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. Perspecta: The Yale Architectural Journal.Christian Norberg-Schulz Christian Norberg-Schulz 61 61 Heidegger'sThinkingon Architecture Caspar David Friedrich. "The Temple of Juno at Agrigentum. Volume 20 0079-0958/83/20061-008$3.00/0 ? 1983 by Perspecta: The Yale Architectural Journal. and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology ." 1830. Inc.
"he explicitly refers to the art of building. Standing there. a work of art. though itself apparently glowing only by the grace of the sun. Standing there. the god is present in the temple. the work of art does not represent. The temple. When Heidegger mentions the temple. We shall get closer to what is. This presence of the god is in itself the extension and delimitation of the precinct as a holy precinct. an eye for how differently everything then faces us. An exposition of Heidegger's thinking on architecture therefore ought to be a part of our interpretation of his philosophy. done for its own sake.Christian Norberg-Schulz 62 62 Heidegger did not leave us any text on architecture. only to represent incidentally also a fitting environment for the temple. or may be. Thought. yet it plays an important role in his philosophy. pp. 2 Poetry. Heidegger defines this something as "truth. 41ff.The steadfastness of the work contrasts with the surge of the surf. the building rests on the rocky ground. The temple's firm towering makes visible the invisible space of air. Deliberately he chooses to describe a work "that cannot be ranked as representational. assuming of course that we have. The Greeks called this emerging and rising in itself and in all things phusis. the breadth of the sky." That is. do not fade away into the indefinite. The temple-work. which we shall use as our point of departure: A building. portrays nothing. reveals nothing. that on which and in which man bases his dwelling. also. This resting of the work draws up out of the rock the mystery of that rock's clumsy yet spontaneous support. 1971). The temple and its precinct. and how is it done? The quotation indicates answers to both questions. or with the merely astronomical idea of a planet. snake and cricket first enter into their distinctive shapes and thus come to appear as what they are. it brings something into presence. and its own repose brings out the raging of the sea. but we shall also have to refer to other writings 1 Martin Heidegger."2 The example moreover shows that a building according to Heidegger is. Tree and grass. Mere reversing. Language. It is the templework that first fits together and at the same time gathers around itself the unity of those paths and relations in which birth and death. ed. however. eagle and bull. rather it presents. In the things that arise. which one fine day is added to what is already there. But men and animals. endurance and decline acquire the shape of destiny for human being. yet first brings to light the light of the day. It clears and illuminates. which itself only thus emerges as native ground. a Greek temple. Language. plants and things. the darkness of the night. Such an exposition may also contribute to a better understanding of the complex environmental problems of our time. p."a major example is taken from architecture. The all-governing expanse of this open relational context is the world of this historical people.' What does this passage tell us? Firstof all we have to consider the context in which the quotation is used. opens up a world and at the same time sets this world back again on earth. As a work of art the building "preserves truth. The luster and gleam of the stone. We call this ground the earth. What this word says is not to be associated with the idea of a mass or matter deposited somewhere. disaster and blessing.if we think of all this in reverse order. The building encloses the figure of the god. first gives to things their look and to men their outlook on themselves. Hofstadter (New York:Harper& Row. It simply stands there in the middle of the rock-cleftvalley. are never present and familiar as unchangeable objects. to begin with. earth is present as the sheltering agent. Poetry. he does so to illuminate the nature of the work of art. Only from and in this expanse does the nation first return to itself for the fulfillment of its vocation. victory and disgrace. in its standing there. In his essay "The Origin of the Workof Art. His concept of being-inthe-world implies a man-made environment." Whatis thus preserved. Thought. rather. Earth is that whence the arising brings back and shelters everything that arises without violation. the building holds its ground against the storm raging above it and so first makes the storm itself manifest in its violence. standing there. . By means of the temple. and in this concealment lets it stand out into the holy precinct through the open portico. 36. and when discussing the problem of "dwelling poetically.
