at 1 atm and 170 degrees. Relative density: 0.941 to 0.965 grams/cubic centimetres. HDPE does not become pliable until temperatures over water’s boiling point, i.e. 100 degrees. HDPE remains stable down to -45 degrees. Good welding properties, weldable at 130 to 170 degrees.
LOW DENSITY POLYETHYLENE (LDPE): A plastic used predominantly in film applications due to its toughness, flexibility and relative transparency. LDPE has a low melting point, making it popular for use in applications where heat sealing is necessary. Typically, LDPE is used to manufacture flexible films such as those used for plastic retail bags and garment dry cleaning and grocery bags. LDPE is also used to manufacture some flexible lids and bottles, and it is widely used in wire and cable applications for its stable electrical properties and processing characteristics Made via a high pressure process at 3000 atm and 300 degrees. Low relative density: 0.91 to 0.925 grams/cubic centimetres. LDPE is a tough, semi-transparent material. LDPE becomes pliable at around 60 to 80 degrees. LDPE remains stable down to -60 degrees. Good welding properties, weldable at 110 to 140 degrees. Low permeability to aqueous vapour (steam). High permeability to gases like oxygen.
LINEAR LOW DENSITY POLYETHYLENE (LLDPE): A plastic that is used predominantly in film applications due to its toughness, flexibility and relative transparency. LLDPE is the preferred resin for mixing with LDPE, because of its superior toughness and is used in items such as grocery bags, garbage bags and landfill liners.
Made via a low-pressure process at 1 atm and 170 degrees. Low relative density: 0.91 to 0.925 grams/cubic centimetre. The production method reduces the tension in the material. This enables the production of thinner foils wit Typically used as an additive since pure LLDPE is difficult to process.
POLYPROPYLENE (PP): Polypropylene has excellent chemical resistance, is strong and has the lowest density of the plastics used in packaging. It has a high melting point, making it ideal for hot-fill liquids. In film form it may or may not be oriented (stretched). PP is found in everything from flexible and rigid packaging to fibres and large molded parts for automotive and consumer products.
Polystyrene is a very versatile plastic that can be rigid or foamed. General purpose polystyrene is clear, hard and brittle. It has a relatively low melting point. Typical applications include protective packaging, containers, lids, cups, bottles, trays and tumblers.
COMMON TYPES OF PLASTICS
Symbol Type of Plastic PET Properties Clear, tough solvent Common Uses Soft drink and water Recycled In Pillow and sleeping bag filling, clothing, soft drink bottles carpet
resistant, barrier to gas bottles, salad domes, Polyethylene Terephthalate and moisture, softens at around 80°C biscuit trays, salad dressing and peanut butter containers PE-HD Hard to semi-flexible, resistant to chemicals High Density Polyethylene and moisture, waxy surface, opaque, Crinkly shopping bags, freezer bags, milk bottles, ice cream
Recycling bins, compost bins, buckets, detergent
containers, juice bottles, containers, posts, fencing, pipes
softens at around 75°C, shampoo, chemical and easily colored, processed and formed detergent bottles, buckets, rigid agricultural pipe, milk crates PVC Strong, tough, can be clear, can be solvent Unplasticised Polyvinyl welded, softens at around 80°C Cosmetic containers, electrical conduit, plumbing pipes and fittings, blister packs, wall cladding, roof sheeting, bottles Flexible, clear, elastic, can be solvent welded
Flooring, film and sheets, cables, speed bumps, packaging, binders, mud flaps and mats
Plasticised Polyvinyl Chloride PCV-P
garden hose, shoe soles, cable sheathing, blood bags and tubing, watch
straps PE-LD Soft, flexible, waxy surface, translucent, Low density Polyethylene (LDPE) softens at 70°C, scratches easily Hard but still flexible, waxy surface, softens Polypropylene at around 140°C, Plastic Food wrap, garbage bags, squeeze bottles, black irrigation tube, garbage bins Dip bottles and ice cream Pegs, bins, pipes, tubs, potato chip bags, straws, microwave pallet sheets, oil funnels, car battery cases, trays Rubbish bin liners, pallet sheets
translucent, withstands dishes, kettles, garden solvents, versatile furniture, lunch boxes, blue packing tape PS Clear, glassy, rigid, brittle, opaque, semiPolystyrene
CD cases, plastic cutlery, Coat hangers, imitation 'crystal coasters, white ware components, stationery trays and accessories
tough, softens at 95°C. glassware', low cost Affected by fats and solvents brittle toys, video cases
Expanded Polystyrene Foamed, light weight,
Foamed polystyrene hot drink cups, hamburger
energy absorbing, heat takeaway clamshells, insulating foamed meat trays, protective packaging for fragile items OTHER Includes all other resins Car parts, appliance and multi materials Letters below indicate ISO Car parts, concrete
parts, electronics, water aggregate, plastic
code for plastic type e. laminates). PC.g. ABS.(e. packaging timber .g. Nylon Properties depend on plastic or combination of plastics cooler bottles. SAN.
