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PRACTICAL WORK BOOK

For Academic Session 2009

ELECTRICAL POWER DISTRIBUTION &


UTILIZATION (EE-353)
For
TE (EE)

Name:
Roll Number:
Class:
Batch:
Department :

Department of Electrical Engineering


NED University of Engineering & Technology, Karachi
Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Contents
NED University of Engineering and Technology Department of Electrical Engineering

CONTEN TS

Lab. Page
Dated Title of Experiments Remarks
No. No
1 Parts of power cable. 1-3
Cable Size Calculation for the given
2 4-7
load.
Measure the High Level Voltage &
3(a) Current using Instrument 8-10
Transformers.
Measure the three phase Power using
3(b) 11-13
kilo Watt meter.
4 Earthing Practices. 14-18
Operation and constructional features
5 19-20
of a Distribution Transformer.
Substation Equipments and its one-
6 21-22
line diagram.
7 Home Appliances Motors. 23-27
8 Using Calculux 28-36
First project on design of general
9 37-43
lighting scheme for an office.
Second project on design of general
10 44-49
lighting scheme for an office.
To design a task & accent lighting for
11 50-56
an office.
12 Luminescence 57-60
Calculate the charges in
13 61-64
Industrial/commercial bill.
Captive Power Generation (DG Set-
14 65-69
Diesel Generating Set).
15(a) Home Electrical Wiring 70-72
15(b) Safety Rules 73-76

Revised 2009 MMA


Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab Session 01
NED University of Engineering and Technology Department of Electrical Engineering

LAB SESSION 1

Power Cable
OBJECTIVE
To dissect the power cable into it s distinguished parts.

APPARATUS
Cables

THEORY
A cable is defined as an assembly of conductors and insulators used for the transfer of
power in densely populated urban areas. Cables are mostly laid under the ground in
order not to disturb the land beauty and to avoid using the land for power transmission
purposes.

Figure: Parts of cables

PARTS OF CABLE
A cable is composed of the following parts;

Core
All cables either have a central core (conductor) or a number of cores made of strands
of Copper or Aluminum conductors having highest conductivity. Conductors are
stranded in order to reduce the skin effect.

Insulation
It is provided to insulate the conductors from each other and from the outside
periphery. The common insulating materials are Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC) and
Polyethylene.

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Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab Session 01
NED University of Engineering and Technology Department of Electrical Engineering

Metallic Sheath
Metallic Sheath protects the cable against the entry of moisture. It is made of lead,
some alloy of lead or Aluminum

Bedding
In order to protect the metallic sheath from injury, bedding is wound over it. It
consists of paper tape compounded with a fibrous material.

Armoring
It consists of one or two layers of galvanized steel wires or two layers of steel tape, to
avoid the mechanical injury. Armoring provides mechanical strength to the cable.

Serving
A layer of fibrous material, used to protect the armoring.

Figure: Cross Sectional View of Cable

PROCEDURE
Practical demonstration

RESULT
Cables have been studied and their operation is understood.

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Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab Session 01
NED University of Engineering and Technology Department of Electrical Engineering

EXERCISE:
Fill the following chart:

Copper Aluminium
S.
Properties Hard Hard
No Annealed Annealed
Drawn Drawn
1 Resistivity at 20 C
(ohm-m × 10 8)
2 Temperature coefficient
of electrical resistance at
20 C
3 Coefficient of linear
expansion per unit per C
4 Thermal conductivity
W/mK
5 Density kg/m3
6 Specific heat kJ/kg K

Give the definition of following terms:

1. Coefficient of linear expansion


2. Temperature coefficient
3. Thermal conductivity
4. Resistivity
5. Ampacity

Explain the following processes:

1. Annealing & Importance


2. Galvanizing
3. Vulcanizing

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Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab Session 02
NED University of Engineering and Technology Department of Electrical Engineering

LAB SESSION 02

Select the Appropriate Cable Size


OBJECTIVE
Select the appropriate cable size for the given load.

APPARATUS
Given Load
Cable Tables Book
Protective Device
Cable

THEORY
INTRODUCTION: The cable selection procedures set out in this LAB SESSION
will give the basic guidelines to be followed to determine the minimum size of cable
required to satisfy a particular installation condition.

The following three main factors influence the selection of a particular cable to satisfy
the circuit requirements:

(a) Current-carrying capacity dependent upon the method of installation and the
presence of external influences, such as thermal insulation, which restrict the
operating temperature of the cable.

(b) Voltage drop dependent upon the impedance of the cable, the magnitude of the
load current and the load power factor.

(c) Short-circuit temperature limit dependent upon energy produced during the
short-circuit condition.

TASK:
Determine the size of cable required & voltage drop in the cable.

SITUATION:
A 7.6kW single phase load is supplied from a 230V, 50Hz supply. The circuit is
protected using BSEN 60898 Type B circuit breaker and is situated 15m away from
the distribution board. It is run with one other circuit and is buried in the ground at a
depth of 0.8m. the soil resistivity being 1.2 ºC.m/W. The temperature within the
installation can be assumed to be 30 C.

DB 7.6kW
LOAD

15m

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Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab Session 02
NED University of Engineering and Technology Department of Electrical Engineering

METHOD:

STEP #01
Determine the current requirements of the circuit. This current is known as Design current,
either specified by the manufacturer or can be calculated by the formulae.

Design Current (IN) = __ ____kilo Watt Power________ (For 1 phase)


Single Phase Voltage x power factor

Design Current (IN) = __ ____kilo Watt Power________ (For 3 phase)


3 x Line Voltage x power factor

If kVA power is given the above formula will change accordingly.


If motor power is given in hp then use the conversion 1hp=746 Watts.
Here,
Design Current (IN) = ___7.6 kW_x 1000___ = 33.04 Amps
230 x 1

STEP #02
Determine the method of cable installation to be used.

Installation Conditions: The current-carrying capacity of a cable is dependent on the


method of installation to maintain the temperature of the cable within its operating
limits. Different methods of installation vary the rate at which the heat generated by
the current flow is dissipated to the surrounding medium.
Specific conditions of installation are there like cables installed with or without wiring
enclosures in air, in the ground or embedded in building materials.

STEP #03
Determine the environmental conditions in the vicinity of the cable installation, where
applicable, like
(i) the ambient air or soil temperature
(ii) the depth of laying rating factor
(iii) the soil thermal resistivity rating factor

Use any cable s table book to find out the correction factor values.

Here, the correction factors from the tables:

Grouping Factor (Cg): 0.78


Ambient Temperature (Ca): 0.97
Soil Resistivity Factor (Cr): 1.00
Depth of laying factor (Cd): 0.95

STEP #04
Apply the correction factors to determine the current carrying capacity (Ic) of the cable by
using the formula.

Current carrying capacity of cable = ____Design current______


Correction Factors

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Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab Session 02
NED University of Engineering and Technology Department of Electrical Engineering

The above factors should be applied according to the design situation.

Current carrying capacity of cable = ___Design current__


Cg x Ca x Cr x Cd
Here,
Current carrying capacity of cable = ________33.04_______
0.78 x 0.97 x 1.00 x 0.95

Current carrying capacity of cable = ________45.96 Amps_______

Minimum cable size = _______10mm2 _____

Find The Protective Device Size (IF).


The design current should be no greater than the fuse rating. The fuse rating must
be no greater than the current carrying capacity of the cable. The current carrying
capacity of the cable should not be greater than the tabulated capacity of the cable
i.e.

IN IF IC
Therefore,
Rating of the protective device = 40 Amps

The Worst-Case Scenario


A cable may experience various different environments along its route. For example it
may start at a switchboard, run through the switch room in a trench with a lid or steel
flooring, pass through a duct in a wall and under a roadway, run a long way directly
buried and finish on a ladder rack at the consumer. At each of these environments the
thermal resistivity and ambient temperature will be different. The environment that
causes the most derating of the rated current should be taken and used for the whole
cable.

DETERMINATION OF VOLTAGE DROP FROM MILLI VOLTS PER AMP -


METRE

According to IEE Regulation 522-8 of the 15th edition, it is stipulated that:


The voltage drop within the installation does not exceed a value appropriate to the safe
functioning of the associated equipment in normal service. For final circuits protected by an
over current protective device having a normal current not exceeding 100A, this requirement
is deemed to be satisfied if the drop in voltage from the origin of the circuit to any other point
in the circuit does not exceed 2.5 percent of the nominal voltage at the design current,
disregarding staring conditions.

The voltage drop can be determine using the following formula for applications where only
the route length and load current of balanced circuits are known.

Voltage Drop (Vd) = _L x IN x Vc_


1000
where
Vc = the millivolt drop per ampere-metre route length of circuit (mV/A.m)
Vd = actual voltage drop, in volts

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Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab Session 02
NED University of Engineering and Technology Department of Electrical Engineering

L = route length of circuit, in meters


IN = the current to be carried by the cable, in amperes.

Here, L = 15m
IN = 33.04 Amps
Vc= 4.2 mV/A.m

Voltage Drop (Vd) = _15 x 33.04 x 4.2_


1000

Voltage Drop (Vd) = _2.081V_ i.e 0.904% of 230V

Hence the selected cable of 10mm2 is suitable for normal current of 33.04Amps & cable
length of 15m.

