Green IT Consulting

Project Report

12/24/2010

Group 4 : Ishan Rohit 09FN-043 Megha Bhat 09FT-084 Neeraj Kumar 09FT-096 Sandeep Mishra 09FT-134 Tarunveer Singh 09FT-161 Varun Gupta 09FT-168

Table of Contents
Introduction ........................................................................................................... 3 The Shape of Green IT Services Engagements ....................................................... 4 Framework to Green IT ......................................................................................... 7
The Business Area View ......................................................................................................... 8 The IT Levers Driving Innovation ........................................................................................... 9 The Measurement View......................................................................................................... 11

Industry Prospects for Green IT Consulting ..........................................................13 Mapping Services Provider Capabilities ...............................................................15 Green IT Solutions ................................................................................................16 10 Steps to Green IT .............................................................................................18 Industry Bodies & Regulators ...............................................................................20 Green IT for India .................................................................................................26 Conclusion ............................................................................................................27 References ............................................................................................................28

Introduction
Green IT refers to environmentally sustainable computing or IT. The field of green computing is defined as "the study and practice of designing, manufacturing, using and disposing of computers, servers and associated subsystems²such as monitors, printers, storage devices, and networking and communications systems²efficiently and effectively with minimal or no impact on the environment." The goals of green computing are similar to green chemistry; reduce the use of hazardous materials, maximize energy efficiency during the product's lifetime and promote the recyclability or biodegradability of defunct products and factory waste. Research continues into key areas such as making the use of computers as energy-efficient as possible and designing algorithms and systems for efficiency-related computer technologies.

Corporate IT organizations are feeling increasing pressure and finding growing opportunities to improve their sustainability practices. Driven by a combination of cost savings imperatives, corporate green initiatives and technology refresh opportunities, enterprise IT shops are going green and looking for help to do so. IT services providers are responding by building capabilities, forming alliances and positioning their resources to capture mindshare and wallet share of user companies putting green IT initiatives in place.

The nascent state of the green IT services market makes detailed forecasts of adoption by industry impractical. Industry segments that are likely to be among the earlier adopters include: y Government agencies. The public sector, especially in the UK, faces strict data and reporting requirements for carbon emissions and energy usage. Similar regulations are likely to spread across the EU and then to North America over the next several years. Accenture and BT, among other suppliers, are seeing early demand from local and national agencies in the UK; EDS is seeing pioneering moves by government clients in Australia and New Zealand. y Energy and resources companies. Not surprisingly given their direct participation in carbon regulation and policy, utilities and oil and gas companies are among the early movers in assessing and improving the sustainability of their internal operations.

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IT-intensive sectors. The ³usual suspects´ of financial services, telecom, and pharma were often cited in our interviews as companies facing limits on growth due to power provisioning, cost, and/or tight real estate in their data centers. Services providers focused on data center environments like HP, Intel, and Sun were particularly keen about their prospects in firms like finance and telecom that are reliant on giant data center operations.

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Big consumer brands and retailers. Companies with prominent, consumer-facing brands were mentioned as likely candidates for green initiatives owing to their desire to maintain and improve their social-responsibility credentials.

The Shape of Green IT Services Engagements
Green IT services engagements, like most consulting work, are bespoken projects tailored to clients¶ circumstances, goals and budgets. Nevertheless, it¶s possible to characterize the general shape of green IT engagements in terms of three interlocking phases: assessment, planning and implementation. Assessment, the crucial first step for any company, involves relatively small, short duration projects. Developing a strategic plan comes next. Around 50% of companies that hire consultants for assessment will move into the more detailed planning phase. 75% of those companies will move to implementation, in which projects are typically much longer and more costly.

Source: Forrester Research, Inc.

Phase One: Assessment Provides the Baseline Companies¶ green IT initiatives start with an assessment of their current situation. Consulting engagements in this phase typically involve: y Creating an overall green IT plan. The scope will vary depending on the client¶s goals. For example, sometimes the plan is confined to data center operations, whereas other projects will involve a holistic, corporate wide evaluation along the lines of BT¶s ³carbon impact assessment´ that looks at buildings, IT, commuting and travel. The key output of phase one will be an overall plan that sets the company¶s goals, defining priorities in terms of, for example, carbon emission reduction, energy efficiency, and cost savings. y Modeling the return on investment. The plan will include an early assessment of the capital, operating expense and potential cost savings of green IT initiatives.

