This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Part IV: Recipes
A. Authentic Recipes from the Middle Ages
For actual Islamic recipes from the Middle Ages 10th 15th centuries (900s - 1400s) see, Cariadoc's Miscellany: An Islamic Dinner. This site is prepared by a member of Creative Anachronisms Society (a group that likes to dress up and act as if they lived in the Middle Ages or during the Renaissance), and the author has researched recipes from Islamic cookbooks, mostly from Andalusia (Islamic Spain) and Baghdad (in Iraq). Approximately 140 authentic recipes that can be made today. • See a brief explanation of "Eating in Jerusalem" during three periods of history go to: In the Early Temple Period (1006 to 586 B.C.); "Roman-Byzantine food" (586 B.C. to 70 A.D.) and "Food in the Early Islamic Period". There are a few recipes to try from each period. • A number of Persian, Arabic and Turkish cookbooks from the 10th to the 19th century have survived and some of the best recipes are presented in the outstanding Serving the Guest: A Sufi Cookbook by Kathleen Seidel. Read this beautiful work done with great love and skill. Included are recipes for tutmach (thin noodles cooked with meat and yogurt); zalubiyya (fritters, or fried dough); tharid (lamb and chickpea stew); manti (Turkish dumplings); harisa (porridge); halvah (a sweet pastry); sanbusa (meat turnovers); and many more authentic recipes!
B. Recipes for a Classroom Feast - (But some of these are not
historically accurate. Can you tell why? Which ingredients were unknown in the Middle East during the Middle Ages?)
Baked Eggplant Dip - Baba Ganushe A popular dip called "baba ganushe" is made with eggplant. Wash and then pierce with a fork one large or two medium-small eggplants. Bake on an oiled tray at about 350° for about 30 40 minutes or until soft. Cool. Remove and discard the skin and tough stemend. Combine with these ingredients in a blender or food processor: 1/4 cup tahini (sesame seed paste) 1/4 cup lemon juice 3 cloves peeled garlic, quartered 1 teaspoon salt 2 tablespoons finely chopped fresh parsley (optional) Blend until smooth. Put this into a serving bowl and garnish (add for decoration or color and taste) with a little olive oil and sprigs of parsley. Serve with pita bread.
Stuffed Grape Leaves (a Lebanese dish)
(There are many versions of this popular dish. For a classroom setting, this one may be the easiest.) 1 lb. fresh tender grape leaves (in a jar or can) 1 1/2 lb. lean ground meat, preferably lamb but turkey is a good substitute. ..
3 cups rice 6 garlic cloves crushed 1/2 medium onion, chopped into very small pieces 1/2 cup lemon juice (1/4 cup for mixing, 1/4 cup before and after baking) 1 1/2 tsp. salt 1/2 tsp. pepper 1/2 tsp. cinnamon 1 tsp. dried mint finely chopped Put grape leaves in hot water to soften for approximately 10 minutes. Preheat oven to 300°. Wash and cook the rice in a rice cooker. In a skillet (frying pan) sauté the meat with Photos from Al-Mashriq's site onions, garlic, cinnamon, salt and pepper . Keep breaking it apart into small pieces. Cook at medium heat (about 275°) about 10 minutes or until meat is brown but still moist and tender. Drain and put the meat mixture into a large bowl. Combine the meat, rice, and 1/4 cup lemon juice and the mint. Mix well and let cool. When the ingredients are cool, place 1 teaspoon (or more, depending on the size of the leaves) of the meat-rice mixture in a thin row across the width of the leaf. [Put the stemmed end closest to you and the shiny side of the leaf facing down.] Fold the outside edges of the leaf 1/2 in toward the center and roll with a little firmness into the shape of a finger. Put the stuffed grape leaves into a baking dish. Sprinkle with lemon juice. Bake them for 15 - 20 minutes at 320°. Put additional lemon juice onto the finished leaves. Serve warm or cold. ..
