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Albert Jackson & David Day

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I T contains:

ave 600 fu colour h togra and tep-bv-stap illustra ions a unique chart for selecting the right joint, ools an ateria s fo tt e job appropria e hand 001 power-tool a machine- 001 metho s for every joint • a compre ensive gu·de to ad he ives, and how to se them . a glossa 0 esse ial woodworki tool and machines
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By t e authors of the hest-se Irng
NS CO LE E WOODWRKER1S
ISBN 0-00-4121BO-] .

AN ALw

GIOOD' WD'OD JI~JNTS C,I]!n ee ive d" lidiiited 8111 d' dies~g Die d a'l Ink IIi!n k, IGre!enwilc s., LOlndon, El1glilfld
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Text A,I[blert J ae kSI[J nan d D-avid 0 lay Des:ilgn sind 61~1 direction: Simon Jenninqs Text editors: Ian Kearev and Albert Jackson
'1IUustrators,. Rob~'n Harris and [)a~i~d Day

Examples ot jOlit 1s: WiilUaml Brooker
Studio photoqraphv: Paul Chave, Ben Jen~i~gls a nd Nils i.Il W[8vi ng] Indexer: L:U1 K,sarey
Technicel consultant

John Parkins

Filrsl pu,blllllS hied in' [115 by Hi8llrple rCo r~illil s PII b,ll'is hiers~,LOR[d Olnl

9 8 7 6, 5 4 Ie orp,r i111111@[ H arp er'Co]~liDS Pub I'i[shre rs, 1996
AI1 rights reserved. No part of this plJbHc[8tion may be reproduceri

stored

retrievst system;. or ft~rNi!nitted in ~'n,Vtorm 0,. by any mesnt; e Jer;:ttrH}ic., me che nic,8"I' pl~'otoc,fJPying! reco rding Dr otJJt~rWi5,e! wltbo ot the' prior written p[ermis's/on ()f tll~ copyright (JlNne'f:
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for Ha rperGI[]~I~ns:

Editori~ I d lrector: Polly PO-Vi/aU
Senior prod uction nanaqer: Bridqst Scanlon
A ClIP cataloque record is from the British ubta ry.

ava~la ble

118xt set in Franklin Goth ic Extra Condensed, Llnivsrs Condensed and Biaramond Book Condensed by IInklink, london Printed in Malaysia

J ac ket des~,gn:Simon J enninqs

Jacket photographs: Paul Chave

Jacket illustrations: Hobin Harris and David [],ay

,AICIKNUWLEDG'IEME:N1S The sumors would lik,e' to tf,ank tne taJlowing for the ,slJppJ,Y of rnatetie J an d equip,men t used in th e prochl c tio« of this bo ok:

reierence

Ke nneth G rlslev,
Leig 11 Industries ttd,

Port Ccqu idEUlUr- Bel
Canane

Jim Pankhanla, E~uP'ow,er Tools ttd,

Slrnu,gh, Berks, UK (alsO' for rtuJ.photograph an p,age 91)

Hamon Wle.stai1l~, taiqh Industries (UfK) Ltd Chippsnbam, Vlfil'ts UK
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J1iml Phillips~ Trend Mlac h~nery and Cut1ting' Tools, WatfQ rd, ~ Ie rts, UK

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joints requires in- depthkn owled h __ ege and •. zrcc of: one's ma teria -s-:-: a deg of proficiency with a wide variety of .dS handtoo 1 0 machines. In addition, . h ld tere 1S the enoree 0:f joint, W:,~lC_~ .... h h hh -.'bout a wooud revea 1 _ssomething a worker's level e-x·,'.,,:·'·~p- ).0"":""','1 ierien tc •. -b must, first 0f all.be fumctiona1to ..' e su - c . strengt, but It . prO'Vld ffl .ent hl h ld a · keeping h -h snoutd alsoeb m k · WIt, the h •. over all- 1 ofthe piece for whiclh- it .stye f h is intended in short, it must be the right joint for the job.
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04 15 106 01.'i.-.of makillllllig falch illustratinn also includes a colour' box that indicates whether 'it Is possible to make that particu ISf joint with handtocls..S'[Jjtab lie" IV!IIJ. exercise your woodworking skills. T1ENON.0'1 .FRAMES SEL INC TH'E RICI 'JOIN 1 ' Before you can.U.' It . D Dlffi€ult Ma. I.!<J ~:Dil1.A Pi.. Thus. " 111) 01 . to make For example.i']I'S'(1 ll-it!lJ. . The letter on the colour box indicates whether it is rslativslv easy (E) or difficult (0) to make witlh those tools (see key belowl Han. I~"~ I:' . 1 . do you want to join chair legs t. '. ." 101".E Easy 0 tnffl cu It 1 Machine IDols E Easv .Uu.3 1 o~ a..igned to help you decide whether the joint is suitable for the material you are 'intendillgl to lise.19~ 11 O~ 11'~ fIi ~ YU 106.ll1le:ndeld jol_IS Fr(J~TIthe d j. 1 ..h..: 01.alL!'.a IJ 8 refe re'fillCe s F:ina 1~yr the nunhsrs if] the top right-hand corner of 8'8Ch illustration refer you to 'the page: or' paglBs where the construction of each ic nt is descri bed in fuU.j iGtJ oJ ILl Ii-. .. I]B. .'DO..a:s. ~"" lji C . IP·~gE 1~ Findingl reco. o II v"".d .'.e'ri' a hi and s u iiitl bii I:ity The nurobor-rstec colour banding below each i~~Llstrat~on ls des.13. (3 lied box c[]r1taining number .. C1.ight seem.t} 0(" liD. given. " .COIRN ED MUlliS e. kev IbQ"1w' I.. U I d-w.o' ... P.!!. I II! .1B 12 '1:3 1~415 " "iI' _. dlaJt there are so many to choose from making the 'ri b 'r' . .. :" .. .or machine tools. . These charts suggest not on~y which joints to consider for it 'wide varie~ of applic-ations but also vvha~tools you can use all d what materials will be...a 10qnstn Icti uu ''Cir ' ~'iCi ii"'i lJ. ". or the corners of a cabinet or do you want 10 know what joints to use for constructinq fraiTII8S or drawers? Hav:ing found the diagram that includes the type of [oi nt you need match the numbers bel'ow [t with those found in the top left-hand corner of re co m mend 8'0 j 0~ 'i 1'1stratsd in the c ha rtnts u E.. you.".t . select ths appl ication that most close. III. II"i od tor e ('II~ t:I!lJ !.2 indicates that the jo int w'i II n IS' u!.w. have to deddc which ~oint will best suit your needs.ag ra rns ra nged '8 lion g the to p of th e c ha ns.i!"' a.lv represents the Iteml you want."l~ce '1 not 'I. ('I lid \" Ci ~ G .U I: " . "ltlli.o a seat rail.' .lS p81~'e 71 .

r 118{-119. 24. 10.FiRAMES T.11 D DV1EIAI L r _ .. 20 21. 28.21. 06.291 -II " 11 8 R:I DLIE. .: 3. _ lie MrDIRIIS'E'lIt 'TENON 'lOr 11=:80 ..1 NIG J 0. 2 .20~.23.2 ~.MUR1!lSE a TENON 14..BLES 06.. ON' 72~ lI1F-SD' 25 T.1M DIRIISE A IE .22.. ]JO 14·r 15r 'Ui 01.HI.. 22.1' 211 23 18.~~~ 19 WEDGED _ __ Ipage .18!Jm ~~_DDyE~~F~RAME _ . U~NrT ~lTiR ED COflNElR '13 HAJUIN C.ItALV. 2.IJ.8 '15 .HAl V~NG J10INT ...5.. 1g~. 2S 26 29 1 r.26 .

43.48. :5 Ii 53.QUARE-EN. 35. 39 41.. en. 55 43. 54. 3S. i I_" 4·1 48. .2~3:t 34.JOINT BIS'CUIT .41.. i:Jj 42.BOXES 311 3. 40~4 4. 49.44" 45" 46 f 1. HALf.. UlllNl E .49 33 34 3!5~aa 41 1 1 1 5 2 54 5.paJge ZII Jl 8 ge l 1 22 E p-~g. 46 41 .. 31.5 1 1 37.3.49 I 1 63 31 S.46. 38.~ I M Il!RIEIlIHIROUGi _ 98 DIlVEJA~l .DEID BUTI. BU Nln lPa~e LAP'JiDINT 45 p"Rige' 18 41 .

~!TE[I THIRDUIGIH praIa DIOVEfAIL.S3 64r65 51 ~AD. JlmlNI 67 .35. 53r 54" 515 j !.51 pa~e 501 :51 65 - DOWEL. Ii 1 . 84 :page 94 . [42.r 361.0.TABtEI0[PS 166j' 67 ~6B 169.56 ~ ~A~E~[E~DI~D [BUTT JOliN.m. :3 3 34 .~ 7D r 31 r a2r.f I l 51. 39! 4 DI 41. 57 ~51 519. lBO.AI L HDIJSillNG pa e 49. 89. 31' 38:.43[r 44 4ft 4.r . TO~'G UtE & G ROOVIE JOIINif . 41~48~49~501" 51 !52. [page 18 58 DlJ\i'Et.

.... rub the surface with white c-halk to accentuate the ~ine..its with most craft skills._ the eonverslons quoted ~nthis book are appmxirnate only. Malrlki.. . and alwavs stick to El ither the 'j mperia I or metric systems of measurement ..."...· s ...anothl. use a marking knife to scars lines that are to be cut so as to avoid leEnfiing a rough ledgs! of torn wood fibres Alwavs ru n the flat face of the kn ife aga lnst the try square or stra i... mark one component from anotber. there is 'I hard core of accepted procedure and techni ues that are consistent "villi I. ....... edge.. taking all subsequent measurements and 8111g183 from them.. better ~esultfor them....ss and ta pe measures.. Squarilng ti ber Wh.Use a sha rp pencil to emphasize a knifed hne that is ditficult to see. levertheless.. plene two adjoining surfaces pertectlv square.ng i'de'liiticall cemponen S If an assembly includes severe I identica I components.~ Nlalrki'nQ D'DleICO 'plonent from ..... 11..':. . there is hardly eve' only one \vay to cut a ~o:~t.." '. ..g~ltedge.... FACE EDGE Extend:ing kniif.lying on measurements. locate the point of the knife in the Gut you have just made.. rather than re._ ..edi IUnes When cutting shoulder lines all round a piece of: wood.. is good advice. inaccurate work when III a rking' out joints leads to aU manner of problems 8IJy well-mane ru I...sn preparinq irnher for join ing... Hurried. then slid. '~'Uh 11 experler ce every' woodworke adapts th " ~a.. Ace 11rate' malrki ng-out The' old adaqe. incorporating small pe rs onal varlanons hat nake the job ea-sier or produce a....... 'measure twice and cut once'..or W~lenever PDSS i b 8. Ir~ark out overall dimensicos with a S larp pencll....e the try square up aqainst tl18 blade. Conven ional symbols are used to denot'8 these surfaces as face side and face.. ug-fnnng joints..... an dark= coloured woods.. ... but "-'..-~~"==~~..' 11 ods. [lay them toqetnernn the bench and mark them out at the same ti me.

~ngl to check that the joints fit.ly larqer. reject any board with a soft en mlbly core.ng pro p arly.. . joints can work loose. but since most boards lack any rea l lonq-qra in strength. there is no reason \~. or the tips of through doveta i ls and fi'nger joi nts. Don't buy warped or twisted lengths of wond.j beratelv leave specific elements oversize so. These.g bmEMi1iIli's~u~s: ~ Illume rClrf I.s terce a tight ioint and risk sp Iitti ng the wood. 'for exernple.otds. substandard wood sdvetselv sitects the st~eng th of a iai n i. Mansmadre bOHrrds.ao'118' or fi:nsly cut joints.and that they V1JQn 't have to Mak. are glsnerally prefe '.any . R'ej8'ct . J Cuttinlg O~I the w.pllrits 4 SruJrnac:e I:h e.l.C~.the end of a though anon. provided vcu make the Joints proportiona 1. and high moisture c'on ent may p reve nt g Iue s etti .ing .AIND BO~ARDS: Poorly seasoned.sle side Allow for the width of a saw cut (the kerf) by alwavs cuttinq on the waste side of any marked line.II I)Wli[Jll. assrembly' Some p otessionals claim to be able to grlue up an assembly without ever hav.3).Ihyyo~ shouldn't use goodQ ua~ softwo od s.S"Et _CT~NGWOOID . As a nJ!118~man-made boards do not SUT er from the same defects as solid wood. H a rdw'o. Identl'fy Bach joint with penci lima rks so that the e is no contusion when ~t omes c to g~uingthe assembly.llze .ih~a!d Dts kn :2 IGfowth-rilllg1 s'hakes :3 IErnlID s. If ~tshrinks a a later staqe. fu f/VI to ensure me t mete wiJl be no weak short grain at tile critical parts of a joint.cl!dn· is IHIOIiHtlGllll'mb IDl:true. that they can be planed f~ush once the glue has set . Whren making certain joints. they are not suitabl e for the' more complex joints (see pages 10-1. lit is good practice to del.y -· Cun'lng CilIVIB'rS.I 'dry . however. Mors cau ious woodworkers wa nt to ~e sure th.A\!oiid time ID.at the shoulders meet sn ug IV'/. and check with your supplier that the timber has been seasoned carefully. In addition. it.timber with large knots splits or (J ther ble'mishes~ arJ'dexemir» your erose» tirober care.

Use: protective E3ye~ shields whenever vou are doing work which could throw up debris.' fixings are.ttE'!mpt to 'free a sta lled blade or cutter before s'witching off the machine... . J::halnglng and ad'j1ustillg hlades • Don't make adiusnneats to a machine 'while cutters or blades ·are moving. fore $\V1tc1nng on. you can check the dimensions.ady It against a bench hook so that you can keep both hands behind _-:~_ .p. switch of and let ~tcome to rest natural~y. . ue removeoif rom rnacnmes '.. j. :' .IJD(Jk~. even when not iin use. just nlickirlg the edge so that.-_':". • Don't operate a machine under the intluence of alcohol or drugs or if you are fesli ng drowsy.8rd iiii II b~Id D'S and eutte rs a 'Wlle'neve'r pass ~bI.alv€to forte 'ID:VOllg}1 the wood are poten tita]y 1110te dangerolls than sharp 0 nes that cut effortlessly Al'\\lays keep your' tools and machinery in good condltion.g II memlp'o raf~yguard If you must remove a fitted gua rd 1n order to cnmpl ate a procedure.• "[ '.OJ .". Ej the r f9 ed n the workpiece into the blede. blade or cutter. for more complicated work.the glJ.this is a fire hazard and makes the floor sI~ ppery. 'U'simllg . properly tightened.. . supply of e I ectrtclty before changling Glitters or" blades.NT • Don't clutter your bench with tnol sand pieces ot wood." omitle.~.8".e. /' 8 cutti ng edge. • Do nat a. • Tie back long hair.' ". . make a temporary pllY'NDOd quard to cover the blade. 'GlJII.".. N'8ver reach over a blade to remove offcut'S. as they an~·Iike 1'1to expl ode. I :' - . and never slow or stop a blade with a plece of wood.". Use a push stick to feed a workpiece. and don't let sawdust . Cuttio'g 8'way from 'y'DU For safetv. checking that spanners and adjusting keys are 1I' . safety procedures to avoid accidents in the workshop" Blur '~tools that you h. ""~. . '. all act ua IIwo rkp i eCB. A. Alternat~vely r make a sturdy jllg that hoi ds the 'work: securely and' keeps bath hands 'NIBil away from the.A. • . l~ I I .AFm IN E WRKS. bee.use proper gua rds reeorn mended :bY' the machine's manufacturer. clamp the work ~r st. ·'..' " .8 kin. rather than riskl rig touch ing a blade with your f~llgers.d tO c'.tbe i"ust:rat.... • Fit dust extraction to maehl nerv and powe'r mols.ards have. or. I' :..FE1Y' Make ." •• I .fter work. • 01 scornect a machne or power tool from the. • Don 't carry a power tDO~ by its cable or use the cable to pull the pi ug out of a socket Check the: cable and pluq regularly fur wear or darnaqe.9 test cut to check the accuracy of machine setti n 9 s befo re C lJtt ~ g.larity . . or wear a face mask. KE~epunsupervised children aw·ay from power tools and machinery.' Don't throw used batteries from cordless tools 'into water or a f re. such as a dovetail joint make a complete test piece out of scrap wood" Support the work properly when passinq it over or OPERA'TING tllrough a rnachlne.. I Follow basic.8 push . • Never store materials or equlprnern above a machine in such a way that they could fall onto it. a nd attach it to the ri p fence.s~i1c:k.. -' .A. I " and shavinqs build up on the floor .. ~ .IIi. I: . MACHIINE SA. In some of' .II'is' .Ml. if the machine is not fitted with a brake. and don't operate a-machine or power tool whiils weari'flg 100s9 clothinq or jewellery that mig ht gBt caught in rnovi n'g parts. Kee~ the wcrkshop tidv. disconnect machines and lock your workshop. fHsding ihe work aqainst tile directi on of rotation of a blade [J r cutter.ous ttl . P'EIRSONAL CAIRE.GIEMIE. 'WORKSH DIP IMIAIN. I I' ." b.. Perle dicaUy check that all nuts ~boll) and other _ • _ _ '.

.

B -t 0 It is. square-cut cor ier joints.Set up the mecnine so th.llf~' alon !s rarely sufficient to n ake a sturdy bu t joint hold the parts together with.ioli'n1 Mark out eacn piece of wood to length. but nlane the woo square beforehand for good-quality' cabinet work. 1ICun~ng'lhe . fine firdsb nails or glued blo cks of wood. Since' g~.at the work can just pass beneath.ake flat frames and.the blade gu. keepinq to the waste side of the marked IJ ne. If you con't we nt the method of fixing to show Oil the outside of the joint.ard. Set. possible to .squaring the ends tFor all but thle most basic work! triml the ends square LO form a neat butt joint usI nlg a bench pia ne and shooting boa rd. CU'TT'I'" G BIUTI ..LE' SAW A sharp table-sa w blade cuts end grain so clean Iv that it requites no further finishing. Use a sliding crosscut table or a mme fence to keep the work square to the blade. simple box structure utilizing.0. .J'OINTS OIN A TAB. 2: . l Reinforcinlg ill bun: iioinl For adoitional strength. the pia ne for a fi ne Gut. HOild the work against a bench hook and saw down each shoulder..' se sawn timber fo rough join 'fY. g Ius a corner block on the i nside. and luaricate the rUr1n~ngsurfaces of the shooting board with a W' ite cand IH or 'wax polish. ddv!8 nails at an anqle into the wood as shown. using a knife and try square to mark the shoulders 0 the joint or) all faces.