Phase Two: Planning Detailed Initiatives In this phase, consultants will help clients develop road maps for specific green IT initiatives; choosing and prioritizing based on the plan developed in phase one. Client companies will

choose from a menu of initiatives, and end up with a second-phase engagement that might involve: y Greening IT procurement and recycling. The project team will recommend policies for reorienting IT procurement towards greener products and greener suppliers, and draw up specific dimensions for expanded recycling programs for consumable and durable IT assets. y Improving data center efficiency. Clients and services providers will choose among myriad initiatives for optimizing energy use in corporate data centers, yielding a roadmap for implementing, for example, server virtualization and consolidation, an enhanced power & cooling infrastructure, more energy-efficient server, storage and network gear. For some services providers and their clients, outsourcing data center operations and infrastructure will be on the table in this conversation. y Positioning IT to support green business. Depending on a project¶s scope, green IT services might involve helping the IT organization help the rest of the business go green. IT expertise and infrastructure will be crucial in initiatives for building automation, optimizing the supply chain or logistics, or setting up flexible work environments that reduce employee commuting.

Phase Three: Implementation Makes It Happen In the implementation phase, consultants and clients work to specify, purchase and install appropriate technology products and software. Depending on the nature and scope of the engagement, this phase might be solely about implementing new technology (virtualization in a data center for example), or include new processes, policies and employee practices, which are often as hard or harder to implement than new server architectures or cooling infrastructure. The implementation phase is: y The longest and most costly part of a green IT services engagement. Typical timeframes run from 30 weeks to more than 100 weeks, with price tags from $300,000 to $2 million or more. Note that this is services spending only; it does not include the cost of software licenses and new hardware.

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Where the real revenue opportunity lies. Implementation projects are by far the largest part of the market opportunity for green IT services providers.

Framework to Green IT
The following framework has been designed to provide a structured method for analyzing how IT can be applied to drive green benefits at both a business and operational level.

The framework is divided into three key aspects:

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Business Area: specific areas within the business which can be addressed Green Business Innovation: strategic, infrastructure, application and process areas where ICT innovations can enable environmental impacts

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Measurement Protocols: ability to track the actual benefits

The Business Area View
This view provides an understanding of how IT has, and can be used most appropriately, to drive efficiencies within specific business functions and departments. We have identified four main business functional areas: business operations, service and support, sales and marketing, and manufacturing and distribution.

Business Operations
This area relates primarily to back office functions such as management, finance, HR and IT organization, and includes the back office infrastructure. Examples of initiatives and areas of focus include: Smart buildings Physical buildings used by core business functions; how they are operated and managed in a more energy efficient manner. Virtual collaboration Ability to attain support functions operating in a more flexible manner, using advanced videoconferencing and better collaboration capabilities. Dematerialization Paperless business transactions, such as e-billing and eprocurement, as well as the movement to electronic storage of data Data centre Data centre consolidation, virtualization, automation and orchestration Procurement Adoption of company-wide green products and services

Service and Support
This area focuses on how companies provide services to their customers. Examples of this functional area include: Field Operations Ability to control and coordinate field service staff in the most effective manner, thereby optimizing travel between jobs and the delivery of spares/components in the most efficient manner Smart Metering Optimize the manner in which energy use is tracked, monitored and billed Customer Call Desks Ability to optimize call centre locations and reduce heavy use of IT through optimized desktop and voice infrastructure Customer Billing Similar to back office operations ± looking at ways of encouraging customers to accept paperless billing/invoicing arrangements

Sales and Marketing
This area describes how to drive a smarter way of conducting interactions with partners, suppliers and customers through reduced travel and more collaboration, as well as reducing the overall consumable profile such as paper and print. Examples of this functional area are: Sales Support Ability to provide better communication and support tools for business decisions to optimize or minimize travel between customers and negate the need to return to the office location ± purely to undertake administrative tasks such as order placement, tracking and invoice completion processes Product Marketing Reduce the load on paper and consumables by using more online media and potentially increase the ³Green Brand´ impact through online media use and promotion Strategic Activity Provide tools and information to help marketing and strategic functions follow an enterprise-wide environmental agenda