For a different recipe and a series of pictures. see Al-Mashriq's outstanding site. and yellow for color) or 4 medium bell peppers 3 1/2 lb. olive oil. boneless. Marinate in lemon juice. olive oil. fat and gristle.com Chicken Shish-kabab Above: "Our Feast" Below: Chicken kabobs on rice with Greek salad . and pepper for at least half an hour.) two or three medium onions 2 large boxes of cherry tomatoes or five . chicken breast. SO PUT THE PIECES INTO A PAN Above picture from Sadaf.Optional chunks of pineapple . pepper .optional [NOT from the Middle East] from 2 cans Preparation: Chicken: Cut the chicken into 1 1/2 inch cubes of meat on a clean cutting board.six large tomatoes skewers (wooden sticks to put the ingredients on) small mushrooms (or cut larger mushrooms in half) .) Discard all the bones. red. Chicken Shish-kabab Ingredients for a class of 26 students: 3 large bell peppers (green. (Cut into 1 1/2 inch cubes and marinate in a little lemon juice. CHICKEN PIECES NEED TO BE COOKED BEFORE THE VEGETABLES. Put pieces into a large bowl.Let it stay in the liquid for at least half an hour. (You need 3 pieces of meat for each kabob.
) . If using large tomatoes. tomatoes. Barbecue or grill the kabobs for approximately 10 . Tomatoes: Wash and remove the stems from the cherry tomatoes. Then put onto the bamboo skewers along with the following vegetables and marinate again before barbecuing: Bell peppers: Wash. Cut into approximately 1 inch squares. wash and cut out the stem and then cut into 1 . Cut the onion in half around the middle. then take out the seeds and stem and discard.AND BAKE AT 350° FOR ABOUT 12 . and chunks of zucchini squash and/or eggplant Chunks of pineapple [Optional . Leave more than one inch at the ends to pick up kabobs.1 1/2 inch pieces. [Not originally from the Middle East!] Onion: Peel off the outer layer of the onion.and not from the Middle East] Put the cooked meat. (We set up the barbecue outside our class.15 minutes until the meat and vegetables are done.15 until no longer pink. Keep the kabobs covered and refrigerated until ready to cook. cut into halves. [Not originally from the Middle East!] Mushrooms [Optional]. then cut into chunks about 3/4 inch wedges or squares to put onto the sticks. onions and bell pepper pieces onto bamboo sticks (skewers) by alternating the ingredients.
Simmer on a low heat for 10 minutes stirring occasionally. pepper 4 cups rice (washed and drained) 1/2 cup vegetable oil for cooking onions 1 medium onion (julienned. Drain off the skins and wash again to remove more skins.S. (15 minutes). Blend for 3 .) 1 1/2 cups dry brown lentils (washed and drained) 6 cups water to cook the lentils 1 1/2 tsp. It's delicious! Cover and cook on medium-low heat for 1 hour or until lentils are tender. (Sauté means cook quickly in a frying pan. Loosen the skins by moving the a little olive oil. In a large frying pan. At the same time. salt 1/4 cup lemon juice LENTILS WITH RICE Moujadara (or "lentil pilaf") is very popular in Egypt (and in Middle Eastern delis in the U.4 minutes. Garnish with parsley and lemon wedges and skins will become loose and come off. When done. cook the rice in a rice cooker.Delhi on the Net Hummus (Garbanzo Bean Dip for Pita Bread) 1 15 or 19 oz. When all ingredients are done. Add 6 cups water. and drain excess oil. can garbanzo beans (or "chick peas") Drain liquid into a cup and save 1/4 cup Sesame Seed Paste (Tahini) 1 clove garlic 1/2 tsp. drain off all the water. Keep covered except when stirring.) Remove the onions which will be added later. Add the salt and pepper. add rice and lentils to the frying pan. [This can be baked 350° for 15 minutes in a low pan after adding the . Place the Scoop up these dips with pieces of Pita lentils in a large saucepan. cut into thin strips) Combine all ingredients in a blender adding only enough of the saved liquid to make the Wash lentils and let sit in a pan of water so the mixture creamy. Add cooked onions to the cooking rice-lentil mixture. salt 1/4 tsp. heat the oil to hot (300°) and sauté onions until onions are golden brown. stir and remove from heat. lentils through your fingers. Bread (cut into 1/6's).