To prevent spl i'tt1ng~.. [-. use well-seasoned timber or a gap n1sy open up on the il1s~de of the joint as the wood sbri nks 'Trimllmling a widie.The classic joint for picture ' -ames" tne nulf1ed bu tt j oin t make. . In addition.. or the [o i nt wi II be Igappy. IF or light\v1eigh frames just add glue a~t. If" . always ensure that the mitre is exactly half the loint . t ir t 't a In 1 re cramp.A MI'TRE S. The workpiece' caj]' be' held on edge or flat on the bed of the too: The sa w go ide.. guarantees accurate joints. To rBmOV8 the waste.angle. IUSIING . either follow he marked iines by eye or Lise a mitre box to gui:de the saw blade.AW It pays to' use 'a special jig called a mitre saw to cut Iaryer pieces o t wood Of mo aided sections of tram lfJg. Cutting 'wood all 4S degrees produces a [leill[iv1ely marge surface area 0" tangen tially cut gratn that glu es well.. a neat right -angle corner with ou t vrsible end grain. -~:_. 2:Trimmilllig the joint" Hold the work on a mitre shooting hoard and trim each cut end V\iith a sharp bench plane. [" I'" .it'd Since rt is impossible to mitre a wide piece of wood on a Slloot~ng boa rd. boa. I OIP e 11 j10 iot ca~serJ ~y ina GGllIlr. '1 Cutting tbe joilt: Dn each pi 8C8 of 'Nood. clarrn the work upright 'j n a bench vice and trim the end gra'i n with a 11 nely set block pi are. Extend 'the marked line across the adiaeent 'faces 'w'ith a try square .~set _11e ji-O··' . . mark tte slopingl shoulder of he joint usill9 a knife and mi re square.atel cuUi~lg 1111 si~de! a p g as a rssu It ~If\NO i1Iiill SIfUiiln~ ilP!)J1 ACC:lllrale· m i~re! c:ut1li Alig Before you pick up a saw. 'which can be set to any angle.back up the work with a piece of scrap timber.

and feed the work past the blade. ICU i11iII1IOal '~.s be net con rr(J/~bur s cops the g~ajn of a wDrkpiece splitting a~tlla back as it is sawn.oatil /lends to hold the workpiece 8'gainst the terce.he fence. .i.feed It 'towards the blade.FENCE A Ibe mitie fence on mas: table saws' is com'Pat:a~ive!y short but some are' pre -dr/lied so that YOli can SCfe'w on s longer hardwood face to extend tne fence. CIampI to the fenc-e' any peee S tOD smaU 111 be held with' two hands. 'P isition th.'~ _ .-'Iua I1iIle ". even or comoound mitre where 1 e angle lis in _lOP ·~m· ." .nY~iirlgmj~I·· jolnts ·. .LE-..the ssme length. . so that it does not g'et dra n backwa res by the saw. gO degJrees. Feeding this wooden fence into the' saw blade for the firs t time cuts i['perfectly to Ieng til. "I .SAW . ksl ~. .B. $.' miiilre TUt the saw blade to 45 degrees' 0 cu aheval across the. box -frame 0r cabinet. B'nd teed the work Quite sta . pm.. we DDE FVtC:t .: ntre the groove mn a .. El en t \\.~n. td:-· frame mitre hI[ It for a.gnetowards ~h: ~nside of [he ansle ·1 . _.u 1. use .'il. lO[ t.c ~nn. R'etrdf. With eit/1Br method.. A block of wood clarnped to the' extension serves a's 8' stop for one end ot the vyorkpiec8 when tu ttin. machine: cut the tongue slots before glu iIlg nlaJ·hine-m d . lid s wood or p~. Iy into the blade.aI oeces of wood to' ..g se ver..ywoodto ngt I _5 is also :1 'aightforw~lrd on a. [oims. Set the mitre fence at. A n extended fence no t onJy provide. board.'11' : I Table saws 'adial-arm saws make mitring tmple.·fra.. Holding the workpiece 'firmly against .~'DINIG TA.n! It Adjust the mitre fence on the table saw tD the required angie. sandwich a oece of sera'p wood between the fence and the vllofkpiece. II' ~. 1 Cul1in'g] a box . .xith . usual~y 45 daqrees. If VOtl can 't fit a perrnenent eaecsoo. -'r I.Il. - iI'- a ' EXTE~.

~ Slo'ftiing I.SAW' workpiece against a stop clamped fa in e fence.£.ak~ng the cut. Ensure a I screws are. j . setting one to th'e mitre angle. Glue and screw offcuts of the fram'ing wood to 'the. panel as shown. Hold the j'iigl firmly against t~e fence whille ill. Butt the other end of' the ITRES D:N .g sawn bevel/s for a box·frama mitte. -~~ .. butt the other end of the workpiece aga:inst a wooden block clamped! to the extended mitre fence. 2 Cutting 'Cfle slot Clamp the work in tile j~gl~with the mitred end flush with the. Set the saw fence to centre' the cut on the ends.base. Fi:xa steadvi n'g block to the 0 -_pas ite face of the panel.A RADIAL-AR . adjust the blade depth to saw slots for reinforcing tDngues across e.BUIT JO~NTS 1 Maki ng a :slottiliillg j igl To slot a flat-frame mitre make a euttin. bex-frame ilre Set the bladeto 45 deqrees and adjust it to 'hs correct he i!ght To position the mitre accurate Iy over the blade.'. Havin. flush with the bottom edge" ------~"/ . Cut an M OF backing pan 81 abou t 400 x 250mm ~16x 1lOin).--?T~ - ~. c IBar of the b lade.ach cut face. jig that will hold the work securely and keep your hands away from the saw blade.

akls perpendicular or anqled saw cuts across the corner of a wide mitre joint. and! trim flush when sst 2 . centred on the edges of leach 'workpiece. anqled splines provid 8 gre.I na il~e:d~olint Sink the PIa ii~heads below the wood surface. [D isguiisi'ng .a'ter strength. then reinforced \vith ven eer splines or a separate tongue of solid wood or plywood. using a knilfe and! try square r Rei ntore iu gl with v'e Rill er M.ED Once you've glued up even a lightwetght frame you can drive it small pin or two into the side of' L ". trim them flush.ey t apart Iarger mitre joints should ne glued andl all owed ~oset. Glue a snugJy fittiiflg tongue in the slot. tne mnre jl om ts 'to IIIak sure th won '~ come axe I "i.. then scribe parallel lines.'. To mark a s Iat for the tongue. :Maik each end of the slot between the IgaugJsd nes.set a mortise . chop out the waste wood. 11IRlsen·'ng a tongull! lnsert . then use match~ng wood filler to disguise the holes.8 tongue ina larger mitred fra me.gauge to one-third the thickness of the weed. IG~UI9veneer or thin p~ywoCJd splines into the saw cuts anal when set. l from each side towards the middle.FirMmng ~hle'lang'lIe' Set the jOint vertically in a vies and saw down he waste side of the lines Using a chisel and working . .

e terce pressed against the ledge of the wood...j 0 i111: s lets Before making the cut .= . 't..·' 'fi''I'i .'..iL iIi 'L..ali.• ' "Ii . v' .. Biscuit joints are mnstly used for fram I ng 'Or .. and adjust the tool's fence to align the blade with 1 the marked centra line.l' ' e bisc U io".." a 'r .rrtliB r. 1 I MITRE.]II!.• . .. in both solid wood and man-made bcerds.A btscuit joim is a reinforced bun or mitre joint In pnnciple. . Wjth the addn'Uo11l of water-based PVA glue) 'the b:'scuit expands to fill [he slot forming a. Ie utti ng m.' to '.!i. switch on and! pllunge the' blade to cut the slot 3.!!!._ '" ~~.n'te-:''·"ilfse~"~ls small auscale plunge saw with a circular-saw blade.. ._ 2..11" 1 M'arkiing' 0 111' 8 cormer butt jo in't .I Hat oval pilate (the biscuit) made of 'Ji" om pres s e d b eec 1.__ (l..'.. mitred and e:dge... . "I~'I<~" L '1 •. I!J.J!~ .• ' ' . very stro ~Ig· ~ nt ~ msc W er ~seuu strong l'0'n.. b" k" ~nea'i netmEl"~ng. .J. specifically developed for tnmming panels or a eroeves ~olr drawer panels C('lllit"]·'n.. i'l j 10 Iints You cain make corner. then mark along it the central point of each biscuit slot spaced about 1'OOmml ~4in) apart Set the cutting depth of the blade to match half thiS width of the biscuits bEl'ing ussd.. ._Draw the centre line of 'the joint on the work. _. CENTRE uIN E . T_'1·.d m . ..10 b~'" . J'OINif 'T'Ylples of b hI c'...'lit.'.. .I!J..•.. I .-to-edg~e joints. Turn the g[J~de 'f~nce over and lav the lolnter on its slde. .gn the cutting guide: (marked IOn the side of the fiem:'e') wi:th the centra I point of each slot Keep'ing th...rl"~' 1 · " _. in biscuit ]oi n tlng ._.:. 'I. ...and Tbutt joints.. and clam p It nn d flat surface.r ~' .adjust th~ fence to centre the blade on the edge' of the workpiece.rr. . .. I~..!J... .atc'hlillg slots T 0 cut the. other halt of the: joi nt. 1 ru.. but instead of a round peg or dowel fitting in a hole...'. c ":'. mate lIng Sillot.~te '. then . Ie utti nlg C O.s]. . rna rk the rnatchi ng biscuit-slot CEntres an the end of tns S8COIl~ workpiece.'>. it is similar ~o a dowel joint.' ..

8stthe front end of the jointer on the pane L switch on and plu nqe the S. clamped on its side. as a fence to' align the jointer's blade with the marked line. 8 nd cut the s.C.er tools (see page 18)1note the lollo wing points with specittc reference to biscuit jointers. cut matching slots in 'its 8'nd {sse page 23). R:. 1 r. .JOII"l'ER SAiFETV As well as observing th. Remove • The motor must be rurmnq before you plunqe the blade into wood. Lay' the workp ieee fl at on a bench. Cutti'nOI a.e standard working m'ethods fDr po w. always teed the jointer away from you. and run the riqht -ang le fence a long: the outer edge of the bevel. Wtlen eutn nlg a groove. adj ust the bevel terce on the jointer.. •' Do not attempt to slow down or stop a spinning blade by applv~ng pressure from the side . I. Feed the too I across the work. Wlt~10ut movi:ng the second board.8\lV'.jolinl Mlark the centre Iine of this joint across me board.. and throwaway cracked or bent Ib ades. and replace 'with sharp ones. To help support the joints' Increase the width crf the bevel by c Iamp i ng one component on t[)P of the other .ots. Making a T".Usiolg 18 bev"e~Ience Some join ters are suppl isd with a beve I fence for inserti ~g b 1 scuits in rni re jo i nts. g:roDvs Set up the workpiece and acjust the jointer as described for makl ng a corner-butt J[J~nt (see page 23). then ra i se the blade beto re switch i ng off. Use the end of the second board.!UI'J-. Imp f Il)V'ii:siiingl W i~ha SUI nda rd fe'Il'c e Clamp the work cvsrhanqinq the bench. The blade guard must always be in place when the jo:inter is: runn i'ng" II . B'IIS. Plunqe 8'8Ch slot in turn.

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to counter any tendency for the panel to' bow under ptessiue._ant edge joiu~s when making a wide panel from solid wood 10' ensu re that the panel 'i\-ill remain flat.Also try to ensure that the surface grain on boards runs in the same directi on.ge-to. Use ot least three crampSf alternated 8S sboevn. provided boards have been planed! as a pa ir. f the boards are to be clamped tonether. r you IClLAMPI·_G JOI[li~rTS Before .. l Checking· for' straigl~ltedges ~tis vita I that the edqes are stra i ght if' you intend to use a rubbed jolnt c-heck them using a metal straiq htedqe.. .Iat is not possible. . of :ring growth alternates from one board to the next . arrange them so tha the direction. Use S'craps of softwood to protect th..are With the face sides Dn the outside. number each board and n ark the face side."on get to work. However.J ' d Tunoer se ecnon IS ·as imp 0 rtam as goo. • • n an I ~ . tty to use. v{i th tile endthat grain growtb rings running perpenmcular to the face side of each board.adding glU8't set prepared board's in sash cramps to check that the joints fit snugly.edgHs ttom bruising. If '.ate·hil 9 edlges It is qood practice to keep the' edqes as squa re as possible.. '11). to fa<ciUt.e . . set both boards back-to-beck and level in a vice. quarter-sawn woo d '__'" is. tnev wi IIIfit together and produce a flat su rtaee.qu. a verv sli'ght ho~ow is acceptab'e. using the longest bench p lane can find preferably a try pla ne.d e-.s. Plane the edges straight and square. even w'hen the edges are not exactly sq uare . Planing edige's .ate Unal c earring up of the panel with a plane. Before .... When you have' everything to hand remove the ctamps for gluing ant} reassembly of the joints.

j' ust ingllhie c uH. ~" . TONI.....Io1!l.!1.}tlIJ.- "I~.e and assemble " the joint in cramps as . workpiece.Use' a combination plane to cut a '~on6'lle=and= groove ~omt by hand.gu. tnen brush .graov.e made item plywood or solid timber (ideally cross-grained)...(\~Je' :.e sj'tt~ng the cutier on top of the tongue-. tace-sids towards vou Adj ust the renee until the cutter ~gcentred on the edge 0'1' tbe work. .!U. IN'CLUD. Cut the toneue first th en chan se IlL. a D!loughi ng cutter that matches the width of the 'toilg'LJe~ and' it it into the plane." it l?lvoids decreasing the width of'the boards..~'V' . Iy . .) . '. gradually wnrking backwards as the tOOgU 8 is formed. Cutli n {II th 8' to Dig ue Adjust the plane's depth stop to cut a tongue of the requi red size.jQ 'l.26:.. I..groove and tap the tongoe into it... SI8t ths depth stop.e'lr Clamp the work in a bench vice.ING A. m atch'lu.. Plane e gtoo VB do wn me centre af e. ! cr &". . I . and fJ simple plotJgh plane calf be used to cur me gro0 vss. ' . Ad] ust the fence 'whi I. 0' '1 Ad.. 'Ihis kind of plane is similar to 'a standard plough plane.-rJ!. ..• u: . P'rov~dledthe matching groove ls also cut from the face side. Glue -c one . Cia mp the uncut board in the vi:ce and cut the qroove.ach board and ins en a separate ton..de'Scribed on page ..rl . it g ives the jot nt m. then beg'i n plam ng at the "far end of the workpiece.) I • ~_'I.. 2.ll6 01' . .16 .a rg ina lIy grea te: strength.Un"'. "..' if. " g! ue imo the other .0. makinq sure it will cut a groove slighlt11y deeper than the tongue.3 C uttl milD '!hll g re DIVIB Select.using an integral one. but comes with a wider range of cutters" includi n_g 0 ne designed to shape a tongue on tb fa edge of ::1.GUE A loose tongue h'a's three advantages aver . cuner 'and plane a th. . it is not essential that the tonqus is prec i~s'e [J n-ce ntre.

1 r 2 Rlemo'ving waste Adj ust the tence. saw a~ong nne side of the tongue. . If yo. . you can cut a' groo ve or this mekes operating .unds the area of the wot« nest the blade. consider setting up amble: saw to cut tongues and grooves. one .uard be fore.you have.a~1~olngU'e Clamp the match ~ngcomconent between two simi lar strips of wood then adjust the' router's fence to guide the cutter a long one sidle o· the tonQlus. TA. 11C liltliing 8lto lngllu! wI!th a table saw W'ith the wide face of the wood against the fence. saw cut at a time. integraliongue all one half of a joint.to temove the riving knife and bfadB' g. 7 .et some table sa~t/<s.machine more hazardous. v . Turn the wood end-torend and saw tbe other side. lay the work on its side. the procedure.(.-CR A power ro uter is not only the perfect tool for grooving a j ei nt ·to take a separate tOI gue." so work with' great caution and attention. O~ one side of the tongue. TUrl1 the 'work end-for-end and saw down the other side 01' the groove before removing the waste. . which surro. .ur table saw cannot be fitted tAlirh a vertlcst and horizontal 1/70 Id-do tNn guard. Bernove the waste from the other side. with a gLJ8rd tbat covers the blade to hne the rip tence. ! t ROllting an integr. HOI' 1iIlg the g r'lo OIVII A wooden strip clamped alongl each side of the workpiece provides a wide. over and repeat.BlE~S:AW SAFETY Wlth rabb. For jointing larger sections of Umber. Turn the 'work .he. make an auxiJial}l terce from wood. flush surface to support the base of the router. it can also be adapted to machine a . and cut aVifav the waste. A:I Sawinlg a matiching groove Adj List the fence to saw Just on the inside of the groove·.

. . .-.. " 1-1 - ':' - . _.. . _. .-.. 11 we-made dowel joint h ti nvais ttne moruse an d tenon In strengt h an. II--". I ..... cnnsr d erea to b e a d -. [. i~.. d versatility... ···. : -. . SInce a ·. . .. _'. ·separate J and one which is relatively JOlll5 .. .-c-. '...-.. .. .··..... . \.category 0f··oint. .uowever._. < '1- ' .. -. ..-_.:-. ...... ..:~'..- I . .. . .." tomake ... ... _ . it is legitimately .."~ I! easy"".I _ _ . -r - _·1 ts 1 ll ..- .- J -·__ I'~ J_:- < ._ I .- -'.... -.

'd'l conSl. Place them a minimum of' 61nln (~in) from both edges of the rail.ls Piacisthe point uf a dowel bit on the. t ~ 0 uowe '1 s ld ."b'm ra . 31Bolrinlg dOlwel.'.he s~'~ or ~'8g'Of a corner Ie joint overlonq u~t~ the: joi nt: i:s fill ish ed. CUfHi' n g components I:ID length Saw each component to length and trim the' ends of' the rail square as described 'for makinq a square-ended butt joint (see pagls 1.marked centre B.'a.AND RAMEOINTS c~rr Frames made 'with dowelled butt joints are surprisingly sk'ong. Choose dowels that are about half the thickness.· .l"S Re'ady~made dowa}s sre manufa'ctur.IH. [[l per joint are :suffieient. ~ . UsinQI a try squarer draw the centre of each dowel hols across both components. Ste. bit 1 '1. 'i~ hv. If you nee« a few' dowels on/VI' cut them from a length ot do lAteJ rod. S~Fw .~.of the workpieces the length of B'B'f:h dowel shou.mfered at each end to make them easier to imen in the holes~and are' fluted length~/ays to ailow excess give to escape. ..1ss cross. t'~cases.8). Leave t. bol.amlrt bitct: beect: or maple.'. I'~" mos.ed from tough short=grain vvoodst such a'S r. I " DOWE. Bore the dOWEl I ho Ias where the 1. n .' .ern.nd bore Bach hO~8in turn" UIlI. most factory-made furni lure incorp orates dowel ~oints even for chair rails which must be capable of resisting prolonged " . Chamfer each' dO'wel wit/] a tite. it pavs to have. and saw a single glue slot.ld be approximately t' tive times its diem e tar. They are cha. a dowellinq jig (~~H3e pposite) or a bench stand (38 S page o 34).r '.. an. '.e.ady the rod on 8' IJench hook and cat' a ff short S ection s wi fir a tine-tao til sat'w. < . Nowadays.someone standilhQ to one side who can tell you when the d~'~11 'is vertical. then scribe a line centrally on each one 'with a rra rkinq g~aljge. 2 Mark:ing IhlB j'oiinl Clamp the two components 'in a vice with their jo~ning surfaces flush. 'L" .'".8SS you are using.