Manufacturing and Distribution
This is a major area for many organizations and one in which ICT already plays a major role through interaction with both the manufacturing process control and supply chain management. Examples of typical initiatives in this functional area include: Smart Manufacturing Improved way in which ICT can control and manage the manufacturing process to optimize energy efficiency and reduce raw material movement Logistics In addition to improved transportation movements, look at the recycling of packaging as well as how specific shipments are constructed

The IT Levers Driving Innovation
Within each of the business functions, various levers can be used to drive re-engineering and solution development and help enable the development of innovative solutions that are both green and provide business change. These levers provide solutions to identified green opportunities within each business area and can provide either a top-down approach through

strategic change or a bottom-up approach through infrastructure re-architecting. While each lever is not wholly within the ICT domain, ICT plays a critical role across all of them. These levers help ICT organizations understand how they can become active contributors to addressing the additional 98% of organizational emissions that result from activity beyond the ICT industry.

These levers of green business innovation are described in the table below: Strategy Taking a top-down approach to change, the strategy lever looks at potential changes in organizational strategy that can support significant changes in the environmental impact of the organization. By adapting and tuning the strategy of an organization, change may result in the underlying processes and infrastructure required and ICT can be the enabler of these changes. Example: dematerialization, where a shift in sales strategy from physical product deployment to digital sales requires ICT solutions to enable the strategy

Process For many businesses, the manner in which they conduct their business can be optimized and improved by looking at the underlying business processes and ensuring they are streamlined and most effective. Most business processes have an ICT component and by understanding how processes are supported by applications and infrastructure, ICT can help drive more efficient and greener processes. Example: implementation of document workflow processes that require ICT applications and infrastructure to support the processes in the most efficient manner

Applications Business applications drive and support business processes. By understanding how these applications can be optimized to drive greater efficiencies, be rewritten or even replaced, ICT has an opportunity to drive performance improvements in business processes. Example: the deployment of collaboration and telepresence applications that improve the efficiency of information sharing processes through the better use of application technology

Infrastructure IT infrastructure can be consolidated, standardized and optimized to drive efficiencies in operation that help improve application (and therefore process) efficiencies. Moving beyond consolidation and optimization, infrastructure can become a ³platform for innovation´ and provide the basis for the applications to run on in the most environmentally and financially efficient manner. Example: virtualization and consolidation of infrastructure to reduce energy costs and increase energy efficiency

Strategic changes will produce a cascading effect across the application and infrastructure levels of an organization. While small changes to strategy could potentially have a major impact on environmental performance, the same is not normally so for small changes to the supporting infrastructure. To affect major change within organizations, it is key to identify strategic changes such as product dematerialization and a decoupling of economic growth from raw material usage.

The Measurement View
The initial two axes of the framework identify where changes can be made that will facilitate the introduction of innovation by using ICT. The third axis provides the organization with a way of measuring and tracking the benefits that have been delivered. Without the ability to measure returns on investment, both economic and environmental, organizations are unable to assess how effectively, or appropriately, capital has been invested and how the organization is performing. Three key metrics are important to assess the relative performance of ICT in delivering change to the organization.

Benchmarks How are other organizations or ICT applications being measured, and how can they be compared to peer groups (geographic, industry and organization size)?

KPI (Key Performance Indicators) How can the initiatives be driven over time and be tracked in terms of trend and overall outcome?

ROI (Return on Investment) Invariably each initiative will need an element of investment and should provide payback in operational efficiency, productivity improvements, revenue enhancements or cost reductions along with the underlying measurement of a reduced CO2 footprint. It is critical to continue measuring the impact of ICT initiatives.

Although these initiatives traditionally use metrics and measures such as power use efficiency, CPU utilization, number of servers and other related measures, it is becoming necessary to move beyond a simple energy efficiency model. It is recommended that organizations move towards a process lifecycle model that takes into account both CO2 increasing activities (such as increasing ICT infrastructure for videoconferencing solutions) and balancing this against CO2 decreasing activities (such as reduced travel due to the videoconferencing solution).

These metrics need to include impacts on people and business processes as well as the activities being undertaken. Measurements should cover all the activities a business is involved in to provide a more robust benefit analysis that can reveal more clearly the full extent of the CO2 impacts of any ICT initiatives. There are a number of lifecycle measurement initiatives and processes available publicly that could be used within specific industries and geographies to assist with understanding the impact of the ICT innovation initiative. While many measurements already exist in various frameworks provided either by voluntary or regulatory organizations, the ICT industry needs to work further to develop more measurements and metrics to enable better comparison of the potential impacts and benefits of their various green initiatives.