EXERCISE:
You are given the three cables of unknown cross- section; find out the following information
about each cables.

S.No No.of cores No. of strands Diameter Cross sectional


(m) area(sq mm)
1
2
3

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Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab Session 03(a)
NED University of Engineering and Technology Department of Electrical Engineering

LAB SESSION 03(a)

Measure the High Level Voltage & Current


OBJECTIVE
Using measuring instruments measure the high level of voltage and current.

APPARATUS
Current Transformer
Potential Transformer
Megger
Clip on Ammeter

THEORY

Current Transformers
Ammeters are employed for measurement of current in
circuits. In high voltage transmission lines, it is more
feasible to use Current Transformers for measurement
of current owing to its higher range of measurement. A
current transformer works much the same way as an
ordinary power transformer. High values of currents
flowing in the transmission lines serve as the primary
circuit of a current transformer. The high current is
stepped down to a much lower value (normally not
more than 5A) which is then measured by an ordinary
ammeter. This way, an ammeter is not exposed to high
currents and voltages.

Potential Transformers
Difference between the potential transformers and current
transformers is that potential transformers operate on
voltage signal instead of current and hence is used to
measure high levels of voltages. Another difference
between the two is their connectivity to the main line to
be measured. Where Current Transformers are connected
in series, potential transformers are connected in parallel.

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Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab Session 03(a)
NED University of Engineering and Technology Department of Electrical Engineering

Among the available range of PTs and CTs, the selection is based on the following
factors

Insulation Class
Primary to Secondary ratio
Continuous thermal rating
Service conditions
Accuracy

Clip On Ammeter
Current is measured only when an ammeter is connected
in a circuit in series. What if the current in any wire
connected to a load is required to be measured. Using an
ammeter, we shall first need to disconnect the load from
the source, insert an ammeter and then measure the
current. Instead of doing all this, a clip on ammeter
allows current measurement without disconnecting the
line. It operates on the concept of transformation, as in
transformers where flux linkages produce voltages.

Megger
Megger is a name given to an instrument used to
measure large values of resistance. Measuring
resistance of machines and devices is very helpful in
determining faults like short circuits etc. Once a
machine faces a fault, its internal resistance gets
changed. Machine resistance is regularly monitored in
order to detect any internal faults occurring in the
machines and other devices.

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Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab Session 03(a)
NED University of Engineering and Technology Department of Electrical Engineering

OBSERVATION
Using Clip on Ammeter measure the current of a single phase load.

Load Measured Value (A) Calculated Value(A)


Using Clip on Ammeter Using Formula
Fan
100W bulb
40W tube light
Two 100W bulbs in
parallel
PC (Personal
Computer)

Using CT (current Transformer) measure the current of a given load.

CT ratio: ______

Load Primary Current Secondary Current


(Using Clip On Ammeter) of CT
100kW
200kW
300kW

RESULT
Working knowledge of using measuring instruments has been developed. Their use
has been practically demonstrated.

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Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab Session 03(b)
NED University of Engineering and Technology Department of Electrical Engineering

LAB SESSION 03(b)

Using watt meter measure the total power of the load

OBJECTIVE
To measure the single phase & three phase load using wattmeter.

APPARATUS
Single Phase Watt-meters
Three Phase Watt-meters
Ammeter
Load Banks

THEORY
Power can be measured with the help of
1. Ammeter and voltmeter (In DC circuits)
2. Wattmeter
3. Energy meter

By Ammeter and Voltmeter:


Power in DC circuits or pure resistive circuit can be measured by measuring the
voltage & current, then applying the formula P=VI.

By Wattmeter: A wattmeter
indicates the power in a circuit
directly. Most commercial wattmeter
s are of the dynamometer type with
the two coils, the current and the
voltage coil called C.C & P.C.

Power in three phase circuit can be


measured with the help of poly
phase watt-meters which consist of
one two or three single phase meters
mounted on a common shaft.

One wattmeter is used for balanced


three phase load, three and four wire
system. In three-phase, four wire
system, p.c. coil is connected
between phase to ground, while in
three wire system, artificial ground
is created.

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Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab Session 03(b)
NED University of Engineering and Technology Department of Electrical Engineering

Figure: Single Wattmeter Method

Two watt-meters are suitable for three phase three wire circuits for all conditions of
balances load & power factor. This method can be used to measure the power factor
of the load from the two wattmeter readings.

Three watt-meters are used for measurement of power in three phase four wire
circuits. The potential coils are connected between phase and neutral. Such method is
suitable for all conditions of balance load & power factor

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Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab Session 03(b)
NED University of Engineering and Technology Department of Electrical Engineering

Figure: Three wattmeter method Figure: Three wattmeter method

By Energy Meter:
Power can be measured wuth the help of energy meter by measuring the speed of the
merter disc with a watch, with the help of following formula:

P = N x 60 kW
K
Where
N= actual r.p.m of meter disc
K= meter constant which is equal to disc revolutions per kW hr

PROCEDURE
Arrange the watt-meters according to the load (single phase or three-phase) and
whether neutral available or not (as shown in the above figures).

OBSERVATION

Type of Load Actual Load Measured Load


S. No.
(1 ) (Using Wattmeter)
1
2 Single Phase
3
4
5 Three Phase
6

RESULT
The methods of power measurements have fully understood & performed.

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Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab Session 04
NED University of Engineering and Technology Department of Electrical Engineering

LAB SESSION 04

Earthing Practices
OBJECTIVE
To model the earthing process in the Lab.

APPARATUS
A Transparent Box
NaNo3
Sea salt
Coal
Soil
Grounding Rod
Grounding Plate

THEORY
Earthing provides protection to personnel and equipment by ensuring operation of protective
control gear and isolation of the faulted circuit in the following cases.
Insulation puncture or failure
Breakdown of insulation between primary & secondary windings of a transformer.
Lighting stroke

Ensuring low earth resistance is important in earthing


process. In case where protection against the faulted list
is provided by mean of fuse or a circuit breaker, the total
resistance of the earth path must be low enough to
enable the operation of the protective device.

The earth electrode resistance depends upon the


electrical resistivity of the soil in which the electrode is
installed, which in turn is determined by the following
factors:

1. Nature of soil
2. Extent of moisture
3. Presence of suitable salts dissolved in moisture.

TYPES OF EARTH ELECTRODES


Rod & Pipe Electrodes
Plate Electrodes
Strip or Round Conductor Electrodes

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Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab Session 04
NED University of Engineering and Technology Department of Electrical Engineering

Plate Electrodes:
Plate electrodes consist of copper, cast iron or steel plate.
The minimum thickness of plate is recommended as
For cast iron - 12mm
For GI or steel - 6.3mm
For Copper - 3.15mm
And size not less than 600mm x 600mm

Figure: A typical layout of Plate Electrode


Rod & Pipe Electrodes:
This type of earthing is more suited for a soil possessing high resistivity and the
electrode is required to be longer & driven deeper into the soil to obtain a lower
resistance to ground.

The diameter, thickness and length of the pipe is recommended as follows:


Cast iron (CI) pipes - 100mm (internal diameter), 2.5 to 3 m (long), 13mm
thick.
MS pipes - 38 to 50mm (internal diameter), 2.5 to 3 m (long),
13mm thick
Copper -13,16 or 19mm diameter, 1.22 to 2.44m long.

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Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab Session 04
NED University of Engineering and Technology Department of Electrical Engineering

Figure: A typical arrangement of pipe electrode grounding

Resistivity of Soil:

Type of soil Average resistivity( )


1. Wet organic soil 10
2. Moist Soil 100
3. Dry Soil 1000
4. Bed rock 10000

It has been found that the resistivity of the soil can be reduces by a chemical treatment with
the following salts.
Normal Salt (NaCl) and a mixture of salt & soft coke. Economical and most
MgSO4 commonly used salts
CuSO4
CaCl2
Na2CO3 More common salts

Usually the mixture of NaNo3 + sea salt + coal is used in the ratio of 1:3:5

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Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab Session 04
NED University of Engineering and Technology Department of Electrical Engineering

MEASURING THE GROUND RESISTANCE:


The above tables can give only a general idea of the theoretical value of resistivity of
the soil at a particular site for the purpose of design work. The exact resistance of the
grounding station must be determined at the site of installation to support theoretical
assumptions and the grounding conditions adjusted, if necessary, to obtain the
required ground resistance. The resistance of a grounding station can be measured
with the help of a ground tester. which generates a constant voltage for accurate
measurement. The tester has two potential and one current probe. The procedure of
measurement is illustrated in Figure.

Figure: Ground Tester

Figure: Measuring the ground resistance with the help of a ground tester

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Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab Session 04
NED University of Engineering and Technology Department of Electrical Engineering

The same test can also he conducted with the help of a battery, voltmeter and an
ammeter, as illustrated in Figure 22.8. The voltmeter must now indicate the same
reading at all three locations. When V becomes constant, read the current I. Then the
ground resistance

Rg= V / I ( )

Figure: Measuring the ground resistance with the help of a ammeter & voltmeter

PROCEDURE
Practical demonstration.

RESULT

Earthing process has fully understood.