-' .ellery joint separately. i'- " ._ Ilgse ps t ~ s] k le -_".s wi'lb 8. The jig not only guides the bit to bore per. With one of the better jig'SJ yon can {nark out wide boards for cab! net work as' 'WEli . j IDRILl'~ an GUill e Ready'-made C8'llf1trl8 points As an alternative to using panel pins. Bare dowel holes in the side 9rairL l 2. . ~ilg Clamp the jig on the lend of the rai I~ ensurilng that the.ents are taken and a slidihg terce that clamps the jig. :'" iDOWELLIIN'G JIIIGS It's worth 8'Cq Uiring' a do-weNing jig fOf 8' project thet requires a number of identical dowel joints. ' corrponents a I ig nsd u . ~eav'ing short 'sptkes' projecting from the snd 9 rar n" L1 side and edge of the workpiece.SIUIDIN G fENCE' the G'owel. centres exact-Iy. then slip into them store-boupht dowel points 'that will mark the side qrain 'Of the matcning compcnent .. The type of jig shown ..dj'uS'fable driH-bit guldes and side fences positon .' ..'. draw the centre points on the end of the ra'il onllYj then drive i'n panel pins where the Hiles cross.. Cut off the pin heads with pliers.liingl the stl'lles Once you have dri lled a~II the ra ils. remove the sliding fence and without a It srl1llg the other setti ngs. fi xed head and si de fences are located aqainst the face.fectly vertical holes I t atso dispenses with the need to mark out eecn and l.tre po~nts For greater accuracy ~n marking out dowel joints. bore dOWE~~holes il110 the and of the rail.to the worK-' piece" A. turn the jigl over and clamp it to the st~Ie with a G-cramp. I' . A.1Ma Irk iing th e olh B'lr CIIl) m P'On e nt Lay the leg or stl le on lts side and press the erd of the rail aqainst it ~Elavilrligtwo pinholes that mark the hole " .ijS mits and stiles.here' has a.I'~ " -_ I"" II ':' .ho/es. 2 Quwel.fixed h. a: '. Using cen.ead' or fence from which mee surem..Slimp Ie ng h tang -~. i • I I 1 Dowel'ling rS'il. Dr~11 both holes.

bind a strip Q f adhesive' tape' a round the drd f bit to mark the appropriate le vel.. [JoweiUhl.~~--------------------~~--~---------------~~~~I . ot a do. [}epth stops cost V8. Holding] the. have a helper stand at one end of the workpiece.wel~i.enable you tO'drili consistently deep holes.Wben cor structing a wide solid-wood panel. side fences aqai nst the face side 0 r the work.dg. I II 1 . To drill subsequent holes. drill bit (see right). 2 Boring: the holes lf possible.ng jj'g when b(]r~ng holes j'n the edge of a wide board.'ry little. drilll~two holes. drill IS upright as you bore reach hole wher':8 the marked lines cross. bu it )IOU prefer. you can make a parH cnlarly strong jo' nt between boards by inserting a' lowel every 225 to 300rnnl (9 to 12'~n).-arkilng an edg'e-to.e joilnl: Clamp adjacent boards: back-to-tack in a vi-oe and mark the d[l'NHI centres. USIN1G A DIEPT1H S:TIOP Each hole sh'Ould be.g w'itlhl a jiig Remove berth end fences. to tell you when the. fit a plastic guide onto the I. . TO.-e.. using a try square and pencil Scribe a Iins down the centre of each board ~/~tll a mark" ng 9aU98'. op one dnll-bi't qulde r over a short dow8'i rod pushed into the last hole drilled. slightly deeper than half' the length of the dowel.

g II mitre d e a IfC. nt To make a dowel-reintorced mitre joint. l . D OW 8 IIin. 2: IDrilUing matching holes Wi'tl1out changing any settinqs. it pays to buy extra-long S de ro tis and additional drill -btt guide" for a. Adjus· th~ drill-bit quides to position thiS dowels towards the lower edgle of the bevel. transfer the Jig to' the other mitred boa d and drill match~ng holes. Make sure the fixed heed is clam ped aqai nst the' 'face edge. - " cupboa rd psrtiti on.r ii 0 nt For a right -anq Ie butt ]0 im. Attach a depth stop (see opposite) to the bit to e nsure you don 't dri II riqht through he wood. for exampte.BSS flll-. dowelling jig i Makilng . remove the side fences and clamp he jilg across the matching component. 11 1 .su I" TS Wl1en co istructing a Cafe-ass '~"Ulbutt jr"" unts that are reinforced with mu tiple dowels. invert the jig and clamp it to the inside of the other component. drill the end grain as deserl bed . Having dr~~~ed the dowel holes. Set fhe j i9' s side 'fences to position the dowell holes central'ly on the thickness of the workpiece.a T -joirol To make a J-joim. for a DI'Dwe IIii n g a ee rn e. d ril ~the enc qrai n first. assemble a j:ig: similar to that used for a right~Bngl8 butt joint [see ~eft). and damp it to the bevel'led end of the workpiece.8 end qrain and the fixed head aqains 'the: face edqe. with tile sine fences butted against ttl.abOVB: left. and adjust he drill-bit quides to space the dowels 50 to 75mm ~2 to 3 in) apa rt.

IEL JO~NifS li drill press or even a powe r dri n m 0un tedi n a stu rdy dri U stand solves 'tl 'e pro blem of dr °i 'Ij' ng do·" el hi les VI rtically. Hemove the stop and slide the work up to the second end stop. Make a special jig.a stl Ie Adjust tl e jilg to osi Ion the centre line of' the stile directly below he drill bit.e workpiece 0 .e. f. Wiith the end of the workpiece butted against the first plywood StOP1 bore the ho1e for the dowel. ADJUSf. vent t ie dri 11boring too deeply into t ie work. th 8rl bore ana her l dowel. C' 'ru-n ertng tl e bole' makes final assembl easier. BQJri g ho les 'in the 0' d 01 a Ira i~~ To a IIow YLDU to set the rai I vertical ~YJswl ng the dri II stand to overhang the bench.Ier-joil t . 3 Machine bolt slots i.nthe fence for side-to-side adjustnlent once t e fsnce is bolted flush with the back edge of the baseboard. hole. For an edge-to-e. then reposition the work aqai nst the seco nd stop and d ri II another ho I. I. Set hem apart to p ovice the req ui red spac Ing between dowel holes. Drill he first hole."'g To join a rail and stile at right anqles. for exan 'p e holt a simple fence to the base so that yo '_'eat slide the work along' 1l until eacl mar ed hole centre i· ~ directly below the 'tip of the dowe] hit. M ing a co . ge ioint. 11Cut slots in the baseboard to crovide fore-and-eft adjustment when bo ltsd to the dri II~s a nd base. J Sill E-lll=SIIOE~ ADlJUSTMENli SlOT F(!Ifl_E-A~D -·AR -. Clamp the fig~then the jig to the bench.. make a simple jig comprising a 12mm (Y&in) MDF baseboard and B hard= weed fence with adiusta b~18end stops. 'for the drill stand wi en y011 want to make several. in order to position the end grain below the dowel btt. .in . 2 Machl nB 1OmIII (0/8i rl) deep 9rooves in the top and sides of the fence lOr take 3mm O:ain} thick plywood end stops. (LO\VIE lled [ran:u:! joints. and clamp It down.DO-. Make L-shape plywood stops that f~t sn ug Iy ~nthe grcoves. The depth gauge on the stand wH1 pr.~ ~".MEN1' sinr Bori ng do~-'--·111 . remove the stop. AU yor have to do is ensure that t re work is posrioned accurately befo "e you pull down on the lever.

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RL
0

ON

A corner bridle joint is adequate for relatively '1. gb :\~ :"ght hames~ provided they are 1 ot sublected .. to sideways pressure, which tends 'to for-ere bridle joints out of squar . The strength of the bridle Is improved co-n.. derably .". you insert two dowels n . through the side of the jo.il 1,1'11'" the glue has set.
r

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~~~~~::::::=Mill rk in g mut 'ItI I' sill 0' I€I ers Taking each tenon membs r in turn mark squa re shoulders ai~ round, al:lowing for a tenon that IS s~ightly overlong so that it can be planed flush after the joint is complete. Use a 'marking knlte, bu apply lig'ht pressure across both edg es. Mark out the morti se member simi 18 rly~ but th i s time us's a pencil,
r

4 Cu.ni ng the D -len martlse Se'~ect a dri[l~ bit that. approximates the width OT

the mortise, and bore a hole ~ the waste WLlO(~ nto Just above the shoulder line
j

all opposite s ides of the joint. Set the wood in a vice and saw on this waste side 0": both gauged lines, down to the hole at the base of the mortise. Cnis8!1 the S~lCHJlder sq uara.

2,Scribi _0the te[non Set the points of a mortise gaug1e to one-third the thickness of the wood, and adiust the tool's stock (fence) to centre the points on the edge of the wo k. Scribe the width of the. tenon on both sdqes and across the end.

3, IMarkiolg I£lulthe open mortise
Us.e the same gauge to mark the sides of the DpEHI mortise. then take a marking knife and score the short shou Ide rs at the base of he mortise. between the gauged 1ines, Ma rk the waste wood with a penei I on both components SOl that YfJU don't get confused when cutting- the joint

5 Cutting the tenon
11

Wijt the WD k clernped in a vice. saw both sides of the tenon down to the shou Ider (see mortise and tenon, page 6:5)..Lay the WfJ rkp~ece on its side on a bench hook and saw each shoulder line to remove the waste wood

o NT
A table saw is perhaps the best machine for cutting bridle :joints, It is good practice to fi t the blade guard whenever possible; however, if a 'particular op eration requires you to remove U.~always use a. jig d1;~twill permit you 'to perform the task safely,

-

BRIIDLIE JOII NrS,

keeping your bands ilway from the blade.

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UfiliNO{JI~

BlOCK

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Ml k~ a .llllg fI_J ng
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1 eluDing the tellon

Most relatively s-ophisticated table saws have tenoncutti ng jiqs for securinc workpieces and gu lidi ng them past the blade, in the absence of such equlpment. make a l~gthat. \(1JiII hoi d the wood LJpr~ght w"~lle It 'is run
alonq the rlip 'fence.

W~th the saw blade Stat to the same height adjust the tence to place the' blade] us! to the waste side of this tenon. Make the first cut. reverse the wor~ til the ji'gl and' makea second pass over the blade.

CUUiing an o'plon mortise Having cut the corrnonent to lenqth. c~amp It veftr~calilly in the j'ilg. Adjust the fence to saw ~ust Dn the: 'inside of the mortise, and raise [he blade to make tile req u~red depth of cut IMak!8 the first cut reverse this work in the j,igi a ndlpass it across the blade aqa til. '101 saw down the

other side of the mortise. ,If necessary" reset the saw fence to remove any remaininq waste;

2 S:aw'i ng the sheu II deirs Clamp a block of wood to me saw fence and, with the ('to, . _.. n ""~J' u ~ d1 of t h u WOI rk IFIi ulC! bu ncr. 'd a g' lnstIt th e bll' c r\'i! U I ~·CYt .", . '_ :. "p ,"..'., u.' n.. the fence to place t~18blade just to the' waste side of the, shoulder, Adjust the blade heiqht to just remove the waste. Using! the mitre fBnC€I' pass the work over the blade _. the spacer block prevents the waste jamminq aqainst the fence. Turn the work over and make at
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second pass.

let'"[oint but is 3, 111 r 'rutraclru\' a11.rnative for ramin g, b CC,LU Sf en d g raln apple a~!s 01_ one edge only,
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1 MlIlrk,lingl 'II Ie ,i oiln'f Cut me components exactly 0 lengl'th. Mark the width o't he parts on each end and square the shoulders all round, IJS ~ng'a try squa re and penci I, M1,ark the slopi ng face of the m ltre Ion both sides of each component wi th a kn' e and mitre square.

3 C:llningl'lbe apen mnrtise Cut au r the waste from the mortise as descri bed for a conventional corner bridle jo I n lsee page J6)~ then hD~d
U18'

wor'k on a bench hook and saw down the 'marked line [0 mitre bDth cheeks of tl119 joint If the mitres are not perfect, shave them with a b lock plane.

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Sst the pins of a mortise gauge to ane-third the thickn 9SS of the wood and adj List th 8 stock to centra iZEl' the pair 0 pins on the edge' of tha work'_ Scribe the 'vvidth of
the 'EH1on on the inside edge and across 'the end grain of the apprnpnate member. On the mortise rnember. scribe similar llnes across the end and on both edqes,

down to the rn itred shou lder on both s [d!BS err the tenon; keep the saw blade just to the wasta side of the Iins.
Holchng the work on a bench hCD r sa a iong both mi tred shoulders to remove the waste. If neeessa i». tri m the mitred S'U rtaces with a shoulder p lene
l
I

Clamp th,e tenon member at an anqle in a vice and saw

It-Ing th B! . score a diaponal from the outer corners on both sides of' the stretcher 3 G a IIQli log '~hle .nt" . At he rig ht-ha nd end ot each stretcher. scri be I'i nes across the el d grain and alonq the inside edqe only! stoppi n:gat the shpu lder.- H II ·lE ~ JNTS Traditionally. frame are exp nslve and "1 's '~T. face sides to a shallow bevel.~g towards the inner edges.mm ~%~nL tn accommodate wadues at a later staqe. or 'stretcher' . ..11111.. r ue '_0 cnanzc seen from face side stretcher .arkiolg . The frame is assembled 'without glue so that if the d' ' [urn " PIltyr tension can be applied by driv~n''~'. I'comes S. and plane the. square shoulders Cut 'four stretchers to ie nqth.~:31C". Saw out the waste. " 1 Markl~ng 'hie.'.'. 4" Rese I Ingl the mortise g .andl . ge Reset the gauge to place ~he in nermost pi n on the centre line. In the Iollowing instructions.: Mar~ the waste clearly with plene i t to avo id confus Ion. Mark both lends of each stretcher in a similar way~ but this time scribe both edges and end grai n at the r'ilg~t-hand end (all owi ng to r wedges)r and only the end qrain and inside. Descriptions of right. Draw square shou lders a 1:1 round. I 2. edge at the left-hand end. mnst paintings are made on CHJIWS str. On the inside edge on Iy extend the Iines past the shoulder by 9. tch' d over a wooden Iram '" Readv-made . t t canvas. MI. stopi.refers to the surface that I aces the canvas.tlhlD mi Ired sheu lders Us~ng a mitre squa re!and kn lte.This prevents the wood marking the canvas" Once ihe canvas is stretc ed over the ramer apply tension by drivinlg two shallow wedges per joint into the slots eft on the ins ide of each corner.U:i .opllsn mortise an dI te on Set th8' pi ns of a m ortise gauge' to one-q uarter of th-e th ickness of the wood Adj ust the s ock to place the outermost fixed pin on thiS centre line" Work~ng from the face side.d ~ S ir si e each corner of the frame to expai d the [oir ts.. 1 . using a variation of the mitred bridle joint.rth maktng yo If own. follow'ing the qauqed lines and mitred-shou lder If nes.eft ~1and ends of a streteher Olean when dl!ey are '1: In 'I' l' k .:ea sma II radl us a ~ong the 'edges of the stretchers. the face side of each piece of wood. one stretcher-width from each end. scri be two pa rallel lines Oil both edges and across the' end gTa in at the left-hand end of each 5 C. Plan.

1. 'I":'~ -. then mark similar lines on the' end and both edgels of the mortise member. .ngl 'hll open mernse Gut the mortise as described for a corner briele joint (see paqe 3 6).corner ".Ie '[. GauQling the [oint Set t. usinc a ma rkingl knife to score sq uare snoulds rs aIii round. and adjust tbe stock to centre the' pa ir 'Of pins on the e~ge of the. Having assembled the joint.he pins a ' a mortise gauge to one third the til ickness of the wcod. Apply IiQiht pressure only across the edqes. I'f necessary.varys pressure. 2. . saw the shoulders down to the gauged lines. W'ith the! work held firmly~ chop out the waste with a mallet and chisel..1'. cutting 8S close to thB shoulder' as possible. then make three or tour similar saw cuts in between.'(~.nidcle. Scri be parallel lines between the marked shoulders on the tenon member.BANlO CUT 1 The 1~brfudleserves as an inrermediate support fur at frame and. ong rat. trim the shoulder 1 When ioining a square leg to a tab te undarframe tnske the 'tenon about twa-th'irds ~~ the thickness af the rall_ Offs e t me open mort. worki'ng from each edge towards..' 0. Unli. Ahernatjve Iy~saw down both sides (]f the open mortise with a tenon saw then use a copinq saw to remove the waste.t. r' qUIres suppor. with modif 'ations~ is sometimes used to joint a table leg to the underfrarne when a '11. . t1 e 'l-bridle is similar in strength to the d-te "~' J. 1 Mark-n'l 4lIcU'n~ing the tenont memlber On both sides of the tenon member. All owi ~g for sl ~ghtl!yoverlonq cheeks on the mortise member. s e so l i th at [} sligh tIV 0 verh'ang lng' table .0 rus e an. TENON IMEMBER the sJJJulcielrs rv ark tile width of the mortise member on the tenon member. the . workpi see. . bridle" which is relarlvely weak under 8ide. allow the !gliue to set then plane the ends of the mortise cheeks flush with t~s tenon _':ember. ITABlE-LIEG VERSION L 3 Cutti.tap can conceal the u leg"s end grain square with a sharp chisel. mark square shoulders alii round with a pencil and try square. en 01 om .' -lit".

.

8[. Adjust a.8 side. 4 AsselJ1lb~i'. Sink thB pins with a rUJ~lset and fill t~1e holes.. arance. worki ng 'frcm the 1." ~ j om t i. 1 .PP. 2 IM:ark~ngl~hleShlO u Ider ' Set a cutting galJg'B to match the t~l ickness of the side member. somenmes used as a ~elath'elyslm '1. 3 Cufl'ilnlg the' .ng: the ~oin~' Glue and clamp the j[~. itn a t..~'n then drive panel pins or sinai I lost-head nails throuqh t~18side member.iiolini Cia mp the rabbe member upri'g~l't ~na vice. down to the level of tl1e shou lder. only 111 a -grn:ally stroager than a.ins" Lay the work face-down on a bench hook and CtJ. and scribe a.A bas. line acrnss the end 9ra in. n the shoulder ~ine . Maika a neat joint bV clsani'ng lip the rabbet 'w~th a shoulder plane.In3'ady scribed. i . 1)r1ldlngeut the! rllbbet Cur and plane both rnerrbars square.t do. rnarklng gCJUIg9 to a bout one-qua rter 0 f the thicknes. across both edges 'to meet the lines B. 01 ~[]wing the line scribed across the end graill saw down to the snou lder I. Continue ihs line on both eeaes. Conti nUB the' shoulder I ins. \\ __y of m ecting ~ drawer frolrrut '(0 draw r sides" \ •.. since most of theend grain i" concealed. ~m ms.lenon saw to remove he waste. and scribe a shoulder iinB' parallel to the and gra in [Jill the back of thB rabbet mern ber. As a result. c ap traightforward hUH join l but it is an improvem 1~ mn :a.s of the rabbet member.

Make a short trial ell] to. ta le 'a\\ o' -'v wu_ -arm saVl. J .8 rad ia I. Butt the 8rld of the work against a spacer block clamped to' the saw's rip fSIlC8 then adjust the fence to saw' just to the waste si de of the shoulder line. 1 'Cuttilng to. then al. gradually removi ng the waste. or butt this end against a block nailed temporarily to the saw's worktable Cufting the! rabbet Adjust the blade height tD saw three-quarters through the workpiece.IJIP. attach an extension to the tab e saw's mitre fence and clamp an end stop to It (S88 page . 1 Sawing t e 'rabbet Adjust the: blade to cut three-quarters thnJuQlh the \1vDrkpiece. slide the work s~d8'ways one blade-width at a time. pull the saw towards you to cut 0[18 end square.Oproduce \' ith a.o tne fence to save you havi ng to measu re eech workpl ace.ign i wjth the bladetn cut just to the waste side of the ~ine.When cutting identicall piSCIBS to ienqth. arm saw Holding each component against the Ience. To cut.20}. length 011 a table saw Gut: square both ends of each workpiece . Havinq cut the shoulder.. a Iig n the sq uared end of the woad 'with a penc 11~ins d rawn on fhiB fence.. then pass the work over the blade.. dial ClllIrni'ngl 10 III e ngth on . 01 -rrs Because it is 111ad . Turn the work over and sever the other end. f dentiea I shoulders. check the accuracy of you r settinqs. Slide the work sideways awa-y from the rip fence to rSIIl1l0V8 the waste i'n stages (see Ileft).·.with simple saw ClUS the lap ioim t particularly easy ~.. r\~a rk the shoulder 0[1 the back ot the rabbet member. When sa"vingl several idsntica I pieces cia m pan end stop t.

1 t]aan t-~e .cult Liol cut.. . ID·ID'WEILtEI MIT'E . Ii' ~I "I" ! j .lrllil'g --.8I." 'I I~ i I '.JIOIII···. then use 8 m itre square erd mark~ng' knife to score a 45-~d8gree m~treon the end of the project~ng' lap.!I 1~lle' :sJdle 111JIH!RlI~lelli Set a eutti n'g ga Uige to the thickness of the lap..' J 1 'I ~ 'I '1 . saw down the shoulder line to remove the was tEL .ersion.~. ths slope of the.. I~ 2.e sa me gel uge pressed ag'ai nst tile face side.itre USIS a shoulder plane to trim the mitre.eIp quide this sole olf the plane. scri be a Iine across ~hB end grain and down each edge to meet rhe shoulcar r.. ~ I. a nd use.~ .. Score CII line across the ins ids of the ~apto mark the base of the mitrs. "~" 'J 1 Mar-.. to h. fol ~Dwl g the n line scribed across the and grainr saw down to meet the shoulder line. n the side member. h~l~dhlg side member tacethe down an a bench hook. 'T' Use stopped dCfwels if YDU want to str:engthen join. ~to scribe a Sl1CU lder line across the ~nsida and both t edges. t. with the S nck of th.Markiii . Then.mitre from the outer corner down to the shou lder Ilne. . Then. Mlark.ll J... basic j oj nt (sse paliga 42)..t witllDUt any obvious form of reinforcement: the' 3 Saw'~nglmlnlls waste Set tha w[]rkpiec:e uprightt In a vice and.refully piane off rJIB waste' down to this l~nEt 4 Planiingl t .i'ns. and c.nn U ec .i somew ] ~ .'i1llg 181111 - IC.3p UU]. " '. but is more dJffl. cla:mping a backing board bevelilisd to -45 degrees behind the 'work. IS ta neat 1 basi ~'.1m mliillre - M'ark out and cut the rabbet as descri ~ed tor this.

