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Standard is the degree of excellence required.
Specification is a detailed description of construction, workmanship, materials, etc.
Code of practices :
Code of practices is recommended method of doing something.
Legislation is legal requirement, which is therefore mandatory, unlike a standard, specification or code of practices.
Codes usually set forth minimum requirements for
Design of piping systems Materials of piping systems
Fabrication of piping systems
Erection of piping systems Test of piping systems Inspection of piping systems
Compliance to code is generally mandated by regulations imposed by regulatory and enforcement agencies. At times, the insurance carries for facility leaves hardly any choice for the owner but to comply with the requirements of a code or codes to ensure safety of the workers and the general public. Compliance to standards is normally required by the rules of the applicable code or the purchaser’s specification.
PIPING CODES Each code has limits on its jurisdiction. Therefore. which are precisely defined in the code. . Similarly. the scope of application for each standard is defined in the standard. users must become familiar with limits of application of a code or standard before invoking their requirements in design and construction documents of a piping system.
and other interest groups. insurance companies. professional groups. .PIPING CODES The codes and standards. are published by various organizations. manufacturers. which relate to piping systems and piping components. These organizations have committees made up of representatives from industry associations. government agencies.
research. updating. . Therefore. experience feedback. and regulations. it is important that the engineers. and changes in referenced codes. problems. The revisions to various codes and standards are published periodically. standards. specifications. or revisions of the codes and standards affecting their work. and other professional and technical personnel stay informed with the latest editions. designers. addenda.PIPING CODES The committees are responsible for maintaining. and revising the codes and standards in view of technological developments.
one must be aware of the national. or revision of a code or standard.PIPING CODES While designing a piping system in accordance with a code or a standard. addenda. issue. . state provincial. and local laws and regulations governing its applicability in addition to the commitments made by the owner and the limitations delineated in the code or standard. the designer must comply with the most restrictive requirements. which apply to any of the piping elements. In regard to applicability of a particular edition.
PIPING CODES History of pipeline codes: 1925 1926 1935 1951 1955 Need for pressure piping code due to increased oil related activity. Separate codes developed and published as: •B31.4 Liquid petroleum transportation piping. Project B31 initiated at request of ASME.8 Gas transmission and distribution piping. B31 published as American tentative standard code for pressure piping. After several revisions this became American standard B31. . •B31.1 with sectin 3 covering oil transportation pipelines.
IGE TD\1 edition 2 published allowing design pressures up to 100 bar for land pipelines. . 1970 1970 British standard CP2010 introduced. 1977 1984 IGE TD\1 introduced-a complete gas pipeline code including revised design criteria. Part 2 covered design and construction of steel pipelines land-oil and gas pipelines.PIPING CODES History of pipeline codes: 1963-9 Major revisions to B31. IGE 674A introduced-gas pipeline design code based on fracture mechanics.8 based on research data.
PIPING CODES History of pipeline codes: 1986 1992 1993 Work commenced on BS 8010 pipelines.8 steel pipelines for oil and gas. . Publication of BS 8010 pipelines part 2-pipelines on land section 2. IGE TD\1 edition 3 published introducing risk analysis and condition monitoring. 1993 Publication of BS 8010 pipelines part 3-pipelines subsea.
The first codes were written by ANSI/ASME as the B31 series for oil and gas.8 high level testing of gas pipelines following construction introduced in USA and UK. Very little on design. Major gas pipeline failures in USA during the 1960's and the failure at Yarm in the UK directed attention to gas pipeline design criteria. but based on B31.PIPING CODES Development of pipeline codes: Steel pipeline technology originally developed in the USA. . Up to this time all codes were just a statement of 'Good Practice' mainly relating to construction and installation. IGE 674 was introduced in 1965 as a gas pipeline code for UK.
PIPING CODES Development of pipeline codes: .
