This article is about change management related to organizational development and people.

For other uses, see Change management. Change Management is a structured approach to transitioning individuals, teams, and organizations from a current state to a desired future state. The current definition of Change Management includes both organizational change management processes and individual change management models, which together are used to manage the people side of change.

[hide] • 1 Individual change management • • • • • 1.1 Unfreeze-Change-Refreeze 1.2 Κ  β λ ε ρ − Ρ ο σ σ 1.3 Φ ο ρ µ υ λ α 1.4 Α ∆ Κ Α Ρ φορ Χηα ν γ ε

2 Organizational change management • • 2.1 Dynamic conservatism 2.2 Τ η ε ρ ο λ ε µα ν α γ ε µ ε ν τ οφ τη ε

3 Other Approaches to Managing Change • 3.1 The constructionist principle

• • • •

4 See also 5 Ρεφ ε ρ ε ν χ ε σ 6 Φυ ρ τ η ε ρ 7 Εξ τ ε ρ ν α λ ρεα δ ι ν γ λινκ σ

[edit] Individual change management
A number of models are available for understanding the transitioning of individuals through the phases of change management and strengthening organizational development initiative in both government and corporate sectors.

[edit] Kübler-Ross Some change theories are based on derivatives of the Kübler-Ross model from Elizabeth Kubler-Ross's book. Defense mechanisms have to be bypassed. tactical action must be stronger than the resistance within the organisation in order for meaningful changes to occur. We are aware that the old ways are being challenged but we do not have a clear picture to replace them with yet. and (e) consolidating and institutionalising the new state. The Formula illustrates that the combination of organisational dissatisfaction. . This is typically a period of confusion and transition. In the second stage the change occurs. vision for the future and the possibility of immediate. "transit" (crossing unknown territory). Tannenbaum & Hanna (1985) suggest a change process where movement is from "homeostasis and holding on". and "entry" (attaining a new equilibrium). The third and final stage he called "freezing" (often called "refreezing" by others). The new mindset is crystallizing and one's comfort level is returning to previous levels. (d) changing from the status quo to a desired state. Although elaborating the process to five stages. "On Death and Dying. Derivatives of her model applied in other settings such as the workplace show that similar emotional states are encountered as individuals are confronted with change. (b) communicating the change. (c) gaining acceptance of new behaviours. It involved overcoming inertia and dismantling the existing "mindset".[edit] Unfreeze-Change-Refreeze An early model of change developed by Kurt Lewin described change as a three-stage process[1]. This threestage approach to change is also adopted by Hughes (1991) who makes reference to: "exit" (departing from an existing state)." The stages of Kubler-Ross's model describe the personal and emotional states that a person typically encounters when dealing with loss of a loved one. Rosch (2002) argues that this often quoted three-stage version of Lewin’s approach is an oversimplification and that his theory was actually more complex and owed more to physics than behavioural science. through "dying and letting go" to "rebirth and moving on". The first stage he called "unfreezing". staged model of implementing a change: (a) analysing and planning the change. Later theorists have however remained resolute in their interpretation of the force field model. [edit] Formula for Change A Formula for Change was developed by Richard Beckhard and David Gleicher and is sometimes referred to as Gleicher's Formula. Judson (1991) still proposes a linear.

rewards and reinforcement). Organizational change management processes include techniques for creating a change management strategy (readiness assessments). building awareness of the need for change (communications). and methods to sustain the change (measurement systems. This process being one of 'learning'. These ideas are further expanded on within his frame work of 'reflection-in-action'[3]. These tools include a structured approach that can be used to effectively transition groups or organizations through change. The building blocks of the ADKAR Model include: Awareness – of why the change is needed Desire – to support and participate in the change Knowledge – of how to change Ability – to implement new skills and behaviors Reinforcement – to sustain the change [edit] Organizational change management Organizational change management includes processes and tools for managing the people side of the change at an organizational level. When combined with an understanding of individual change management. This model describes five required building blocks for change to be realized successfully on an individual level. helping employees move through the transition (coaching by managers and supervisors).[edit] ADKAR The ADKAR model for individual change management was developed by Prosci [2] with input from more than 1000 organizations from 59 countries. developing skills and knowledge to support the change(education and training). [edit] Dynamic conservatism This model[2] by Donald Schön explores the inherent nature of organisations to be conservative and protect themselves from constant change. the mapping of a process by which this constant change could be coped with. due to the increasing pace of change for this process to become far more flexible. Schön recognises the increasing need. these tools provide a framework for managing the people side of change. engaging senior managers as change leaders (sponsorship). [edit] The role of the management Management's responsibility (and that of administration in case of political changes) is to . Very early on Schön recognised the need for what is now termed the 'learning organization'.