This is enough for a class of 25 for a taste. Don't overcook falafels or they will become dry. Falafels Falafels are popular in the Middle East. especially Egypt and Lebanon. Finely chop the leaves or put into a food processor This should be enough for a class of 26 with 1 large onion. Drain well.) Soak the beans overnight if you are using dry beans. (You can even chill it over night. then don't except in the Americas!] soak) 2 teaspoons dry mint. pan) Chill well in the refrigerator for at least an hour. (Not necessary if you use canned. They are eaten during Ramadan.) Serve on Romaine lettuce leaves garnished tomato wedges. then don't pieces [Note: tomatoes were not soak) available in Medieval times 1 1/2 cup chickpeas (or 1 can. especially when eaten with tahini (ground sesame seed paste) sauce. or may be served after combining cooked ingredients.1 inch deep in the Add oil last. or 1/2 cup finely chopped 1 1/2 cup cracked Bulghar wheat fresh mint 5 garlic cloves 1 teaspoon salt 3 tablespoons salt 1/2 cup plus 2 tablespoons lemon juice 5 tablespoons wheat flour 1/2 cup olive oil 1 teaspoon cinnamon 1 teaspoon baking soda Romaine lettuce leaves to be used as "bed" for 3 onions salad.onions to dry it out more. 1 1/2 cup very fine Bulgur wheat 5 bunches parsley. 2 teaspoon cumin powder 3 teaspoons baking powder vegetable oil for frying Toss all ingredients except oil in a large bowl. Discard large stems. 1 1/2 cup fresh parsley. minced (or put into a food processor) 2 falafels each. finely chopped [Optional: one tomato cut into wedges for (remove large stems) garnish] 3 teaspoons pepper 2 teaspoon dried coriander Soak bulgur in enough fresh water to cover for 1 teaspoon chili powder 10 minutes. Tabouli Salad This Lebanese dish has become a popular salad or appetizer in the United States. and lemon wedges. (about 4 cups . Falafels are very tasty.] Serve hot or cold with fresh cold yogurt. 1 cup fresh coriander 1 lemon for garnish . 4 medium tomatoes. .cut into wedges. chopped by hand into small 1/8 inch 3 cups fava beans (or 2 cans.
Serve warm.) . Crush garlic.Al Ansari. Leave the dough to one side for 1 1/2 hours and knead again. Put through a meat grinder or large food processor to mix thoroughly.In a large bowl. Add remaining ingredients. coriander and parsley (or use a food processor). Wet hands and shape the mixture into balls about the size of a golf ball. Adapted from the book "The Complete United Arab Emirates Cookbook" by Celia Ann Brock. Put on an apron and be careful with hot oil! Heat oil about 1 inch deep in a frying pan to about 300°. you can do 1/2 the ingredients at a time. chop onions. but not as much fun nor as tasty! Don't make the falafels too small or they will be dry. wash the cracked Bulghar wheat and soak for an hour. Drain both beans and wheat well. Option #2: Get the Falafel mix available in many supermarkets. about 300° and drain on paper towels. then add the beans and mix well in a large bowl. Fry until golden in hot oil. (If you are using a medium size food processor. Add chopped onions and garlic to the wheat. Knead well (mix together with your hands) in a large bowl. (This is fast.
* tabouli salad 4. This site contains about recipes primarily from Morocco and Egypt. and photographs of food items. some good images shown are also listed below] • UAE FOREVER's Dishes (Camel's Milk) • More Recipes & Cookbooks for Cuisine of Islamic Cultures "ABC of Arabic Cuisine" gives some background to Arabic food. • "Virtual Middle Eastern Cook Book". These items came from the Americas. like tomatoes. potatoes. Falafel • . * baba ganushe (ghanooge) . but watch out for foods not known in Europe or Asia until after Columbus' trip. These items were NOT part of medieval Islamic Cuisine. some recipes. * chicken stew (beriani) 6. • ABC of Arabic Cuisine [great site for introduction: definitions. and corn. corn. * baklava 7. Recipes include traditional foods. Introduction to Arabic Cuisine NOTE: Many modern recipes use tomatoes.Picture from UAE site. * hummus (garbonzo bean dip appetizer) 2. * kabob 5.eggplant dip appetizer 3. bell peppers! 1. potatoes.
and dinner menus.Iran . and "Turkish Cuisine" with recipes from the past and present.Food" tells about common breakfast.Page Two: Arab Food Go to . Farming Methods in the Settled Villages and Towns Islam spread to the settled villages and towns where most people were farmers and herders. • "Turkish Cuisine" with some pictures and many recipes.) • Go to Page One: Islam and Food Go to . but no graphics. Lots of recipes on this page. lunch.F. see: Our Feast (Horace Mann Middle School.Page Three: Farming and Agriculture of the Middle Ages You are here: Page Four: Recipes for a Medieval Feast Go to the Student Activities Page on Food and Farming Go to the Main Page Food and Farming (Continued) V.Persian Cuisine. • Persian Food: "Iran: an Introduction -. . These pictures show some traditional farming techniques that are still used today. This site is under construction so there is no information about lunches. S. • For a 7th grade student feast of Middle Eastern foods (with pictures and recipes). A few recipes are given.