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Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab session 05
NED University of Engineering and Technology Department of Electrical Engineering

LAB SESSION 05

Distribution Transformer
OBJECTIVE
To study the operation and constructional features of a Distribution Transformer

APPARATUS
Distribution Transformer

THEORY
Distribution transformer is used to convert electrical energy of higher voltage (usually
11-22-33kV) to a lower voltage (250 or 433V) with frequency identical before and
after the transformation. Its main application is mainly within suburban areas, public
supply authorities and industrial customers. With given secondary voltage,
distribution transformer is usually the last in the chain of electrical energy supply to
households and industrial enterprises.

CONSTRUCTION
There are 3 main parts in the distribution transformer:

Coils/winding where incoming alternating current (through primary winding)


generates magnetic flux, which in turn induces a voltage in the secondary coil.

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Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab session 05
NED University of Engineering and Technology Department of Electrical Engineering

Magnetic core material allowing transfer of magnetic field generated by primary


winding to secondary winding by the principle of electromagnetic induction.

A transformer s core and windings are called its Active Parts. This is because these
two are responsible for transformer s operation.

Tank serving as a mechanical package to protect active parts, as a holding vessel for
transformer oil used for cooling and insulation.

Transformer Accessories
Bucholz relay
Breather
Pressure relief device etc

SIGNIFICANCE OF VECTOR GROUPS


Three phase machines, such as transformers, are allotted symbols representing the type of
phase connection and the phase angle between the HV and LV terminals. The angle is
described by a clock-face hour figure. The HV vector is taken as 12 o clock, the reference,
and the corresponding LV vector is represented by the hour hand.

For example, a Dy11 represents;


D = HV winding is delta connected
y = LV winding is star connected
11 = clock-face reference indicating that the LV vector is at 11 o clock (30o
lead) with reference to the HV vector.

PROCEDURE

Practical demonstration.

RESULT
Complete working of the distribution transformer has been understood.

EXERCISE:
Give the definitions of following parts of Distribution Transformer

1. Bucholz Relay
2. Conservator or expansion tank
3. Breather
4. Pressure relief device

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Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab session 06
NED University of Engineering and Technology Department of Electrical Engineering

LAB SESSION 06

Substation Equipments & One Line Diagram

OBJECTIVE
To study the major equipments of the substation and make a one-line diagram.

APPARATUS
A visit will be arranged to a sub-station.

THEORY
An electrical substation is a subsidiary station of an electricity generation, transmission and
distribution system where voltage is transformed from high to low levels using transformers.
Electric power may flow through several substations between generating plant and consumer,
and may be changed in voltage in several steps.

Feeders
The electrical distribution system begins with a source of electrical energy that must be
distributed to each and every electrical load. The starting point of this system, which feeds
electrical energy into it, is known as a Feeder. The electricity delivered by a feeder is actually
distributed to different loads in the system.

Distributors
A distributor is a conductor from which tapings are taken to the consumers. The current
through a distributor is not constant due to the tapings taken off at various places along its
length. While designing a distributor, voltage drop along its length is the main consideration
as the voltage variation limits are about 6% of the rated voltage at the consumer terminals.

Switch Gears
The term switchgear, used in association with the electric power system, or grid, refers to the
combination of electrical disconnects, fuses and/or circuit breakers used to isolate electrical
equipment. Switchgear is used both to de-energize equipment to allow work to be done and to
clear faults downstream Panels are the compartments used for switchgear arrangement.

Switching Devices A device designed to close, open, or both, one or more electric
circuits. These include

HRC fuses
Magnetic contactor
Circuit Breaker (Molded Case Circuit Breaker)
Load Break Switch

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Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab session 06
NED University of Engineering and Technology Department of Electrical Engineering

Figure: Fuse Figure: Contactor Figure: Circuit Breaker

One line diagram of a typical distribution system

EXERCISE:
Using Magnetic Contactor control the single phase & three phase load & draw the schematic.

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Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab Session 07
NED University of Engineering and Technology Department of Electrical Engineering

LAB SESSION 07

Home Appliances Motors


OBJECTIVE
To operate different AC & DC electric motors in different appliances.

APPARATUS
Fan Motor (Ceiling & Exhaust)
Washing Machine Motor
Pump Motor
Juicer Motor
Toys Motor
Transformers

THEORY
Transformer
A transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another
by electromagnetic induction (transformer action). The electrical energy is always
transferred without a change in frequency, but may involve changes in magnitudes of
voltage and currents. The total VA at primary and secondary is always constant.

There are two types of transformers.


1. Core Type
2. Shell Type

Figure: Shell Type Transformer Figure: Core Type Transformer

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Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab Session 07
NED University of Engineering and Technology Department of Electrical Engineering

Universal Motor
The universal motor is a rotating electrical machine similar to DC series motor,
designed to operate either from AD or DC source. The stator & rotor windings of the
motor are connected in series through the rotor commutator. The series motor is
designed to move large loads with high torque in applications such as crane motor or
lift hoist.

Figure: Universal Motor Figure: Closer View of Universal Motor

Figure: Universal Motor Assembly

Split Phase Induction Motor


An Induction motor is a motor without rotor windings, the rotor receives electric
power by induction rather than by conduction, exactly the same way the secondary of
a 2 windings transformer receive its power from the primary.

The single-phase induction motor has no intrinsic starting torque. Starting torque can
be achieved by either one of the method.
1. Split phase windings
2. Capacitor type windings
3. Shaded pole stator

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Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab Session 07
NED University of Engineering and Technology Department of Electrical Engineering

Figure: Induction Motor Figure: Induction Motor s Rotor

Figure: Piston Motor

PMDC motor
A permanent magnet DC motor is the simple motor that converts electrical energy
into mechanical energy through the interactions of the two fields. One field is
produced by a permanent magnet poles, the other field is produces by electrical
current flowing in the armature windings. These two fields result in a torque which
tends to rotate the rotor.

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Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab Session 07
NED University of Engineering and Technology Department of Electrical Engineering

Figure: PMDC Motor s Assembly

Hystersis Motor
A Hystersis motor is a type of shaded pole motor, operate on the principle of
Hystersis.

Figure: Hystersis Motor

PROCEDURE
Practical Demonstration.

RESULT
The working of household motors has fully understood.

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Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab Session 07
NED University of Engineering and Technology Department of Electrical Engineering

EXERCISE
Give the application of following AC/DC motors

- 27-
Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab Session 08
NED University of Engineering and Technology Department of Electrical Engineering

LAB SESSION 08

Introduction to Lighting design software Calculux

OBJECTIVE
To become familiar with the basic environment of lighting design software
Calculux

THEORY
This Lab session will introduce the main feature of lighting design software and with
the environment of Calculux.

Calculux Indoor is a software tool which helps lighting designers in selecting and
evaluating lighting systems for offices and industrial applications.

What can you do with Calculux Indoor?

· Perform lighting calculations (including direct, indirect, total and average


illuminance) within orthogonal rooms;

· Predict financial implications including energy, investment, lamp and maintenance


costs for different luminaire arrangements;

· Select luminaires from an extensive Philips database or from specially formatted files
for luminaires from other suppliers;

· Specify room dimensions, luminaire types, maintenance factors, interreflection


accuracy, calculation grids and calculation types;

· Compile reports displaying results in text and graphical formats;

· Support Switching modes and Light regulation factors;

The logical steps used for project specification save you time and effort, while the report
facility gives you the opportunity to keep permanent records of the results.

Installing the program


In order to install Calculux correctly, please stop all other applications before starting the
installation.

To install the program:


1. Start Windows.
2. Connect the USB to your USB port [Let suppose drive (K:) of your computer].
3. Follow the path K:\Calculux

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Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab Session 08
NED University of Engineering and Technology Department of Electrical Engineering

4. Run the setup in the Indoor5.0b


5. Follow the instructions on screen.

Installing the database


1. Here in the folder DB, there is a database of Philips Luminaries
2. Install the database from the DB folder.

Environment of Calculux Indoor Software

When you start Calculux, the Calculux main window is displayed. This window
always contains the menu bar, and if selected, it may also contain a tool bar and/or
status line. When a project file is open and data has been entered, a 2D top view or 3D
layout is shown.

The menu bar contains the following menus:

1. File 2. Data 3. Calculation 4.Report 5. Finance


6. View 7. Options 8. Window 9. Help

- 29-
Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab Session 08
NED University of Engineering and Technology Department of Electrical Engineering

1. The file menu:


By means of the File menu you can manage your project
files. You can create new projects; open previously saved
projects or print reports.

To activate the File menu:

1. From the Calculux menu bar, choose File.

Go to file menu, click on the New Project.Here in this menu,


you can open the previous project or save the current one
also.

2. The data menu:


By means of the Data menu you can specify the technical
information about your lighting project and the areas (grids) on
which the calculations will be carried out. You can also make 2-
D drawings of objects using rectangles, circles and lines.

To activate the Data menu:

1. From the Calculux menu bar, choose Data.


Here in the Data menu, we can add information regarding
Project details (e.g. project name, customer & company name),
room dimensions (Width, length, height & working plane
details) application field, grid, type of luminaries & different
type of objects we are using etc.

Rooms
Use this dialogue box to specify or display the settings for the room.

Application Fields
An application field can be used to graphically mark the area of interest for lighting
calculations. The following types of application fields are available:

Sports field a sports field


General field a field without a predefined application.