Thus he says: how. the sea. which taneously with the housing of the god. p. between joy and pain. as was already suggested by held forth into the Open by the work. wants to remind us of the fact that our To understand what all this means. whereby a of the weather.6The mirror-playmay Heidegger's interpretation of architecture be understood as an open "between. at a better understanding of Heidegger's As the totality of things.the temple makes the god present. the hidden sway of the divinities the done simulbut it is implied that this is god emerges as what he is. is taken care of called mortals because they can die. fecit' that is to be made known. and even the light later writings he offers an interpretation of this wherein as a fourfold of earth. that Heidegger's world is a conis to be Rather. They all belong tobut that the building first makes the which constigether in a "mirror-play" things emerge as what they are. stands there. we everyday life-world really consists of concrete things. the world is howtheory. finally. They are tion of the earth. p. 5 Poetry. are.Christian Norberg-Schulz 63 63 4 Martin Heidegger.the word means the ly. the naThe what in our question comprises three ture of world can only be indicated." Both words are important. Again we may and at the same time sets this world back feel bewilderment. thus. mirrorsthe others. Out of tiny of the people present.5 ing this. ment. Neske. and death. and consider man or society its origin. the drifting clouds In holy precinct for the god is formed. and towers into the air. Thought. tutes the world. The ing with its fruits. cepts. the course are certainly not introduced as an ornaof the moon. In his essay on Johan Peter Hebel. 179. and blue depth of the ether. tending water and it temple does not stand anywhere. In "The Origin of the Workof Art" Heidegger does not offer any true explanation.and ontologically as the Being of these fhings. mortals and divinities. Hebel der Hausfreund(Pfullingen: G. 3 Poetry. In general. 178. Second. 65. see." and calls this however.7We 'N. Evidently Heidegger into work. Today Heidegger in fact talks about man's stay we are used to thinking of art in terms of "between earth and sky. of the day and the darkness of the night." wherein things appear as what they as a "setting-into-work of truth" is new. In particular. the light and are built in particular. p." In doing this. emphasizes that "it is not the "multifariousbetween" the world. In doas death. Language. 93. Thought.N. shapes the destiny of human being. Language. The visualizamortals are human beings. rather than the abstractions look at the second question. Thought. . the temple makes all the things of the wherein a human being is living. between birth expression and representation. it sets truth of world in terms of physical.4In his earth visible: the rock." In Being and Time. 1957). the temple "opens up a world sky. The mately related to the place. between work and word. it fits together what world ontically as the totality of things. nourishing there.prominent places. Language. the given place possesses a hidden meaning which is revealed by the The divinities are the beckoning temple. however.the simple 'factum est' crete totality. First. it is and thing are hence interdependent conwhich we have to consider to arrive given here and now. removes him from any comparison that is: the fate of the people is also intiwith beings that are present. dusk of day. Being and Time (New York:Harper. it gives to things their look. World the Greek temple. p. 1962). the temple's standing. 13. Thus it rests on by To die means to be capable of death the ground. Heidegger. Fourtimes Heidegger repeats that the temple does what it does by "standEarth is the building bearer. and may even seem bewildering. being used to thinking again on earth. the plants. rock. the air. and he even remarks that "here. the animals. "in the middle of the rockcleft valley."The words rock-cleftvalley The sky is the sun's path. the clemency and inclemency extension and delimitation. Ratherthey indicate that temples the year's seasons. the gloom and glow of By means of the building the place gets night. the glitter of the stars. of Heidegger's to arrive at the needed understanding. Final. social or cultural structures. plant and animal. he defines components. Heidegger also emphasizes that the temEach of the four is what it is because it ple is not added to what is already there. 6 Poetry."3 the references made in the discussion of T'hisfactum is revealed when a world is opened up to give things their look. other words. p. Ratherthan being conceived as a distant world of ideas. is not explicit. How the building makes the desmessengers of the godhead. 7 Martin Heidegger. the may of science.