These metrics need to measure not only the benefits of Green IT but also the value of ICT initiatives outside of the traditional power efficiency metrics. They need to be common across industries and geographies and should focus on ensuring that the overall supply chain benefits

are measured, rather than just the individual contribution of the ICT industry. This helps organizations move towards an ³increase in the silicon footprint to reduce the carbon footprint´ mindset and actively promote overall savings.

Examples of Measurements y y y y y y y y y Raw material production and delivery emissions Transportation and storage related emissions Transport distances and modes used in delivery of service/product Manufacturing-related emissions Employee commute distance travelled and mode of travel Emissions from disposal and recycling activities Desktop/laptop use Office area used/employee Consumables consumed (toner/paper/etc.)

Industry Prospects for Green IT Consulting
With just a sliver of companies currently engaging a green IT services provider, this is clearly a nascent market. From a standing start of around $500 million in 2008, enterprise user spending for green IT services will grow by 60% annually to reach $4.8 billion in 2013. After that, the market will slowly decline, as most companies will have completed their implementation of green IT practices and technologies. In the context of an estimated $170 billion North American market for IT consulting and systems integration in 2013, the $5 billion market for green IT services might look like small potatoes to vendor strategists. The visibility and strategic importance of green IT projects will put them near the top of many corporations¶ consulting agendas and service providers will aggressively compete for such high-profile wins.

The growth of enterprise spending on green IT services will vary considerably by geography. In particular:

1) Adoption and spending will grow fastest in Europe. Companies there are clearly taking the threat of business disruption from the effects of climate change more seriously and moving their awareness into action more quickly, than companies in other parts of the world. As a result, green IT services spend by European enterprises will be roughly double that of US companies in 2009, and will continue to exceed that in the US market by a considerable margin through the forecast period, hitting a peak of $2.1 billion in 2013. 2) North American enterprises will start a little later. The slightly larger North American enterprise population will begin adopting later than its Europe counterpart, but maintain the same growth rate during our forecast period, crossing the $1 billion mark one year after the European market, and peaking at $2.2 billion in 2014. 3) Asia Pacific (AP) companies will lag. Adoption of green IT services in the major countries of AP will lag that in the other geographies considerably, reaching $760 million in 2014, about one third the spending level of North American companies that year. The AP market for green IT services will continue to grow beyond our forecast period, peaking in 2015 or 2016, and then begin to decline.

Forecast: Global Green IT Services Spending By Geography 2008-2014

Mapping Services Provider Capabilities
Vendors Bring A Variety Of Green IT Services From Different Angles Although all these suppliers are looking to leverage their internal expertise and experience in sustainable IT operations, they approach the green IT services market from different angles and experience bases. They can be generally categorized as:

· Services arms of IT system manufacturers (Dell, HP, Intel, and Sun). These vendors¶ services practices are pretty tightly tied to their product offerings, hence, tend to be focused on data center design and optimization. Sun has some broader capabilities that stretch into IT procurement and recycling processes.

· IT systems integrators/outsourcers (CSC, EDS, Getronics, and Wipro). Getronics and Wipro are data center-oriented; CSC and EDS have broader visions of corporate green initiatives and IT¶s role within them. All see data center outsourcing as an avenue to reducing the corporate carbon footprint.

· IT consulting giants (Accenture, Deloitte, and IBM). These providers take a broad, top-down view of green IT services. Although they have data center expertise, they approach IT from the corporate sustainability and CSR perspectives, helping clients position IT as an enabler of and contributor to wide-ranging green business initiatives.

· Telecom services supplier (BT). BT is seeking to leverage its extensive internal experience in greening data centers and in planning a corporate wide approach to sustainability. More important than where they come from is the providers¶ focus in terms of helping enterprise clients address their green IT challenges and opportunities.

· Data center-focused. Suppliers on the left side of the spectrum are focused on clients¶ data center operations. They have specific and deep expertise and experience in and tools for improving the efficiency and mitigating the environmental impacts of data centers.

· Corporate sustainability-focused. These suppliers usually have data center expertise, but their green IT practice & offerings range more broadly across IT and other corporate processes. Their consulting offerings typically go beyond technology to include organizational change, procurement policies and helping IT enable greener business practices in areas like supply chain optimization or building automation.