so you can not be certain of consistency from state to state. and the numbers within the recycling arrows refer to different types of plastic resins. .Types of Plastics Recycling Resources Recycling Facts Recycling Pictures In an attempt to bring order to plastics classification for recycling purposes. They are commonly called SPI codes. There is no federal regulation governing the types of symbols you see stamped to plastic. However. it is generally safe to assume some consistency. the Society of the Plastics Industry (SPI) devised some voluntary codes in 1988. with SPI codes.
blister packaging • LDPE (low density polyethylene): bread bags. disposable plastic silverware • Other: This code indicates that the item is made with a resin other than the six listed above. toys. clothing. • © 2002. water bottles. tote bags. Patricia A. fast food trays. furniture. beer bottles. garment bags • PP (polypropylene): margarine and yogurt containers. plastic bags • PVC (polyvinyl chloride): food wrap. fiber. carpet. oil bottles. vegetable oil bottles. mouthwash bottles and many more • HDPE (high density polyethylene): milk bottles. or a combination of different resins. . caps for containers. squeezable bottles. Michaels.PET (polyethylene terephthalate): plastic soft drink bottles. bottles. wrapping to replace cellophane • PS (polystyrene): egg cartons. frozen food bags. shrink-wrap. detergent bottles.
Component parts and cases for entertainment industry and data processing units.Material Properties Recommended application Noryl Extremely good mechanical. Good sliding properties and high capacity of resistance to . Polyamide Thermoplastic with high temperature stability. Dimensionally stable. self-extinguishing parts. Good ageing stability and weathering resistance. High stability against chemicals. extremely solid and tenacious. mainly when exchanged with metal. heat-resistant. thermal and electrical properties.
UV-light may have a negative effect. Polycarbonate Thermoplastic with high temperature stability with excellent resistance to all kinds of temperature. Contact with humidity may result in a change of properties. Recommended for cases housing instruments and general indoor and outdoor application. also suitable for low temperature. Ideally suited for technical application. SB-types are impact resistant and less sensitive to tearing under pressure. Glossy surface. Limited outdoor application. Special materials comply with ball-thrust hardness test according to VDE 700 at 125°C. On the whole. Metal-cutting is possible. good resistance against chemicals. Indoor use. good resistance against chemicals and UV-light. ABS Good resistance against medium temperature combined with good impact strength (only certain types) and antistatic adjustment. On the whole. Limited outdoor suitablility. UV-light may have a negative effect. Polystyrene Normally brittle and resistant to fairly low temperature. especially for machine elements with complicated geometry.wear. Suitable for galvanic coating. On the whole. For cases and operating elements with working temperature of less . PC-ABS Blend Good stability in case of high temperature combined with enormous impact strength as well as toughness at subzero temperature. Cases and operating elements of all kinds. Ideally suited for indoor use with moderate corrosive conditions. good resistance against chemicals. Not recommended for use with strong alkalis or for direct exposure to sunlight.
Permeable to light up to 92% for certain types. PMMA (plexiglass® ) Good mechanical properties. Suitable for indoor use. COMBUSTIBILITY TEST FOR PLASTICS ACCORDING TO U L SUBJECT 94 . Superior from optical point of view. Cases and front panels for infrared transmitters and receivers as well as transparent parts. slightly brittle. Exposure to UV-light should be avoided.than 65°C.
and which won a bronze medal at the 1862 World's fair in London. The talk page may contain suggestions. The output of . Please improve this section if you can.Types This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. (June 2009) Cellulose-based plastics Parkes developed a synthetic replacement for ivory which he marketed under the trade name Parkesine. Parkesine was made from cellulose (the major component of plant cell walls) treated with nitric acid and a solvent.
it could be made to resemble ivory. The wood is probably either ebony or rose wood. The powder is placed in a steel mold and compressed in a powerful hydraulic press while being heated by steam. Bakelite Main article: Bakelite . Bois Durci is a plastic molding material based on cellulose. which gives a black or brown resin. The final product has a highly polished finish imparted by the surface of the steel mold. either egg or blood albumen. By incorporating pigments into the product. It is made from finely ground wood flour mixed with a binder. The mixture is dried and ground into a fine powder. It was patented in Paris by Lepage in 1855. or gelatine.the process (commonly known as cellulose nitrate or pyroxilin) could be dissolved in alcohol and hardened into a transparent and elastic material that could be molded when heated.