disseminated throughout the organization. It is also important to estimate what impact a change will likely have on employee behaviour patterns. . As a consequence. To continue to operate effectively within this environmental turbulence. who describe Change as a process where certain events need to be managed whereas others need to be 'under'managed. work processes. Methods that are based on the Map/Territory Relation help people to: • become more aware of their own thinking and reasoning (reflection). but in fact only have access to a set of beliefs they have built up over time. It has been coined into a model by Chris Argyris called the Ladder of Inference[6]. technological requirements. and how to manage potential sources of resistance to that change. Change can be said to occur where there is an imbalance between the current state and the environment. is partly based on the assumption that change in a system is instantaneous ('Change at the Speed of Imagination') Scenario Planning: Scenario planning provides a platform for doing so by asking management and employees to consider different future market possibilities in which their organizations might find themselves. change will also impact upon the individuals within the organization. left alone to self-organize and improve the business naturally. and adjusted where necessary. Effective change management requires an understanding of the possible effects of change upon people. organizations must be able to change themselves in response to internally and externally initiated change. Management must assess what employee reactions will be and craft a change program that will provide support as workers go through the process of accepting change. a collaborative approach to organizational change. [edit] Other Approaches to Managing Change • Appreciative Inquiry. However.[5] • • • [edit] The constructionist principle The map is not the territory: The map/territory relation is proven by neuroscience and is used to signify that individual people do not have access to absolute knowledge of reality. communication in change processes needs to make sure that information about change and its consequences is presented in such a way that people with different belief systems can access this information. Organize with Chaos of Rowley and Roevens. The program must then be implemented.detect trends in the macroenvironment as well as in the microenvironment so as to be able to identify changes and initiate programs. monitored for effectiveness. [4] Theory U of Otto Scharmer who describes a process in which change strategies are based on the emerging future rather than on lesson from the past. and motivation. such as evolving technologies. Organizations exist within a dynamic environment that is subject to change due to the impact of various change "triggers". about reality.

Circular Questioning and other techniques basically developed in Systemic Family Therapy. Field theory in social science. (1974). ISBN 0226476502. Γεσ τ α λ τ Π σ ψ χ η ο λ ο γ ψ . D. parallel.[7]. New York: Basic Books. (1951). OCLC 2185305 221159483 60935467. The concept of the Fifth Discipline by Peter Senge and other management thinkers Scenario Thinking. ISBN .• • make their thinking and reasoning more visible to others (advocacy). Public and private learning in a changing society. a method that helps people to create stories about the future • • • • [edit] See also • • • • • List of human resource management topics Στρα τ ε γ ι χ management Φο ρ χ ε Χηα ν γ ε φιε λ δ χηα ν γ ε for change theories in strategic ανα λ ψ σ ι σ προ χ ε σ σ and AccuRev µα ν α γ ε µ ε ν τ Βυσ ι ν ε σ σ Τεχ η ν ο λ ο γ ψ Οπ τ ι µ ι ζ α τ ι ο ν [edit] References ^ Lewin. Penguin. (1983). and inquire into others' thinking and reasoning (inquiry). with self-organizing tendencies. John Grinder. The reflective practitioner. of Chicago Pr. Chicago: Univ. Beyond the Stable State. ^ Schön. and analog. an eclectic school of modern psychotherapy developed by Richard Bandler. K. and others. Robert Dilts. D.. Some methodological frameworks that are based on this principle are: • Neuro-linguistic programming (NLP). ^ Schön. a theory of mind and brain that proposes that the operational principle of the brain is holistic.

E. Harmondsworth: Penguin Beitler. LaMarsh. 2006. N. Learning Center Publications. Harvard Business School Press. Maximize Success. "The Milan Approach To Family Therapy: A Critique". 2003. [edit] Further reading • Worren. J. Macmillan Company. [1]" (PDF). On Death and Dying. Cambridge. N. Chris (Autumn 1982). Rogers. A... R. Loveland. ISBN 0974239011. R. CO. England. Kubler-Ross. The Change Management Pocket Guide. Ruddle. Master Change. D. Duncan Baird Schön. 1999. Potts. Rapid Transformation. ^ Senge. MA. Cirencester: Management Books 2000. (2003). "Strategic Organizational Change. Joseph Jaworski. (1973) Beyond the Stable State. Organize with chaos. Beckhard. MA: SoL. OCLC 223087924 8709452." The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science. Moore. 1969. Second Edition.. M. Michael 2006. Organization Development: Strategies and Models. 35 (3): 273-286.. Retrieved on 2006-12-29. B. K and Aaron. J. "From Organizational Development to Change Management: The Emergence of a New Profession. ^ Argyris. or click here and a bot will try to complete the citation details for you. Joseph Roevens (2007). M. E. ISBN 0974239011. Hiatt. Learning Center Publications. ^ Rowley. K. Change Guides LLC. OCLC 170042193 231881468. CO. and K. Robin. AddisonWesley. OCLC 231987197 55071633. Betty Sue Flowers (March 2004). Loveland. Change Management: the people side of change.. New York: Free Press Tabrizi. "Citation is missing a title.. Public and private learning in a changing society. Diffusion Of Innovation. Peter. Either specify one. Hiatt. Nelson. (2007).046506874X. ADKAR: A Model for Change in Business. Psychiatry On-line. S (2005). 1970. Priory Lodge Education Ltd. Kate. ^ Tucker. A." Practitioner Press International. • • • • • • • • • • . Organizational Dynamics. 2004. Government and the Community. Otto Scharmer. J. C. Presence. ISBN 9781852525613. ISBN 1852525614. Reading.

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