Green IT Solutions
Smart Buildings and Infrastructure

Solutions to reduce the level of emissions from buildings and core infrastructure through improved design, monitoring and control, as well as engineering and construction industry support through appropriate tools to reduce energy needs

Smart Manufacturing Improvement to manufacturing processes to reduce wastage and energy consumption through technology which supports activities such as: · Monitoring and management of production process · Dematerialization of products at both the early design and delivery stages · Improvement of logistics for the delivery of final products to end-customers and consumers

Smart Energy Management Increased capabilities in the supply of energy to users through technologies to improve measurement, management and prediction of demand

Sustainable Energy Production Technology to support the integration of micro-generation solutions into the wider energy supply chain and efficient management of specific implementations

Carbon Accounting and Tracking Systems to measure and report on energy use and emissions generation with linkage across an organization¶s supply chain, thus enabling product comparison and targeted environmental improvements.

Increased Energy Efficiency of Data Centre Technologies and Electronic Devices Solutions to increase the energy efficiency of data centre infrastructure through virtualization, consolidation and new technologies and increasing the power efficiency of mobile and consumer electronic devices. Solutions include using virtualization and consolidation technologies to relocate data centres to lower cost and cleaner energy locations while maintaining existing employee premises.

10 Steps to Green IT
Many business executives recognize the need to act on carbon footprint reduction and green IT. However, a myriad of information exists ± some of it contradictory ± and it can be difficult to determine where to start. Capgemini presents a 10-step guide to formulating a green IT strategy. 1. Implement an active Corporate Social Responsibility function. Your company should have an active Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) function with comprehensive policies that include ethical supply chain management to ensure that the IT procurement strategy is compliant with local legislation and is ecologically robust. This function should have executive sponsorship as, without this, any of the following steps will prove difficult, if not impossible, to achieve. 2. Benchmark your company¶s carbon footprint. Consider aspects such as lighting, heating, air-conditioning, datacenters, car and truck fleets (mileage and carbon emission), business travel, vending and recycling. Determine a realistic benchmark and then set attainable but aggressive targets (perhaps over five or ten years). 3. Benchmark the PUE (Power Usage Effectiveness) of the datacenter. This is the ratio of power entering the datacenter used to power the IT hardware, and is an established metric for datacenter efficiency. For more information on PUE, see the Green Grid white paper, The Green Grid Data Center Power Efficiency Metrics PUE and DCiE. 4. Ensure IT and business work together. The pursuit of green IT cannot come at the expense of business needs. Instead, a green IT strategy should fit within, and be aligned with, business needs. Business, however, should understand the potential benefits of pursuing green IT, such as cost-efficiency creation and improved workplace practices. A shared approach is necessary to ensure both green IT and business objectives can be pursued simultaneously and for mutual benefit. 5. Make achieving targets everyone¶s responsibility.

Use the company intranet or notice boards to publish regular updates on progress against targets and advise on simple, achievable steps (e.g. recycling, turning off PCs before leaving in the evening). 6. Consider the whole product lifecycle when contemplating technology upgrades. While newer hardware will be more energy efficient, is this enough to outweigh the environmental impact of disposing of old hardware, manufacturing new hardware, and having it transported to your facilities? Any decision will have an environmental impact. Consider all of the factors to make a green decision. 7. Work with suppliers to improve your IT carbon footprint. Talk to your hardware suppliers and, if relevant, your datacenter services supplier. This should be more than a cost-based, procurement conversation. Determine what part they can play in improving your IT carbon footprint. Remember, there are benefits in it for them if they can cite your green credentials as a success story. 8. Understand that more IT does not mean less green. An increase in IT spending and the IT infrastructure does not necessarily mean a larger carbon footprint or a more negative environmental impact. For example, investing in video-conferencing technology and collaboration-enabling software, such as Google Apps, can help to reduce international travel. In the office, thin-client desktops or PC¶s enabled with Intel® vProŒ technology can reduce power consumption and noise while control systems can regulate heating, lighting and air-conditioning, thus reducing energy consumption and costs. 9. Take a position on new technology. Cloud and utility computing, virtualization, Software-as-a-Service (SaaS), Desktop-as-a Service and open source software represent technologies that serve business needs first, yet are also greener than existing technologies. Thin-client desktops and SaaS, for example, reduce the amount of power consumed, and volume of physical hardware and software produced and shipped. From a business point of view, user mobility is increased and data is centrally stored, better controlled and more secure.