IMIC!HINf CUT

H L - .LI L P1 T

The half-blmd lap joint can be CLUll on a table saw (see page 46),. or ,\wth a power router, as descrlb ed here. l~ sometimes used by '\1/00 dis, 'workers as a substitute for the lapped dovetail in drawer eonstrnctlon, but it is not nearly as strong, \Vben makng the [oint, prepare and sand the work beforehand since any change in size afterwards will result in a loose jl oint,
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In order to visuallze the joint and help you set up the router. mark out the joint first on one palr of components. Other identic:a.~ joints wi II not req uire mar,~,.....,Tho Ita p'. on' the raobet member s,··h·o·ldbe '840~ 'It a 11\ In g Il.:i .' .' ,I' IIi,Oi u! IJ u 4 to 6mm (0/1E3. to Y4j'~)th ick Choose a router cutter of a similar diameter to machine the groove' 'ill the side
I ..

IM,iI,rking out the iio'int

2, IMllIC'lhlining t he: ria bbet mlember s ec.ond e ut Ctarnp the work uprlight in a vice. To help steady the router. clamp a quide batten tll the face side! flush with the end grain" Adj List the, router fence to trim the lap to
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tbe requ ired thickness, a ndl SB't the depth of cut to remove the remaining! waste. Rese,t the fence to. make
.

another pass with the cuter, leaving the tongue at the
red th Ickness.

member, and plan to cut it to a similar depth.

,H3QU'j

-,

1 M,ach'in~ing '1Ilu! nJbbe!t mermbo'l - Ursl cut Clamp the workpiece face-down on the bench, Adjust th e route r fen c e UInti I th 8 C utt 8 r w'j I~Femave the we ste up to the end of'the tongue. Remove the 'waste in staqes, stnppinq Just short of the lap, You can machine
si8veral identical compone~n:ts at once 'If -you clamp them

3 Clln~ng the gllrotOve

Set the depth of cut to match the le'ngth 0'1' the tongue~ and ad just the fence to p lace the gJ[]OV'8 the, required distance from the lend of the workpiece. Make the cut with a s~ngle pass. Once aqain, you can save time by machj"lllng sieve rail workpiecss at once.

sids-bv-si rla, fl at on the bench,

rht! lock mttre is si milar to ~b h~JJf-,bliJldl hLP ~n~:nt, but is made with ,a, '- mall mltr rhat conceals th lend W I~n,)i' ~ th on~of suhable man-made ( boards, at the c--irner. The joint can be ctru~entirely on a table saw - using a dado bead enables you to cut dID.e '·'o'·n~ uicld .. , bu.~ yOU c;crun rer eve the waste .. in ;lag S '11] dng a c nrern:rrm,onaj a,,,r blade,
I
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'1lCuHing the Igrulo've si:de member Gut the groove across the side member w'ith a $oi ng liE!
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'pass across the circu ta r saw blade. 4 ClIJr ~~1ilIII, Ilhe liong e

=

fa'

.·rt member'

C1ange to a conven ronal saw blade. and set th. ri p fence to cut the short tonque to lenqth.

2

si Ie memlDefi Set up the saw with a dado hssd and adjust ths ~H3~ght to remove enough wasta to leave a short square lap Ma'!will' orm the In i, He a" a laser 'Stage'. Cia mp a wooden spacer '[0 'the rip fence~ just above the dado ~lead~ 8ga inst wi, ~chyou can butt tl111e end of the work.
CUI'

i'nOI tbe

ral bel-

'5Cutting the mitre - rabhe member
Tilt tile blade. and than adjust ths saw's settings to rim the end or t.he Iap to 45 degrees. tflkrng care not to 'Shena" the la p.

3 RemlIDv'ingl ~hle wIste ,_r'ablber~me' III be'r
Adjust the saw and use a dado head that will leave a lap that is. HbOIJ tons-quarter 0' the wood's th ickness. and a tongue on the inside that will fit the groove cut in U1S side member. Set the heiqht of the dado head to match the, thickness of the side member. Then cls,mp the, rabbet member upright in a tenon-cutnnc jig (see page SOt and remove the 'waste ~th one pass across the saw blade,

6 C:lun'ing 'llfullB'nti'tn~ ~ 's,ide mellfHber Adjust the saw to mitre ths short square lap on the side member 10 45 degrees. Adjust the blade, preciselYj tn avoid scoring a no ch across the shoulder.

'. 1.'"s simple through joint shows on the front edges of side panels.o the IIIollls.('!j. wor:king' from each side towards the milddl. make it easier to locate a saw across .al!i. adjustable L. or for cup boards with lay=on do ors that covel" the fr.lde:rll To.e was.1 . "'. When 8' panel j s too wide to use a ch ise! con ven ien rj~ remove aU the waste' in stages by making several l passes with the touter plane.. pare the botton ote housing levei usi(sga special router plane fitted with 8' nsno»..'..... .". I.["rii:i ed ~ If'.!ne~:1 Mea~ljre the width of the hf]US'~l1g 'from the shelf.::l< . knife.ii ngl shu 111.[NG. lawerlng the cutter each time tne hOLJ sing is te ve..:.~ . _I Lila: " 1G. iFiil!':l.A IROIU'T'E.' tlIiG'!LI G jI'i'Ji US~. Y01:'1 plen ilfn u]' 0' "P'the n~0 3 1i"'d.Ie. 11.'('" ' iG.~ ... '. using a marking gauge set to about 6mm 'Y:4'in}.s" square and marking.'.- ·'iIt • "iIf. .g the' edgc}'!! qua l n 1"1 0' nto the edces of t'he'l fi""01nel . then use .. I " "IIiJ_ .11g a try n Drt IR e~mloviing ~h.2 Markill.w". 3 S. Il}u' ' III II. ~shape blade.'R PLANrE Having chiseUed ou: most of the waste. DjQ. ~-~ ~ ~ a tenon SE1W tD cut each shoulder down to the Ii nBS scribed on each edge. wo rkp iece ~ U$." .' Jllll. then scribe a line between thern. :~bIl 1 JIl" '-'JI~.TH OUCH USINGliNT HIANDI COl Tl. S~.· re '!ohosa mlie. lt is suitable for rot ghl shelving. • il~S" plane t:0 app illy .f}wiln....U (gl '~! th "I."..a wide panel take a chisel and pare a sha IIow V-shape groove up to the marked line on both sides of the housing.[jng 'Illul' faca the Slide pa. 'IW 4) 1 MUlr'k."-':l d ~ilS b oc~ S' ~..~__.. e lllippmgs 'fj~_ t so m'I~'MS e21S1 er them flush.te· Pare IDut the waste from a narrow psne I W'it~1e chisel. then score th e two line s ac ro ss t ~e.

-' - 1 Marik..Piar~ng'the shlp.fllrkilDlg the dl'DvetaU ang'le Set a sl'id~ng bevel to a dovetail angle (see page 82t and mark tlhe slope of the ioint.'''!I.]1.~ c' 0' '" . " _III"" rn. I . Rs.. and use the s~~dingbevel to mark the dovetail 011 Doth edgHs of the panel..(~!11 ~""'"".2 M._ fd ~:~n[D!jl:"e-d 'v".tl' 1~~ J o'ln"g' j. or use . runninq from the botto m co rn.".'ng mhe s.' _ r.'...o 10" 1. the ~oint needs to be cu t accurately . down to' the bass of the slope. fi . a bevel-edge chisel to clear the undercut 3 .e. UsJng a try square and PfH1C'fL continue the I'i nl8 across both 8d~'BS- 4 tuningl the ~ousing Mark out the housina as described opposite. i .HOUSIIIG. usinq a bevelled block of wood to gutde the saw blade when cuttinq the doveta i I. Saw both shoulders.J. incorporate a ._II!. "ll' .Ji1li1lU.!Or (' . then pare out the 'waste w'ith a chisel.move the: waste with a router plane. Double-sided dovetails are best cur with a router (see page 51) Since 'the shell member must be slid into place from one end of the housing.JOlm When cutting this joint by band.er to '[h e marks d rawn [J n both edg e s. _J\. 10 help K 8Sp the angle constant use a shaped block of: wood tD gu ide the ~ lade.:.]1'~' ne sid~'O~·'··' he '~-10' 1C"~I'rIn!g.!3ILIQle to about one-third thll8 thickness of the' wood and score a shoulder line on the underside IOf the shelf.e Savv along the shoulder line..huullder Set fa cuttinq g.

".e ld . the wont edge of the shelf is no:rh ed so that its front edge finishes flush with the side planet Th Instructtons below explain how ~o ICUt the jlo'"nt" "'dl handtools but a power router • 'rn. Saw' along the scored shoulders diown 'to the base 'of he housing. 3 [tutti ng the :smQIIPPld Ie nd... Cut the notch \~~tlha tenon saw. )'.tlge to the planned depth of the bousinq.·.'1 housi (. the 1ousing is ofteIl slopped short of'the front edge of tae side pane' by about 9 to '. i c r.OICUT PPE HAiNU Por decorative eHect. or use a router pia ne. C'· "r " 1 N1otc·hlin g Ihle s he I'f Set a man ing ga..he side panel with i a try squars' and mlarkjng knife. and use 1t to mark the notch on the 'front corner of the shelf." ~. ' ShDU Iders squa re with a chisel. _I 'I' .' ' . useful when making a cupboard with Ir set doors" Generally however.: 0 pOSillt. .)" . IS pernaps th Ii ear to 0 'r ter 'IClILl ttlnSr 11stopp e'd .raw~ng lh i~lr~'e ri.ouslng ~ ··. first driU out the waste at the stopped slid and trim the .::J. the notched shelt to mark the dimensions of the ng hen score the Iines across t. .. · .rk~ng ·tjhe housinlg USB hOUSl II "1 S' It. then pare out the waste from the back edqe with a ch i se I. ..2mnl (~ to Vzin) Occasionally the hell is also cnt sho rt. Scribe the stopped end of the housing with a marking 'gauge. fitting the ho lsi g exactly ~..'.se. 2 Ma. }OUSllllg . e TrQprovide clearance for sawing the housinq. : .

L invert tne router in a '~vDrktabl8'! and set the table'~sfence to g..he cutter removes the waste and shapes mile.square from. A S' ene ttemst! ve me thad of cutfing the dov:eta. the t is tn'.::. 1 ta. Cut a 4 OOrnm {I' ft . . f'nus h \NIith t. LIsea wooden sttajgll~edgle clamped to the wor J~as a guide for the router or to make :it easier tJfJ repe at similar housings.- I -..A IROU'TEIR'tABtE Cutt'i 11110 'th e h0 u. rI I r I " I Clamp the l-sqaare onto the work. Mark both ends of the stock wtttJ . ." '.arB blade.e same d istsnc« fro. .d gU!. '. sides of the housing in one operatlon..' N etc h t h B fro nt end of the shelf using a tenon saw.dgfJ 0" tn e T- l 'I .and cut irom it .' .fully dovetailed version.uide the workpiece past the cutter ..41n) stoc« from 75 x TZmm (3' x 111ln)wood. there is no bener tool for machining the .m the e. and.Adjust th'9 side fence to mach ire a.. Having meoe OOB' pess. SGre~/ and glue the blade to the stock a t gO degrees.I I.. .thi rd the thickness of the wOlfJdL then machine the housinq. cut. Square the end of the housing with a chlsel dovetail the ather ieee. - ... Use these lines to position the cutter on the centre' line of the /1o.' -I . :notc h .-h e ernd gra · m .ght in a Vi~H and clamp an l-shape -. dovstai i a IDng one side Df the work. ..x Mii1) strai:ght~grain.'- ..S~:NG. I " .8 line Male hi AIiDig 'lfillH S h 0 11 Set the work upri'. -.. then reset the fence to dovetail the' other side.sii ng .SnUIA:RIE Prepare 150 x '1'2rnrn hardwood. make a T-.. revese tI]B work and stopping about IZmm (Y2~n) from the front edge of the panel. 'One advantage of using this housing is .AIiqn the mark on the J-squere stock with the centre lme of the housinq penci IIed across tile workpiece. U.edgB of the toot's bose.ell 011sac h SII e.' that the shelf can be sanded after the jObl£ has been.8 600mrn (2ft) T~squ.. Ieutti D'D the.using.'.. . Adjust the router cutter to the requ ired depth [about one. ' .... .ed SqU8 blade as the con tre of tile' touerco ttet is from re the . withourtt resulting m a loose fit MAK~IINGA T-.wood. . '.d sab -tt.1t ~rufly form of 11 usi ng ~ouu with a power o router.'You can ".

r~ng to 6mm. tl! i Ib' C I. .e slde panel. fhe taper.d Ma rk the' shou lder line on the...ing shoulder to an anqle of 80 degwee's. bl'ade. f' .ll1) above the lower shoulder at the.the lire at the stopped end.r deep C'abi n cts ~b cau e ~ t remainsslack whj le you assemble the [oi: r fltJally plullioQ i'I'e' ~i. ~ IL ~..curling gla_uge~ and marl he taper 'an the end 9rain~ta king the dimans i ons from the hous i ng. HO'~'~l I.Thetap fled s npped hou . back end of the h[]usingl~ and then tape.1I\m i'J! . using a shaped block to guIde the. 1"ry assemb Iing the joint.ow fur ths dovetail by staninq the line 31mm ~YB..1 erin~ ' ({jillso ..Cut (Jut 2 ChiselUing g~oDv'e:s aitrJlng thliD shoulders Deeply score both the square and tapering shou Ide!'s with a marki ng kruta._'t~ti~. the lunch at the stopped EH10 and saw along the shoulder line.j ~'I variant o.illig the shculders Chop out the. ~ I il~.~ requires very precise n aking to achiev the des" red result.'. Undercut.U IU is parti cul 3!r]~ I]~ .ghl. last a onll ent... DDvetl~1 il1I'gthe..s~ew~ a chi se:l~ th to Ilowing the dovetei r Bing le.. Pars out the waste and leve I the hous ng\ with a rnmer p Ian eI !Y4Jn) a ave. iluilld. stopped 11CHJsiing on t~. provide saw~blCideclearance. 'hd. Pa e out 'the wa. ~ 'lll_ t' I l lUi'Ii 'n lu..f the stopped.IC'. f and relieve any tight spots urnil it fits snug~y.t1Ip-' er. having a dov. . than rule a line representing the tapered shoulder nv the hous'inQI_ All.. .4... shelf e'Q. .". .I " l. ~ < I SHEil 3 :Saw.WOO'.at 11. waste from he stopped hous~ng end to 1 -..slope along 0'111_' dd 'IJI~' . ~I _ I! ward 11]'1 stonn l1i<d Dn d'. 1I'lh'8 Imus'img Pencrl a straig1ht-sidea. then C~li sel out the waste up UJ the scored linres~'formi'ng shallow V.shape qrcoves. housing. then cut both shou1ders with a saw. underside 0 f the shelt usingl a ..

ClI1d1liglntly scribe the bottom edge of thehous i 19 across this s'jde pa ne I a nd down both edqes. see . and. 4 Cu.horizontal rnember. Set.iingJthe rabbet shoulder Heset the qauqe to about one-third the th ickness o. Form the rabbet by removing' he wasta with a saw and cleanrng up with a shoulder plane.I II The barefaced housi g J otnt is 'avariation on the basic lap joint adapted for making box-frame or cabinet corners.ark.~]NJS 11KJRIZONTAL M EMBElR 1 1M ark iIllig th e 1110U sin g Cut and plane square the ends of berth components. HOUS1NG J. 2 Mark:~Rtg'..'King the hou:siingJ Mlark the depth of th 8 housi ng on the edqes of the side parel and remove the waste with a saw and chisel. The' housing should be no deeper than about one-quarter the thickness of the' wood.f the' side panel and mark the rabbet shoulder llne across the face side and down both edges of the. Reset the ga urge and sc ribs the top edge of the housing in the same w~ay~"'. J. mark the.he tonlQue Usling the gauge with the same setting.--r=""~_"""'_"'-'-~~____'_~ 3 I . working from the face side. about the same in width. longus on the end and down both edges O'f the horizonta I member. as descri bed for a th ro Ug~lhalls i ng jn irn ~ page 48). ar Gutti'ngl gaugl8 to tbe thickness of tile nonzontal member..

makins: '~lwider-Itbanno 111]'ll ker "" s th b~ ro't"!t· s.ays tn make: a second cut for . usi ng the hous Ing as a template..router for c ntti I1g t he ho usi J .a wider hOUSing..e~tor cutting _he enttr . . a ad .ddle:r' Clamp a.onlll1Ue Ha1d~ng the work on Sf1d1~ run the horizonta I pa na I 2lga 1nst the fence to cut a kerf aiongsiide tne tong us.s'et the rip fence to CIJ t just to the waste slide OT 'the mark. lay the S~d9 panel 'fiat .'If' )rou can . Adjust the rip fence sidew..h"sim pill tty 0' the barefacedh ousing ~om n't len ds it elf to clIttin~ by machln . :3...5 sho'.the! r. cllJa:iIIITlf..5.Ytou "lily need I dsdo head I( see 1)~8e 1~2') to make a " id. Raise tne saw blade and adjus' the Iancs to cut the rabbet lelHl'ingl a wilgus that 'wi It f~tthe housing' preciselv. RatsJe the blade CI . Ae. ell.a~lbl!1 :sdlllmlw. Use the Si8IW~S mitre fence Itl steady a ~afrCJIW weJrkpiecB.E 11 .ainst this. _ . You could use a.g'il or use' a 'table saw.2 ICurtilllillg Ihe...on the saw table . will run ag. ~ft vou are uSing wobble washers. n h r. tne end o~ the tongue.a jig (see paue 37)1 to SUPPoFlt a narrow ~Norkpielce..3 S:len ~Ilg III pi 10 IFIClllllIn~in!Hl'Ihlle '~olngIlle Malrk 'the width of the' onque on the hnrizontal member. wODden spacer to the rip fence. ~-I:5 e'nii ngl uilP ':ID r Ie Iinil frill til B' h0 U s i1111 g Us'ing t~e horconta ~member as a g U ide. h saw blade '0 ~ sli . che·ck that the blade is canted to ~ts fu~:1 extent face . over the b~CIId8. set the rip fenc~ to place the saw bLade f ush w~th tbe outside the wood. Use .. 1 . '..fi't wobbl e 'r ISh ers "~..~ '3lngt_. '(:h can t th .~ Q~ 4 ICuttilllllg 1'110 t.' ~o:ut. its erld butted against the rip fsnca and pass tha work. htjulsi~mlll one-quarter of the side-panel thickness.

•• . ' I ~. ~.. III ~ I • .111 :' r. I " ..

Divide the waste wood betwaen the shoulders w~lhone or 'two aldd'it~[lnalsaw cuts.by making several pas. and scri be a line between tfu~' shoulders IIIa rkan on the edges of both eornpments.8rking the d1epl~h10f: 'Ihe joi'nt Set a m1arking gauge to exactlv half the tluc ness of the wood.' . "ng are identical .h WfJIKpiece against tf7B rip fence et one end and against a block of wood cla'mperJ' .~ tn'en slide the wood sidew. 3. To cut identical s hau/de.la de. Sa w one Sll(J'ulde. d from e~ch pi . Ie_ Ol:pl pi in IIl'D I.i\ray 'he conl ponen '$ run con ention .. worklng from each side tnw.saw blBde to cut halfway ti1rrJugh tl1~ vIlorkpiece. dierat s that the' ertical membr r or di\1ldE'J'" appears to run through ahhough" in realit half ~~bebil kness i" t l"mov. flat with a ch isel / 2: M. the middle of each component. Pare the bottom of each resultinq recess 4.J T "1Uh a cross baJ~ joint both haJvle ' of the join.S til Lay both eompunents sida-bv-side anc score the shoulder lines across them.to the mitre fence a rhe othe{~Remo ve the waste. l l ~- illr'ldlngllhle :s~_lD[dd.ays and saw the second one. .ards. Continue both sets O'r marked lines haltway down each edge. II ough the joint is equally strong which ~ er .lh e 'W'B. usinq a try square and m8rk~ng kni'fe.ers Cia mp 'the work in a vice a nd chisel out the wasta. USINIG A TABLE SAW' Adjust the .s on sevet« I pieces of WDodt se t up the saw sa that ~DU can bun eac..ses across the b. of wood. C tJlj II Ihl8 mili' nl Saw hal'fway through both pieces o'r-wood on the waste side of each shoulder line.