8 Poetry. also gather the fourfold. based on habit and convention.'6 Language's own nature is poetical. . fruit tree. 12 Poetry. Human life takes place on earth. first brings beings to word and to appearance. 200. that is. Thought. for an historical people it's earth. Of course. he cannot accept the interpretation of language as a means of communication. the temple relates to all of them. and a world is opened up.. is the thingness of the things. the earth." Man dwells in language.. Language. the human beings. tifully shown by Heidegger in his analysis of Trakl'spoem "AWinter Evening. Heidegger calls this to "dwell poetically. By contrast. is the origin of poetical images? Heidegger answers explicitly: ."2 "Lan- it from the telling of language. It is. and the bridge makes this fact manifest. gate. Thought. 73. Language. as is a bridge. Thought. p. thus. [We receive] 10 Poetry. 58ff. however. p. Language. bridge. copies and imitations are mere variations on the genuine image . Thought. whereas the bridge is a building which discloses more comprehensive properties of the surroundings. The jug. the selfclosing ground on which it rests together with everything that already is. Language keeps the world but is used to say a world. only when and only as long as [we respect] language's own nature."'3 The last quotation shows that in order to grasp Heidegger's theory of art we also have to consider his notion of language. and is deliberately created to reveal a world. The banks emerge as banks only as the bridge crosses the stream. In this kind of thought language comes to play a primary role as a source of understanding. jug. Thought. Heidegger accordingly defines language as the "House of Being.."8Thus he says: "Things visit mortals with a world. and they gather the fourfold each in their own way. p."9 Heidegger also offers examples to illustrate the nature of the thing. 74. 11 Being and Time. at the same time as they are united into a "simple onefold. Language. 174.p. its world. is opened up." The temple is manmade. A jug is a thing. he introduced the term Andenken to indicate that kind of genuine thought which is needed to disclose a thing as a gathering. p. Just as he does not understand art as representation. Language. Language is therefore the original art. and when we use language poetically the house of being is opened. 15 We may in this context be reminded of Rilke'sIX Elegy: "Arewe perhaps here to say: house. . but to denote things that are disclosed through the gathering of the bridge. When things are named for the first time. It does not just connect banks that are already there. and "the nature of the image is to let something be seen." 16 Poetry. p.. This disclosure happens in poetry. Thought. fountain.. by naming beings for the first time. Language. p. What Heidegger wants to reveal in his examples. p. This is the earth and. 18 Poetry. ever not a mere collection of objects. p. Language. however. Language. Thought.10 guage..however.. implicitly. The words "earth" and "landscape" are not used here as mere topographical concepts. Both examples are relevant in our context. which lets the invisible be seen . window-at best: column. and discloses "that into which human being as historical is already cast. then. 215. In Being and Time the technique used was called "phenomenology."15 Thus he says: But where do we humans get our information about the nature of dwelling and poetry? . 14 Poetry. Language. the world they gather. and in general in language which "itself is poetry in the essential sense."'4 The quotation is important because it tells us that the earth and the world of an historical people are what they are because they are related to the earth and the world in general."18 What. Before they were just transient phenomena. 194ff. which prevails in virtue of the relation of human being to the unconcealedness of Being. and. tower. When Heidegger wrote "The Origin of the Workof Art" he had not yet arrived at the concept of the fourfold. Poetry speaks in images. 9 Poetry. Thus Heidegger says: The bridge gathers the earth as landscape around the stream . Thought. p.the sky. but the names keep them. and makes them appear as what they are. forms part of that equipment which constitutes man's proximal environment.Christian Norberg-Schulz Christian Norberg-Schulz 64 13 Poetry. Heidegger says. 75. 226. When Heidegger understands the thing as a manifestation of the fourfold he revives the original meaning of thing as a coming together or "gathering. and an authentic existence becomes possible. though still hidden from itself. . As a thing. Thought. but in the description of the Greek temple all the elements are there: the god. The bridge thus makes a place come into presence. at the same time as its elements emerge as what they are. they are recognized as what they are." 7 What this means is beau- 17 Poetry. 152. and ask for an interpretation which discloses their thingness. that is: when he listens to and responds to language the world which he is."" Later. Naturalthings.