10. Consider enlisting help. Investigate whether a body dedicated to sustainability already exists in your company¶s industry sector. It may be able to provide guidance in setting and realizing green goals. In the absence of (or in addition to) industry-specific bodies, there are many organizations that can help: ‡ Specialist carbon-benchmarking organizations. In many regions, this may be a service available through national or local government. Otherwise, there is a growing number of companies able to offer specialist services. ‡ Business consultants, technology consultants and outsourcers, such as Capgemini, who can provide guidance on appropriate business practice and technology deployment. ‡ Governmental bodies such as the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and quasigovernmental bodies like the Carbon Trust in the UK. ‡ Utility companies often have energy-conservation advisors who can be engaged to advise on practices, green energy tariffs, etc. ‡ Datacenter infrastructure specialists can advise on getting the best out of your datacenter. Sun Microsystems customers can request information on their own datacenter efficiency programs from account managers. ‡ See the Industry Bodies & Regulators section for a list of many more organizations that can help.

Industry Bodies & Regulators
There are many industry bodies, organizations, initiatives and programs around the world dedicated to regulating, reducing, monitoring and measuring carbon footprint in one way or another. Some of these are referenced in this document and so a brief explanation of what they are and what they do has been provided.

California Public Utilities Commission¶s California Solar Initiative

www.cpuc.ca.gov/puc/Energy/solar The California Solar Initiative is part of a state-wide effort to install 3,000 megawatts of new, grid-connected solar systems by 2016. The CPUC-directed program provides $1.167 billion in rebates and cash incentives on solar systems to customers of the Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Southern California Edison, and San Diego Gas and Electric Company. These incentives, combined with federal tax incentives, significantly lower the total cost of a solar system.

Carbon Disclosure Project www.cdproject.net The Carbon Disclosure Project (CDP) is an independent not-for-profit organization aimed at creating a lasting relationship between shareholders and corporations regarding the implications for shareholder value and commercial operations presented by climate change. Its goal is to facilitate dialogue, supported by quality information, from which a rational response to climate change will emerge.

Climate Action Network Europe www.climnet.org Climate Action Network Europe (CAN-E) is recognised as Europe¶s leading network working on climate and energy issues. With over 100 members in 25 european countries, CAN-E unites to work to prevent dangerous climate change and promote sustainable energy and environment policy in Europe. CAN-E is part of The Climate Action Network (CAN), a worldwide network of over 365 Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) working to promote government, private sector and individual action to limit human-induced climate change to ecologically sustainable levels. CAN is based on trust, openness and democracy.

Climate Savers Computing Initiative www.climatesaverscomputing.org Started by Google and Intel in 2007, the Climate Savers Computing Initiative is a non-profit group of eco-conscious consumers, businesses and conservation organizations. The Initiative was started in the spirit of the WWF¶s Climate Savers program which has mobilized over a dozen

companies since 1999 to cut carbon dioxide emissions, demonstrating that reducing emissions is good business. The group¶s goal is to promote development, deployment and adoption of smart technologies that can both improve the efficiency of a computer¶s power delivery and reduce the energy consumed when the computer is in an inactive state.

EICC www.eicc.info The Electronic Industry Citizenship Coalition (EICC) is a group of companies working together to create a comprehensive set of tools 76 Industry Bodies & Regulators and methods that support credible implementation of the EICC Code of Conduct throughout the Electronics and Information and Communications Technology (ICT) supply chain. Membership in the EICC is open to all electronic manufacturers, software firms, ICT firms, and manufacturing service providers, including contracted labor, that design, market, manufacture and/or provide electronic goods.

ENERGY STAR www.energystar.gov Focused on the domestic and commercial arenas, ENERGY STAR is a joint program of the US Environmental Protection Agency and the US Department of Energy that aims to save money and protect the environment through the use of energy-efficient products and practices. The EPA¶s ENERGY STAR partnership offers an energy management strategy that assists in the measurement of current energy performance, setting goals, tracking savings, and rewarding improvements. The EPA provides an energy performance rating system which businesses have already applied to more than 62,000 buildings across the US The EPA also recognizes topperforming buildings with the ENERGY STAR.