Baekeland was searching for an insulating shellac to coat wires in electric motors and generators. and the mass became extremely hard if allowed to cool. asbestos. . a Belgian-born American living in New York state. He found that mixtures of phenol (C6H5OH) and formaldehyde (HCOH) formed a sticky mass when mixed together and heated.The first so called plastic based on a synthetic polymer was made from phenol and formaldehyde. He continued his investigations and found that the material could be mixed with wood flour. and the resulting product was of unacceptable quality. or slate dust to create "composite" materials with different properties. The only problem was that the material tended to foam during synthesis. Most of these compositions were strong and fire resistant. with the first viable and cheap synthesis methods invented in 1907. by Leo Hendrik Baekeland.
finally coming into widespread use in consumer goods in the 1920s. uniform product. naming it bakelite. When the Bakelite patent expired in 1930. It was a purely synthetic material. It was originally used for electrical and mechanical parts. creating a tangled matrix that cannot be undone without destroying the plastic. . Thermoset plastics are tough and temperature resistant. He publicly announced his discovery in 1912. but thermoset plastics form bonds between polymers strands when cured. Conventional thermoplastics can be molded and then melted again. It was also the first thermosetting plastic. the Catalin Corporation acquired the patent and began manufacturing Catalin plastic using a different process that allowed a wider range of coloring. not based on any material or even molecule found in nature.Baekeland built pressure vessels to force out the bubbles and provide a smooth. Bakelite was the first true plastic.
some electronic circuit boards are made of sheets of paper or cloth impregnated with phenolic resin. For example.Bakelite was cheap. telephones and clocks. Polystyrene and Polyvinyl Chloride Main articles: Polystyrene and PVC . strong. Phenol-based ("Phenolic") plastics have been largely replaced by cheaper and less brittle plastics. It was molded into thousands of forms. such as cases for radios. andbilliard balls. and durable. but they are still used in applications requiring their insulating and heat-resistant properties.
improvements in chemical technology led to an explosion in new forms of plastics. inexpensive plastic that has been used to make plastic . Certain plastic pipes can be used in some non-combustible buildings. provided they are firestopped properly and that the flame spread ratings comply with the localbuilding code. After the First World War.Plastic piping and firestops being installed in Ontario. Among the earliest examples in the wave of new plastics were polystyrene (PS) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Polystyrene is a rigid. brittle.
It finds much current use as the substance of toy figurines and novelties. as in an absorbent sponge. PVC in its normal form is stiff. gutters. . like tiny balloons. high impact styrene was introduced. heat and weather resistant. and "closed cell". and is now used for making plumbing. which was not brittle. commonly called "vinyl") has side chains incorporating chlorine atoms. Foam plastics can be synthesized in an "open cell" form. as in gas-filled foam insulation and flotation devices. in which all the bubbles are distinct. Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC. under the name styrene foam or Styrofoam. In the late 1950s. which form strong bonds. house siding.model kits and similar knick-knacks. strong. It would also be the basis for one of the most popular "foamed" plastics. in which the foam bubbles are interconnected.
far better known by its trade name nylon. polyvinyl chloride is not recommended for long-term archival storage of silver. PVC can also be softened with chemical processing. food packaging. and rain gear. and in this form it is now used for shrink-wrap. photographic film or paper (mylar is preferable).  Because hydrogen chloride readily combines with water vapor in the air to form hydrochloric acid. When this happens. hydrogen chloride is released into the atmosphere and oxidation of the compound occurs. Nylon was the first . All PVC polymers are degraded by heat and light.enclosures for computers and other electronics gear. Nylon Main article: Nylon The real star of the plastics industry in the 1930s was polyamide (PA).