'1 Ie uHi n g sll O'~S Cut a narrow slot on leach side of both moulded components. 3 .-rabbet tongue. 4 C1utl'ingl the C. .e Since it is difficult to rnark a moulded section it pays to hold the work i~ a mitre box using the 90-deg.G AlING-BAR HALVI G JOINT NANIO cU_' Cutting a halving joint in. down to th8 level of the Qllazing. glazing bars involves a simfar method to that used. 18 'gu!id. Make each slot as wide as the tDng us. 1Ma Ike a mitre bloc k fro ml sera p wood "Ito hS11 P 91Uid18 the chisel blade at the rB'Q'Uired ang Ie.P8f~ngl he mi!llres t Pare the waste on each side of the slcts to 'form a 45·.ree guides when sawingl the slots. to cut a simple cross hruvmg joint" but there are complications which res-ult from j oining moulded section s. de 9re e mitre.2 Usi og a Imi'llre lbox as.f'OSS ha~viingl ~o~inrl All that rema ins is to cut recesses in each component to form t hie a ctua I h a Ivi ng j o i nt Cut the rSt8SSBS down to the ieve~of the qlazlnq-rabbet shoulder" .

Mark the ather component sim'ii!arlv..This obllque ~ nt IDS ide'rnl!l1. butse r the mitre terce at an angle. n1CJrk its widtl.. Scribe a nne between them with a marking gauge ss·t to h. then use a try square to 1 cnntlnue the shoulder lines down each edqe. Hold tne work firmlv against the fence to prre_em it . [oint Of ·~L sltdm -b ~vel for other ~m.. cw. w~th a penc.recess.angle cross halving joint (see page 56.I lse ~1 olib'·_ SCfUU"iE' ~o mark OlU :1.if 'Ibe :righ~ . width of S'CICn.degr '. -'. Cut an ob#Que haJvil1gjrJin.(J'n' a table saw as de scribed 0'11' page 56.Score tha 1~f1e a square .gies.. l I :3 C Ulu'i IIIIJI'hJ e -10 i10'1: Saw and chisel our the waste as descri bled for a rilgh'. IUSilIN G' A IALIE S. except fOM""' the fact 'that the recesses are set :a!an wrru~e .i~. Diad ng the second PIace of wCJQd Sg. 11 Markilng the shaullld!ers Seers one shoulder line across one cornponent and.angle o~ version.and ~i~th marki'ng kni~'I9.being dra wn backv"Brds by the sa w bJade.).8 i nst the ll ne. .AW 2 Mal'r'iklrn Qllhr@ width orf th 13 ree ess Mark the.allf thsi wood 's thickness.

..1' . "}halving joints at each corner."..~wi tb even less g]lu~ng area. Cut the joint by hand..01] can. 2 GcuJ...'.ar~.and cut one component as described left then Gut the lap to 46 deqrees." . 0''1''" d: "iiTlll!~..! . and remove the. a power saw (see page 60) The luitred :haJving ~ObI t is a reftned version.V .~.• t· '~'I(Jl . '.. across the shoulder. constr uct a SID1'p ~e . ' . Score the anqled shoulder line across the face of the second component. fram ew or k \~l]fut' . ilJ. "Y..1e s · .f[]~I(Jwedi by sawIng.u.i nrg a ml~tn) eorner d M. " "..w.. or cut it on.tlcrews.'. .-~lt~. \ 1 M'alrkill!Q'llie basie h. you may 111°:e" d to r e" l~nforce l~ ~. I· • II' -.[ " . then scribe the eontre line up the ~nner edge a~d across the end grain. Lav ne. 1 .Hemove the waste 'with a tenon saw.8 n g led s hOrlU Iill e r Set a marki ng gauge to he If the thickness of ihe wood and scribe a J ine up both edqes and across the end !Qira·in.alv'i:ng.". and mark the shoulder li'ne across both ot them. cuttinq downwards from ihe end Qirain. .. the work on a bench hock." using the method described below.-.. 1'0".. 11M. ~Q'inrl Lay the compments side-by-side.2 Ie utti 1IJ1IIIglih e· .ark.gi:ng the deptJh . . _. but since fhe joint relies almost entirely 011 tile glue for strength... us~nga knife and mitre square. ' '" ~Jl)!! " 'I' \.-. waste by saw'ingt down the shou lder Ii nEL .' ." .r .• -..=T· . 1--" . Continue the lines down Barch edge. . G~amlp work at an angle in a vice and saw on the the waste side of 'the centre ~'i down 'to the shou Ider.. bu. I •.~it. I --.

Turn the work round and saw down the other edge.1\ means 0 ~o"nh.e waste.balvhllg and corn er-halvi ug' versi 0118. .8t one pass th8'n 8 The radial-arm S8'W standard setup. WtJ'en cutting recesses for cross 11alving Of T-hBlvingjoinrzl ct~mp . keeping the saw blade just to the waste' side of the gauged line.saw'ing sQuarsl'y down to the: shoulder.R-_--. l ~ -_. I - _. is enexcetlem machinra for cuttlng h. Adjust the blade to cut haJfvvay th.MIII rk iIllig 10 Uri UI S 1_ IG A RA. than linish 0 f by . Saw the shou lder Ii rlS to remove tl. :2 CUl.' illilibe reesss Gh1sel out tflS waste from between the shou lders.lint is. Slide (he' _urk a one side gradually r:emoving more waste witt: ea'crs pes« Clamp en end stap to the fence to cu a shoulder j in rhe semeptsc« on identical workpieces.alving join te. 3 Saw~llg 11he~.a block a r otJth ends Df the fence.g ::111intern ediate support to "L &anl'c' the T~ \ring jl .IDIIII.ap Saw down to ·the shoulder.an~scribe the d~pth of the j (J i nt on each workpiece with a 'mar'rking gaug. .e. Using a dado head removes more waste Wf]Od._ -. SJ nee' yau can clearly see' rhe shoulder lines VO'll are sawing. . score -hie sholJ lder Hnes w~th a knife 'and try square. '11 . Ii f :h e j lD~' nt Taki ng the drnens ions from the relevant components.~fJughthe work~ and pull the saw towards vou to cut the shoulder. Use the long edge of the ehisel blade to check that the bonum of the recess is f'l a . You may 'fInd it easier to keep the cut verncal if you i'i it the 'work away from you while sawing dcrwn one edqe.-omb rnat~on I ~h hm ern ss.

ba1vIDngjoints" Using a router to cut the ~oilltmakes very crisp shoulders and perfectly fLal surfaces. . ]f you Intend to make a number of joints. and then mOV8 the router to the riqhthand jIg to cut the second nne. table saw Of' liNT radial -arm saw is cap able of producing accurate. I I work to lila bench .A.:1 -.a pair of identical i-shape jigs by gluin.' . I' S. h ofht e wor k'peces.In) and 15(} x 1'8m. the edge~to-cutter di mansion tsae below leftl'~'from the! shoulder line A. . To cut the liapi run tha edge of the router base against the jig to 'worm thE! shoulrler. a Ilowi ng for the 8dge~-trJ=cutter dimension. use the lett -hand j i'g to cut one shoulder. router.'. then remove lhe rest of the waste freehand. as described above. Make.8 ndleuttl Alg 'Ihe 'Ia p Draw the shou Ider ~~ across the w-ork and mark 118 another line. and clam p both the j'llg and I' I ." --.-'.arly wellflnlshed. '-' I---I '.tllf)t 30Dmm (1 ft) lengths a..llign one Df the l-shapa jigs 'with th Is latter IIine. 1-.f 75.x 18mm (3x %. .g and scr.m'(a x %/0) p~epared wood.e depth setting IOn the router.u·ticu'~. but not pi:. MAKI_G TIHE JIIGS 1 M a rld !Dlg ..: -. Without altering th.T HALVI MA.e. f rom tee d ge 0fht 8 b ass to the s Ide of the cutter .att ing IIIp th e ro uter Set the depth of cut on the router to ha lf this th ickness .CHINE Ie mrr . M easu re. -.'I~' 2 Dilslrki'ng and cutting 'Ihle Ir'e C8'SS :Mark two shoulder ~ines for lhe recess and clamp both Jig's on top of the: work.ewing to:g.use this edqe. Fina I!ily clean out the waste ~ betwse n n I 1 . use a coup Ie of simple jigs to guide 'tile.to-cutter dimension to pus ition the jiqs Or! the work.

rklng dove tails in softvvood land ~'1B'rJtfu:. then pare away the waste w~th a chisel 1'0' fOrlm the slioping tonguB/ with one side for dovetailing liardwoods (see)page 82J Glue the' tongue into .g ~omt .e (see pags . sides of the dovetait '- . score the shoulders (rf the recess (lin the cross member. '1' IMla rk:iIllg the II a IP Idov'el'lll iI Having marked out and cu a lap in the conventional rnanner (see pag'9 60 L use a tern plate and kn ife '0 rnark the coveta iI on the wo rkpi iliB['8.-A'KINIGi A.r 2.1] .I Jncorporate a dovetail to increase tb· streneih of ~~ -halvin. .g 11111 recess Using the doveta ~Ied lap as a template. h e ~IOlrpl d DIU'I'lal~III Saw the short shoulders on both s ides of the la p.t i: on]}' :margina]]y 1110rediffil~lJJ~ ·tUI make than th uandard square-shoulder [oint I 3 Malrkiing and cuttin.sst and then remove the wasta wood with a tenon saw and chisel. -E. Mlark the depth of the! recess with a malrking IgaLJg.8 slot cut in a ha'rdw(JorJ stock.S.'piLAr E C:ut a tepered plywood an:gled fO'r fna.a IP'i1II. ..

.

le f Mark the position Bind .' a '-Uy '[ban 'U1 oth r lValY round.81Jgeto scribe tile tenon on beth edqes and across the end of' the rail. [J its edges. This typ. is ~unatttratCtrnve"buslness-Iil 'joint '-W~tys cut t hie mortis e fir 1.__~-_ Ie l1.-'~. enans" one . ·settmcs. A tenon noons Ify runs !lie tu II width {J f the "8j I bu t. and then scribe he mortise centra I ~ybelVVsen the squared lines on 'C[)tI.a fail is' set h'orilontallv.oxirna-tely one. r I( \ 1 d:ul'k i1111 th I: ~ g'lbl g lnl 10 l'II~lemon~:s.g for si~ght~y ~I "In e .' · th'B rai as a template.se' few. it is best to incarpof'a te a iJair of.e mortise membrar is thicker than the rail.above the (J fhe". SQuare the lines a II round with a pencil for ..~b~.rUl!· .deal for constructional frames o( 31~] . to avoid weakening tne leg with an excessively long mottlse.!' :BInD '~enllm - Sc.. ann -- .Scora the shoulder' lines with a .'D NON T1ie throi gh j loint. et» ul' three- Clver'llcng tenons that can be · planed flush when the jolm is complete.r~b III!U Illle. plo.~~d e'· ~u_ u ed '[0 spread th tenon (s pa~'e '2)" .gt~lJ'r th a rn 0 rt i s e UlS ing . gr~1inS}10.V!.e of join t /8 known as t1 double mortise and tenon.li b Ii Ilg Sa a mortise gauge 'to match the width of the mcrnse chisel to be used. Twin tenons~cut side by side~are Make me depU1 ot a stopped mon! se quarters the width of the' leg or stile'. I[Jlollllbl €I mlilU'1u'!H.' lnds. marking knife.'. where 'fb tenon pass sr' ght hrough the leg.'.rea~. te Ilion 'Wi tho ut aJdjusti nghe · . 'wuh the end.Ollnt is. flf. . ~ ocden .8 standard joint to appr.·. aim dl 'illi mDBl1j. required hen .d bY' the chisel used to Gut the mottise. the exact size' being determine. use t h e mortise 9.-tbird the thickness of the rai(. should the rail be un us UiJ I'y wide..y.rhic . since it ts essie ~to make " th t non .ness can be increased 'wilen the leg or terJfJfI Gut the D TE 0 '_ 1 12: S c. Tenon . 3 8lr'kiing Ilbl!' te Ion tdiUlulde'lrs Mark the she u leers on the rai a IIowin. . ts used a g.

0 }4irl) into the wood at the centre [If the marked mortise. unti I you have cut halfway throuq h the sti le. after shakinq out any loose wood chips. Lever out the waste with the c h isel. If necessary pa re the sides of the tenon with a chisel until it fits . Work backwards in short staqes.awi'ng the sho lders Hold~ng the rail on a bench hook. Turn the 'work around and S8\iV down 0 tt18 shoulder line on the o her l i side of the tenon- -~~_J 6 Ralmo'vi g ·thllS waste Turn the mortise ch i se I around and chop the wood ~nstages towards the other end O'l the mortise. then chop out another section of wood .8 st~Ie down agai Il so that YOll can chop out he waste from the other side of the joint. H o~ding til e ~ " c:h ise I ve rt ica IIIV dIf iVB it 3: to Blimm (14. hen tu rn ' he work over a nd.omplet:ilng the mortise Pare the ends of the mortise sq uare. 8 S.51 Choppi:ng the mortise Clamp the work to a bench so that you can stand at one end of the sti Ie. clamp th. 1£1 S. 110t ~ 1C. 9 Cutting squa Fe Clamo the work upriqht and saw parallel to' the should er on both sides of the tenon. mla~ i ng si m r lar cuts and J ensuring you stop about Zrnm 'Y1'ein) from the end of the mor rse.awing the leno ilJ1] CIamp the ra i'~ina ViC8 set at an 2Ulg Ie so that the end grain faces away from you. Saw down to the shoulder O~~the waste s~deof each scribed 11n8. tak i n'g ca re to overrun the marks. remove this waste by sawi n'g down the shoulder line on each side of the: tenon.the mortise snugly_ I .

~lm' Cut out the wood from between the tenons IUsi'ng a leapingl saw. Sa t a rna~king glauge to scribe the inner edge 0" 00 h tenons on Bach side of the rail a rid across the end gUI ill.t Jb of '~'O known as Old.S aW'i' no the '. ~~'_""~""-"'~~""""-H~!JN~H IIJINE '~. an the w." I" I' I '. To help prevent the raiJ \v~l'rplin: Ilea' e a. G. bietw en the :tenon.1LE.- . te[M1Ir~·.1 SII 5 n'rn betwsen them. file ga:p h _~yeen th .~CIllWElR 2 Mil:rlki ng 'Itu~ halllJnch . ! J 1 [Mil de:i.. Using a try square.' . . _.ark the wasre With a pencil. ~hort .. Change your posi ion to saw alongs'ide both tenons. d. '..he haunch (aqua ~to the "h ickness of the . Uble rn0 ruse all d !l'IE:UI"lfl j '~T]_Ji.ane'~door '.h: of th e WE ste ... Rllmul~liillll .' - ..o s I . both sides and edqes of the rail.. '0)'. Ch~'S8~out 'he waste between the saw cuts" down to the level of the hau nch Chop out both rno rti sss as descri bed on page 56t then run a saw b~ade alongside the haunch lines g'auged :5. .'enonl on 4.bIB niJS.'B'1111ll na Clamp he rail u~right and.. a haunc ]1 ( e page. then saw the shoulder on each side of'tne jo int to re move what i's Is.av dawn to the shoulder lines.~dge or each tenon stopPing at the haunch line.uM iII g Iii Ie nlllID. M.' -. penei I a I ira represent: f]g the h~rrlgtll of .' tne I'iF I '.. ng 0 ut th 0: te nlons Mark [he shoulders and scribe he 'tenons a'S described 'for a standard '~hrough joint...j' .caU 'used ~o·r y the 10k rall of a lal'g frame-and _'.should be no more' th~m one-third the width of the rail. standing ar he side 0" the ra11J fi'rst saw down the inner .ark OU'~ the mortises (see page S4)J IJsing the nJ~1 as a temolata 3. ~-~"""""'l:s.

IL jointed into me face of a leg . 4 ell.. i 'I" '" I~ . 0 r 31 Ma king .\".. If the mortises are to be CUt into a wider ra~~or panel Isave' the pin settinqs alone but adjust the tool's stock to mark both mortises from one edqe. then cut off the 'waste wood from both edges of the' ra~1 by sawinq alonq the shoulder lines.. 2 Sicrib'inig the teo1ons Set a mortise gaugi.'. s a r. and scribe ths tsnons O~· both faces and across the end of the rail. to give a pair of tenons and the gap between them. tenon as thick as the gap between them. see P ge' 68) . make a pencil mark not less than 6mm (1I4iin)from leach edge~ t the mO'lll1iises Square two lines across the work to mark t. Rremove the waste fro m between the tenons with a c. working trorn both.he top and bottom of' the mortises then serl b. pair of ten ons cut to standard proportions or or 0 relativeh . '1 [Miark inllg 10 mil te nonl 1hi lekness Havinq squared the shoulder lines all round.e to the above oimensions.h'i". f()llowing the scribed lines. Dep er ding on the secri on of me rall. 1 .oping saw' and chisel (see a lso paqe 0 8).ge 65.dge. make each. there Ul3rY be 31.e lines between them...o --.lilngl the ~oint Chop out: the morrises as described on pa. ran. Modify the mickness of the tenons to match a suitable chisel. Saw down besids each tenon.n mornse '-.. edges. flie~. pin tenons. turned on its side. It is also COlI monly used lor drawer-rail construe JOt . .. mrtis an ~"~' h T]ie 'I. de.31. 'd'l' tenor IS use d wen _-.ather 'than its .'l then divide the space between lnto three.~r. to rna' k the sides of the mort! ses usiing the marking gauge.

panel. I 2 Cutting the tDlorthses Chop out 'he· hrouqh rnorti sss (see page 65)1~ workl1l9 hom both sides o tha panel. Q. Wf1en yo u have an tbem.. 3 CuHi'ng 'the ~i'ns. Ma ke an even stro« gel vets ion 0 f til is join t bV incorpora t'ing a s tapp@cl nou s/ng that '. saw a notch out of the front edge of tbe sne If to accornmoria te me s tapped end o f eh e hDu s /ng. s~ubby ~ nons (pins for 6Uing wide ~ fI Ked s11c lves or p~i ti 0 ns nto a ca b i11et rti -. .ed end of tile sh.stopped pins...'.edllio.et ill '10 s. . then remove th B wa stl9 fro m bebAlesll 'them with a copi ng saw.s i"D~n'l M. Allow fur the depth of the housing when "}arking' the shoulder line for rhe pinson tne end o the shelf.1m J1] the tenons pas J'"i~hJ throu h tb.A pinned version of the joint comprise ~L row of evenly spaced. . 10pl~IS Make a diagonal saw cut across the end of eaet pin.panel th Y are usual~yl eld fI'rnlly in place with hardv ood l-ed !j "".. T rim this shoulders with a chisel. Having giuled and assembled [he 10int drive iln glued wedges and leave ro set Defore p~an~llg them 'flush with the.elf~ This joint is normally made with . down to the shoulder nne'. Saw down 1he sides n the pins wlth 81 tenon saw. rn . the wedges are son: -times s-t diago 11aUy.aids the pi nn.0_ decorative r asons. Cut the hous{ng first'.-.ark out the shsl f as described for a in mortise and tenon ~se8 pag'B 67t divid~ng the shoutder line w~h a row of evenly spaced pins. Mar 'he DOS~ ions af the mort: S8S usi ng the shell as a temp late. l .. [-'1 end cr 'a1n c of each pin. ModifV U'8 size of the pins to match your chisel. I l' Marl'ing out '1Ih.\~uts made ICID'OS.W.