Geoweb.Afghanistan: High Valley Agriculture This man is plowing his fields with a wooden plow and two oxen. Oxen and cows were not eaten very often. Photo courtesy of Professor Powell taken in Afghanistan. Morocco: High Valley Agriculture Farmers irrigated their fie old man is tending his fie Photo courtesy of Professor P Morocco. They were too useful for work in the fields and for their milk. Atlas Mountains .
and other w porridge made of barley a . Look at the background and you can see a wall that protected the town.These are barley fields in the Draa Valley region of Morocco. in This man is plowing with During the Middle Ages there was so much warfare walls were built to of Morocco. Professor Miller. [Picture courtesy of GeoWeb. Persia. Prof Iran: Farming in Fertile Va In hotter climates and wh This pictures shows wom Ages. Agriculture took place outside the walls. protect the citizens.] [Picture courtesy of GeoWeb. rice was mostly for India.
originally from Ettinghausen. Advances in Agriculture Muslim farmers made some important advances in agriculture. Richard. These fields are in the High Atlas Mountains of Morocco. 2000 Kathleen Seidel. 1199 [From Serving the Guest: A Sufi Cookbook and Art Gallery. The branch of a green apple tree. [From Serving the Guest: A Sufi Cookbook and Art Gallery . Detail from a 16th century Persian dictionary . Copyright 1999. 1962) ] Which agricultural methods can you see in this 12th-century painting? How are animals being used? What is being done by hand? Grinding Grain. for example.] Photo from Saitama University The Physician Andromakhos watches agricultural activities Northern Iraq. Copyright 1999. A branch from one fruit tree can be cut off and transferred to another tree. VI. 2000 Kathleen Seidel] This shows how wheat was turned into flour. [Picture courtesy of GeoWeb.People terraced the hillsides to claim more land for farming. can . They developed a process called "grafting". Arab Painting (Paris: Skira. Professor Miller.
They used farm animals..be grafted into the trunk of a red apple tree. Silver Burdett. 1985. . They built canals from rivers to their dry land. . illustrated by Sedat Tosun. pages 28 and 29 VII. Pictures from Rise of Islam by Moktefi. Muslim farmers learned to use fertilizers on their crops. Irrigation Technology . The same is true with grapes on grape vines. such as .Bringing Water to Dry Land Muslim farmers learned how to get water to their fields through irrigation. Fertilizer usually was from the dung of animals. and with some other fruit trees. The green branch will still give off green apples.
and irrigation.donkeys and even camels. Animals also turned wheels that brought water out of wells so people could use the water for drinking. to turn water wheels that powered flour mills and brought water to the higher canals. . cleaning.
. Both photos courtesy of GeoWeb. Right: Irrigated fields.. Left: Camel Power in Afghanistan.. Professor Powell (Afghanistan).
Wheat farming was hard work. but almost everything else was done by hand.. Silver Burdett.Water wheels at the city of Hamao on the River Orontes. (Men were not supposed to wear silk. as shown below. From Taschen's World Architecture: Islam. too.) . Some medieval water wheels are still working! This one is in Iran. Persian soldiers captured some silk makers and forced them to show their secret methods to make silk. Silk comes from the thread of a silk worm when it makes its cocoon. Vol. However. Farm animals could help with the plowing.) Silk was originally developed in China. too.. Most of the work had to be done by hand with simple wooden or metal tools. Silk The wealthy Muslims enjoyed wearing silk clothing which were light and comfortable in the warm climates. pages 30 and 31 (Out of print. . by Henri Stierlin. page 212. Pictures from Rise of Islam by Moktefi. The cocoon is put into hot water and the silk is then taken out. 1985. but some had silk clothing made that were part cotton. but follow the Qur'an. VIII. illustrated by Sedat Tosun. Rice farming was hard work. In this way they could wear silk. 1. according to the Qur'an.