Safety Factor 0. 2. 2 for Inhabited Zones.4 . 3 & 4.6.PIPING CODES Development of pipeline codes: IGE 674A was published in 1970 after the introduction of natural gas and the existing standards were regarded as inadequate. 3 for Urban Zones. B31.5. 3 for Urban Zones with multi floor buildings. 350 & 100 psig. Safety Factor 0.72. Pipeline routes were classified by areas R. Safety Factor 0. Safety Factor 0. S & T based on possible failure consequences and maximum operating pressures were restricted to 1000. 1 for Rural or Desert Zones.8 also updated by introducing four area classifications 1.
A 'Good Practice' guide for construction to avoid common operational problems.PIPING CODES Development of pipeline codes: High level hydrostatic testing introduced as a requirement for the periodic revalidation of gas pipelines in the UK. This has never been a requirement in the USA under B31.8. IGE 674B published in 1971 gave provisional recommendations for sleeves (casings). .
.PIPING CODES Development of pipeline codes: IGE 674C published in 1974 gave specific recommendations for construction and testing of gas pipelines. The test pressure was related to the pipe SMYS not the design pressure or working pressure.
PIPING CODES Development of pipeline codes: UTS YS Elastic Failure Plastic SMYS Stress 0.5% Strain 100% .
On-line inspection replaces high level testing for pipeline revalidation in TD/1.8 and the new edition 2 of IGE/TD/1. but no periodic revalidation required in B31. Operating stress level in pipeline steel shown to be the important parameter not pressure. Maximum allowable stress levels for each area classification specified in B31. .PIPING CODES Development of pipeline codes: Work on fracture mechanics in high pressure pipelines continued in USA and UK.8. but further divergence occurs between the two codes.
85 0.75 0. 40 mm 80 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 Corroded area 6 mm 60 40 20 0.90 Proportion of wall thickness .PIPING CODES Development of pipeline codes: More work on fracture mechanics leads to better OLI defect assessment criteria as well as risk assessment criteria for pipeline design.8. Risk assessment introduced in TD/1 but not B31.80 0.
IGE /TD/1 is incorporated in BS8010 and the same principles have been extended to other substances besides natural gas. which reflected the best international practice in the design of steel pipelines for oil and gas. . BS8010 is the foundation of the new European pipeline code which is currently being prepared.PIPING CODES Development of pipeline codes: BS8010 introduced with the objective of producing a standard.
PIPING CODES What are the key differences between Oil/Liquid Codes and Gas Codes? .
Maximum design factor 72% SMYS.8 Maximum design factor can be as low as 30% SMYS. Lower standard of Inspection. . Higher standard of inspection. No proximity distances From buildings.PIPING CODES The key differences: Oil & Liquid product lines No account of population Density along the route. Gas lines Account taken of population density along the route. Proximity distances in some codes some codes but not B31.
Other wise no between products. Minimum depth of cover 3ft but 4ft for LPG liquid and ammonia lines. distinction BS8010 Design factor calculated on minimum wall thickness tolerance.4 Design factor calculated on nominal wall thickness tolerance. Minimum depth of cover 900mm for all substances.PIPING CODES The key differences: Key differences between Oil codes: ANSI \ ASME B31. Products \ substances are categorized some requiring more stringent designs. .
PIPING CODES The key differences: Key differences between Gas codes: ANSI \ ASME B31. Minimum depth of cover 900mm for all substances in all locations. . Minimum depth of cover varies with location and ground type. Population density is determined by the number of persons.4 Design factor calculated on nominal wall thickness tolerance. Population density is determined by the number of buildings. BS8010\IGE TD\1 Design factor calculated on minimum wall thickness tolerance.
3 to max. Allocation of design factor based on scaling between min. of 0. . of 0.72 ( can be higher if risk analysis show it is safe). 0.4 No proximity distances From buildings.PIPING CODES The key differences: Key differences between Gas codes: ANSI \ ASME B31.4 and max. BS8010\IGE TD\1 Proximity distances based on heat radiation levels.8 Test pressure based on SMYS ie the material properties not pressure. 0. Test pressure based on operating pressure or design pressure. Allocation of design factor based on fracture mechanics min.