- 30-
Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab Session 08
NED University of Engineering and Technology Department of Electrical Engineering

Luminaire list
The luminaire list contains information about the individually placed luminaires used
in the project. You can view, set, edit, copy or delete information of project
luminaires. In the luminaire list the following luminaire information, if applicable, can
be set:

Luminaire Type
Luminaire Quantity
Luminaire Position (POS X, POS Y and POS Z)
Luminaire Orientation (aiming type)

Drawings
Use this option to add a drawing to the project.
Following shapes could be added,
Rectangle (for a table etc)
Text (to mark text on the object)
Line ()
Arc

Grid
A grid is a set of points in a 2 dimensional plane, at which the lighting calculations
will be carried out. A grid must always be rectangular of shape and can be in any
plane in space. The position and size of a grid is defined by its corner points A, B and
C, and the number of points in the AB and AC direction and the direction of the
normal vector.

- 31-
Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab Session 08
NED University of Engineering and Technology Department of Electrical Engineering

3. Calculation:
By means of the Calculation Menu you can define the
calculations which need to be carried out for your
lighting project. You can also calculate the quality figures
and specify how the results of the calculations will be
presented.

Room Illuminance:
Use this dialogue box to view the average luminance and illuminance values calculated for
the room surfaces. The accuracy of the values depends on the selected interreflection
accuracy.

4. Report:
By means of the Report menu you can
define the contents and layout of your
reports. By means of the 'Print Preview'
option you can preview the report print-out.

Note: The settings in the 'Report menu'


only apply to the report(s) you create for the currently selected project. The settings
are saved with the project data, when you save your project. For new created projects,
the report setup default settings will be applied (see Options menu, Report Setup
Defaults...).

5. Finance:
By means of the Finance
menu you can set the
parameters for the cost
calculations for the current
project.

6. View:

By means of the View menu you can set the view options for the project overviews in
the Calculux main window.

The following options can be selected:


Toolbar
Status bar

- 32-
Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab Session 08
NED University of Engineering and Technology Department of Electrical Engineering

The following view types can be displayed in the Calculux main window.
Select from:

3D Project View;
2D Top View;
2D Left View;
2D Right View;
2D Front View;
2D Back View.

7. Options:
By means of the Options menu you can enter or change the default settings for your
Calculux projects. The settings in the Options menu will affect all new created
projects.

Note: When Calculux is installed, the settings in the Options menu are set to the
factory defaults. When starting the first project, it is likely you will need to set your
own defaults according to the local requirements.

8. Window:
By means of the Window menu you can arrange windows and icons.

- 33-
Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab Session 08
NED University of Engineering and Technology Department of Electrical Engineering

The following options can be selected:

Use To
Create a new window sharing a 2D-Top View of the
New
currently selected project.
Close Result Views Close all windows which are result views.
Resize and layer all open windows so that each title bar is
Cascade
visible.
Tile Resize and arrange all open windows side by side.
Arrange Icons Evenly arrange icons in a window.
In the 'open windows' field a listing of all open windows is
'open windows' given. The name of the currently selected window is
checked.

9. Help Menu:

By means of the Help menu you can search for help information about Calculux
topics.

You can also access Help by pressing F1 for context-sensitive help on the dialogue
box you are currently using.

Before Starting your First Project:


Assumptions
Installation of Calculux Indoor has been successful;
Vignettes have been installed;
Phillum files have been installed;
Database has been installed.

Before you start 'My First Project' first you should check the default settings of
Calculux.

- 34-
Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab Session 08
NED University of Engineering and Technology Department of Electrical Engineering

Checking the default settings


In this section you will check some default settings. By means of default settings you
can specify parameters that affect all future projects (new defined luminaires,
luminaire arrangements, calculations and/or reports, etc.). The default settings remain
valid the next time Calculux is started and can be changed at any time. If you
specify/set the most common used parameters, you eliminate the need to specify/set
the same parameters every time you create a new project. The default settings can be
entered by means of the Option menu and are saved in the configuration file of
Calculux.

Do not use the Option menu when you want use different parameters for one
particular project only.

For 'First Project' you are going to check the following default settings:
Environment (options) (default settings concerning the program environment)
Report Setup Defaults (default settings concerning the contents and layout of
the report)
Calculation Presentation Defaults (default settings concerning the Calculation
Presentation)

Environment
Select Environment from the Options menu.
Select the Directories tab.
Check the directory settings of the Project files, Phillum files and Vignette files.
Select the Database tab.
Check the directory settings of the Database files.
Click OK to return to the Main View.
The Environment Options only have to be set after installing Calculux.

Report Setup Defaults


Select Report Setup Defaults from the Options menu.
Select the Contents tab.
In the Included box, select the chapters to be included in the report.

In the Presentation Forms box, select the presentation forms of the calculation
presentation result views.
Select Textual Table, Iso Contour,Filled Iso Contour

Select the Layout tab.


In the Project Luminaire Information box, select in which way the luminaire
luminous intensity information is to be shown.

Select Show Polar Diagram


In the Installation Data box, select which elements are to be displayed in chapter
'Installation Data' of the report.
Select Show Aiming Angles

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Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab Session 08
NED University of Engineering and Technology Department of Electrical Engineering

In the General box, select which additional information is to be displayed and in


which language the report is to be created.

Click OK to return to the Main View.

Calculation Presentation Defaults


Select Calculation Presentation Defaults from the Options menu.
Select the Presentation Forms tab.
In this tab you can select the elements to be displayed in the calculation presentation
result views.
Select Textual Table, Iso Contour, Filled Iso Contour

Select the General tab.

In the Show box, select the elements to be displayed by default in the calculation
presentation and report.
Select Luminaires, Luminaire Code, Luminaire Legend, Drawings,Fill Color
Legend, Room,Connected Field,Connected Grid

In the Iso Contour Method box, select which Iso Contour Method will be used by
default for the calculation presentation.

Select Relative

Select the Scaling tab.

In the Minimum Report Scale box.


Select 10

In the Sizing box, select the default sizing of the calculation presentation result views,
select:

Zoomed Relative to Grid:


Factor 1.000

By setting the above scaling, the size of the defined objects in the calculation
presentation result overviews will be based on the size of the grid and the field. The
size is determined by the 'Zoom Factor'.

Click OK to return to the Main View.

Now start your first project.

- 36-
Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab session 09
NED University of Engineering and Technology Department of Electrical Engineering

LAB SESSION 09

Your First Project on lighting design using CALCULUX

OBJECTIVE
Design a general lighting scheme of an office using CALCULUX. This will be your
first task of this Lab.

The details are as under:


Room Specifications
Room dimensions
Width 3.50 m Length 5.60 m Height 2.70 m
Working Plane Height 0.80 m

Reflections
Ceiling 0.50 Walls 0.30 Floor 0.10

Position (of Left Front side of the room)


X = 0.0 Y =0.0

Required illuminance level


General lighting 300 lux on working plane

Luminaire Specifications
Luminaire type TBS600/135 C7-60
Lamp type TL5 35W

Project Maintenance Factor 0.80

First Task of First project:

Starting the First Project


1. Select New Project from the File menu.
A new empty window will be created. You can maximize the view if you wish.

Enter the project data


Select Project Info from the Data menu.

1. Add Information in Project tab about your project,


In the Customer tab about your customer,
In the Company tab you can enter company information.
2. Click OK to return to the Main View.

- 37-
Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab session 09
NED University of Engineering and Technology Department of Electrical Engineering

Setting Project Options


Select Project Options from Data menu.
1. In the Calculation box:
Disable (no checkmark) 'Luminaire Splitup'
Set 'Project Maintenance Factor' to: 0.80

In general, for indoor lighting designs, the luminaire split-up is needed only for
precise calculations, such as indirect lighting (uplighter).

2. In the 2D View tab and 3D View tab:


Disable 'Aiming Arrows'.
3. Click OK to return to the Main View.

Specifying the Room


Select Room from the Data menu.

1. Select the Definition tab.


In the Dimensions box, enter the dimensions of the room:

In the Position box you can define the position of the Left Front corner of the
room.

By means of the 'Centre' button you can position the centre of the room in origin (x=0,
y=0). For this project the position of the Left Front corner is 0,0.

2. In the Quick Estimate box you can specify the requested illuminance level as
general lighting. The value you specify will be used by Calculux to calculate
the number of luminaires needed to meet the required Illuminance level.

In the 'Required Illuminance Level field',


Enter 300 lux

3. Select the Interreflection tab.


In the Interreflection Accuracy box you can specify the accuracy of the
interreflection calculations.
Select Normal

4. Click OK to return to the Main View.

Selecting Project Luminaires


To select Project Luminaires:
a) Select Project Luminaires from the Data menu Or
b) Click on Toolbar shortcut button.
a) Selecting Project Luminaires from the Data menu
1. Select Project Luminaires from the Data menu.
2. Click Add and select Database.

In the Application Area box you can select the application area(s) you want to use.
Select Indoor Lighting

- 38-
Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab session 09
NED University of Engineering and Technology Department of Electrical Engineering

3. Click Open.
In the Add Project Luminaires dialogue box, select the family name and/or family
code of the luminaire:
Family Name TBS600
Family Code TBS600

By default both the family name and the family code are set to 'any' (no luminaires
will be selected). Nevertheless, you should select 'any' for the family name if the
family name is unknown or select 'any' for the family code if the family code is
unknown.