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) - Ireland www.epa.ie Ireland¶s Environmental Protection Agency is an independent public body established under the Environmental Protection Agency Act, 1992. The EPA has responsibility for licensing and control of large scale waste and industrial activities to ensure that they do not endanger human

health or harm the environment; national environmental policing; monitoring, analysing and reporting on the environment; regulating Ireland¶s greenhouse gas emissions; environmental research and development; strategic environmental assessment; environmental planning, education and guidance and proactive waste management.

EPA ± Climate Leaders www.epa.gov/stateply Climate Leaders is an EPA industry-government partnership that works with companies to develop comprehensive climate change strategies. Partner companies commit to reducing their impact on the global environment by completing a corporate-wide inventory of their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions based on a quality management system, setting aggressive reduction goals and annually reporting their progress to the EPA. Through program participation, companies create a credible record of their accomplishments and receive EPA recognition as corporate environmental leaders.

EPA - Green Power Partnership www.epa.gov/grnpower The EPA¶s Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program aimed at helping to increase the use of green power among leading US organizations. These organizations are encouraged to purchase green power as a way to reduce the environmental impact associated with conventional electricity use. The Green Power Partnership works with hundreds of leading US organizations, including Fortune 500 companies, local, state, and federal government agencies, manufacturers and retailers, trade associations, as well as a growing number of colleges and universities. Partners purchase billions of kilowatt-hours of green power annually, which has the equivalent impact of removing the emissions of hundreds of thousands of passenger cars from the road each year.

EPA ± SmartWay Transport Partnership www.epa.gov/smartway The SmartWay Transport Partnership is a collaborative, voluntary program between the EPA and industry, including manufacturers who ship products, freight carriers and logistics companies, to

improve the energy efficiency and reduce the GHG associated with transport. The EPA Green Power Partners List, a voluntary partnership between the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the US freight industry, targets reductions in fuel consumption, GHG emissions and other air emissions. By 2010, the EPA expects to remove at least 33 million tones of CO2e emissions a year via this program.

EPEAT www.epeat.net The Electronic Products Environmental Assessment Tool (EPEAT) is a system dedicated to helping purchasers in the public and private 78 Industry Bodies & Regulators sectors evaluate, compare and select desktop computers, notebooks and monitors based on their environmental attributes. EPEAT also provides a clear and consistent set of performance criteria for the design of products, and provides an opportunity for manufacturers to secure market recognition for efforts to reduce the environmental impact of its products.

Global Reporting Initiative www.globalreporting.org The Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) has pioneered the development of the world¶s most widely used sustainability reporting framework and is committed to its continuous improvement and application worldwide. This framework sets out the principles and indicators that organizations can use to measure and report their economic, environmental and social performance.

Green Grid www.greengrid.org The Green Grid is a global consortium dedicated to advancing energy efficiency in datacenters and business computing ecosystems. In furtherance of its mission, the Green Grid is focused on the following: defining meaningful, user-centric models and metrics; developing standards, measurement methods, processes and new technologies to improve datacenter performance against the defined metrics; and promoting the adoption of energy-efficient standards, processes, measurements and technologies.

Scottish Environmental Protection Agency www.sepa.org.uk The Scottish Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA) is Scotland¶s environmental regulator and advisor, responsible to the Scottish Parliament through Ministers. As well as a role in controlling pollution, SEPA works with others to protect and improve the environment.

United Nations Global Compact www.unglobalcompact.org The UN Global Compact is a strategic policy initiative for businesses that are committed to aligning their operations and strategies with ten universally accepted principles in the areas of human rights, labor, environment and anti-corruption. By doing so, business, as a primary agent driving globalization, can help ensure that markets, commerce, technology and finance advance in ways that benefit economies and societies everywhere.

US Green Building Council ± LEED www.usgbc.org The Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Green Building Rating SystemŒ encourages and accelerates global adoption of sustainable green building and development practices through the creation and implementation of universally understood and accepted tools and performance criteria.

World Resources Institute www.wri.org The World Resources Institute (WRI) is an environmental think tank that goes beyond research to find practical ways to protect the earth and improve people¶s lives. The WRI¶s mission is to move human society to live in ways that protect the Earth¶s environment and its capacity to provide for the needs and aspirations of current and future generations. Because people are inspired by ideas, empowered by knowledge, and moved to change by greater understanding, the WRI provides ± and helps other institutions provide ± objective information and practical proposals for policy and institutional change that will foster environmentally sound, socially equitable development.

