Experiment 1 — Oscilloscope input resistance.
This section has two purposes. It should help you get used to your equipment. It also helps you understand the concept of input and output resistances.
Any piece of equipment which accepts input signals will require both a voltage and a current to make it work. This is because every signal must convey some energy/power — except the trivial case of the signal “0 Volts”. When you apply an input voltage to, say, an oscilloscope, it must also draw a small current to make it recognise that a signal has arrived. The amount of current required by something to make it respond to a given voltage depends upon how it has been designed and built. We don't need to bother about these details, instead we can pretend that a resistor has been connected between its input terminal and earth, somewhere inside its box. The better a 'scope or voltmeter is, the smaller the current it needs to register a given voltage - i.e. the higher its input resistance. The 'scope will probably have an “AC/DC/Ground” switch for each input. You can force the 'scope to show where 0V is on the screen by setting this to “Ground”. Then set it back to “DC” to use the 'scope - just measure the number of divisions between where Ground is and the point on the trace whose voltage you want to measure. For most measurements, these controls should be left on “DC”. The “AC” setting is useful when you want to watch small variations of a relatively large voltage level, but it tends to alter the shape of some a.c. waves.
Build the circuit shown in diagram 3 and connect it between the power supply and 'scope as shown. By adjusting the potentiometer you can apply any D.C. voltage from 0 to +15V to the scope. Set the voltage initially to 0 and adjust the vertical position of the trace to sit on a convenient line. Measure the input current into the scope for three or four different input voltages. You can use the 'scope itself to measure the voltage. Use these values to calculate the 'scope input resistance.
What is the significance of the order of magnitude of the 'scope resistance,
Experiment 2 — The RC Low-Pass Filter
This experiment shows the main properties of capacitors and how they can be used with resistors to make filters that pass some frequencies and block others. In this case the capacitor and a resistor are used to make a Low Pass Filter. You should build your Low Pass filter circuit on one of the pieces of Tracked Board you have been given. To see photographic images of what your circuit should look like, just click on the image of a camera near this text.
The circuit diagram for this circuit is shown to the left. As is common in circuit diagrams, the bottom line in this diagram is assumed to be the ‘earth’ or ‘0 Volts’ wire. Build this circuit on a board using a
At what frequency does
have the value
Draw a line on the graph at the filter’s turn over frequency
. we would recommend using a green-covered wire for ‘earth’ or ‘0 Volts’. as long as they are consistent and recognisable. output and ground leads to make it easier to tell which is which. It is usually a good idea to adopt a favourite set of ‘usual’ colours for leads as this will help you recognise what you have built. yellow for signal output. shown as the bottom line of the diagram. Make a note in your labscript of the wire colours you have used for the circuit. ask a demonstrator to check your leads. and use the ‘scope to note the values of and at a series of frequencies from about 100 Hz up to 5 kHz. Use different colour wires for the input. etc. In most cases. In each case remember that the earth lead of each pair (i.2·2k resistor and a 0·1 F capacitor. remember that the ‘live’ wire usually has a red coloured terminal. Then plot a graph of against frequency. and the ‘ground’ wire usually has a green or black coloured one. If you can’t see which wire of the coaxial cable is which. the ‘outer’ of the co-axial cables) should be connected to the earth-line of the circuit. Try to make it look as much like the photo as you can. Use both inputs of your ‘scope so you can observe both the input and output voltages at the same time. and colours like blue for signal input. though.
Connect the signal generator to the input leads ( ).e. If you are not sure. Use the ‘scope to measure the frequency by observing the period of the waveform. The precise colours aren’t important. Apply an input sinewave of approximately 1V peak-to-peak.
This experiment shows you some of the properties of circuits which contain resistors. capacitance. and a 10 signal. In an optical cavity the transfer is between the electric and magnetic fields inside the cavity.
Experiment 3 — Resonant Tuned Circuit. energy is transferred from gravitational potential (i. One of the easiest ways of making a filter for this sort of task is to combine a resistance. and inductance. In each case it requires a situation where energy is periodically transferred back and forth between two possible ‘reservoirs’. we often need to use a filter to select (or reject) a specific band of frequencies. from a swinging mechanical pendulum to an optical cavity. resistor for ‘R’. When processing electronic signals in analogue form. capacitors. It can occur in all sorts of systems.Is this reasonably close to the frequency where the output/input ratio is
Remember to label your circuit with your name and keep it to hand in with your script.e. In the case of a pendulum. and inductors. You should use the generator output which is typically labelled 50 or 600 . the height of the pendulum mass) to kinetic and back again. As with the earlier experiments. You should assemble this circuit for measurement in this experiment. your circuit should be laid out in a similar way to the circuit shown in the photographs which you can see by clicking on the image of a camera. Resonance is an important physical phenomenon. Use the signal generator to provide the input
. Diagram 4 shows a typical arrangement. Use a 1. a 2·2 mF inductor for ‘L’.000 pF capacitor for ‘C’. .