4. Select the housing and light distributor of the luminaire, select:


Housing TBS600/135
Light Distributor C7-60

5. Click Add.
6. Click OK, then Close (twice) to return to the Main View.

OR
b) Clicking on Toolbar shortcut button.
1. Click on in the Calculux menu bar.
Select the housing and light distributor of the luminaire, select:
Housing TBS600/135
Light Distributor C7-60

2. Click Add.
3. Click OK to return to the main View.
If the luminaire is not in your database you can select another Indoor luminaire. If you
wish you can view luminaire details by clicking on the Details button.

Positioning luminaires:
Calculux allows you to position luminaires individually as well as in arrangements.
For 'First Project' you will create a Room Block arrangement. The number of
luminaires needed will be calculated according to the utilization factor (UF factor).

1. Select Arranged Luminaires from the Data menu.


2. Click Add and select Room Block.
In the UF Method box you can see that 3.5 luminaires is sufficient for the requested
illuminance level of 300 lux as general lighting.

3. Click Generate.
A Room Block arrangement of 4 luminaires will be generated.
In the Definition box enter the name of the arrangement, enter:
Name General

4. Click OK, then Close to return to the Main View.

- 39-
Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab session 09
NED University of Engineering and Technology Department of Electrical Engineering

Defining a (calculation) grid:


Before a calculation can be performed a (calculation) grid has to be defined. You can
define your own grid, define a grid according to a rule or use a preset grid.

For this project you will use a preset grid.


1. Select Grids from the Data menu.
2. Click Add in the Grids dialogue box.

In the Add Grid dialogue box, enter the name of the grid, enter:
Name Working Plane
In the Coupling box, select:
Connected to Working Plane

5. Click OK, then Close to return to the Main View.

Performing a calculation:
All settings concerning the definition or presentation of a calculation for a specific
project are performed in the Calculation menu. For 'First Project' project you will use
the default settings (as previously done), so no settings have to be done.

1. Select Show Results from the Calculation menu.


The calculation will be performed.

Printing the report:


All settings concerning the contents and layout of a report for a specific project are
normally done in the Report menu. For 'First Project' project you will use the default
settings (as previously done).

1. Select Print Report from the File menu.


2. Click OK in the Print dialogue box to print the report.

Saving the project:


In case you wish to redesign the project later, it is advisable to save the project.

1. Select Save from the File menu.


Enter the file name, enter:
File Name Office 1.cin

2. Click OK to save the project.


3. Select Exit from the File menu to close the program.

- 40-
Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab session 09
NED University of Engineering and Technology Department of Electrical Engineering

A A

A A

-3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
X(m)

Fig: 1st Task

Second Task of The First Project:


Let suppose there is a window in the back wall of the room, two luminaires of the
Room Block arrangement have to be moved. How will you move?

Open 'First Project' and save it under a new name.


1. Select Open Project from the File menu.
2. Select OFFICE 1.CIN and click OK.
3. In de File menu, select Save As.
4. In the File Name box, enter OFFICE 2.CIN and click OK.

You are now working in OFFICE 2.CIN.

Repositioning of luminaires for general lighting.


There are two possibilities:

Change the Y-spacing of the luminaires in the arrangement

1. Select Arranged Luminaires from Data menu.


2. In the Arrangements dialogue box, click Change.
3. Select the Arrangement tab.

In the Definition box, enter the Y-spacing of the luminaires:


Change the Y-spacing from 2.80 to 3.40.
4. Click OK, then Close.

Change the position of the luminaires


According to the arrangement rule, the luminaires in the Room Block arrangement
can not be moved individually. In order to move individual luminaires, the Room
Block arrangement has to be changed into a Free arrangement first.

1. Select Arranged Luminaires from Data menu.

- 41-
Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab session 09
NED University of Engineering and Technology Department of Electrical Engineering

In the Arrangements dialogue box, click Free, then click Yes.


Now the Room Block arrangement is made into a Free arrangement.

2. Click Change and select the Luminaire List tab.


In the Luminaire List tab, enter the new positions of the luminaires:
Change the Y-position of the luminaires in row 3 and 4 from 4.20 to 4.80.

3. Click OK, then Close.

Now calculate the results again.

Third task of first project:


Add a table in the center of the room & write text on table TABLE

Open 'First Project' and save it under a new name.


1. Select Open Project from the File menu.
2. Select OFFICE2.CIN and click OK.
3. In de File menu, select Save As.
4. In the File Name box, enter OFFICE 3.CIN and click OK.

You are now working in OFFICE 3.CIN.

Add an object table


1. Select Drawings from Data menu.
2. Click Add. & Select Rectangle.
3. Add the dimensions of table.
X=1.00, Y=2.00m, Z=2.00m
Length= 2.0m , Width=1.5m
4. Select the Arrangement tab.
In the Definition box, enter the Y-spacing of the luminaires:
5. Click OK, then Close.

Now calculate the results again.

A A A A

table

A A A A

Fig: 2nd Task Fig: 3rd Task

- 42-
Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab session 09
NED University of Engineering and Technology Department of Electrical Engineering

OBSERVATION:
Attach the Self generated Report with each task.

In each report following details should be there


1) Title Page
2) Table of Contents
3) Summary
4) Luminaries Details
5) Installation data
6) Top project overview
7) Calculation Results
a) Textual Table
b) ISO Contour
c) Filled ISO Contour

INSTRUCTION:
All the observation reports should be maintained in a separate file, do not staple with
the workbook.

- 43-
Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab session 10
NED University of Engineering and Technology Department of Electrical Engineering

LAB SESSION 10

Your Second Project on lighting design using CALCULUX

OBJECTIVE
The purpose of this lab is to measure the LUX level on the working plane. This will
be your first task of this Lab.

The constructional details are as under:

Room Specifications
Room dimensions
Width 7.32 m Length 7.62 m Height 3.66 m
Working Plane Height 0.80 m

Reflections
Ceiling 0.50 Walls 0.30 Floor 0.10

Position (of Left Front side of the room)


X= 0.0 Y = 0.0

Illuminance level
To be measured

Luminaire Specifications
Luminaire type Lamp Type Color
FBS331/218 M6 2xPL-L18W 840
TBS300/236 M1 2XTL-D36W 840

Project Maintenance Factor 0.80

Luminaires Location
Red Lamps (12 in Number)
Spacing
X- Spacing = 1.2m
Y- Spacing = 1.6m
Position
X=1.20 Y=1.60 Z=3.66

Blue Lamps (20 in Number)


Spacing
X- Spacing = 1.5m Y- Spacing = 1.6m
Position
X=1.45 Y=2.20 Z=3.66

- 44-
Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab session 10
NED University of Engineering and Technology Department of Electrical Engineering

8
7 .5
7
6 .5

A A A A A
6
5 .5

B B B B
5

A A A A A
4 .5
4
Y(m )

B B B B
3 .5

A A A A A
3
2 .5

B B B B
2
1 .5

A A A A A
1
0 .5
0
- 0 .5

-3 -2.5 -2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 6.5 7 7.5 8 8.5 9 9.5 10
X(m)

First Task of Second Project:

Starting the First Project


Select New Project from the File menu.

Enter the project data


Select Project Info from the Data menu and fill the Project information in Project
tab, Customer information in Customer tab & company information in company
tab.

Click OK to return to the Main View.

Setting Project Options


Select Project Options from Data menu.
1. In the Calculation box:
Disable (no checkmark) 'Luminaire Splitup'
Set 'Project Maintenance Factor' to: 0.80

2. In the 2D View tab and 3D View tab:


Disable 'Aiming Arrows'.
3. Click OK to return to the Main View.

- 45-
Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab session 10
NED University of Engineering and Technology Department of Electrical Engineering

Specifying the Room


Select Room from the Data menu.
1. Select the Definition tab.
In the Dimensions box, enter the dimensions of the room:

In the Position box you can define the position of the Left Front corner of the
room.

2. In the Quick Estimate box, fill none. you can specify the requested
illuminance level as general lighting. But here in this project,

In the 'Required Illuminance Level field', enter none.

3. Select the Interreflection tab.


In the Interreflection Accuracy box you can specify the accuracy of the
interreflection calculations.
Select Normal

4. Click OK to return to the Main View.

Selecting Project Luminaires


To select Project Luminaires:
a) Select Project Luminaires from the Data menu Or
b) Click on Toolbar shortcut button.

Now select following Project Luminaires:


Luminaire type Lamp Type Color
FBS331/218 M6 2xPL-L18W 840
TBS300/236 M1 2XTL-D36W 840

Positioning luminaires:
Calculux allows you to position luminaires individually as well as in arrangements.
For 'Second Project' you will create two separate Room Block arrangements.

1. Select Arranged Luminaries from the Data menu.


2. Click Add and select Room Block.

In the Definition box, enter the given information.


In the UF Method box, do not click Generate .

3. See the preview


4. Click OK, then Add another Room Block, default name Room Block1.
5. Now enter the given information about the luminaries and repeat for the
next luminaire.

- 46-
Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab session 10
NED University of Engineering and Technology Department of Electrical Engineering

Defining a (calculation) grid:


Before a calculation can be performed a (calculation) grid has to be defined. You can
define your own grid, define a grid according to a rule or use a preset grid.