Heidegger explicitly considers villages and cities "buildings"in this context.p." Here we must. Heidegger in fact emphasizes that "Staying with things is the only way in which the fourfold stay within the fourfold is accomplished at any time . What. and he adds: "Yet image formed rests in the poem. and the things which constitute the place have to be dis- closed in their immediate presence. understand "thought" in the sense of Andenken. sunset and midnight. memory is kept in language." Heidegger points out that the Greeks already understood the relation between memory and poetry. "Only image formed keeps the vision. Language."23 Therefore "mortals nurse and nurture things that grow. 20 Poetry.Christian Norberg-Schulz Christian Norberg-Schulz 65 65 19 Martin Heidegger. p. Being a goddess. Thus the building defines a precinct. 135. Thought. This landscape is brought close to us by the buildings. The discussion of the Greek temple indicates the nature of spatiality. in particular works of architecture. 151.28 Already in his early magnum opus. What is gathered. which implies that the memories which give rise to art are our understanding of the relationship between earth and sky. it does not exhaust the disclosure of truth. In Being and Time Heidegger points out that "what is withinthe-world . but its thingness is hidden and has to be disclosed by a work. He also mentions sunrise. he "saves the earth. 11. it becomes part of the immediate here and now. VortrageundAufsatze II (Pfullingen:G. 13. Mnemosyne is also simultaneously human and divine. Van Gogh's painting may be called a representational image. the notion of the fourfold was implicit. 28 Being and Time.. Thus Heidegger says that a man dwells "between work and word. was the mother of the Muses. but a "lived space" between earth and sky.. In the Hebel essay Heidegger says: The buildings bring the earth as the inhabited landscape close to man and at the same time place the nearness of neighbourly dwelling under the expanse of the sky. Heidegger says. To them the goddess Mnemosyne." An inhabited landscape obviously is a known landscape. whereas a thing proper does not possess the quality of image. and radically different from the analytic categories of logic and science. By themselves. Thought. the work gives the world presence.. and her daughters are hence understood as the children of a complete world: earth. and are hence to be understood as non-representational images. which he relates to the regions of life and death. Gedachtnis. In his essay "Building Dwelling 27 Being and Time. p. p. isomorphic space.2' In "The Origin of the Work of Art" Heidegger shows how van Gogh's painting of a pair of peasant shoes reveals the thingness of the shoes. means "what has been thought. the landscape is revealed as what it is in truth. Although poetry is the original art. The poetic image is therefore truly integral. 151.. p. Language. receives the sky. p." Human life takes place between earth and sky in a concrete sense. or a space in the narrower sense of the word. 7. is also within space. we first have to say a few more words about man-made things as such. 22 Poetry. something that is gewohnt. but the work of art speaks for them.25 This statement offers a clue to the problem of architectural gathering. Thought. memory. 26 In Hebel der Hausfreund.. look to us. the most fugitive. p. as the disclosure of "thingness" or the "Being of beings. humans and divinities. midday. for rescue. and below as what is on the floor. is a landscape? A landscape is a space where human life takes place. that live only in passing ." But it also has to be "set-into-work.6 or in other words." The word opens up the world. however. Other works of art. . that is.22 When man stays with things in a fourfold way. Language. and specially construct things that do not grow. do not portray anything. A work is in addition a thing. Zeus needed memory to bring forth art: Mnemosyne herself was the daughter of the earth and the sky. It is this kind of disclosure which is accomplished by the Greek temple. In poetic language truth is brought "to word. the shoes are mute. 21 We may again recall Rilke'sIXElegy: "Andthese things. Thought. p. 23 Poetry. 25 Hebel der Hausfreund. 150."24 Buildings are such constructed things. 137. at the same time as it discloses the nature of this space by standing there. that is. It is therefore not a mathematical. Neither earth alone nor sky alone produces a work of art. but we have to emphasize that its quality as a work of art does not reside in its being a representation."'9 The German word for memory. which gather a world and allow for dwelling."20 In other words. Language. In the work the world is set back on earth. is the "inhabited landscape. As a gathering it mirrors the fourfold in its way. sky. whereby the latter is disclosed in its being. however. What is a non-representational image? To answer this question. that is. 24 Poetry. with Zeus as the father."27 and explains the concrete nature of this space referring to above as what is on the ceiling. Neske." Heidegger says. 1954). awaits the divinities and initiates the mortals." "Memory is the source of poetry. What a poem and a work of art have in common is the quality of image. In general he points out that spatiality (Raumlichkeit) is a property of being-in-the-world.