C. page 31 Learn more about medieval agriculture: Harvesting. too. date palms. by Professor Powell. circa (about) 1190 A.C. in Europe. Silver Burdett. • • The farming year in Europe with great images from Medieval manuscripts of farming tools. spices. illustrated by Sedat Tosun. You can see Professor Miller's whole trip.D. Life in Afghanistan (GeoWeb from U. goats. Berkeley) includes images of irrigation. too. • Go to Page One: Islam and Food Go to Page Two: Arab Food You are here at Page Three: Farming and Agriculture of the Middle Ages . etc. oases. (Go halfway down the page.Picture from Rise of Islam by Moktefi. 1985. Images of Daily Life in Morocco (GeoWeb from U. Note that the women wore head-coverings in Europe. Berkeley).) Many of these farming methods would have been common in parts of the Muslim world.
These pictures show some traditional farming techniques that are still used today.Go to Page Four: Recipes for a Medieval Feast Go to the Student Activities Page on Food and Farming Go to the Main Page Food and Farming (Continued) V. Afghanistan: High Valley Agriculture . Farming Methods in the Settled Villages and Towns Islam spread to the settled villages and towns where most people were farmers and herders.
Geoweb. Morocco: High Valley Agriculture Morocco. Photo courtesy of Professor Powell taken in Afghanistan.Farmers irrigated their fie old man is tending his fie Photo courtesy of Professor P This man is plowing his fields with a wooden plow and two oxen. Atlas Mountains . Oxen and cows were not eaten very often. They were too useful for work in the fields and for their milk.
Agriculture took place outside the walls. rice was mostly for India. [Picture courtesy of GeoWeb.] [Picture courtesy of GeoWeb.These are barley fields in the Draa Valley region of Morocco. protect the citizens. Professor Miller. in This man is plowing with During the Middle Ages there was so much warfare walls were built to of Morocco. and other w porridge made of barley a . Look at the background and you can see a wall that protected the town. Persia. Prof Iran: Farming in Fertile Va In hotter climates and wh This pictures shows wom Ages.
Arab Painting (Paris: Skira.] Photo from Saitama University The Physician Andromakhos watches agricultural activities Northern Iraq. These fields are in the High Atlas Mountains of Morocco. A branch from one fruit tree can be cut off and transferred to another tree. Detail from a 16th century Persian dictionary . [Picture courtesy of GeoWeb. [From Serving the Guest: A Sufi Cookbook and Art Gallery . They developed a process called "grafting".People terraced the hillsides to claim more land for farming. Copyright 1999. Copyright 1999. 2000 Kathleen Seidel] This shows how wheat was turned into flour. Richard. can . The branch of a green apple tree. Advances in Agriculture Muslim farmers made some important advances in agriculture. 1962) ] Which agricultural methods can you see in this 12th-century painting? How are animals being used? What is being done by hand? Grinding Grain. 1199 [From Serving the Guest: A Sufi Cookbook and Art Gallery. VI. originally from Ettinghausen. 2000 Kathleen Seidel. for example. Professor Miller.
illustrated by Sedat Tosun. Muslim farmers learned to use fertilizers on their crops. such as .. Pictures from Rise of Islam by Moktefi. and with some other fruit trees. The same is true with grapes on grape vines. . The green branch will still give off green apples. . They used farm animals. Silver Burdett. They built canals from rivers to their dry land.Bringing Water to Dry Land Muslim farmers learned how to get water to their fields through irrigation. 1985. Irrigation Technology .be grafted into the trunk of a red apple tree. pages 28 and 29 VII. Fertilizer usually was from the dung of animals.
. Animals also turned wheels that brought water out of wells so people could use the water for drinking. cleaning. to turn water wheels that powered flour mills and brought water to the higher canals.donkeys and even camels. and irrigation.
. Professor Powell (Afghanistan). Right: Irrigated fields. Left: Camel Power in Afghanistan. Both photos courtesy of GeoWeb.. .
However. 1. Persian soldiers captured some silk makers and forced them to show their secret methods to make silk. Some medieval water wheels are still working! This one is in Iran. Pictures from Rise of Islam by Moktefi. Silk The wealthy Muslims enjoyed wearing silk clothing which were light and comfortable in the warm climates. as shown below.. . but some had silk clothing made that were part cotton. by Henri Stierlin. Vol. VIII. page 212. The cocoon is put into hot water and the silk is then taken out. too. Silver Burdett. Rice farming was hard work. In this way they could wear silk. Wheat farming was hard work.) Silk was originally developed in China. pages 30 and 31 (Out of print. From Taschen's World Architecture: Islam. but almost everything else was done by hand.Water wheels at the city of Hamao on the River Orontes.. Most of the work had to be done by hand with simple wooden or metal tools. illustrated by Sedat Tosun. Farm animals could help with the plowing. but follow the Qur'an. Silk comes from the thread of a silk worm when it makes its cocoon. (Men were not supposed to wear silk. 1985. according to the Qur'an.) . too.