For this project you will use a preset grid.


1. Select Grids from the Data menu.
2. Click Add in the Grids dialogue box.

In the Add Grid dialogue box, enter the name of the grid, enter:
Name Working Plane
In the Coupling box, select:
Connected to Working Plane

3. Click OK, then Close to return to the Main View.

Performing a calculation:
For 'Second Project calculations' use the default settings.

1. Select Show Results from the Calculation menu.


The calculation will be performed.

Printing the report:


For 'Second Project Report' use the default settings.

1. Select Print Report from the File menu.


2. Click OK in the Print dialogue box to print the report.

Saving the project:


In case you wish to redesign the project later, it is advisable to save the project.

1. Select Save from the File menu.


Enter the file name, enter:
File Name project2.cin

2. Click OK to save the project.


3. Select Exit from the File menu to close the program.

Second task of Second Project:


In your second task
1. Group the luminaries in three separate blocks.
2. Make rectangles.
3. Make two separate grids, one for working plane & one for Table.
4. Now calculate the results.
5. Generate & Print the report.
6. Save the project.

- 47-
Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab session 10
NED University of Engineering and Technology Department of Electrical Engineering

7
B B B B
6

Table 2
B B B B
5

A A A A A A A
4
Y(m)

A A A A A A A
3

B B B B
2

Table 1

B B B B
1
0

-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
X(m)

1. Group the luminaries in three separate blocks.

Red Luminaries in Center (14 in Number)


Spacing & Position
X- Spacing = 0.9m Y- Spacing = 1.0m
X=1.00 Y=3.3 Z=3.66

Blue Lamps Bottom (8 in Quantity)


Spacing & Position
X- Spacing = 1.5m Y- Spacing = 1.3m
X=1.4 Y=1.00 Z=3.66

Blue Lamps Top (8 in Quantity)


Spacing & Position
X- Spacing = 1.5m Y- Spacing = 1.3m
X=1.4 Y=5.2 Z=3.66

2. Make Rectangles with the dimensions shown in figures below.

Rectangle1
X=0.60 Y=0.70m Z=3.66m
Length= 2.0m Width=6.0m

- 48-
Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab session 10
NED University of Engineering and Technology Department of Electrical Engineering

Rectangle2
X=0.60 Y=4.80m Z=3.66m
Length= 2.0m Width=6.0m

Rectangle3
X=0.60 Y=3.10m Z=3.66m
Length= 1.50m Width=6.00m

3. Make two separate grids, one for working plane & one for Table 1.
4. Calculate the results.
5. Generate & Print the report.
6. Save the project.

OBSERVATION:
Attach the Self Generated Report with each task of the Project.

In each report following details should be there


1. Title Page
2. Table of Contents
3. Summary
4. Luminaries Details
5. Installation data
6. Top project overview
7. Calculation Results
a) Textual Table
b) ISO Contour
c) Filled ISO Contour

INSTRUCTION:
All the observation reports should be maintained in a separate file, do not staple with
the workbook.

- 49-
Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab session 11
NED University of Engineering and Technology Department of Electrical Engineering

LAB SESSION 11

Third Project on lighting design using CALCULUX

OBJECTIVE:
Design a task and accent lighting for an office.

The constructional details of the office are as under:

Room Specifications
Room dimensions
Width 3.50 m
Length 5.60 m
Height 2.70 m
Working Plane Height 0.80 m

Reflections
Ceiling 0.50
Walls 0.30
Floor 0.10

Position (of Left Front side of the room)


X 0.0
Y 0.0

Luminaries Used
TBS600/135 C7-60
MASTERLINE PLUS 20W 24D [13672]

Project Maintenance Factor 0.80

- 50-
Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab session 11
NED University of Engineering and Technology Department of Electrical Engineering

6
5.5
5
4.5
4
3.5
3
Y(m)
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
-0.5

-4 -3.5 -3 -2.5 -2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 6.5 7
X(m)

Steps To Follow:

Starting the Third Project:


Open Your first project office2.CIN and save it under a new name

Adding furniture.
1. Add Bureau (desk), consist of three elements Bureau, Bureau corner,
& Bureau left corner.
Name Bureau
Position, dimensions and orientation of the bureau (front desk):
X =1.30 m Y= 3.10 m Z =0.80 m
Length 1.60 m Width 0.80 m Rotation 0.00 deg

Name Bureau corner


Position, dimensions and orientation of the bureau (corner):
X 1.30 m Y 4.70 m Z 0.80 m
Length 0.80 m Width 0.80 m Rotation 0.00 deg

Name Bureau left corner


Position, dimensions and orientation of the bureau (left corner):
X 0.10 m Y 4.70 m Z 0.80 m
Length 0.80 m Width 1.20 m Rotation 0.00 deg

2. Add conference table (dimensions: 0.80m x 1.60m)


Name Conference table
Position, dimensions and orientation of the conference table:
X 1.70 m Y 1.00 m Z 0.80 m
Length 0.80 m Width 1.60 m Rotation 0.00 deg

- 51-
Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab session 11
NED University of Engineering and Technology Department of Electrical Engineering

Selecting a Project Luminaire for task-and accent lighting


Now task lighting for the desk and conference table and accent lighting for a painting
will be added.For this project the MASTERLINE PLUS 20W 24D will be used.

Click on Toolbar shortcut button .


In the Add Project Luminaires dialogue box, select the family name, family code,
housing and light distributor of the luminaire:

Family Name REFLECTOR LAMPS


Family Code HALOGEN
Housing MASTERLINE PLUS 20W
Light distributor 24D

Click Add, then OK.

Positioning luminaires for the task- and accent lighting


1. Task lighting for the bureau
In the Arrangements dialogue box, click Add and select Block.
Position X = 1.50 m, Y = 3.50 m, Z = 2.70 m
Arrangement Number in AB: 2 X-spacing: 0.40 m
Number in AC: 2 Y-spacing: 0.80 m

In the Project Lumnaire box, select:


Type MASTERLINE PLUS 20W 24D
Click Apply, then OK.

2. Task lighting for the conference table


In the Arrangements dialogue box, click Add and select Block.
Position X = 2.10 m, Y = 1.20 m, Z = 2.70 m
Arrangement Number in AB: 2 X-spacing: 0.80 m
Number in AC: 2 Y-spacing: 0.40 m

In the Project Luminaire box, select:


Type MASTERLINE PLUS 20W 24D
Click Apply, then OK.

3. Accent lighting for the painting on the right wall

In the Arrangements dialogue box, click Add and select Line.


Select the Arrangement tab and enter:
Name Painting

In the Line box, enter the position, quantity and spacing of the luminaires:
First X = 0.75, Y = 1.90, Z = 2.65
Last X = 0.75, Y = 0.90, Z = 2.65

Number of Luminaires 2
Spacing 1.00 m

- 52-
Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab session 11
NED University of Engineering and Technology Department of Electrical Engineering

The rotation of the Line arrangement will be -90°.

Now the luminaires have to be tilted to the wall:


In the Luminaire List tab, enter the values for the tilt of both luminaires:
Tilt90 = -40°
Click OK, then Close.

View Aiming Arrows:


Select Project Options from the Data menu.
In the 2D View tab, check the Aiming Arrows box.
Click OK.

Define Calculation grids for the bureau, conference table and the right wall
Grid on Bureau
Position
A X = 1.3, Y = 3.1, Z = 0.8
B X = 2.1, Y = 3.1, Z = 0.8
C X = 1.3, Y = 4.7, Z = 0.8
Number of Points in
AB = 4 AC = 8

Grid on Conference table


Position
A X = 1.7, Y = 1.0, Z = 0.8
B X = 3.3, Y = 1.0, Z = 0.8
C X = 1.7, Y = 1.8, Z = 0.8
Number of Points in
AB = 8
AC = 4

Grid on Left Wall


In the Grids dialogue box, click Add.

In the Add Grid dialogue box, enter:


Name Left Wall

In the Coupling box, select:


Connected to Left wall

Click OK, then Close.

Defining Switching Modes


The following four switching modes will be defined for this project:
General lighting;
Task lighting for bureau;
Task lighting for table;
Accent lighting for painting at Left wall.

- 53-
Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab session 11
NED University of Engineering and Technology Department of Electrical Engineering

Defining the name of the switching modes


Select Switching Modes from the Data menu.
In the Switching Modes dialogue box, enter the names of the switching modes.
Enter General Lighting, then click New.
Enter Task Lighting Bureau, then click New.
Enter Task Lighting Table, then click New.
Enter Accent Lighting Painting, then click OK.

In this Lab, the General Lighting is always switched on.

Selecting the luminaires to which the switching mode is applied


Select Arranged Luminaires from the Data menu.

Double click on 'Bureau' in the Arrangements dialogue box.


Select the Luminaire Definition tab.
In the Switching Modes box, check 'Task Lighting Bureau' only.
Click Apply, then OK.

Double click on 'Conference Table' in the Arrangements dialogue box.


Select the Luminaire Definition tab.
In the Switching Modes box, check 'Task Lighting Table' only.
Click Apply, then OK.

Double click on 'Painting' in the Arrangements dialogue box.


Select the Luminaire Definition tab.
In the Switching Modes box, check 'Accent Lighting Painting' only.
Click Apply, then OK.