In a certain sense it stops outside architecture itself. 39 Poetry. The thingness of a building is hence determined by its being between earth and sky as a sculptural form. what is alien and what is habitual. In his analysis of Trakl's"A Winter Evening." Heidegger shows how the threshold carries the unity and difference of world and thing (earth). 33 Die Kunst und der Raum. p. as the word Riss means rift as well as plan."40 Here Heidegger's thinking on the art of building stops. and architecture may be defined as the making of places. saying that buildings are locations and that "the location admits the fourfold and installs the fourfold. Language. Ifwe refer this to our context. did not feel qualified to discuss. (space) originates from raumen. Thought. as it does not treat the problems of the architecturalGestalt as such. p. it is a thing rather than a mere geometrical diagram.' whereby we gain an important clue to the understanding of the architecturalimage. that is. 40 Poetry. as the Greeks recognized. 63. building is closer to the nature of space and to the origin of the nature of 'space' than any geometry and A mathematics. 158. 37 Poetry. Language.Architecture occurs in the boundary as an embodiment of world. "Building never shapes pure 'space' as a single entity . that is." saying: "This thinking on building does not presume to discover architectural ideas."37 boundary may also be understood as a threshold."39 be replaced by 'image.. p."Gestalt is the structure in whose shape the riftcomposes and submits itThe word Gestalt evidently could self. As the image comprises an elevation. let alone give rules for building. All the same. 35 Die Kunst und der Raum. They form part of a figure which discloses the spatiality in question. p. It is a gathering middle where an outlook on the world is opened up and set back on earth. he certainly laid a foundation for the 31 Martin Heidegger.Christian Norberg-Schulz Norberg-Schulz 66 66 29 Poetry. offers a measure to things. The simultaneous opening and keeping may be understood as a conflict which Heidegger calls the "rift"(Riss). the simply belong to the place. Thought. but to help man to get back to authentic dwelling. Thought. Language. Thought. Boundary and threshold are constituent elements of place. In a late essay "Artand Space. His aim was not to offer any explanation. the boundary is that from which A something begins its presencing."29 Admittance (Einraumen)and installment (Einrichten)are the two aspects of spatiality as location. 158. 36 Poetry. or in other words. that the fourfold is brought into a thing through the act of building. that is. is not a riftas a mere cleft is ripped open. 11. 1969). In German its nature is beautifully shown by language itself.38 a In building the threshold separates and simultaneously unites an outside and an inside. 10. 30 Poetry. 32 Die Kunst und der Raum."36 The world. These embodiments are the characters which constitute the place. Together. Gallen."33 are embodied by means of sculpplaces tural forms. 145. 64. The location makes room for the fourfold and simultaneously discloses the fourfold as a built thing. p. in gathering things "We must which here belong together."35 Heidegger's statements here may be related to his description of the temple as a body which stands. The earth thus keeps the world that is opened up. but is provided for by locations. In general this lines up with Heidegger's saying that the building sets the world back on earth. 63. by a plan and an elevation. Language. which he." Heidegger in more detail discusses the twofold nature of spatiality. Language. Thinking"Heidegger makes this more precise. the architectural image sets the rift "back into the heavy weight of stone.it is the intimacy with which opponents belong together. 38 Poetry. it brings the opposition of measure and boundary into their common outline." "The place opens a domain. the dark glow of colours. 12. (but) because it produces things as locations. 154. as a philosopher. plan and elevation make up a figure or Gestalt.. Thought. Die Kunst und der Raum (St. p. p. Language. we may say that a place is determined (be-dingt) by its boundary. rather. Language. Thought. "Standing there" as elevation. the "freeing of places for human dwelling. p. . Language. Thought. however."30 location or "lived space" is generally called a place. Space is therefore not given a priori. "The conflict. And in fact Heidegger starts his essay "Building Dwelling Thinking. Thought. as an embodiment of a difference." "The rift does not let the opponents break apart. whereby the twofold nature of spatiality again becomes apparent. 41 Poetry.3'First he points out that the German word Raum. 13. p. p. 202."32 learn to understand that the things themselves are the places and that they do not Second. in the sense of poiesis. thus. Thus Heidegger says: "A boundary is not that at which something stops but. that is. the dumb hardness of wood."4' The statement clearly shows that for Heidegger the arts have their particular professional problems. p. 34 Die Kunst und der Raum. The rift is fixed in place by a Grund-rissas well as an Auf-riss. rests and towers. whereas the earth as embodi- ment provides a boundary. p.34 Sculptural embodiment is therefore the "incarnation of the truth of Being in a work which founds its place. Setting back on earth means embodiment.