 . The first application was for bristles fortoothbrushes. particularly silk stockings. He took some of the first steps in the molecular design of the materials. as well as polyesters. introduced by DuPont Corporation at the 1939 World's Fair in New York City. His work led to the discovery of synthetic nylon fiber. Du Pont's real target was silk. Carothers had been hired to perform pure research. DuPont had begun a secret development project designated Fiber66. In 1927. However. and he worked to understand the new materials' molecular structure and physical properties. Carothers and his team synthesized a number of different polyamides including polyamide 6. under the direction of Harvard chemist Wallace Carothers and chemistry department director Elmer Keiser Bolton.6 and 4. which was very strong but also very flexible.purely synthetic fiber.6.
or "nylon mania". or just nylons. After the war ended. and to synthesize and develop the industrial processes for bulk manufacture. DuPont went back to selling nylon to the public. it was no surprise that Du Pont spared little expense to promote nylon after its introduction. The production capacity that had been built up to produce nylon stockings.General condensation polymerization reaction for nylon It took DuPont twelve years and US$27 million to refine nylon. With such a major investment. creating a public sensation. for American women was taken over to manufacture vast numbers of parachutes for fliers and paratroopers. engaging in another promotional campaign in 1946 that resulted . Nylon mania came to an abrupt stop at the end of 1941 when the USA entered World War II.
Subsequently polyamides 6. triggering the so called nylon riots. and other mechanical parts. increasingly for under-thehood applications in cars. plain bearings. In its bulk form it is very wear resistant. 11. and because of good heat-resistance. 10. Nylons still remain important plastics. and not just for use in fabrics. e. and so is used to build gears.in an even bigger craze. Rubber Natural rubber is an elastomer (an elastic hydrocarbon polymer) that was originally derived from latex. and 12 have been developed based on monomers which are ring compounds. Nylon 66 is a material manufactured by condensation polymerization. the first appearance of rubber in Europe is cloth waterproofed with unvulcanized latex from .g. It is useful directly in this form (indeed. particularly if oilimpregnated. caprolactam. a milky colloidal suspension found in the sap of some plants.
this a form of natural rubber heated with. Charles Goodyear invented vulcanized rubber. supply blockades of natural rubber from South East Asia caused a boom in development of synthetic rubber. sulfur forming cross-links between polymer chains (vulcanization). annual production of synthetic rubber in the U. in 1839. notably styrene-butadiene rubber. later. Caltechresearchers experimented with using synthetic rubbers for solid fuel for rockets. Ultimately. In World War II.Brazil) but. In the space race and nuclear arms race. Synthetic rubber Main article: Synthetic rubber The first fully synthetic rubber was synthesized by Sergei Lebedev in 1910.000 tonnes in 1945. all large military rockets and missiles would use synthetic rubber . was only 231 tonnes which increased to 840. In 1941. improving elasticity and durability. mostly.S.
For example. Traces of these chemicals can leach out of the plastic when it comes into contact with food. toys and teethers. tubing. Toxicity Due to their insolubility in water and relative chemical inertness. Out of these concerns. the most widely used plasticizer in PVC. plasticizers like adipates and phtha lates are often added to brittle plastics like polyvinyl chloride (PVC) to make them pliable enough for use in food packaging.based solid fuels. and they would also play a significant part in the civilian space effort. and will pass through the digestive system with no ill effect (other than mechanical damage or obstruction). plastics often contain a variety of toxic additives. the European Union has banned the use of DEHP (di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate). pure plastics generally have low toxicity in their finished state. However. Some compounds leaching from polystyrene food containers have been found to interfere . shower curtains and other items.
and small amounts of those chemicals may remain trapped in the product. while the finished plastic may be non-toxic.  Some polymers may also decompose into the monomers or other toxic substances when heated. The primary building block of polycarbonates. bisphenol A (BPA). The World Health Organization's International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has recognized the chemical used to make PVC. vinyl chloride.with hormone functions and are suspected human carcinogens.Research in Environmental Health Perspectives finds that BPA leached from the lining of tin cans. the monomers used in its manufacture may be toxic. is an estrogen-like endocrine disruptor that may leach into food. as a known human carcinogen. A more recent animal . Moreover. dental sealants and polycarbonate bottles can increase body weight of lab animals' offspring.