Double click on 'General' in the Arrangements dialogue box.


Select the Luminaire Definition tab.

In the Switching Modes box, check 'General Lighting', 'Task Lighting Bureau', 'Task
Lighting Table' and 'Accent Lighting Painting'.

Click Apply, then OK.


Click Close.

Defining Calculations
Before you can perform a calculation, you have to specify the calculation name and
the calculation parameters first.

Select Define from the Calculation menu.


For this project the following calculations have to be defined:

Working Plane
Double click on 'Working Plane' in the Calculation dialogue box.
In the Change Calculation dialogue box, check and/or select:
Name Working Plane
Grid Working Plane

- 54-
Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab session 11
NED University of Engineering and Technology Department of Electrical Engineering

Switching Mode General Lighting


Calculation Type Plane Illuminance
Result Type Total (= Direct + Indirect contribution)
Direction Surface +N
Click OK.

Similarly for Bureau, Conference table & Left Wall.

Printing the report:


Report Setup
Select Setup from the Report menu.
Select the Components tab.
In the Components box, select which components have to be included in the report.

In the Include box, double click on the + or - sign to include (+) or exclude (-) a
calculation.

For this project Working Plane, Bureau, Table and Right Wall have to be included.

In the Presentation Forms box, select in which presentation forms the calculation
results are presented. Select:

Select: Graphical Table


Iso Contour
Filled Iso Contour

Click OK.

Printing the Report


You can use Print Preview (see Report menu) to preview your report before printing
it.
Select Print Report from the File menu or Report menu.
Click OK in the Print dialogue box to print the report.

Saving the project


In case you wish to redesign the project later, it is advisable to save the project.
Select Save from the File menu to save the project.

- 55-
Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab session 11
NED University of Engineering and Technology Department of Electrical Engineering

OBSERVATION:
Attach the Self Generated Report with each task of the Project.

In each report following details should be there


8. Title Page
9. Table of Contents
10. Summary
11. Luminaries Details
12. Installation data
13. Top project overview
14. Calculation Results
a) Textual Table
b) ISO Contour
c) Filled ISO Contour

INSTRUCTION:
All the observation reports should be maintained in a separate file, do not staple with
the workbook.

- 56-
Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab session 12
NED University of Engineering and Technology Department of Electrical Engineering

LAB SESSION 12

Luminescence
OBJECTIVE
To verify the Laws of Illumination.

APPARATUS
A wooden board
Connecting wires
Fluorescent Light
Incandescent Light
LUX Meter

INVERSE SQUARE LAW

The inverse-square law, which states that the illuminance at a point on a surface
perpendicular to the light ray is equal to the luminous intensity of the source at that
point divided by the square of the distance between the source and the point of
calculation.

Where:

E = Illuminance in footcandles
I = Luminous intensity in candles
D = Distance in feet between the source and the point of calculation

TYPES OF LAMPS

INCANDESCENT LIGHT BULBS


Incandescent light bulbs consist of a glass enclosure (the
envelope, or bulb) which is filled with an inert gas to reduce
evaporation of the filament. Inside the bulb is a filament of
tungsten wire, through which an electric current is passed.
The current heats the filament to an extremely high
temperature (typically 2000 K to 3300 K depending on the
filament type, shape, size, and amount of current passed
through). The heated filament emits light that approximates a
continuous spectrum. The useful part of the emitted energy is
visible light, but most energy is given off in the near-infrared wavelengths.

- 57-
Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab session 12
NED University of Engineering and Technology Department of Electrical Engineering

HALOGEN BULBS
Halogen light bulbs produce light in a similar method to a regular incandescent bulb.
A halogen bulb has a filament made of Tungsten, which glows when electricity is
applied, same as a regular incandescent bulb. What makes a halogen bulb different is
that it is filled with halogen gas instead of argon gas like a regular bulb is. The
halogen gas removes the carbon deposits on the inside of the bulb, caused by the
burning of the tungsten filament, and re-deposits it back on to the filament, resulting
in a light bulb which can be burned at a higher temperature therefore creating, both a
whiter as well as a brighter light per watt than a regular bulb. The average rated life of
halogen bulbs are typically between 2,000 and 4,000 hours.

Figure: Types of Incandescent Lamps

FLOURESCENT TUBE LIGHT


A fluorescent lamp or fluorescent tube is a gas-discharge lamp that uses electricity to
excite mercury vapor. The excited mercury atoms produce short-wave ultraviolet light
that then causes a phosphor to fluoresce, producing visible light.

Compared with incandescent lamps, fluorescent lamps use less power for the same
amount of light, generally last longer, but are bulkier, more complex, and more
expensive than a comparable incandescent lamp.

- 58-
Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab session 12
NED University of Engineering and Technology Department of Electrical Engineering

Figure: Types of Fluorescent Lamps

COMPACT FLOURESCENT LIGHTS


A compact fluorescent lamp (CFL), also known as
a compact fluorescent light bulb (or less commonly
as a compact fluorescent tube [CFT]), is a type of
fluorescent lamp. Many CFLs are designed to
replace an incandescent lamp and can fit in the
existing light fixtures formerly used for
incandescents.

Compared to general service incandescent lamps


giving the same amount of visible light, CFLs use
less power and have a longer rated life, but
generally have a higher purchase price.

- 59-
Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab session 12
NED University of Engineering and Technology Department of Electrical Engineering

PROCDURE & CALCULATIONS


Place different lamps on the wooden board & calculate the LUX level at different point.

Distance from
S. No. Type of Lamp LUX
the source
1
2 Incandescent
3
1
2 Fluorescent Lamp
3

RESULT
The inverse square law understood.

EXERCISE
On wooden board, make the circuitry of Fluorescent lamp & also draw the circuit diagram of
a fluorescent lamp showing fluorescent tube, ballast & starter.

- 60-
Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab session 13
NED University of Engineering and Technology Department of Electrical Engineering

LAB SESSION 13

Calculating the Total Cost in a Commercial or


Industrial Bill.
OBJECTIVE
You are given an Industrial or commercial Bill
Calculate the total energy cost of the utility bill.
Explain the terms used in the bill
Perform Exercise in the end of the Lab Session

Theory:
The rates of utility companies are based upon the following guidelines:

1. The amount of energy consumed [kW.h]


2. The demand or rte at which energy is consumed [kW]
3. The power facto of the load.

The amount of energy consumed is measured by Energy meter and the demand of the
system during the demand interval is measured by Demand meter.

What is The Difference Between Demand and Consumption?


Demand is how much power you require at a single point in time, measured in
kilowatts (kW).
Consumption is how much energy you use over a period of time, measured in
kilowatt-hours (kWh).
Example: assume ten lights are turned on each with a 100-watt bulb. To
accomplish this, you must draw - or demand - 1,000 watts, or 1 kW of
electricity from the power grid. If you leave all ten lights on for two hours,
you would consume 2 kWh of electricity.

Demand Measurement
Demand varies by customer and month. To record demand, a special meter
tracks the flow of electricity to a facility over a period of time, usually 30-
minute intervals.
Over the course of a month, the 30-minute interval with the highest demand is
recorded and reflected on a monthly bill.

Minimum Charges means a charge to recover the costs for providing customer service
to consumers even if no energy is consumed during the month.

Fixed Charges means the part of sale rate in a two-part tariff to be recovered on the
basis of Billing Demand in kilowatt on monthly basis.

- 61-
Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab session 13
NED University of Engineering and Technology Department of Electrical Engineering

Variable Charge means the sale rate per kilowatt-hour (kWh) as a single rate or part
of a two-part tariff applicable to the actual kWh consumed by the consumer during a
billing period.

Maximum Demand where applicable , means the maximum of the demand obtained
in any month measured over successive periods each of 30 minutes duration.

Sanctioned Load where applicable means the installed load in kilowatt as applied for
by the consumer and allowed/authorized by the Company for usage by the consumer.

Power Factor shall be to the ratio of kWh to KVAh recorded during the month or the
ratio of kWh to the square root of sum of square of kWh and kVARh,.

Formulae to be used:

1. Energy Charges (Rs) = No. of Units x energy charges (Rs/kWh)

2. Fuel Adjustment Charges (Rs) = No. of Units x energy charges (Rs/kWh)

3. Fixed Charges (Rs)

If MXD>50% of connected load

then
Fix Charges (Rs) = Fix charges rates x MXD

If MXD<50% of connected load

then
Fix Charges (Rs) = Fix charges rates x 50% of connected load

4. Additional Surcharge

Additional Surcharge (Rs) = No. of Units x Additional surcharge (Rs/kWh)

5. Income Tax

Applicable on Taxable Amount

Taxable Amount = Energy Charges + Fuel Adjustment Charges + Additional


Surcharge + Fixed Charges + Electricty Duty + Meter Rent + P.f Penalty

6. Sales Tax

Sales Tax = some percent of Taxable amount (See Tarrifs)

- 62-
Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab session 13
NED University of Engineering and Technology Department of Electrical Engineering

Attach the bill here:

- 63-
Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab session 13
NED University of Engineering and Technology Department of Electrical Engineering

Calculations:
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________

- 64-
Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab session 14
NED University of Engineering and Technology Department of Electrical Engineering

LAB SESSION 14

Diesel Generating Set

OBJECTIVE
To study the various components of a Diesel Generating Set

THEORY
It is common practice to provide the standby emergency source of supply at all
important installations such as large factories, railways, airports & other essential
services. This is usually achieved with the use of a captive Diesel Generator Set (DG
Set).