Berkeley) includes images of irrigation. Note that the women wore head-coverings in Europe. • • The farming year in Europe with great images from Medieval manuscripts of farming tools. Life in Afghanistan (GeoWeb from U. in Europe. spices. by Professor Powell.D. Images of Daily Life in Morocco (GeoWeb from U.Picture from Rise of Islam by Moktefi.C. oases. • Go to Page One: Islam and Food Go to Page Two: Arab Food You are here at Page Three: Farming and Agriculture of the Middle Ages .C. You can see Professor Miller's whole trip. Berkeley). illustrated by Sedat Tosun. circa (about) 1190 A. page 31 Learn more about medieval agriculture: Harvesting. too. too. Silver Burdett. 1985. etc.) Many of these farming methods would have been common in parts of the Muslim world. (Go halfway down the page. date palms. goats.
the Almighty is pure and accepts only that which is pure. Customs and Food Restrictions . you who believe! Eat of the pure things that Allah has given you.Go to Page Four: Recipes for a Medieval Feast Go to the Student Activities Page on Food and Farming Go to the Main Page Welcome to Horace Mann's webpage for: Medieval Food. Farming. "Allah. I. and do righteous actions. Oh.(What Muslims Can't Eat or Drink) Certain foods and products are forbidden (haram) to Muslim according to the Qur'an and the Hadith (the sayings of the Prophet Muhammad). The Almighty has said. Eat of the pure things. These foods are "haram" for Muslims: NEVER .] "Haram" is Arabic for "Forbidden" and "Unlawful". and Recipes of the Middle East Introduction: The Qur'an and the sayings of the Prophet Muhammad imposed upon the Muslims certain restrictions on what they ate and drank." [Hadith quoted by Abu Huraira.
there are also ways to slaughter an animal according to Islamic rules. Pork . by a fall or blow are also forbidden.In the Qur'an (and in the Old Testament of the Bible) there is a story that God cast (threw) the devil into a pig.] Carnivorous (meat eating) animals and birds. Forbidden Foods According to the Qur'an: 1. Blood is forbidden. tigers. Other animals are also excluded: donkeys. Flesh that had been sacrificed for some God or Goddess by pagans was also forbidden. Alcohol or liquor Alcoholic drinks "confuse the mind and lead one 2. monkeys.g. 4. Learn more about it: • "Halaal Guidelines" gives a list of "haram" or . B. e. Ways to Slaughter Animals In addition. are forbidden. and lard) and even leather goods from the pig are forbidden to Muslims. 5. lions. Of course there are good health reason for not eating animals that may be sick or diseased. Otherwise their meat will be considered "haram". etc. the animal must have its throat slit by a sharp knife and die quickly with little pain. This restriction was very important to people's health. vultures. Generally. 6. Drugs are also forbidden (except as medical drugs).A. This is done with a prayer of thanks to God. pork and any pork products (some types of gelatin. Therefore. killed by some wild animal. astray". elephants. Any animal that has died due to natural causes. Slaughtering rules are humane (kind-hearted) and don't allow the animal to suffer. 3. [NOTE: The disease of trichinosis is caused by worms that live in pigs and can be passed on to humans who eat unclean pork. eagles. 7. This is also true of Jewish traditions.
Weddings are traditionally celebrated with a great feast. During this holy month (in which the Prophet Muhammad received messages from Allah) strict Muslims don't eat or drink from sunrise to sunset. The act of sacrificing an animal. most likely a sheep. There are some Muslims who are not required to fast. However. the circumcision of boys (about age 7 .• forbidden foods: Is your diet halaal (permitted)? Read "The Importance of a Halaal Diet" II. also. or goat following the traditional Islamic customs. cow.8) is also celebrated. There are two important feast days for Muslims. represents repentance and a solemn promise to do good on earth. they can eat and drink during the nighttime hours. sparing his son's life. [From Turkish Food Protocol] The birthday of the Prophet Muhammad is usually celebrated with a feast. The sheep is revered as the creature of God that gives its life for a higher purpose. young children and others are excluded from the fast. But God sent him a ram instead. III. They are: pregnant women. Customs about Eating Customs of Muslims and people in the Middle East include: . The meat is shared with neighbors and sent to the needy. nursing mothers. One is Eid Al-Fitr following the long fast of Ramadan and Eid Al-Adha. travelers. It is also called the Festival of Sacrifice. In Turkey. Eid Al-Adha is a four day celebration when Muslims from all over the world offer a sacrifice by slaughtering a sheep. It commemorates Abraham's readiness to sacrifice his son Ishmael in the name of God. Islamic Fasting and Feasting • • • • One of the Pillars of Islam is the fast during the month of Ramadan.