It is an embodied Gestalt."In our opinion.Christian Norberg-Schulz 67 67 42 It is interesting to notice that Heidegger's basic ideas on world. gable. 44 Heidegger's term Gegend (in Gelassenheit.4 their importance as types of images The Greek example in fact starts with the which visualize the basic structure of spaimage of a rock-cleftvalley and later retiality. 45 On several occasions Heidegger uses the German word Ort. It is the "luster and gleam of the stone which brings to light the light of the day. man also has to set truth into Heidegger does not offer any further exwork. Although the possibilities are infinite. pp. however. architectural landscape denominates the spatiality practice was founded on the concept of of the fourfold. The into presence consists in what it gathers.46Standing there. We all know some of these. the modes always comprised in the concept of spatiality. clarifyand organize the thoughts contained in "TheOriginof the Workof Art. These aspects are terms of spatiality. The general point of departure is the thought that the world only emerges as what it is." "resting. At a moment of the fourfold. The very fact that nominating a domain (Gegend) of things language names these things. "TheOriginof the Workof Art" (1935) does not represent a new departure. Pfullingen 1959. We could also say that inhabited field. as column. the same time as at delimit a precinct which admits they man's actions. it admits life to happen in a concrete place of rocks and plants." 48 We may infer that a theory and history of archetypes is urgently needed. Heidegger emphasized that "discourse is existentially equiprimordial with In state-of-mind and understanding. thing.) may be translated with "domain"or "region. the breadth of the sky. Between the two wars.45 function. and the world it brings ple. is founded by the poets. Thus Heidegger quotes Holderlin's dictum: Watbleibt aber." and man's access to the world is through listening and responding to language.4 But here we go beyond the limits fers to several concrete elements of earth of the present essay." remake a total world visible. stating that the work "opens up a world" and "first gives to things their look." Already in Being and Time. with insufficient possibilities for human ing. that is. words "extension. Man is in that this pragmatic approach leads to a this between. Standing there. The discussion of the Greek temthis as a thing. Heidegger's thinking shows great consistency and may certainly be understood as a "way. also stand. but only cerfer to modes of being-in-the-world in tain of its aspects.what remains. water and air. and comes into presence confusion and crisis. however." and "towering. Language names things which "visit man with a world. thus. and enter the field of and sky." "delimitation. the factum est. p. therefore. The primary purpose of architecture planation of the architecturalGestalt or is hence to make a world visible.dwelling. scape cannot be isolated from human life and from what is divine. stiften die Dichter. and lets him dwell poetically. and actschematic and characterless environment."42 To sum up."which got its classical manifest as a particularbetween of earth definition in the slogan "Formfollows and sky. when it is "said" or "set into work. to recall the terms used in Heidegger's description of the Greek temple. it may help us to arrive at an authentic understanding of our through the buildings which bring it close to man."The discussion of the Greek temple illustrates this idea. and demonstrated that his Andenken may bring us far "on the way to architecture. however. it is impossible to consider the world separately from language. implies that what is standing must be understood as a materialized image. we may repeat the main points of Heidegger's thinking on architecture. The natural and man-made things which constitute the boundaries of the be. Spatiality is a concrete term dearch. Heidegger explicitly distinguishes spaappear as variations on archetypes. suggests its nature." This sentence presents Heidegger's thinking on architecture in a nutshell! We have already pointed out that To give the world immediate presence. 