 As of January 2010.study suggests that even low-level exposure to BPA results in insulin resistance. present in plastic wrap based on PVC. which can lead to inflammation and heart disease. is also of concern. The European Union has a permanent ban on the use of phthalates in toys. Environmental issues Further information: Marine debris Plastics are durable and degrade very slowly. the LA Times newspaper reports that the United States FDA is spending $30 million to investigate suspicious indications of BPA being linked to cancer. the United States government banned certain types of phthalates commonly used in plastic. In 2009. the molecular bonds that make . Bis(2-ethylhexyl) adipate. as are the volatile organic compounds present in new car smell.
plastic so durable make it equally resistant to natural processes of degradation. nonCFCs are currently used in the extrusion process. In some cases. Thermoplastics can be remelted and reused. burning plastic can release toxic fumes. however. one billion tons of plastic have been discarded and may persist for hundreds or even thousands of years. Prior to the ban on the use of CFCs in extrusion of polystyrene (and general use. plastic recycling programs were common in the United States and elsewhere. By 1995. the production of polystyrene contributed to the depletion of the ozone layer. Also. seeMontreal Protocol). except in life-critical fire suppression systems. the manufacturing of plastics often creates large quantities of chemical pollutants. and thermoset plastics can be ground up and used as filler. Since the 1950s. Burning the plastic polyvinyl chloride (PVC) may create dioxin. though the purity of the .
. Plastic can be converted as a fuel. A plastic container using this scheme is marked with a triangle of three "chasing arrows". One kilogram of waste plastic produces a liter of hydrocarbon. which encloses a number giving the plastic type: Plastics type marks: the resin identification code PET (PETE). polyethylene terephthalate 1.material tends to degrade with each reuse cycle. Plastic is made from crude. Plastic wastes are used in cement plants as a fuel. To assist recycling of disposable items. so it can be broken down to liquid hydrocarbon. the Plastic Bottle Institute of the Society of the Plastics Industry devised a now-familiar scheme to mark plastic bottles by plastic type. There are methods by which plastics can be broken back down to a feedstock state.
polystyrene 7. new processes of mechanical . Other recyclable materials such as metals are easier to process mechanically.HDPE. making it labor intensive. polyvinyl chloride 4. PS. The biggest problem is that it is difficult to automate the sorting of plastic wastes. LDPE. although common containers like soda bottles can be sorted from memory. which presents additional problems to the automated sorting process. Other types of plastics (see list. PP. the caps for PETE bottles are made from a different kind of plastic which is not recyclable. recycling of plastics has proven to be a difficult process. However. high-density polyethylene 3. workers sort the plastic by looking at the resin identification code. Typically. low-density polyethylene. below) 2. 5. Typically. Unfortunately. polypropylene 6. PVC.
making them relatively easy to be sorted. a consumer product like a cellular phone may have many small parts consisting of over a dozen different types and colors of plastics.sorting are being developed to increase capacity and efficiency of plastic recycling. incinerated or used to produce electricity at waste-toenergy plants. developments are taking place in the field ofactive disassembly. While containers are usually made from a single type and color of plastic. as well. Recycling certain types of plastics can be unprofitable. . which may result in more consumer product components being re-used or recycled. In such cases. For example. the resources it would take to separate the plastics far exceed their value and the item is discarded. However. These unrecycled wastes are typically disposed of in landfills. polystyrene is rarely recycled because it is usually not cost effective.
 TheGerman chemical . ultra-violet radiation). is expensive at present. wind abrasion and some instances rodent pest or insect attack are also included as forms of biodegradation orenvironmental degradation.Biodegradable (compostable) plastics Main article: Biodegradable plastic Research has been done on biodegradable plastics that break down with exposure to sunlight (e. It is clear some of these modes of degradation will only work if the plastic is exposed at the surface. Starch powder has been mixed with plastic as a filler to allow it to degrade more easily. but it still does not lead to complete breakdown of the plastic. such as Biopol.. but this material. bacteria.g. enzymes. Some researchers have actually genetically engineered bacteria that synthesize a completely biodegradable plastic. water or dampness. while other modes will only be effective if certain conditions exist in landfill or composting systems.
including: from pea starch film with trigger biodegradation properties for agricultural applications (TRIGGER). Oxo-biodegradable Main article: Oxo Biodegradable Oxo-biodegradable (OBD) plastic is polyolefin plastic to which has been added very small (catalytic) amounts of metal salts. these additives catalyze the natural degradation process to speed it up so that the OBD plastic will degrade when subject to environmental .company BASF makes Ecoflex. a fully biodegradable polyester for food packaging applications. As long as the plastic has access to oxygen (as in a littered state).  from biopetroleum. Bioplastics Main article: Bioplastic Some plastics can be obtained from biomass.
biodegradable and nonbiodegradable landfill impact as a result of the production and disposal of petroleum and petroleum-based plastics. and the future The biggest threat to the conventional plastics industry is most likely to be environmental concerns. carbon dioxide and biomass. Once degraded to a small enough particle they can interact with biological processes to produce to water.conditions. including the release of toxic pollutants. litter. . Typically this process is not fast enough to meet ASTM D6400 standards for definition as compostable plastics. The process is shortened from hundreds of years to months for degradation and thereafter biodegradation depends on the microorganisms in the environment.greenhouse gas. Price. Of particular concern has been the recent accumulation of enormous quantities of plastic trash in ocean gyres. environment.