depends upon the resistance. R. Sketch the output waveform and use the 'scope to estimate the ringing frequency. Start by applying a large square-wave input signal with a frequency of a few hundred hertz. it is working in a similar way. The inductor can store energy in the form of a magnetic field around its coil. in the circuit. The capacitor can store energy in the form of an electric field in between its plates. You should see the output voltage ring after the abrupt input voltage changes which occur at each square wave edge. the lower wire of the circuit has an earth symbol attached to remind you that this is meant to be the earth/zero-volts line. If you put some energy into the circuit it will tend to be moved back and forth between these two components at a frequency which depends upon their values. . It is characteristic only of the resonant frequency of the circuit. by timing each cycle. This ringing is a damped resonance which occurs whenever you abruptly try to alter the state of a resonant system. The time taken to settle down depends upon the amount of damping which. Note that the frequency of the ringing doesn't depend upon the input square wave frequency. In practice you will connect the line to earth via the outer leads of the co-axial cables used for the signal generator and ‘scope. here.In this case.
. and at the
Although this circuit doesn't look anything like an optical cavity. Use both ‘scope leads and channels to observe both same time.
The properties of the resonant circuit can be examined using this arrangement because the impedance of a resonant circuit is frequency dependent.) Now switch over to using sine waves.(Caution: the time-base readings will be only be correct if the ‘scope display is correctly calibrated. In effect. As a result varies with the input frequency in a way which reveals the frequency dependent behaviour of the resonant circuit. where is a maximum. You should find that the ratio of depends upon the sinewave frequency Find the frequency. from
. Take the data to form a table of about to . Note this frequency. and for a range of frequencies. . you have made a potential divider using a resistor (the 100k ) whose resistance doesn't depend upon the signal frequency. and a resonant circuit whose impedance does depend upon the frequency.
The circuit can be thought of as being in two parts:
Part 1: a resonant circuit made with the L. and 22 Part 2: an input series 100k resistor. Check to see if there is a time knob or switch setting marked something ‘calibrate’ and ensure it is set to the calibrated position before making any timing measurements.
between these two frequencies. and values and say how much they
Compare the result with your measured differ in percentage terms.)
Note the frequencies. This means that when the graph is plotted its peak value will appear to be unity.
Note the difference.
You can also use your data to measure two more properties of your circuit. the resonant frequency of a weakly damped resonant circuit should be given by
Calculate the theoretical value of
for your circuit using this expression. normalised means divide all the
values by the maximum value
which occurs at .
of its peak value. It is an important property of a system because it depends upon how quickly the system loses stored energy. In theory. i) The circuit “Q". This value of
indicates the ‘range’ of frequencies the circuit will pass though if used as a bandpass filter. The Q (or quality factor) of a resonant system is a measure of how ‘sharp’ a resonance is. The circuit you have been experimenting upon can be
(Here.Plot a graph of normalised values of
versus the frequency.
The other resistances (the 100k .
. signals tend to prefer to flow in the outer ‘skin’ of a conductor. the thinner the skin the current is confined to.
is the measured
below its peak). but reject
frequencies which are very different to . This means that the behaviour of an inductor – which contains a long wire thin wire wound into a coil – can be very different to a plain inductance.c. In effect. You may well find that these results for Q aren't the same! Part of the reason for this difference is the fact that the inductor also has a resistance.
values from your graph and use expression 3 to
Compare this with the value you get if you use expression 4 and the values of the components you are using.c. However. and the input resistance of the 'scope) also have some effect even through they look as if they're ‘outside’ the resonant circuit. the main problem is one called the ‘skin effect’. This makes a. The higher the frequency. This is because the resistance actually experienced by the a. Many textbooks will leave you with the impression that you can calculate Q just from knowing L and R. for an a. The above comparison should serve as a warning that the actual value of the dissipation resistance of a circuit isn't always obvious.used as band pass filter which will let through signal frequencies
. signals may not have the value you expect.c. signal you could remove the metal inside the wire just leaving a hollow tube of metal. In principle. As a result the wire behaves as if it is becoming thinner (and hence more resistive) as you increase the frequency.e. which you haven't taken into account. the width of the frequency range passed by the filter — depends upon its Q. and frequency width of the resonant peak (at the points Take the measured and calculate a value of Q. the quality factor of your resonant circuit can be calculated in two ways
where R is the dissipation resistance of the resonant circuit. The band width of the filter — i.