You would probably eat sitting on the floor covered with rugs and small pillows. (This used to be exclusively for males. so wash before eating. (This custom is found in many cultures around the world.) There is usually a separate part of the house for entertaining visitors.This information is from Arabian Culture & Customs [visiting a home (Dewaniah). Eat with your right hand.] • If you were invited to a home. There may be a bowl for washing your hands on or near the table. and may bring "bad luck" to that person. Often there would be one central dish for all. etiquette at meals] and food customs. and other people of the Middle East during the Middle Ages."pot luck" is not a Middle Eastern idea. .) .tomatoes. (This is bad manners. turnips) and lamb. carrots. Eat from the place in front of you only. People eat from a big round platter and use their right hands. Women family members would be in another part of the house. a family is eating couscous (a wheat "pasta" that looks like rice) with a variety of vegetables (squash. Professor Miller. onions.) You would not be expected to bring a dish . Remember that the soles of your feet should not point directly toward someone else. You are here at: Page One .• Eat with your right hand! In this picture from Morocco. [Picture courtesy of GeoWeb. Also see Food Protocol for the Culturally Correct which tells about eating customs in Turkey. peppers. check to see if you should take off your shoes before entering.Introduction to Food of the Muslims Go to Page Two: Arab Food to learn about the foods of the nomads. Food would be placed on a low table.
23 [recipes] ARAMCO: S-O '78 The Iceman Cameth p.27 ARAMCO: J-F '97 Memories of a Lebanese Garden p. 2 . 36-37 ARAMCO: S-O '89 Cuisine of Al-Andalus [Spain] p. 18-31 ARAMCO: J-A '92 Blending Flavors p. 2 .7 ARAMCO: S-O '97 Yemen's Well-Traveled Bean (story of coffee) inside cover and p.9 ARAMCO: J-F '96 Culinary Reconnaissance: Indonesia p. 28-35 ARAMCO: M-A '78 A History of Dates p. 2 . Go to Page Four: Recipes for a Medieval Feast Go to the Student Activities Page on Food and Farming Go to the Main Page Books and Magazines • • • • • • • • • • • • • Moktefi. Silver-Burdett Picture Histories. 22 .9 .13 [locusts] ARAMCO: S-O '83 The Greening of the Arab East [entire issue] ARAMCO: J-A '95 Village of the Past [Egyptian living history village] p. 1 . 95 .27 • • • • • • • • • ARAMCO: N-D '94: Saphire . 2 . 6 .35 "A Medieval Banquet in the Alhambra Palace" by Shabbas p.9 and "Oases in the Rock: The Gardens of the High Sinai" p.From Sea to Shining Seed [saltwater agriculture] p. Millbrook Press: page 34 . 20-23 ARAMCO: J-F '85 Cake for the Poor [Dates] p. Mokhtar. illustrated by John Berry available from AWAIR ARAMCO: N-D '75 Food in the Middle East [entire issue] ARAMCO: N-D '88 Morocco by Mouthfuls p. 1985.3 [origin of ice cream] ARAMCO: M-J '87 New Battle in an Ancient War p. 20 . 30 ARAMCO: S-O '73 Wine of Arabia [coffee] p. Available from AWAIR. 2 . 18 .102 (Cuisine of Al Andalus.25 ARAMCO: M-A '95: The Desert Meets the Sown [Bedouin marketplace] p.7 ARAMCO: M-A '88 Flavors of the Middle East [entire issue] ARAMCO: S-O '95: On the Flatbread Trail p 16 . Get this one! Arabian Cuisine by Anne Marie Weiss-Armush. pages 26-30 [Out of Print] The Arabs in the Golden Age by Moktefi.Go to Page Three: Farming and Agriculture of the Middle Ages to learn about how farmers worked during the Middle Ages. Foods from Arab Lands) and many activities leading to a banquet. (translated by Burandelli) Rise of Islam.
• ARAMCO: N-D '98 Couscous: The Measure of the Magrib p. 16 .25 .
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.