Green IT for India
For Green IT to achieve a sustainable impact, Indian firms need to transform their approach to Green IT from µObligation¶ to µOpportunity¶. In other words, the firms should use IT proactively to holistically transform into ³Green´ businesses rather than only focusing on making IT infrastructure, services and products ³Green´. Needless to say, IT products and services need to become more environment friendly but that cannot and should not be the only focus area. IT can play the role of a catalytic change agent for firms to make their entire value chains Green. Focusing on Green IT pro-actively will create µblue sky¶ business innovation opportunities for firms. Additionally, as IT adoption increases in India, we also need to ensure that Green IT is inculcated right from the beginning in order to avoid a situation where the nation gets saddled with a legacy and obsolete infrastructure.

NASSCOM has recently announced its µGreen IT¶ initiative and NASSCOM¶s Green IT strategy is broadly aligned along the following three vectors:
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Make IT Green: Adoption by industry of Green technologies and practices including Green buildings, Green computing infrastructure e.g. energy efficient data centers, power efficient computers, sharing infrastructure e.g. shared data centers, addressing issues like e-waste management

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Make Green Happen Through IT: Deploy IT solutions which help firms become Green including like Cloud Computing, video-conferencing, intelligent transport systems, web-conferencing, motion and heat detection sensors etc

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Make Green warriors: Encourage the over 2 million employees of the IT-BPO industry to adopt a Green life-style and thereby become change agents to catalyze transformation and create a sustainable impact in the society around themselves.

Conclusion
The ubiquity of IT in business provides the sector with a unique opportunity to drive innovative change while actively reducing greenhouse gas emissions. New technologies allow businesses and consumers to control and reduce their carbon footprint, creating a platform for radical change in the way that products and services are produced and delivered. The challenge awaiting the industry is to effectively demonstrate how IT can be used not just for individual process changes, but instead for large-scale strategic efforts.

The majority of IT organizations recognize that there is a fundamental need to be able to demonstrate IT¶s value and contribution to overall emissions reduction and that measurements, standards and innovation need to be promoted to ensure the desired outcomes are measurable and achievable. A solid data-driven approach is required to articulate the value and benefits of green IT innovation and solid business cases will need to be built to ensure that both economic and environmental concerns are addressed.

In the course of building these metrics, however, it will be critical for the industry to explore any offset value produced through new technologies. While these technologies may emit emissions, their implementation in other industries may lead to a net reduction in total CO2 emissions.

Carbon metrics should become a fundamental part of performance metrics within the boardroom. This will allow organizations to better understand, control and measure the environmental impact of projects and initiatives across the organization and across industries. IT has too often been considered a ³driver for the business´, and as such has been viewed in the silo of the specific project for which it is needed. By viewing IT strategically across the entire organization, IT can become the ³engine of the business´.

References

The

United

Nations

±

The

United

Nations

Global

Compact

website:

http://www.unglobalcompact.org

Mines, C. et al (2008) : The Dawn of Green IT Services, Forrester Research, Inc.

Accenture - Green Technology: Driving Economic and Environmental Benefits from ICT, World Economic Forum

Capgemini ± Green IT Report 2008 : Computer Equipment Lifecycle survey

Gartner ± Focus Less on IT as an Environmental Liability and More on How IT Can Improve Your Company¶s Carbon Footprint, Says Gartner, Gartner Press Release, Egham UK, October 4th, 2007

EMC

±

Environmental

Commitment:

Energy

Efficiency

and

Conservation:

http://www.emc.com/about/global-citizenship/environmental-commitment/energy-efficiencyconservation.htm

HP

±

HP

Global

Citizenship

:

Eco

Solutions ±

Product

Design

±

Logistics.

http://www.hp.com/hpinfo/globalcitizenship/environment/productdesign/logistics.html

IBM

±

IBM

and

the

Environment

2006

Annual

Report.

http://www.ibm.com/ibm/environment/annual/IBMEnvReport_2006.pdf)

Sun Microsystems ± Energy Efficient Datacenters ± The Role of Modularity in Datacenter Design, Sun Microsystems BluePrintsŒ, June 2008.

http://wikis.sun.com/display/BluePrints/Energy+Efficient+Datacenters++The+Role+of+Modularity+in+Datacenter+Design

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