. .. stopping when thetape wra pped around 'the blade the n..uHi. 4. the wood.. to mate h .[ tab le s an d cbairs are I' ade with stoppled mortisc-and-te 01 joints./·· C.T. is leve~with the su rtace of . 1l ..se USIS as described on page 6. Square the Ii IlElS across the edge of the work and use the' same gauge to scribe the mortise between them" . and scribe the th ickness of the tenon with a mortise gauge_ l' ) 3 Mkl:ng .i . lay the blade of he chlsel on the marked rail.8 depU'I1 g'8ug e T o ga UQ'8 the depth of this mortise. [LEG OR :S1iIU 1 Marking out the tell'O I Score the shou 1 I ine a II round the fa i1(see page 64 der fur proportions]. with its cutting edqe aligned with the shoulder line. It is a goo:' -lcokir g ioint 3Rt is no more difficult to make than a. Wrap adhesive tape around the blade at a DO i nt just beyond the end of the ra~I.through tenon.. Saw the tenon .5. Ir. once yoW] have Iearned how to accurate y gauge the depth 'Of the mor ise.ng the joint Cuttinq lntn one edge of the ra i1~ chop 0 ut the mortise 2 M a 'f ki' n gl 0 ut Ul e m Qi~l1li. with no obvious signs of the j oint on the outside of the leg.:dl as a guide for marking out the mortise pes ition O~ the leg or sti Ie.h e Inajori ty 0.

thick.OPOIRTIO_. 1. this marks the end of he' . . Using the ra il as a temelete.a~n.rllldng' out mhe tsnen Having rna rkad the.roport ioos. Cut a 'c ~. -'IIID:P<IOf nNOt4 .em "~breaklne hrough the end. iii Scrlbling' t--_e!mOlrii!:se '~hicmess en the raII [see pags' 16. it is essential to offset the tenon sHghtl~ ~jO pre.' the ~IegIO~'stile..I 'fH].'lg '0' th IDooan. small integra! tongue.I. tS cu off and planed 'I: - flush when the joint is complete. shou leers a nd scribed the tenon Scribe the mortise up to the erd of the stile. tUOW[l as ~_haunch.e a slopi fig h's'unc.S I'=F . mark the position 0 he mortise on the stile.A -_AUNCHIEDI TE_'_O~_ Make the teno« two-thirds the widtl1 of the tsit: the haluncb itself should be . This extension.i n) to prevent. at the corner of a frame. bu l oe te it a way to mee t tne sbou Idef li ne. ' ping hau nch if you wanr it Ito be ~nvisi bl '' ~ hen the [oint IDS assembled. fi's in to ~ .g joi f'lii. MS'k.h to the seme p. crf the rai I. splitti ng.2 Mllrki'ng the h!laullch Mark thB~ length ot tha haunch across tne op and down the sides. with a penciL and the fl hate h til B wa sloe :3 rlralns.'fe'lrlr'~nligl'Ilh'l mleaSillJrUmllm:lr :s.. gW':am'[~1 0'.uPiJIOrl 'the top . and then contirua the lines a short way onto the lend gr. IPR..EiS long a's i is .h:1110\V ~~'\oove on JUSlt above the mortlse.by about 18mm (~. kno _n as the hnrn. To .. L use a rna rking gauge to seribe 'the top edg~ of the tenon on both sides and across the end grain. 1 Ma.. At this stager Is!t the end of the sfi Ie! pro j ect .TE In order '~O include a .

he top edge of the tenon (see above)..uui ng th e ten on 5 Marking 1 he depth 0'1 the glrJoo1v'O J Scribe a short line on the end depth of the haunch groove. Heposition the work and saw down the end of the hau nch form Illg a notch at the top corner of' the inint. then pare the slope with a C' 1ise I. haunch groove at an anqle. continue the: gauged lines up to tt 8 top ()l the stile. 2 Tri"mlm i111tIlg 't[~1e miD rt:i.llI1Ilch Mark out the tenon. then score: the slopi I1g sides of' the: haunch with a marking knife. tak. Finallv. after 'first cutf ng along t. 6 Cutting 'the m01lrlii:se Having cut the mortise (sse Dag.ing care not to overrun. Saw down this lme. or the clamp the work upright in a vice and saw beside the I in8 markirq the top edge 0 the tenon down to the r Aftar sawing the sides at the tenon (sse page 65 1.au.MOIIISE-.S 65). . saw the sides of the.ing a sbJpi gJh.).A~'D~ EN. extend the sides by sawing alnng the gauge_ lines.. 1 iParj~ng'the 'gro'Dve USB a chisel to pare aW'ay the waste.se When 'marking out the mortise.C.'-I: JO~NITS ----- -- - - 8: . leavrng the bottom of the groove squa re. i ncl udingJ the haunch [see oppos ite]. dovlJn to the bottom of the haunch groove" 1 MBlk. stile to mark the ha uncl . but not over the end. Havinlg chopped out the mortise. saw along the shoulders to remove was a 'from both s ides OT' the tenon.

'to' .0 ' S' Cut a s/laflow slope at eecn end of the mortise to ai/ow room tor the tenon to expand. Glue and assemble the JOInt then drive in the glued wadges tapping tnem .dlgels Make two w.g lfue' wed!lleS Dip the wedg13s in g'l us arld brush snrn e mere ~nto ths mortise. if a j oint h~1Sto resi l more than :3.alternately to spread the tenon evenlv.orfn~dl. erage everage .. :3Siba'ii nil the mlu1i'sl' Undercu ~each end of the mortise wi! h a chisel. paring away about 3mm (Yainl' of the wood at the bottom of the joint.' 'elv.' '[()l-fashten \f1. and about 3rnm (Y8~n~thick at the wide point. assernb IinQ the joint and clamping it. When the adhesive' sets.edges about three-quarters the length of the tenon. ICuni Ifill 11fll e 'w'e. You. pea tenons . stopping just sbon of the shoulders.tIrJ j hardwood wedges.IDIG NIIG T .edg. can wedge both through and . J Iowever. so taka care to cut he' parts aCCUr8.\ well-mad .RII IU '~[H_E ..L n. . " F'ox wedgling Bscause a fox·wedged tenon expands inside ihe /4. Inselrtill. it cannot be withdrawn nncs till's joint is assembled..when hidd n~ t1 ey ar known as fox . t plane end Q'fain and wedges ''IUS/I . e '-R"(\ l .es into the saw cuts be nre .xpand . ioint Push the w.u·ong enough to hold th J oint together using glue alone. mortis and tenon . Make two saw cuts dD~lVntne length' of the tenon. ._h tenon do.2..

then scribe the sides of the 'N'FJdge mortise up to. the thickness of the stile on the projectinq t8110~. the 1111:8I 4 IComp. Since 'he joint is designed to b broken do n. and it relies on rhe clamping fOJrC'E of the wedge to..mm 01~ln)inside the line marking the thickness ottbe stile. rtically to orevent it '\\orking 100 se.OPORTI'O S OF A lIDO.From the line marki ng the out. K' . no glue is ised. REf TIMES TlHICKN ESS 100F .gi. Square this !'ine across the bottom of the tenon.SE-WEIDG -D JO~NT The totei length of the tenon should be at least three times the thickness of the. Sst the in ier end of the mortise about 3. re SID st SPI] j uing.wedged j 0 i11~ must bee onstru cted 'V\llliU1. pa ring the sl()p~ngend with a chisel. provide ri. Markil1l"g the sloping elnd Set a slidinq bevel to an angle IOf 1~6.s~ but make them a slidinq tit.MiANO ICUT f\ oose. The n~(Jrtise for the loose wedge should be approxima.ejoint Cut the mar ise and tenon as described on pag.es 64-. gene ~ous. Assemble he joint and tap in the wedge to d:ravv the shoulders uptight . .er end of he wedqe mortise draw another line Oil the side of the tenon.or'k.clity.. usinq the bevel. boulders and stou'~tenon that \\dJ1. 111'ewedge is I ormally set v.. and it shovld be not less than one-third the width of the rail. Cut the wedge mortise.tely 18mm (%in) fong and ebout Of1fJ-ttlird of" the tenon in wiott: The Doter end of thiS mortise slopes to accomrnoda te the wedge the inner end is cut squste.iiingthe w'edge murtisa Take the joint apart and mark the mortise for the loose wedge on the top edge of the tenon. ~ srus 2 _J.r IPR. I 3.let'ingl mhe ilDini 1 . Assemble the jo~nt and mark. stile.A'sse:mbUlng thl. l \ .

W... . .1 . .··ir the ·orun'Cs.'!I. the groo e to th length ~)fhe t h anne h. 1. (k.L.il I- .11-' one n If!tltly fills th e 0' 'n em" at the end 0 'tbe' sj e. 2. iOK~ . .cribiing 'lillie· panel gnlDves. Cut a simple s npped mortise on these marks.~ _. _ _il.slde to t ccommod I® the anel len haunched mortlse-and-teaon jo'rnnm II" . mark.~.:t ·0·. he '.0.'IU!II . .of the rai is and stiles.&. f ~ tra AJ''t' ~ ~iftla" p~anef JII.w. WITh a malrking g'auge set to the depth rJt: tih 18 9 rIO 0'\(8 sc ri b fa the botto m edg B nf the r Cut the tenon as described on page 71 .asurements Usingl the rai~ as.. so that . make them d1 fhe same width. i on both sides and 3 Tran s:lerrinlg the mlB.._ . U ~_ ..~". tenon OonOM OP lIlJ!~I]N across tl11 e end of the rSliI. 4. a template.inside of the rails. at the corners. 0"''' .0 ul the groove af. but make a second saw cut across the lena of the' rai I to farm 'lhe bottom of the ten on.JI . align idle grooves with the mortises and.I!.. moved on the ' .. -_ J. Ie utti n g til e 'te!11l1D n _..i. IR~AIL.•. .".. then make and 'fit the panel before gluing and asssmbl 'i n'g til e frame. Use a mortise g~uJlge'[) scribe grooves on the.mi . . 1 S. J ill".an-n'. used. _ additio u match tile depth 0 .. _ '_ I!l.arkilljlg Olt mhl(l tenon M's rk out the tenon I(see p'age 7011 then. -aie'r 1. end stllss.II I.1_. cutti 11g the panel grrJoviE~at a later st8 ge also mekas room far the haench 11 5 'Cufting the panel grolove:s Plane or router the gtrOavBS' on the insi de . the position of the mortise on the stills. usnWly ..

J IM.U UHf jo intI. [Mark out the haunch. Use a mark~lIg gauge to scribe tl119 bottom of the tenon. LOj~G gSHO'tJLD lEft LINE HAU NCH DJIIN:E' . it should be as far from the long-shoulder line as the width of the rabbet .about Bmm (V4in)" Square the Ii n18· across both '1 Srcri'bingllh[B rabhets edqes.arking the shrort ShOUlldl[er sind tenon Mark the short shoulder across. Set a marking gauge to one-third the thickness of thB worknieces. US~l1rg a pencil. Rese t the ga uge t'O about 6mm (~in) and scribe the rabbet width. Hatch wasta wood with a pencil. JI ~ . square this line across both edges. [WNG 51U1ULEi -R. he inner face. F'~nallvJ'pare out the' haunch waste " om each io i nt (see paqe 71 ).' and stiles. A f er cutting 'the.J 4 M a Irk iIng [Il) ut 'lhl1e .. d Ira b bets . n g th 8' 2 Marlk. measured from tile long-shoulder liner onto the end of the stile.When making a glazed [(oor for a cabinet cut a rabbet on me Inside of the rails 'and stiles to I: i' . /I I . ' the glass. on the inside of the rails .j'ng the lun. ach corner of the arne can be joined wnh a haunched moruse and tenor . then scribe the thickness of the tenon wi'th 8 mortise.1l place with puU'i or a wooden bread..gauge.to the pronortinns 9ivan for a stands rd haunchad mortise and tenon (see page 70)1 score the lonq shoulder across the outer face of tne rail. Use the same tool to mark the: ~engrth of the haunch.ufti.joints. butit t neces ·a:ry to stagger tIl shoulders ln order to close off the rabbet aJ[tho end of the stile. It is probably easier to cut the rabbets after the joints.DrE6 UI~E RAiBB. When the doorframe is complete ItlY the glass run the rabbets and hold it :h. [I :SHO~iT= ~'HOUBI. an.ra~1to mark the positlon of the mortise on the stile" Gauqe the thickness of the morti 88.g shoulder Ref'Brr~ng. a nd scribe the depth of the rabbet on the ~nrer edge of the raj Is and stiles.10 rt ise Transfer the dimension from thE'.C :5 C. plane or router the rabbis S '.

I I~ leeve the stile' moulding cut sqfJare as described in slagel 1 (see left). cO.h rnstive m thod \ to scrtb on . better [or d]"guitng d g ps if the "oi n t should shrink. th . Mitre' the end of the rail moulding. back I_ to the shou Ider ilne. r--- L--.rimming Imuu!lding's Before marking out the joint cut away the moulding down to .og Iliut and cun~nQllhe joint Mark ou a haunched mortise and tenon.ends after .HAND C:lIlJ ~(hel1 a rabb ted rame is.ti. usrng a goug'fJ and S'fr. 3: M itri illl II th e m 0 U I~d "llllllig Irim the ends of the moulded sections to 45 degrs'9s.. U ls FU~C'es~["Vto mitre the mouldin '. bUI b·s. I I . leavi ~g a flat edge [)In . and cut Doth ha IVBS 0. also moulded.he sti Ie aqua I to the Ir==---~~~~=-=~ of the tenon pills the width he unch S lmi ~arly~ rim the moulding off the rail. mortise and 'tenons have b.)lre m'iruil Il!il lIre d end 'wUfi vednim:a'i eg~s. he ~evEl 0 the rabbet. Clamp a gU~dB block DV8'r the moulding to keep he 'chisel blade at the required ang's. around the M ltrs the mu II Id'j~!!II 2 Malrki. ~7iii .en 0 the 1110 u ding to cove the 0' her: '~le scribing is.. l'le~alive~yifficult. IA'AIL. men. 'he mitre un: iI ir fis contour of the stile fllO'ulding.e jLJ ~litsee psg e 70-1" ( P.aigi1l chiS'eJ~pare away the wooa an th'e inside (} . en cut A possihle a.

orris S must be cut at 311 angle or the tenons are skew d to 'fit square-cut mortises. Sikewe.JOINTS It is easier to cat the mortises before "'IOU turn 8' found leg. ICOIRNER . SD that you can keep your chisel bl ade or dr~~ vertica I I when cuttl ng the [oint. the inevitable short grain makes 'for rslativslv weak joints. i the tenons. Mark out each joint ill the usual way. either the side. 11 ' tl1ey meet inside the leg. shoulders with a gouge to tit the curve. but [TI8 'k the shou tders at an ang~e to fi the face of the ~eO(l You may ffind it easier CJ cut the mortise if you make a sirnpl e j ~gthat ho Ids the leg at the req uired ang IS'. ilfe Instead. . lIt may ~e more convenient to skew the tenons.On dIe maior t1' of tables. R~IL Anlgl ad mo rti ses A stronger joi nt res u Its if you keep the tenons in Iins with the ralls. so keep the angle to a minimum. trim the. It is impossible to mark skewed tenons with a mortise gaugs.vb. Having cut - FOR'OUND IlfEG. b 8rata c ed 'Ie nons Dles~gna freme with barefaced te nons if you want the ra ds one. two rails are ioined to a single ]eg at each corner. However.d 1enons Since it is easier to cut squa e mortises.my described. fa jo tnts are CUt'S previou :. fl usb with the leqs. ~xcept tha the ends of the tenons are n utred . sa use a slidinq bevel and marking k . To make tapered chs 'r frames however..S Us in g. -.rail.

•r I 1 Us'imllg] a I1I'D:si mig att.'I bette r still you can fit a SPI ~ciaJ.1I press . P re pia ri ng th e drii II p. tl1 en dS squaln~i ng I -: Start the mortise by cutti I1gl a sq uare hole 8 t each end..e.' move most of Ilh -.chm en t '[LO tl e d "lllllf'€:S S Of' = '!' 'Iy hand.IDv~ngIhlll!) W8:ste' Remove the 'waste.dlf aster . than con nect them with a row lJf .c'ia:llv . .r'e s!s Clamp a. cril ~'i throuoh mortises. . i . Pare the sides and ends square w~'thchrsels.6 tan e'\fen pace D avoid any 0'118 rh ea.:.wooden fence to the bass of this drill press. pl O( Iuc tJon eas er arm..aclimenrt IF£NCE Adapt a drill press by f~[ting a mort~sing attacbment com prisi ng ali Bugler d ri II tilat rs'mDVBS the waste.PC '-: C' .I Uy u p 'an to CUI U number ol ·0:runts.·.-. Work stea d 11Y' . coupled with a squaws' hn ~~oweh isei W~lj.or a power drill in a bench stand) can he IS· d tOI -.:-.hen working hardwoncs. ng .ch shapes' he mortise at the same' irne. to centne." '_ -- . and adJ List i' .':. hetwsen the holes in staqes. 1.nge tnl3' chisel f rrn Ily but don It fnrce i ~ espe. 'the auger bit . f ' Dri II a hole at each lend of the mortise.. Pllu.t-ct u'KI~.1~is '\\!i U '\ -ord1 '-eruoog up a m3Jchlline' I~I o~ to 'ak" ur '" d-ill. waste b _fore fulj. Set the tool's deu h stoo to d rill I to the base o-f a stooped mortise. the pci nt 0 the d~~11 i [)In the o mortise.e 2 R. / C ufti ngl 'Ihie m 0 di~~s. PIace a bosrd beneath the work if vou are..····hing h [ob ~ I . -':' : .i ng D . " . mor ising 1t1l'U .slightlv ~vedapping holes. .'l.

Cut a deep mortise In staqes.... and never plunge deeper than the diameter during anyone pass... you can cu any nurnber nf identi ca I mortises v1J'i'thout havi ng to rra rk (J ut th a wo rkp ieces. then c. Wllern usflng thls typlB of attachment. Cut! inlg . ... ~ I 2 Machilnilngl the mortise W~th this w[)rk butted aqa mst the rea r end stop.JI Cutting a mortise Avoid the risk of breaking the cut er by machining CUtt8(S '0 mortise ~nstages. machined mortise has rounded ends. ho ld the wood firmlv against the 'fence and lower it sJowly onto the rotating cutter. OrrnSE . ~~~~.~~~. Feed.. it is much more convenient to machine theml with the tool ~ nverted lina router table or workcentre nee you have made the in~tia~adjustments.arefully lift it clear of the cutter. wood forward unti II ilt comes to rest aqainst the 'Other end stop.es w'ith a router a ". either chop them square with a chisel or file the corners off this tenon" 1 Se'Uilng up end stDPS Wirth all the workpieces cut to size clamp a block of wood at each end of the teres to limit the movement of a WCJ rkpiece to. Although you can cut mortises with a ha nd-he~dImuter. the.. Ihe workpiece is moved re lative to the stationary cutter by means of a special mortising table that is adjustable in hei:ght. the lenqth of the requi red mortise . raisinq the cutter between Bach pass.ANDI. it is imperative to cover the planer r cutters with the appropriate gua rd.TEND. S'inCH the. urtis. JO[JS Usiingia slot mortiser It is possible to adapt a planer-thicknesser to rnachirs mortises by f~tting a Imi'lli'ng chuck to the end of the tool S cutter block.

BS'fors machininq joints.r side O'f the tenon.H Aithough it is largely a matter Oi personal choice. 2 S. MACHtNE . . A bl ock 0 f wood clamped o the saw's rip fence serves to ali'gn the shoulder wiih the b~dde and also prevents the severed waste jarnrninq between the blade and tence. always make a tes component and use ~tto check your settinqs before prDceeding w~th actual workpieces. suchjigs are designed to slide a 0 'g the slot machined across the saw table for [he rnitn . .0 need. Crosscut the joint' s .amaging its blade or . i first cut and remove the SCRfW S:TOP ro BACm<i1 NlG PA!N1EL waste 'in stages. 1 CUlding. r.p owerful motor.-' ~-----~~~""':iI suns FlDR IBOl rs. '-ing ~Iig eu Cut the comnonerrts from 12 to 18mm (% to %in) MDF to fit your saw table.ND S R:IlU"VES F(J Iifi IiIA6DWO OD SUDF£ !N IUNIDrnsm.ence.. 'or final fitting by hand. the tenon cheeks Clamp the work to the Jig a nd 'feed it past the blade to cut alonn ene side of the tenon . from MOF. clanlped to the fence.". shoulders. make the first cut along the sboulder fine.an end stop WING NUTS . slidinq the workpiece a\~ay sideways from the rip fence.j I_ ... Turn the work round and saw the other side. TO SUPPORT _~~~~~~. ICutting a haunch Adj ust the r~p fence untill the btade al f gns..' 01] can make your own j'ig.. with the end of he haunch.It may be possible to buy a purpose-made tenon-en ting jia :for a._'-. perhaps t ie best way to produce tenons in quantity is to use at tab e sa~~l\~. and the sharp' carbide-tipped saw teetl cut so cleanlv. particular model of sa .8w!ingl the ShlDulders.L SUDE.that there sho ild be 11. usi ng the mi tre 'fence to feed the work past the blade. Slide the work sidewevs. Turn the work over and repeat the procedure to cut the o the.!I!--- WDl!ltoP'IIECE CUTTINIIGI TIENDNS ON A R.I:\. ". Alternatiw Iy. Make tll:S Makin-Ig a tenon .I!JIE H AlR IlW(J 011) SUlliES 'lin SU B'-BA. Mak 8 the slide from a metal' strip that l's an accurate slidi'rlg fit in the rnitre-fencs slot.:=-':. to sue ~lBASE L-_~_~ ~ ~__".ADIAL-AIRM SAW With the workpiece bu Ned a{}ainst.ANI) WASIHElFiS.SE SCR EW MIHIi..E ~IF !!lASE: SUB-BASE I GI!.em'Oving the waste little by little with successive crosscuts. can work ~el tively You a quickly wnbout .