Main Components of A Diesel Generating Set


DG Set comprises of three main parts.

Engine
This is the main prime mover (PM) for the generator and may be a gas, petrol or
diesel engine, depending upon the availability of fuel. In this LAB we will discuss the
Diesel generating Set, being used more commonly for captive power generation.

The control of power output is obtained through this PM only. It has a drooping
characteristic.

Governor
This senses the speed of the machine and performs extremely fast and accurate
adjustments in the fuel supply to the PM. In turn it regulates the speed and output of
the PM within predefined limits, depending upon the droop of the PM. The governor
may be a mechanical (manual), hydraulic or electronic (automatic) device.

Generator
Generator is responsible for changing engine power (hp or kW) into electrical power
(kVA). They also must satisfy high magnetizing current draws (kVAR) of electrical
equipment.

NEMA suggests 0.8pf for standard generator.

Engine & Generator Sizing


Engines are sized according to the actual power in kW required to meet the need of
the facility. The generator on the other hand, must be capable of handling the
maximum apparent power which is measured in kVA. Thus engine provide power
(kW) and frequency control, generator influence kVA and voltage control.

- 65-
Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab session 14
NED University of Engineering and Technology Department of Electrical Engineering

Fig: A Complete DG Set

Fig: Auxiliary Fuel Tank

- 66-
Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab session 14
NED University of Engineering and Technology Department of Electrical Engineering

Fig:
A front View of a Diesel Generating Set

Fig: Air Ducting Fig: Batteries & Battery Charger

- 67-
Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab session 14
NED University of Engineering and Technology Department of Electrical Engineering

Fig: Vibration Isolator Fig: Batteries

EXERCISE:

Household Equipments Ratings:


Fill the following table;
S. No. Item Rating (kW)
1 Ceiling Fan
2 Computer Monitor (Size= inches)
3 Refrigerator
4 Split AC (1 ton)
5 Split AC (1.5 ton)
6 Window Type Split AC (1 ton)
7 Window Type Split AC (1.5 ton)
8 Washing Machine
9 Electric Iron
10 Microwave Oven
11 Television (Size = inches)
12 Available Fluorescent Tubes
13 Available CFL
14 Printer (Laser jet or dot matrix)
15 Tape Recorder

This chart is very useful in calculating the size of the generator required for your
home.

- 68-
Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab session 14
NED University of Engineering and Technology Department of Electrical Engineering

Question:

Explain the following parts or terms of Diesel Generating Set:


1. Radiators
2. Canopy
3. Silencer & Exhaust System
4. Shock Vibrators
5. Ducting
6. Batteries
7. Battery Chargers
8. Crank
9. Blower Fan
10. Fuel Tank & Base Frame
11. Main Tank & Auxiliary Tank
12. Drain Valve & Shut-off Valve
13. BHP
14. Standby, Prime & Continuous Ratings
15. Generator Amperage

- 69-
Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab session 15(a)
NED University of Engineering and Technology Department of Electrical Engineering

LAB SESSION 15 (a)

Home Electrical Wiring


OBJECTIVE
To make connections in home electrical wiring from services main to different
distribution boards and electrical points for appliances in a room.

APPARATUS
A large wooden board
Kilo Watt-hour Meter
Wires & Cables
Switches & Sockets
Bulbs & Fans

THEORY
Designing the home electrical wiring needs careful consideration because of safety.
For wiring in residential buildings or industrial buildings, wiring layout should be first
prepared on the drawing board.

The number of light and power points in a building is determined not only by its size,
but is also a matter of individual preference especially in the case of residential
buildings and as such the owner should be consulted for this.

The number of outlets should be adequate to ensure convenient hooking up of the


various electric operated gadgets & appliances. Minimum four outlets one per wall
should be provided in each room. Lamps & motors should normally be wires on
different circuits

Figure: Typical Domestic Intake Arrangement

- 70-
Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab session 15(a)
NED University of Engineering and Technology Department of Electrical Engineering

EXERCISE
Make connection of the three phase watt hour meter with the service main and
distribute the three-phase incoming service main & neural wire to different
distribution boards & electrical points (for appliances) in different rooms of
the house.
Select cables for them.
Measure the total energy
Also draw the circuit diagram using the standard symbols of switch fan bulb
etc.

R+N
R ROOM NO. 01 ROOM NO. 02
Y KWh
B Meter
N
Wash Wash
Room Room

Y+N
B+N

Blue Phase Yellow Phase

ROOM NO. 04 ROOM NO. 03

Wash Wash
Room Room

In Room 1,2,3 &4


1 Tube Light is there on any one of the walls.
1 Ceiling fan is there.
1 DB is there (with three switches & one socket).
In each washroom,
Only one light is there, controlled from outside the washroom.
Red Phase is feeding Room 1 & Room 2; Yellow Phase is feeding Room 3, while
Blue Phase is feeding Room 4.

- 71-
Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab session 15(a)
NED University of Engineering and Technology Department of Electrical Engineering

Make an extension board with & without fuse with three sockets & one switch
in it and show the wiring diagram with color pencil.

1 2 3

SWITCH SOCKETS

Phase Neutral

1 2 3

5A

FUSE SWITCH SOCKETS

Phase Neutral

- 72-
Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab session 15(b)
NED University of Engineering and Technology Department of Electrical Engineering

LAB SESSION 15 (b)

Safety

OBJECTIVE
To understand the importance of safety.

APPARATUS
Multimedia

THEORY
Safety rules should be taken in doing any electrical work because electricity could be
very dangerous if precautions not taken.

Hazards of Electricity
There are two types of hazards caused by electricity.

1. Primary Hazards includes


Electrocution (Electric Shock)
Fire and Explosion
2. Secondary Hazards includes
Skin Burns

Effects of Electrocution
Sufficient current flowing through the body will create serious harms, depending on
the magnitude of current:

Ventricular Fibrillation heartbeats disrupted by electric current. The heart


flutters rather than beats. The heart pumps little or no blood thru the
circulation system. (need a defibrillator to resume heartbeats).

Suffocation electric current causes the lung to contract violently, affecting


respiration.

Cell damage by electrical energy

Burns by heating effect of electric current

- 73-
Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab session 15(b)
NED University of Engineering and Technology Department of Electrical Engineering

The magnitude of current flowing in the body depends on:


1. Voltage
2. Body resistance i.e.
Skin Contact Resistance:
From 1000 kilo-ohms (dry skin) down to 100 ohms (wet skin)
Internal Body resistance:
From 100 to 500 ohms.

Worst Condition:
220V / 200 ohms = 1.1 Amp.
Best Condition:
220V / 1,000,000 ohms = 0.22 mA

3. The current pathway through the body


4. Duration of contact

- 74-
Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab session 15(b)
NED University of Engineering and Technology Department of Electrical Engineering

Prevention of Electrocution
1. Safe Electrical System
Protective Devices in the electrical supply system
Required by local code and regulations
Required for fixed installation and portable equipment

2. Safe Equipment
Use of Safe Equipment (with adequate protection)

3. Proper Maintenance

4. Safe Work Practices


Safe use of equipment (Proper Use)

Hazardous Conditions
1. Direct contact with exposed current carrying parts
a. Maintenance process - need to open up enclosure
b. Defective/damaged enclosure or insulation materials
c. Unsafe design
d. Maintenance people are more at risk

2. Contact with energized conductive parts (Indirect Contact)


a. Electric/Ground faults
b. Leaking out of electricity

Safeguard against Direct Contact with Live Electrical Parts


1. Adequate insulation of live conductors
Ensured by safe design and proper inspection and maintenance
Stringent requirements in Electricity (Wiring) Regulation
2. Restrict access or contact by Enclosure/ Guarding/ Barrier
3. Interlocking devices
Normally installed at access doors for dangerous parts.
Fool-proof device to ensure electricity supply is cut-off with the device
is activated (when the door is opened)

Safeguard against Ground Fault Conditions


1. Grounding/Earthing
Draining of leaked out current to the earth/ground using a conductor
(earth wire)
Eliminate the build up of potential difference between the equipment
and the ground.

- 75-
Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab session 15(b)
NED University of Engineering and Technology Department of Electrical Engineering

HOW CAN WE SAVE OURSELVES AND EQUIPMENT FROM


ELECTRCITY DANGER:
Using Circuit Protecting
Personnel Protection Equipment (PPE)

Circuit Protecting Devices Prevent Injuries


They shut off the flow of electricity if level becomes too dangerous
Examples of these devices are:
Fuses
Circuit breakers
Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters (GFCI)

Personnel Protection Equipment (PPE) Will Save Your Life


Examples of PPE that will protect you from dangerous electrical currents:
o Industrial protective helmets
o Eye gear
o Rubber gloves
o Rubber shoes
o Rubber mats

Always Remember .
Electricity can kill!
Your body is a great conductor of electricity!
Do not work on or near live parts!
Never use an electrical tool near water
Never us an electrical tool that has fallen into water
It does not take high voltage to kill

Treat electricity with respect, it deserves!

- 76-