.PIPING CODES The key differences: Key differences between Gas codes: ANSI \ ASME B31. BS8010\IGE TD\1 Risk analysis based code.4 Prescriptive-on risk analysis.
Professional IGE IP etc. .PIPING CODES The key differences: Primary standards: AMERICA National ANSI Professional AP ASME ASTM NACE EUROPE European EN National BS DIN etc.
PIPING CODES The key differences: Foreign codes and standards: The basic principles of piping design and construction may not differ much from one country to another. construction. the personnel involved in the engineering design. The user is advised to verify the latest applicable version / edition of the code and / or standard before invoking their requirements for any application. operation. Therefore. . and maintenance of piping systems must make sure that the requirements of applicable cods and standards are complied with to ensure the safety of the general public and workers associated with the facility. but the requirements of country specific codes and standards may very substantially.
Pipeline construction. Manufacture of materials. Pipeline design and construction: Planning & routing. Testing & Certification. Testing of materials.PIPING CODES The key differences: Relevant activities: Materials: Specification of materials. Mechanical design. . Corrosion control.
chemical. per. textile. B31. semiconductor and cryogenic plants and related processing plants and terminals.PIPING CODES Codes and Standards: The following codes are used for the design. in industrial and institutional plants. geothermal heating systems and central and district heating and cooling plants. construction and inspection of piping systems in North America. pharmaceutical. ASME The ASME B31 Piping Codes: B31.3 Process Piping Piping typically found in petroleum refineries.1 Power Piping Piping typically found in electric power generating stations. .
ASME The ASME B31 Piping Codes: B31. and metering stations.5 Refrigeration Piping Piping for refrigerants and secondary coolants. B31.4 Pipeline Transportation Systems for Liquid Hydrocarbons and Other Liquids Piping transporting products which are predominately quid between plants and terminals and within terminals. pumping.PIPING CODES Codes and Standards: The following codes are used for the design. . regulating. construction and inspection of piping systems in North America.
construction and inspection of piping systems in North America. regulating and metering stations. ASME The ASME B31 Piping Codes: B31. . gas gathering pipelines.8 Gas Transportation and Distribution Piping Systems Piping transporting products which are predominately gas between sources and terminals including compressor.PIPING CODES Codes and Standards: The following codes are used for the design.
PIPING CODES Codes and Standards: The following codes are used for the design.11 Slurry Transportation Piping Systems Piping transporting aqueous slurries between plants and terminals within terminals. construction and inspection of piping systems in North America. .9 Building Services Piping Piping typically found in industrial. ASME The ASME B31 Piping Codes: B31. commercial and public buildings and in multi-unit residences which does not require the range of sizes. pumping and regulating stations. pressures and temperatures covered in B311.1 B31. institutional.
10 B36.PIPING CODES Codes and Standards: ASME B16 Dimensional Codes The ASME B16 Piping Component Standards: Piping component standard developed by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers or the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) ASME B36 Piping Component Standards: B36. Stainless Steel Pipe.19 Welded and Seamless Wrought Steel Pipe. .
Foam. B73.1 Horizontal. Halon. End Suction Centrifugal Pumps. Dry chemical and wet chemicals. Carbon dioxide. .2 Vertical In-line Centrifugal Pumps B133.2 Basic Gas Turbine NEPA Codes National Electrical Protection Association Piping covering fire protection systems using water.PIPING CODES Codes and Standards: Other ASME or ANSI: B73.
NFPA 99 Health Care Facilities Piping for medical and laboratory gas systems. MSS Standard Practices Piping and related component standards developed by the Manufacturer’s Standardization Society.NFPA Codes National Fire Code / National Fire Protection Association. The pipeline industry makes extensive use of these piping component and quality acceptance standards.PIPING CODES Codes and Standards: NFC . The MSS standards are directed at general industrial applications. .
refinery and product distribution services. The ASTM standards are directed to dimensional standards. ASTM There are numerous American Society for Testing and Materials designations cover the specification of wrought materials. fittings. materials and strength considerations. Equipment specified to these standards are typically more robust than general industrial applications. pipe and valves. .PIPING CODES Codes and Standards: API The API standards are focused on oil production. forgings and castings used for plate.