" " '.._~ .. _... ..." .'·'·:.:. :..... ~~ "'. ._.' . .. ._.v. '_:__ I ::_"._-..'f' " .. "' e• hC 1-d •.:. _".• " ....·· the fo•.~. ~ l ..:..... . . "'..c.'._' ". '.' . ... ~ . " .. _ I ( S"~- ~ - .. '_'. .' . 1·S-·-'· . e dr awer--S' u e--d·-' h •. that it' is rare to: see a drawer that has broken as a result of joint failure. . .' •..:__ _.... ._..-.. _.' ."··::ec-'owh . . Ii'.··-..QVetru. ar~ .• ils' esisr e •rrces applied to the joints when ._. '. Ell .- . I " • r • . ~..'... • I •• I \~.- f~ 1'1"'- I t • -"'_ . . tJ' . JI' . " .: . -- .' .' _. '....'._'.<. __ -' . . I 'f' J'.11'1-y'.·:.• t· • f ~ ~": I ..._ 'i_-'_. '. I" ~.' " _' ". I ~""" .fa 'ta....••.I'. r .er making d inherent strength of the 'd'._.'.- . . '" prlmany d t qua 'IS . ··. -..-/'e··.:.ecoralve ..':.~. "" .·-··~··g.' . .'.--. a ki utilizes the 'aw. .'..~.' '. ' I"... a " Ii l ! ' " I ' ·n. ~ .'._ .. _-'.. I_..:..n-'c. "I. i 1J... -_:_. ··_··'-a:· .._ -' -. r·--'._C.I.··I n-shape th e/.::~TI" otnt to ru a···•····• . .. ::' '_" '.-' .--"'-. .• 'lh ere a" reat variety"..' _. ~'" ....' f o forms of dovetail joints.-'. some of which are used 'I' lor tnetr t h '. .. . dvant 'a····..--. a e."'-. . Traditio.-J .so strong . •. _ ' -...~" " . g--' '.·_-_._ . .·.[I.·.' t Dovetails. ' ... .

enlav.rlbing the shoulder line Plane square ths ends of both workpieces and..~vof small.~ . to "'. .. and also tnskee tor a stronger joint.. It :~sarso. II . r r g~ajn at the tips ot the dDvet. 'Of each tai'l.. I a ~ - \6 1 ~' -I 1 --' .:~ 'I.. to Clll'. the dista nee between the i'j ~ElS equa IIV depend i i1g on the reou i fed number or tai Is. M easu re 3mm (%i'n) on each side of these marks and square psncil lines across the end.wYl the most efficient joint '~orconstructing boxes and cabinets fror .l but increase the angle to 1:6 for soitwooas. - l. - . un deni m. . " . but 8 ro. the most basic form of the joint.Whell you have reached he last ta i I in the row#. cant the...in) from each edg:e of he V\!O rk then divide.. .ai!1 M!hiie insufficien" taper invs r{ably j eeds to a stec k join t.a readvmade dovet~lil template. DIIOVETA. Through dovet. 1 ~ '''f'hiil"l'g dov ellau j ""S S". '. Clamp the work at an angle in a vice so that Y[l!J can saw vertj'caHy beside each dovetail . '0'C'i. . Ils. 1 Sc.al~l li'. scribe the shoulder I·ine for the ails 011 all Sides 0 the other workpiece.egalarlv spaced tails fooks better than a few large ones.' It.cn"' . [Mark the waste with a P'EH1Cil. Marlki'nglloU'~ the tails Mark the slopinq sides of each tail on the face side of the workpiece.JI one 0.'e regarded as the ultimate st of th:e ker' ill' ~ll f \\100 dworker's S'k. 'ifAJL MEMBEIm 4. " . Pencil a line across the end Qirain 6mm (Y4. An exaggera ted slope results In wee« short 2 Spacilng the tails A good hand-cut joint has equal-size tails matched with relatively narrow pins. C·urniiigi the maills.. Idea flYI' mark e '1:8 . ..a matter of personal interpretation. work in the other direction and saw down the 0 her side. solid wood. 'I' .ANIIGlES The sices of a dovetail mu it slope at the optimum angle.Qc. . with a Gutting g. 1 - 1 I .. The proportion' of each tail is . _ _ I " •r " ~ iF J.l~ ~.. " .IL . '. iii. f.)L "S.1.· ...oods.angle for har.' '·gl·' . using din adj ustabls bevel or .dw.l..ct u. are vlsfble 01 both sides of a corner.I ~':" . TlI"e .'.u abilltv '.. set to the thickness of' he pin member..8uga.l.. uJu~.

Hatch the waste between the pins . . shou lders with a ch lsel Assemble the joint drv. a cnplng. t.e a n Align a t. 10 Trimminq the [eint Hernove most of the waste wood with a copinq saw. then cut the waste from between the tads.ly iinthe vice so that you can 8 IMa rk.iing club ing I~. scored in the chalk. POS'it~OlIl the cut tails precisely on the end of the workpiece. cutting gaugH to the thickness of the tail mBmber and scribe shoulder tines Tor the pins on the other component. following the ang'led lines marked across the chalked end qrain F~nish 'vi ush with the shou I.. a nd pare the. wrtn a penC~t u~ Use a bevel-edge chisel to trim what remains or the waste from between the ta iIs.5 lRenlQ'ving the waslffie 1 remove the corner waste with the dovetail saw.ry square with the marks. 16 Trimlmio'g the shoullde1rs 9 ICutti __ t_·e pi ns 0 Miake fine saw cuts on bo h sides of each pin.. saw- Sst the 'work horizontal. his time using . the pins Set the. and draw parallel lines down to the! shoulder on both sides of the work. Fi 11 i sh tlush with t~e shou Ids r' Iine. trimming any tight: spots until the joint fils tl ean Iy and snug Iy. then mark their shape in the cha Ik with a pointed scrjber or knife. Coat its end glfai n with cha Ik and clamp it upriqh in a vice.dec 1 7 Ma:rking.

scripti on here serves as at guide to cu~tin~ i th 'ough dovetails on a jig that features mdivic l I.eed one pair o'f Ingers for each covetei and a single 'fingler at both SIlOS of the row Set these i~div~dual fingers first so that they are 'flush with leach edge of' the test pieee. Fit into ihe router a compatible dovetail cutter and guide bush . Clamp a test piece of the correct width to the front 01 the jlg~ making sure it butts aga inst the side stop and t~e. Usinq the other component as a template.tim/gersl Once vou have adjusted one half of the assembly. Fitting a lest: p"llc:e Use test pieces to set up the] ig and check t~e fit of the parts. then space the pa irs of finqers at regullar intervals between them. and adjust the router cutter down to the marked lire.A. . Adjusti1 g th: nngers for the pins alor g one side of the assembly auto' natica_lly sets the fingers for maiclung tails on the opposite side. UIJIGEiFl.check With your Jig supplier.SSEMIIU V I IRota'tlllng t ' Ie . 011ce thes '-"ias are set. P'Iace an 18mm (%i n) spacer boa rd un de r the finger assembly and secure it with the [iq's top cramp bar. mark the depth ot cut on t~e tail member. all that 'is req ul red to uti lize the other sst of finqers is to CROSS [BAR unclamp the entire asscrnblv.L be versatility' of Ole router has been enhanced by the development ofl ingenious jigs fo . . AId ough (he. " . traditional joints. .assembly.'e d . initial adju~ nnent is tme-consnrning. cutting. Tiqh en the c a mpllng SCJ8'WS . There is also a device "or f nc fore-and-aft adiusnnenr of the finge assemb y: 01 I A:dii usi:i ng 'hie fin 10 er asse mbl~y You . even complicared dovetail j o~nis can be cut in a fraction 'Of the time illt takes to make then] bv hal d. rotate it~ clamp it and down age in. 1 Se'tting] up for' lailll cutting Set the assemblv with the straiqht-sided tail finqars poimirq towards you. adj ustable fingers that glfde Ute router cuttet The setting of the fi iger assem billy goverI S the size and spacing of rhe tans and pins. underside of the fillgl8r.

5 Remove the waste from the centre 0 f the socket: 4 C:uttiing the [pins 'Wi. [o 1nt to cheek it fits sn ugly. ids A!lways check that. Cut another pai r 'Of test pieces to check that this joi nt fits satistactnri Iy r before proceedinq w~th the actual workpieces. 3 Make another shrallow cut across the socket- the back ot .NO TAIIL rSOCKETS Sirnp1v driving the router cimer straight through the workpiece tests aut the wood fibres along the shoulder line. cutter to. Mark this depth o. n' ' Ing UI [Rotate the assembly to present the pln finqers to the front of the ji'gJ' and clarnp a second test piece in the Jig:. all parts of tile jig alld he test piece are SflC'U relv c lamped betore switch ing on the router" Then run the cutter between each SE~tof finqers (see b ox~ri Ql htl cutt ing 0 ut the waste wood wh kh Ie a ves / a neat row 0 tails. Using the fvllowing seouence.ndside. 5 Chs'ckiing the fit Assemble th 8. . incorporating a technique known as 'back cuttingfl take's a little longer but ieeve: you with near sockets. us~nlg'he iai'~ member you have just cu as a iernplate. use the jigl's fine-ad jus msnt scale to movie the 'flinger assembly forward. ~ C!UTTIING NEAT PINI A. cut as before.2 CuH'mng' Ie. If it. 'If the joint is tDO tiqht. adjust ttlB f~n~ler assernblv backwards. Fit a straicht cutter ill the router and adjust jt down to the' marked IIins. ISS lack.wa tas YOLI on the IBft~ha.II Feed the.th the router placed flat on the finger assembly. switch on and th!'8rl rout out the waste between each pair of f nqers. 1 Make' a shallow cut in the' face of tile 'woo~ guiding the machine frotn right to ieft (back cuttingJ 2' Return to the rigf~t of' the socket and feed the cutter through to the' back of me workpiece.

regular rhythm of' e jo~ t . draw the tips of the tails on the end of this workpiece. Hub chatk on the end of the workpiece.. HAND CUI :'.. lightly scribing the shoulder line on Eli sides of the workploco.ne. 2 Mark:ing 'tlltl! . Trim the shoulder Iines square with a narrow beval-edqa chisel.:IOU.AILMEMBEiIil '1 Scr~b 'libe' :slholul der nne ing Begin by rnarkinq out the tails. with no more than the thickness of a saw cut between them '''b~ Ii.mOV8 this waste between them as described for a standard! brouqh dovetail joint.pllll1 :S.s'[llolping sides US19 a dove ail ernplate to draw the slopi"llg sides of the tails. attractive and the decorative (!u~i es of the jo Oint J . b"e exploited still further by varvina the size and spacing of the tails and pius. Slmilarlly mark the shoulder lire for the half-depth dovetail ·3 S:lquaring acr'II!]'S. then reset the g'allge to score the length of the halt-depth pins on the end grai'n..' . . can. thsn. with a dovetail saw and copinq saw r9.standard through dovetatl is considered to be. The example ShOVV11 here has fine triangular pins and a central hailf-dep'Jl dovetail that Interruots tb.~ er I'" Mark the shoulder line on all four sides of the pin rnemner. '" h ~d nne 4 S crill'llfiIl1g ~. of!!:. Group the tails C'~osely toqether.S the end grail1ll Usil1g a try square.CORA THU. I.

Clamp the work in the jig machine the lalger pin socxets.ettings for reference. waste Cutting towards the shoulder pa re the p'i ns down to the line scribed on this end gra'in. it is possible to cut decorative joints witl} a power router You need two diffeTrB'nt dovetail cutters and' a straight cuttet. bar to shorten the narrow pins.e. To trim the half-depth pins to size.the ti p of a:doveta i: I saw between each pa ir of tails.hen hatch the waste.pins' 11 Paring away1 he. Finall'l~ cu .adjustable fingers. score' the shape of the pins in the cha~k by drawi n'g. Since som e a f the.tails Set Lip the jig and adjust the fingers (see pages 84-5).are na rrowe r than 0 thers you must expetimen: with fore-and-aft adjustment of the i. using a pencil" Make trial cuts to ascertain the. the l I Turn me pin rnember to face inwards . pins . Cut out the 'waste from between the pins. using a chisel and mallet finger assernbly until you achieve the' appropriate settings for cutting each size ot pin. fi 'st me ke a cut across the gra~n close to the shoulder line. and t. . all with suitable guide bushes. Make a careful note of these s.th'e .Fit the jig's crossbar attachment to' the fingers and adjust the ass.R[orllj'l~NGI[JEC'O'RAT~VE D. Makin'll. using a dovetail saw and copinq saw.g tbe .OIVETAIIILSI IUsing a dOvB'taii jig with .mbly backwards so til a t YDU can feed the (outer a long the.ortenin. then swap cutters and rnachine the srnallef ones.and rotate the fInger assen7bly.lmti 11g th e piIns. 5 IMarklngl th1e pilns WTln the tail member held down on the end of the pin member. J grain once more to trim accurately to the shoulder line. Square the marks down to the shoulder Une on Doth sides. 2 Making the pins IS C. exact finger sBttings required for eech dOvEltail cunet.across. Cut all the sockets with the straight cutter. then adjust the finger a~sernbly backwards so that you can shaver the narrow pins do~/n to size. t . 3ISh. then pare down '[0 the shoulder line 'with a chisel.

FinaUYJ cut the mitre i self. Cut the' mitre. then plane or router the rnouldlnq before assemblinq the Joint. m.in}from the other . scribed Iine. 0 ivide the distance between these I r nes 'i nto the requ ~r8d number o'f equal-size tai Is.s 1]'__ mil:re! Cut out the waste from between the pins.ain and mark the position err th8~pins. Mark the ShDU~dar lines end miire on the ph) member as described halo h~!ft Chal .olm pilieil:1n 113 t 111.. T.. I l MJ'TIIE UNE . [M"ark i1111lhl'l9 'the jop ~dge.edge and scribe a ~ine·on the' end gua~n end rou nd to the Sl10U ~~e'~ins on hn th sides o f the work. 6mm (1t4.. lncorp ora t a nm [fie ~n Ic'h ICO' :~ r.f 'a do'V'C!MUld. workpiece perhaps Ito make a sliding tray or '~~n lOP· 'n b 01](.ida the last pim~down to the ~ine of the mitre .!g'11Im1 la ~III11me tn I~Ie r e' After scri bing the shou Idar I i ne on 'the two sides and across the bottom of the tail rrernher.sdgle. marki rllg [he tip ~:rfthe first tai I.. Saw the wast8 fmm between the tails and trim the should ers square with a chisel.iilll1lll·I'IIlI' dle. he end gr. 2 [Mlurk.1 tJO~is ~ Draw a pencil line 6mm (Y4in) be'~nw the. I. Square these Im1arks down to the shou'dsr ~i O~ b01~1 ne 4. IMa ke a sirn i te r mark. Hold~ng the d(]vetail saw at an 5 CUH'illlg' 0' Bngle~cut alotn'gs.tJh 101:'hilI: IMOU ~dilngl Set a rna rking glBlJgJe to the depth requ iln. .~n5.~d'for th 8 moulded . then reclamp the work in the vice. usi ng the '[8 i I member as a template.SCRIBED LliNli 3 C..AIL MIEMI3 ER r lid ~.CH I Should yo II \visb to mould the edge . piiln.tB for the mitre ano between the pins. sides of ths w'ork~ i ~CB. USB a osncil to mark the. W:aS.ar~the mitre on 1 I 1 II . using a dovetail saw.

..s'huuIII elJ d Mark the extended-shou Idar ~jne on the bottom edge of the teil member . .. '.' I '-.~ te comm on to cut a f1rui ov IL D DUDAJI L JOINTS..il member as 8 template for markinq out the.. D'inSI then .' 1 '. ...' :.e exte nidie d sh 0 UI~ e r d Use a dovetai I saw to tri ml the waste back to the extonc d e d S h (J U ld e.. .'. 4 M. Set a m. '. '. then across its end and alonq to tile shoulder line on the outside face.' cut that ha I:f of the joint '5 C Illtlin g 'Ih.on the pin member.ough d{H1etruJl ]oints. I . Plans a rabbet on each component. rabbet [0 r :fitthl~ a trav ~ ~ bottom or to house the... t he JOI rrlt.' .". ._ the extension should equal the wi'dt~ of ths rabbet. '1 ' ..r II" b e f ore ass em bliI nQ.'.g 'the w'~'dthtd t:h e rahbet Reset the Igaugl8 arid scri brathe width of the rabbet alonq the bottom edge of buth workpi 8(. e ioi . 3 Mar'kiing and cutting the ~oin:t Ma rk o ut the' requ ~rsd n umber of equa l-size ta iIS.'_::. .OU_ It ls . :.. ".: I .ark'inOj . but onlly on the ~nside face. PIN IMEM61E1:Il 1 Scri'biing! mhe nlblbel depth Mark the shoulder line 'for the Joint on both sidles and across the top edge of the tail member..:'. Scribe a-similar line . line .. .arkin'g g8 uqe tn the depth crt the rabbet and scribe a ~ins a I ongl the inside of tile sa rne workpiece.. U is necessary to extend the shoulder' '31'[ the bottom edge 'of each tail member to plug the rabbet at the corner.Use the ta.h'B extende d . " .. . I"" c':' . ..r a 8 d esc ri be d nppos its fan d cut them with a doveta iI saw and chisel ...' .. bt1JlCK of a cabinet If you are also' planning to incorporate th .:. '"1 iii 2 DJI·arkill. .8:3. . '.