For decades one of the great appeals of plastics has been their low price. Scientists are seeking cheaper and better alternatives to petroleum-based plastics. Therefore. Common plastics and uses . A major cause is the sharply rising cost of petroleum. and many candidates are in laboratories all over the world. alternatives are being sought. Yet in recent years the cost of plastics has been rising dramatically. With some observers suggesting that future oil reserves are uncertain. the price of petroleum may increase further. Oil shale and tar oil are alternatives for plastic production but are expensive. One promising alternative may be fructose. the raw material that is chemically altered to form commercial plastics.
textiles. . peanut butter jars. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) . High-density polyethylene . plastic film. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) Carbonated drinks bottles. Polyethylene (PE) .Plumbing pipes and guttering. flooring. window frames.Fibers.Detergent bottles and milk jugs. shower curtains.A chair made with a polypropylene seat Polyester (PES) . plastic bottles. microwavable packaging.Wide range of inexpensive uses including supermarket bags.
siding. cutlery. keyboards). floor tiles. toothbrush bristles. food containers. computer monitors. disposable cups. plastic pressure pipe systems. . drainage pipe. Polypropylene (PP) . Polystyrene (PS) .Polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC) (Saran) Food packaging. Polyamides (PA) (Nylons) . shower curtains.. car fenders (bumpers). fishing line. vending cups. plates. yogurt containers. drinking straws.Outdoor furniture. Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) Electronic equipment cases (e. appliances. Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) . plastic tableware. clamshell packaging. under-thehood car engine moldings. food packaging. CD and cassette boxes.Bottle caps.g. printers. High impact polystyrene (HIPS) -: Refrigerator liners.Packaging foam/"peanuts".Fibers.
plates and bowls for children) and the .Polycarbonate (PC) . printing rollers (Currently 6th or 7th most commonly used plastic material.Compact discs.g. riot shields. Polyurethanes (PU) . and used as a multicolorable alternative to phenolics. Used in car interior and exterior parts. thermal insulation foams. for instance the most commonly used plastic found in cars). traffic lights.Cushioning foams. eyeglasses.A blend of PC and ABS that creates a stronger plastic.. for instance in moldings (e. and mobile phone bodies. Polycarbonate/Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (PC/ABS) . security windows. Special purpose plastics Melamine formaldehyde (MF) .One of the aminoplasts. surface coatings. lenses. breakresistance alternatives to ceramic cups.
g. paper laminated products (e. with the familiar trade name Bakelite. Formica). Used for insulating parts in electrical fixtures. Formica). green.g.g.Strong.and heat-resistant .. thermally insulation foams. Plastarch material . relatively heat resistant.. brown). chemical. that can be molded by heat and pressure when mixed with a filler-like wood flour or can be cast in its unfilled liquid form or cast as foam (e. and excellent fire resistant polymer. It is a thermosetting plastic. Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) . and as thermoset it is difficult to recycle. Problems include the probability of moldings naturally being dark colors (red. Phenolics (PF) or (phenol formaldehydes) . thermoplastic composed of modified corn starch.decorated top surface layer of the paper laminates (e..High modulus. Oasis).Biodegradable and heat resistant.
Perspex. Polyetherimide (PEI) (Ultem) . It forms the basis of artistic and commercialacrylic paints when suspended in water with the use of other agents. e.thermoplastic. Plexiglas).A high temperature. Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) Contact lenses. Oroglas. thermoplastic found converted into a variety of aliphatic polyesters derived from lactic acid which in turn can be made by fermentation of various agricultural products such as corn starch. biocompatibility allows for use in medical implantapplications.. fluorescent light diffusers.g. aglets. once made from dairy products. chemically stable polymer that does not crystallize.A biodegradable. One of the most expensive commercial polymers. rear light covers for vehicles. Polylactic acid (PLA) . glazing (best known in this form by its various trade names around the world. aerospace moldings. .
One of the aminoplasts and used as a multi-colorable alternative to phenolics. It is more commonly known as Teflon. used in things like non-stick surfaces for frying pans. low-friction coatings. Used as a wood adhesive (for plywood. Urea-formaldehyde (UF) . chipboard. plumber's tape and water slides.  .Heatresistant. hardboard) and electrical switch housings.Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) .
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