8 Pipelines in Steel for Oil and Gas Why was a new code needed? .PIPING CODES Codes and Standards: Introduction to BS 8010 Part 2.
. LPG. Hydrogen and Ammonia. Significant differences existed between the existing BS 2010 and IGE/1 for Methane.8 Pipelines in Steel for Oil and Gas Not really needed for oil pipelines.PIPING CODES Codes and Standards: Introduction to BS 8010.Part 2. Serious anomalies existed in all codes over the treatment of substances such as Ethylene.
4 even though the Hazards resulting from them are more serious than for Methane. LPG pipeline incidents in the USA represented only about 16% of the accidents but resulted in around 90% of the Fatalities .Part 2.8 Pipelines in Steel for Oil and Gas Example: LPG and Ammonia pipelines were usually designed to ANSI/ASME B31. whereas Methane pipelines were designed to the more stringent B31.PIPING CODES Codes and Standards: Introduction to BS 8010.8 or TD/1.
.8 Pipelines in Steel for Oil and Gas Objectives of Part 2. Chemicals and ‘Gases from Air’ industries with the best aspects of existing international codes. It should combine the best practices of the Gas. It should combine Oil.PIPING CODES Codes and Standards: Introduction to BS 8010. Gas. It should have a logical basis for relating the standard of design to the level of Hazard in the event of an accident.Part 2..8 It should reflect the current best practice. Chemicals and ‘Gases from Air’ in one self consistent code.
8 It should be simple and workable. .PIPING CODES Codes and Standards: Introduction to BS 8010. It should not be a design manual.8 Pipelines in Steel for Oil and Gas Objectives of Part 2.Part 2.
Classification of location: Proximity to occupied buildings.8 Key Technical Area Categorisation of substances. .PIPING CODES Codes and Standards: Introduction to BS 8010.8 Pipelines in Steel for Oil and Gas Part 2. Population density. Selection of design factor.Part 2.
Part 2.2 Oil D Oil products Flammable or Toxic gases at STP Toxic liquids but conveyed as liquids or gases C 1 Ammonia Non Flammable gases at STP 2 Butane/Propane/LPG 1 Air 2 Argon 3 Chlorine 4 Ethane 5 Ethylene 3 Carbon dioxide 4 Nitrogen 6 Hydrogen 7 Methane 5 Oxygen .8 Categorisation of Substances B A Water based substances Flammable or Toxic liquids at STP BS8010 Part 2.8 Pipelines in Steel for Oil and Gas Part 2.PIPING CODES Codes and Standards: Introduction to BS 8010.
5 Persons /Hectare.5 Persons /Hectare Class 2 location Population Density > 2. Class 3 location Central areas of Towns and Cities with High population and building density. Schools and Shops.8 Pipelines in Steel for Oil and Gas Part 2.PIPING CODES Codes and Standards: Introduction to BS 8010. Extensive developments with Houses. multi-story buildings and dense traffic.8 Classification of Location Class 1 location Population Density < 2.Part 2. .
PIPING CODES Codes and Standards: Introduction to BS 8010.8 Pipelines in Steel for Oil and Gas Part 2. Consistent approach . Location classification. Selection Substance category. Allowable Stress/Specified Min.8 Design Factor Definition Max.Part 2. Yield Stress.
Are process plant water lines considered pressure piping systems? 2. At the kick off meeting. The facility is steam piping in a refinery extending from the boiler to the tank farm. A project award has been made. For what fluid service category may a hydrotest be waived per B31.3? 3. What is the difference between a pipe elbow and a bend? 4.4.PIPING CODES Codes and Standards: Problem Set: 1. What flange specification would you expect to reference for a gas pipeline facility? . the PM advises that piping design will be to B31. What do you do or say and why? 5.
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