.' t S tnat are rnVLSm:. stopp i ng .drawler constn ction. clo sed. square parallel lines on th-e inside facet.ewasta Before you take the' 'vvork out of the vies. II traditional 4-11! c. . remove some of the waste' from between the pins with me saw. which should be at least 3mm 04~n)l. H1EHl pa ra ~Iell with it. H 8 set the g a u gl8 to 1 til e thickness of the itai ~membe-r and scribe the pin shou I dBf I ~l1eacross the inside face of he same workpiece. 2 Mar'kiil. scribe t h-e Ia p ~ n8. Set our and cut the tails as described for a through dovetail (see pages 82-3). it is 'tar dard practice to use through dovletaUs a'[ the' back corners while fit.. . Gut dov'lll on thB waste side of leach line.Ma rk illig and eutti n g th e tal ils Set a cuttinq gatlge to the thickness of the 'in member lass the thickness of the lap.It pays to Gut away the wood qraduallv. [4 S[[(Jw'iing out 'Ih.5 Par'illig dowl1 to the lines Remove Wlat is Ieft of the waste by cuttinq back to the' shou lder line and pa rfng down tu the lap ~ wi h a ine bevel-edce chisel. . and.~~ghe drawer front .ng 'nJe plins: Set a cutting gauge~ to the length of the tails.. making alternate cuts..Use the gauge to' scribe a shoulder l~n8 Cl!~~ round the tail member. down to the sho uldar r:i ne. r ..0 n th e end g ra i' n.using lapp ed t dovetan~I' . is achieved by lappin g the pin member over the end of each '[ail member. ThL. JOUl "·'b' ilTt. Chalk the end grain and. PIIN MIEMB ER '1 . usinq the tails as a template.g trorn the i'ns~deface of the[ pin member. e W 1lien tne d rawer .at the lap and shot] lder I i ~9'S. Ho~dtllg a uovetail saw at an angle. 3 Cuttiing the [pins Clamp the work :in a bench vice.s -. work~n. first across the grain . rom these marks. score t~leshape of the pins In the chalk. .

y cut a simi lar jnint for the 0 her e~d of the pin member (dra\NSr fronu bu . face.e pi n member up to the j ~g~ sedge stop. .-sidB inwards. "-held power router using a flxed-finger dovetail ji. The j oint is perfectly functi una} bu t i~ ills necessary to design the width of the components to su t th e 6 nger spacing of the ~IigIest the jig's .. ~ (I Adj -. then insert the pin member (drawer front).ig whtch enables both the 'pin and tails to be cut simultaneously Itis :a relatively inexpe sfve jig that produces equal-size. and butt its end grain aqainst the tail member... test pieces and rotate one of them through 1:S0 deg rees '0 mats the ir jointed ends. f~tting the guide bush and dovetail cutter recommended by the] i 9 mall utacturer.he joint is loose. 'I 3 Ass o'mllb I iRig the "jo 1"1 PIN MElM IU:R UnclamD the.L . which is marked with a 'siq It line' that runs centrally down the row af fiingers. 1 C_ampiing 1: e _Istirnlg the cut ~fyou find t. face down..og'e stop a the other and 01 the jlgl. 2 CuU~ngllh. increase the cuttinq ~ . jig.. I ACHIINIE CUT .... regu arly spaced ph S and tails.: ces before you proceed with the actual work. ~.ting It aga inst the B.. S Iide th..e joint Prepare the router.depth of the router sl'i'ghtly..~-_~ 1 .. lapped dovetail joint can be cr t with a ban. If the jo j nt ' its snug I._ -= -= _j' . then offset the ta iI member sidBW6'YS by ha~ the fi nger f spacIng" Nlow fit the finger template.. settings by cutn ng test pi.. Adj ust it unti I the sig I1t line corresponds to the butt joint between the two cormonents.. Worki n·g rom left to right sed the cutter between each pair of finqers.L I DOWA1ll JOINffS. If:the joints too tight raise thiS cutter. adjust the fi'nger ternpl ate forwarrl If the tail member projects s I ig htly~ set the template backwa rds. 5 MDdif~iing sockets If the sockets are 00 deep. keepinq the router le\fe~ and 'follovv~ng tbe template with the guide bush. WD'lrk Mount the tail member verticallv in the.

Ie! 'Ill ~'~ 1111111b elf' m Sst a cutting gaugB to the mickness of the pin member and scribe the joint sl10U lder nne o n the i ns ide . ' r l·.. Saw' end chisel ou the waste as de.Malrkill'g Bilid c--uiing the taiils M.v iIIlg tih I la III WI Sle Cut the double lap on the end of the 'tail member. Hesat 'the :gaug 9 to 'rnaten tile th ickness [Jff the tails onlv and mark the pin shoulder line across the inside face IOf the \~orkpiie[:8. Chalk' he end nra'ill and mark the shape of the pins. rrrkin g' . llse he sa me settl 119 "to scribe ths depth IOf the double lap on the ~nside face Bind edges. to make sure both surfaces arH.scrihed for cuttinq tile pins ~na lapped dovetail joint lsee page 90). :2 Relmo. the doublelapped dovetail is virtually 'U ndetecn ble when [be jO:~fI't Is ass mbled. narrow ' 'ilUl. 31 'Tri'mmi. used 'mmjm'lril~ or 'abrune~malting or box construcdon.. square parallel lines dowil 'to. l .and scua re'. Saw Sind cbrse II out the wa ste 's EH3 pa gltf~9'0). \ \ PIN IM.llltlin 11'Chile pi' D'S.d 0 end grain.n g II n d C. ace and edg:es o· the tall member.lalp on the end of the pin member. 'fol~[Jwing the gauged IJ'ines w~th a dovetafi saw. flat . workjng 'from the outside lace.s.ki. Iq.ng! trU2J lap If necessary. scribe a line across the' end grain and de n to' the shoulder I ins on both sdgs. Frnrn hBSH marks..Excep~for '3. the shou lder Ii 118 on the inside tare.EMBER IMI. 5 M 31 r'. Ress't the gauglE! to the width of the doubts lap and. trim t~s Sindgrain and the lnsiee of the double lap with a shou lder plane. usl Ilg the ta i Is: as a 'template.ark out the ta i Is with a den/etai I templata and sq uars 'heir ips across the end grain . SCf'ibe he wid h 0 the.

wDrking from each end tOWHI"dS.iingl the pins. 3 CIUU iillig '~h pius.~e mlitre O~ reach 8. If necessary.A home-made cardboard dovetail template wlll help space the pins regularly. to as a secret mitred doveall. TA~L PdElM!BElR PIN MEM66R 1 Markinlg IgUlid. rurn ing from the shoulderline to' he outside corner. Cut and trlm the lap on each component (sse opposite].e to 6m'm (~in) and scribe a line parallel with each edge of r r 4 Be. requires careful marking and ell tting. Square parallel lines across the. components are tie same thickness. Cut t.i rig the same settl Ilg scribe the depth of'. running up trom the shou Idar line and across the and gra into the ap.HAND CUT A ID11Ut'ed. Set out the Dins with a shou lder pla 18. foillowin'g the marked line with a saw.vlelnngl the ~Iilpl T rim the Isp to a mitred edge with a chisel. he mitre lap 011 the inside face. fin i sh the work. and scri ne a shou lder Ii nJB across the inside "race' of leach component Usingl a marki~g krli. Set a marking gaug.. Cut the tails and mitres as described 'for the! pins.¥ ilich is typically used when .e lines Set a cuttinq gauge to match the thickness of me 'wood. Beset the gauge to the thickness of the mitre lap and] work~rlg' from the outs ids. ITR I . face sen be a line ac rDSS the! e~nd 9 ra in" Us. end grain TO mark the tips of the tails. dovetail. e From the marks drawr on the end grai'n~ square paralle~ lines down to thH shoulder ()'Il he' inside face. ~ to usual prac lee cum the p ins fi st and use them a· 'a. mark the m itrs on both edgresl. Seri be around the pins to mark this shape of the tails. Contra'. template for marking the tails. and mitre t!hre lap in the same way. Holding the pin member on end align its inside face with the shoulder line marked across the ta i I member. .'f's and mnre squa re.OgS!.DOVIJAIL JOINTS both. Since it is entirely bidden it is sometimes referred. between hese lines . :5 Malrkiolg and clotting title tails Lay the tail member flat on a bench. 2 Mark. Saw and c:hisel out the waste bHtvveen the pins (see pape 910)" llon't worry if you saw' into the lap. the' middle.

.ruj tred bun] . IC:lIJlIrH ii n!g 'Ihll! I" ImlVlllii!)1 s ~ 1'_ in the cradle.8 ct:adle trom MDF to hold the. Move' he work stdewavs.'nt reinforo d w~ anered splines that create a deco raUve ~l corner ellec' jml'~·al"n ~l'[)t'll'a ranee to th €'D·i gm'. p~" e th 18 wor piece S y In s rn .AK:lING A CiR.iing doveta'i~1 spl~jne:5 Use the router to machine a '2 Fitf'og. . and 'feed the jig iWI11 the cutter. . then make the next Gut Continue In the same way to cut e! the dovetai I slots.g in the base betore you aSS'B'mble me basic jig with glue.tUl.t. snugly in the doveta i I slots.OLE JIII.' 0 make the first slot.OllH ..1t G BOA:ElD Ii! DVE1i\~~ sinr . Hu nning the. alrgning one edge with the marked line.ng :st'rilp strip of wood 'that fits.1o tin theIe era ~8.·. M. CB. saw off' he waste and plane 'he spines flush.. I "I. in the centre of 'be cradle. Cut the strip ~l1tashort Ile~gths and g~ one 1ntn ule each slot. Select a straiqht cutter that matches the w~dth of tile. Set the router to cut a doveta# siD. 8ssenlbled workpiflc e e t 4. Jle! [IoCla-~.~'n'lfar the jig bass.8 [·.G Construe t . 1 Cunilllig the' dov'e'ulil~ slot: MeaslJlre the width of the mitre used to construct the box or carcase.all rectangvlar openin. aceura. llIALF-'M Ir'[RE .5 degrees to th'e (outer rabIe". slipping thB first slot over the locatinq strip. Mac. Whs'n the glue SEHs..hlne a sm. i step is to construct the bO:K or carca c wrutb ~Lgllli.wnpin 0 ac nvennonal dcn.kl"-..ms a. and set the depth o'f cur nn the router to ha I'f'tl1a't width p:1us 6mlm (Xs.Jed mitre ]oint at each corner see' pages 20~22). Mlach i ne a straiqht slot to one side of the dovetail slot with the distance between' ham equal to the required spacing of 'the splines.. Set up the fence and fi~so that the dovetail cutter fits adle Ilare. _I IlElill!JJ!U ~~al'k. ..'~·1 "'I'h'l . j ig' alonq a 6mm 1~Y4i'lr~)il ick fence cI am pad t to the router table.l!!JAn ! SUPPI]Plf 12milm ~i'nl) SUD f. dovetail slot at its base. machine a dovetail slot in the centre I of lh e erad Ie. Glue a tigI1t-'fittJng strip of 'VIJDod lnto it Mlsrk a line centrally between the dovetail slot and ths locati ng strip.JOlT Th ' me ck d·'. I' 12mm tH!lln ~ TnIIANlCl.elail joint The firs~ I.".

III • .

The exact size and spacing of fingers will be determlned by the width of you' . where the enning edge noves from side to side vvm.~in)1 from the face of the board.. rely to the tenea. Ad] ust the blade hs i gilt to just over the thickness.. and remove the loose stri p. . [il~ "I ~.: . '-11 .' . '" " " Ii .~ cannot compare with the production.iig Remove the cia rnp and sl ide the Jig skjeways..-·f:· "". I. RepIace the cramp and Clit the next slot. workpiece. .Tl1011gh .thearl revolution. for wider spacing use wobble washers. '. 1 IS not t000 c difflcult to cut batches of finger joints on a. then midke one cut to leave a finqer-width slot i:n the clamped board. . Hold it in place with a G-cramp.tlng tongue. : ' fa' e 0 a commerciar m spn "He mould er. sandwiching the offcut from the' planed strip between ..he tongu-e and saw blade" Clamp or screw the board S9 CU 1 . you can clamp a number of pieces togs her and cut them s i multancouslv.ot the intended workpiece. Use a blade that will cut a generous kerf between fingers or..? 2 C:IIUii' n 01 and' ~Io catilng the work Feed the work ~nto the blade to cut tne f rs slot then unclamp the work and fit the slot over the tongue.lakin!g the' ~fllg Clamp a lel1gth of wood or MDF to the saw's sliding mitre failles."" lt '. formling: a angue that projects about 38mm '1 J.tioning the .. table saw using a simple j . 1 C~amlpingthe work Stand the work on end and butt it against the proj8'c.'_g. 1 .FiHi~nglthe 'tongue Plane a I'ength of hardwood to make a snuq flit in the sIat Cut ot a short strip and glue iit into the slot.""1 ". 2: . 3 Posi. .c. Although onlv one workpiece iis shown hers.

adjusting the . Clamp four wotkpieces together on the raised table~ witl1 their ends prajec ing by the required depth of cut.lTRIP I I 5 Cutting tine seco'Dld row of fi gersRemove the loose strip and saw a notch j'n the ledge: of the work.es. .and terce mEJde from MDF. 4 eil a IUrpi. r '. n g mhli) oth e r [lIIra n: of th e J 01i[It This row of fingers in the second component is offset to fit between thle fingers you have just cut Clamp the work as b efore.~~tsrl ~ on [3 p.' Diing nngers Continue in the same way until you have coropleted the row of 'fingers" To cut a simi' ar joint at the other lend effl' [0 r'DW Oi:' 'he workpiece. but sandwich the offcut strip between it and this tongue. 'two c. .: [I • • I I iPACKINGI S. blade in EJhorizontal plane. To cut fingerjolnts on s radial-arm saw. Flip the work over to Gut the 0 the. To support the wa«.rs for one half of each' joint raise twoot the components on a packing strip that equals the width 0 f the s. in the raised wDrkpiec. Remove the c amp. Begin bv.:e. J Rlilse.omplG!n::.aw cut. teplsce the saw's main guide fence wi. then lower me blade in stages to Gut . rotate the mDunting to set the. 3 e. a nd Hap-eat the seq uence 61 PhJnilllg 'thle 'f~ngllers 'f~ush Assam biB the ioims anri when the Q<lue has set plane flush the ends of the slightly projecting finqers..fiNGER JIIIINVS I.equallv spaced fingers on all fDur components si[nultaneous!y. and c I. ~~ishinq with n another notch at me far edge.. T(J offset the finge.r end." 1"1. turn it end-for-end butting the same edge age inst t~s~torque.blade to cut open notches.iUl: king :stri P ~~-J(t.amp it aga in Gut a row of f nqars as descri bed above. sude "the work to locate the notch over the tongue.th B' small tsisea table .d~~4.

6'1oe a locating st. saw blade degree'S and rfpping IS 90-degrras (0 45 IMllllk~nl. vooa. :2 f'fttill. p'~'ane' flush. Jeng'th 0. 011""U'UCt.e a cradle jig as described 'or a mock doveta]~ tsee page 914t but rout 81 s~raigl.11 'Mak. using the SB'W'S mitre fence lO teed tl7e jigl V~sha{Je notch down 1I.andcut two slots eaos: the base~about oae tl1ird of the way along" the jig. . ~.0C.. . G I UEl them In place and when the adhesive has set.(jl1l111 .E 1\ first sight '~lIE'mock m1' " n" ~ oint loc ks identical [. illt cLn be' cut '\~~Ih 'I powe '"router O'~'1on a 'Cable saw.e.g 'IJllIle splll~IISi Plane a strip D f wood to be a snug "~itin the slots and cut it in to 'SO-degree tri a:ng Ia's to rna k e s I ~Ig t~ hy oversize spl ines. the centre oi a sharf. US:~[NGA t'_ B:LE IS=.8 snuq-fi ring strip of wood Into the second slot.~n) [ein_orting spUne.lat 'for the loc:a"ing strip Bmrn 04in} to one side. plaine them 'flush.ru n. the workpiece with glued mnrnu"E' [oints.S'TlA:1P 1 S: letti 1110 ttl I 'WClI r kpl'i e e e P~.rip in one stat and proceed to cut the joint as described above.to match Ihe r.~ o however.0 ~he genuin . yo -1 iotiee the fingers are fJOI~ staggered. 11~is ~u::tt1al1ya mitre joint with . GhJ9' . Whlc'leveI. Feed the work into ths router cutter to machine the 'first slot Place the s lot over thlB toea ti I1lg stri D tlO repos ition tile workpiece tor cutbng the next slot Continue ~na similar way until you have machined the row of s~ots.--Make fJ "slmpltJ jig by tilting .-.acethe assembled workpiece i'n 'the cradle. Set the blade u{Jrigi7t .t olmm ('Y4. rti ell ':' on close _~ insp.f 5Dx 100mm (2 x 41n) so .in) wide slot in the centre of the cradle and another idernica I s.' method you adopt.SPU .i i.the.'ct.ATiI NG.quired interoa I between 'finrlefS~i and if you want splines wider than me s tanda rei' sa w kfjr~ fit wobble W8. she rs. with one edge butted aga~nst the i[)cating strip. Space the slots . first '.g a IOIIU]I)Sr . ieeve about 6mm (~in) of woad just below me no tell.

.

14. ha If of ths. draw a elrcle in each squa re. Ihe flxed part of each bracket is screwed ~ottl e --.alfK out the chamfers by dra __ lines' hrough the DI] i [l s whsre ing each e i. SliCJiU lders tlO 2 Draw~ng eireles W]'rh the paini of a en pass centred on the i ntersection of the dlaqonala. However. . Square these Ii nes all round both workplecas.8w diaqonals across the squares lormed on each edge.D cur T The p'ivoUng wood brJ.e~L ~ I Marking 3 . equa~ to the th lckness of the wood.a'lo[l~ each marked cils'mfer line.~_IrikIIl.I'~are ~1 o.id e l- .ec. s lllDed I!O th. ef mall table are ometinH. "Ii ~ o lIt: thl! joiint5 Set a cuttingl gaugl8 to the thickness of' the wood. II. e 'ail of d~ lib le~ .side ratls u ~tbm tal bu~t hinges. lntesral kn ickle joint. brackets that support the Ugllt\\Jle~gl .. i ~I'e ella mters a re eu t a lonlg the kn uckle aII ow the pivoting. M. and scribe a ~i al round both halves of the bracket. t made pie e.g t'h e c ihI _ rl. • . rcl 8 bisects the diag[)na Is. O'llil-f[lig 'Ih e Wil'sts' R Saw . [)r. bracket to move freelv. thOlIY are t['adlUO:llally made with el ut.I[ drop' 1-ave'.. of the workiJi.th.nly '-c ~-ronger but also n ore sympt thettc 'UJ a ~Del. down UJ the circumference of the circlEL then chi'ssl out the waste' an tlhe knuckle sidle of ins kerf.IHa~. na parallel witll the jointed ends.

5 IPI.Marking the Iknlllickle:s Shape the knuckle end of each wnrkpi Bee with a pia niB and wood fll eS then use a mlarking gallge to divide the rounded sections into five equal parts. accurate. o J 9 Inserting . Shape '~heopen ends (l thiS shoulder with an in-canna gouge. "ine three.lly cu ' each ehamter with a shoulder plane. Try 'he joint for fi'" ~ and rel ieve any tight spots • h. ne. shape the concave shoulder between the knuckles by scooping out the wood wi -h a chisel held bevel-downwards. .the hilHlge plin l 7 CUlliing . 8 Trimming the el~ld:5.a 45~·de.a else' I' or" f'-I. the chamfer.gr~sguide block clamped to the work.e a sn ug-fit i 119 brass hinqe pi n. bore a hole down the centre of he kn uckles. 'if) tak. knuckles on one end and t\N[J that i ms ~I! ck with them on the other. Hatch the wasta to de. hl Witll~. joint and clamp.sning the chamfer Using . and remove most of ths waste with a coping saw. Ii ~~ ~~ ~. j 6. Working from each side towards the~ midcHe.. it between DNO stout battens to !keep both components perfect~y a Iignsd. Assemble the knuckle. lap the pin iin place and file both ends flush.the knuckilies Saw alonqside Bach knuckle down to.Using a drl II press. ~~ ~ ~ w ~~ ~ ~ I~ ~: ft ~-_~ .

Tile distance between the two gauged lines represents the radi us of the ru I8 joint. 'working from the undersides of both components. bu: make the concave cutter very sl/ghtly smetier. FACE S~II)E FAtE . . :SIDlE 1 G'ilulging the edge's '~~--'!jj.3 M[.0 pivot. 1 .8 Ii 118: across the face s i'de ot the . and seri be a line a~ong each edge to be moulded.. fixed top and across the ' unde rside of the leaf..''With a cuttinq gauge set to "..' TOP I S8't a marking Igallge to match the radii' s of thH hi 11g8 knuckle.:. I'. I . red ius on each edgl8.. OILe on a fh'~d table top and the other on a hinged mea'. Ma rk the edges s:im i I..A S:CRA1'CIH STD. Rale-ioh t mouldings are cut before tl e final shapi ng of d Ie table op ar d leaves..~.make a work~ng from the face side of each workpiece. scratch stock from hardwood or plywood and prepare a pair of matched cutters from steel sheet File the exact radius curve on the convex cutter.. Its function is to conceal special back-flap l lnges screwed to the undersid ·'S of the top :and ~eaf This type of hinge bas flaps of different len th the longer one beine screwed to the leaf....HAND cur T.CK To shape me edges of'both woooeces. other.. this radi US~ scrl be .. Continue the n nes j ust onto t 118 neighbouring edqes.Cut a ea rd ternola e for marki ng . IMAKI ' G . ..and scribe similar parallel lines... The rule j O]. 2 [ ~'Jarkilog the rabbet Beset the gauge to the depth ot the joint rabb~tabout 3mm O'sin) . ~~':-..IlBLE lO1P This is not a truewoodworking j oint in the conventioi al sense: since it does not physical y attach one component '~O an.[1t comprises tv 0 moulded edges.. _i. tl at are designe l ..ar!y rand ha ch the waste..~ .arkilng the wid1th . one around the orh r as the leaf is raised and lowered. ~---=-'l'H'· MSfkin'g tlbe radlus Ustng the scribed lines as g~iid8S~draw tha ru le-joint . the leaf.

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