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MECHATRONICS AND NANOTECHNOLOGY: MANUFACTURING ENGINEERING CHALLENGES CONTENTS .
APPLICATIONS . INTRODUCTION TO NANOTECHNOLOGY 5. INTRODUCTION TO MECHATRONICS 2. EXAMPLES 7.1. EXAMPLES 4. MANUFACTURING CHALLENGES 8. HISTORY 6. MECHATRONICS 3.
I-Robots STAR TREK As engineers it makes us think do they have any truth? Is there any way in which we can make this Science Fiction a science reality? Is there any means that can help us achieve our dream? .1.
Perhaps the best way to understand mechatronics is to look at example applications where microcontrollers have enhanced or replaced the mechanical and analog components of a design . Mechatronics is adding intelligence to a mechanical design. Mechatronics is the synergistic combination of mechanical engineering. designs that were once purely mechanical are now best done with electronics or a combination of both. electronics... and computers. As technology advances. controls engineering.
This implies that the system is designed and optimised as a whole and not in sequential steps. It is an interdisciplinary subject that both draws on the constituent disciplines and includes subjects not normally associated with one of the above.1 Introduction:- Mechatronics is attracting more and more attention. electronic control and systems thinking in the design of products and manufacturing processes. Specialists with a background in mechanical and electrical engineering. (IRDAC. By concentrating on a limited application area. to come to a synergistic combinatio . The Industrial Research and Development Advisory Committee of the European Union. 1986) has formulated ageneral accepted definition of mechatronics: The term mechatronics refers to a synergistic combination of precision engineering. a mechatronic designer should have the domain-specific knowledge that enables him to realise really advanced products. control and computer engineering should co-operate in a team. However. judged by a more narrow definition. hardly can be seen as a mechatronic system. Mechatronic design also implies teamwork. Essential in this definition is the systems approach. in all phases of the design. Sometimes it is even used for applications that. not every design made by means of a systems approach is a mechatronic design. The term is used for a wide variety of applications.
motor RPM. throttle position. speed. and mass-air flow. These benefits include: Enhanced features and functionality More user-friendly Precision Incorporating a PIC® microcontroller Power windows. The first is the ability to measure the mass of the air flowing through the intake manifold. exhaust gas temperature. The second is the ability to measure the exhaust gas oxygen content. fuel jet flow rate. keyless entry control Flow rate. There are many benefits to a mechatronics solution.Electronic Fuel Injection Electronic Fuel Injection (EFI) works on two major principles. position More efficient Lower cost Flexible design (reprogrammable) More reliable Smaller Safe Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) Microcontroller-based approach Software controlled parameters Optical encoder and digital display . power door locks. Fuel line pressure. throttle position. and intake gas pressure with A/F ratio. The system is timed by a cam position sensor and is fine tuned with data from a variety of other sensors including exhaust gas temperature. and valve position. a properly programmed EFI system can inject a nearly stoichiometric mix of fuel and air into the motor's cylinder and thus obtain the best combustion and fuel economy characteristics. Using sensors for the observation of these variables.
is that systems are not designed as a whole. Good mechatronic designs are based on a real systems approach. modules. even when optimal control is applied. The bits read from the CD are buffere . the mechanical time constant of the motor can be reduced at the expense of a better electric power amplifier. control engineers are confronted with a design in which major parameters are already fixed. points to an interesting feature found in many mechatronic designs. products and systems. Mostly. When tacho feedback is applied to an electrical motor. it aims for a constant speed of the head along the tracks of the disc. often based on static or economic considerations. in addition to functional integration. Although the word mechatronics is new. But a really new design was the compact disc player. This means that the disc rotates slower when tracks with a greater diameter are read. What has been lacking in the past. Old gramophones where equipped with heavy turntables in order to guarantee a constant number of revolutions. In fact all electronically controlled mechanical systems are based on the idea of improving the product by adding features realised in another domain. This prohibits optimisation of the system as a whole. more sophisticated designs used tacho feedback in combination with a light turntable to achieve the same. and is often still lacking today. Buur (1990) gives a more concise definition: Mechatronics is a technology which combines mechanics with electronics and information technology to form both functional interaction and spatial integration in components. The aspect of spatial integration. In the last days of vinyl disc players.Figure 1 Mechatronics is a synergistic combination of mechanical and electrical engineering and information technology Finally a good design philosophy is essential. mechatronic products have been available for some time. Instead of keeping the number of revolutions of the disc constant.
Such systems are sensitive to disturbances. such as jogging. a new packing requires a redesign or at least readjustment of the machine. for instance. The first devices that deliver CD-quality sound and use only solid state electronics in combination with powerful data compression techniques have become available already. the design . In the packing industry. In addition. running at speeds more than 30 times faster than the original audio CDs. But this may change rapidly.electronically in abuffer that sends its information to the DA-converter. No electronic memory device can compete yet economically with the opto-mechanical storage capabilities of the CD and its successor the DVD. By implementing active motion control. electronic buffers with a memory capacity of up to 10 seconds. A new way of thinking was necessary to come to such a new solution. Thisenables the realisation of a very constant bit rate and eliminates all audible speed fluctuations. controlled by a quartz crystal. gravity to get a certain behaviour of the product and the packing material. Nowadays. steered by a quartz crystal Figure 2. even if itwere equipped with a good speed control system. a more reliable.Such a performance could never be obtained from a pure mechanical device only. Combination of closed-loop and open-loop control in a CD-player The flexibility introduced by the combination of precision mechanics and electronic control has allowed the development of CD-ROM players. allow the use of these devices during outdoor exercises. many devices still rely on. If an aeroplane should have stable flight properties under pure manual control. On the other hand. The high accuracy is obtained in an open loop mode. It should only prevent overflow or underflowof the buffer. the CD player is still a sophisticated piece of precision mechanics. faster and more flexible device can be constructed. In fact the control loop for the disc speeddoes not need to have very strict specifications.
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