43 Being and Time. resting. indem er die Dinge auf das Zusammengehoren in ihr versammelt. spatiality and building were implicit already in Being and Time (1927). the darkness of the night.""3 other words. light and darkness. as a place.for instance in "Artand Space" where we read: "DerOrt offnet jeweils eine Gegend. field. This spatiality becomes "functionalism." Evidently a work of architecture does not "standing. where the Grundriss mirrorsthe admittance and the Aufriss the mode of standing. we impatterns of practical use. A work of architecture therefore discloses the spatiality of the fourfold through its standing there. Duringthe last ply that man's being-in-the-world mirrors decades it has become increasingly clear the between of earth and sky."a metaphor he himself liked to use. But it also suggests that landarchitecturaltheory proper. which is understood as the House of Being. Thus they embody characters which mirror man's state-ofmind (Befindlichkeit). which is the ultimate aim of architecture. The problem of meaning in ar- . The inhabited Heidegger's thinking on architecture is of landscape therefore is a manifestation of great immediate interest. standing. 46 This is also how the world is described in Genesis I. The later essays on "TheThing"(1950) and "BuildingDwelling Thinking"(1951) as well as the late text on "Artand Space" (1969).47Thus it brings the inhabited landscape close to man. rest and tower. 38ff. hardly intending it in a radicalfunctionalist sense. be derived directly from the When we say that life takes place. tiality from space in a mathematical sense. tween. animals and men. 47 It is therefore something more than a matter of convenience when architects present their projects by means of plans and elevations. proves which constitute an inhabited landscape. It does image. dome. but rather brings us a step further on the way. 203."49 The architecturalsolution should. 49 Louis Sullivan who coined the phrase. or tower." A work of architecture is therefore not an abstract organization of space.
and work. Broadbent. and C.the structure of dwelling. Norberg-Schulz. inescapable for dwelling. 227. This is apparent in architectural practice. 55 Poetry.51Considering architectural forms as representations of something else.52By means of the concepts of world. Norberg-Schulz.. Thought.. whereby architecture is understood as a system of conventional signs. proved incapable of explaining works of architecture as such. each in its own way. Symbols and Architecture (Chichester:Wiley.1979). and his Andenken is certainly the method we need to gain a fuller understanding of the things themselves. to the things themselves.Heidegger and the Language of Architecture. 51 See G. eds. he leads us out of the impasse of scientific abstraction."Chicago:vision and image. . and back to what is concrete. Meaning in Architecture (London: Design YearbookLimited. Jencks and G. In his essay "Building Dwelling Thinking. Here Heidegger comes to our rescue. Through such a poetical Andenken we take "the measure for architecture. we have to give thought to the thingness of things in order to arrive at a total vision of our world. chitecture has therefore come to the fore. that the problems are solved. it has mostly been approached in semiological terms. Thought. Baird. semiological analysis has." New Chicago Architecture (Chicago: Rizzoli. where functionalism is being abandoned while a new architecture of images is emerging. however. that is. ." Oppositions 18 (New York. His thinking on architecture as a visualization of truth restores its artistic dimension and hence its human significance. 1980). Today we are only at a beginning." Heidegger in fact concludes that "thinking itself belongs to dwelling in the same sense as building . p. Language. Building and think- ing are. thing. Bunt."55 . however. Jencks.50So far. 53 See C. This does not mean. 150. p. Signs.eds.Christian Norberg-Schulz 68 68 50 See C. See C. 1969). "Kahn.53Heidegger's thinking may help us to understand what this implies. 54 Poetry. 1981).whose conception of architecture comes surprisinglyclose to Heidegger's thinking. 52 This was also accomplished by Louis Kahn. R."54In other words. Language.
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