Use your (un-normalised) measurements to calculate a value for resonant frequency.
and then calculating
At any particular frequency.
Experiment 4 — Characteristics of a Silicon Transistor. . When using the 'scope to measure and you may have noticed their relative phases — as well as sizes — changing when you altered the signal frequency. and should all be considered as complex numbers. the resonant circuit will have an impedance which we can call .e. f. however.
. at the resonant frequency.. When a circuit contains inductors or capacitors its impedance. it is better to discover the Q by measuring .
Given that a typical home computer contains around a hundred million transistors (or more!) and ‘ordinary’ things like TV's and radios can contain hundreds it's likely that there are many more transistors on the Earth than people! It's probably a good idea to understand them. . This means that the alternating currents and voltages in it don't always share the same phase. As your circuit is a sort of potential divider you can expect that
is the input 100k
series resistor.In practice.c. This reaches its maximum value. ii) The peak impedance. . purely resistive — so we don't need to worry about this complication. circuit theory.. in the above equation . the impedance of a circuit always becomes ‘real’ — i. strictly speaking.
Note for those who know something about a. At resonance. . is generally complex. This means that.
This comes in two ‘flavours’ called PNP and NPN. The diagram below shows what the package looks like and identifies the leads where B = Base. = 250 to 800
In practice. Worse still. we can often ignore these complications! The BC184L is built into a standard TO-92 package with three leads. When a theoretician presents a series of lectures about bipolar transistors he or she can usually make them sound very complex! The good news is that in practice you usually only have to know a few of the many properties of a transistor. the transistor has many more properties. In this lab we will only consider one basic type. All the other details only become necessary in that “one time in a hundred” when you build an unusual circuit. the bipolar transistor. Fortunately. The basic properties of a BC184L are:—
• • • •
Maximum allowed power dissipation. many of them vary from transistor to transistor.
. P = 350 mW Max. and E = Emitter. For the following experiments you should use the BC184L NPN transistors which are available. allowed collector current. allowed collector-emitter voltage. = 100 mA = 30 V Max. and sizes of transistor. Typical current gain. the applied voltages. C = Collector. etc. shapes.There are all sorts. and may change with temperature.
you will use the same transistor and board and add new components to make an amplifier.
As with previous experiments there are some photos to show you what your circuit should look like. just put the transistor on the circuit board and use the resistors as part of the leads as shown in the photograph.Connect up the circuit shown in diagram 5 and use it for the following experiment. For this experiment. Once this experiment is complete. Click on the image of a camera to see the
back down to 2 A and repeat the process but with
set to 10
Plot two graphs of your results. values and lower case ones. Make a note of the values of in 2 A steps. Setting of the 2. like or
You should find that the each graph.c. signifies the DC voltage as measured between the base and the emitter of the transistor.
Volt Meter) to measure the currents. each time using the 2·5k and mA. are used to signify steady or d. This convention will be used for the following explanations. Use the 1M back to pot to set
to 5 Volts. to 2 A. quantities. Use the Avometer and DVM (Digital and .photos.
V curves are fairly similar on
. One showing how
choices of collector-emitter voltage. are used to represent small changes or a.
pot to increase make
five volts and then noting the new values of equal 5 volts or when
. The other showing how for both collector-emitter voltages. e. Note. Stop when you either can't
Reduce volts. Electronic engineers often adopt the convention that upper case letters. You will need it for the next section! Use your 'scope to measure and .
Adjust the 1M potentiometer
pot to set the base current. like and .5k and .
. whereas signifies the AC voltage fluctuations between the collector and the emitter.c. When you have finished all these measurements keep your transistor on its board.
The transistor provides an output current fluctuation which is times bigger than the input current fluctuation. this is the transistor's define the from the equation value. the
tells you how quickly
so you can work out
from the slope of your graph at
2 mA. Use the graphs you have plotted to determine your transistor's 2 mA when volts. represents the ratio of a change in the base current to the corresponding change in collector current. and
represents a small
change in base current. Note that the graphs you have plotted aren't straight lines through the origin. The good news is that you can usually avoid knowing too much about these and still get circuits to work.) Compare this with the value at
2 mA on the volts curve. Hence is essentially the AC current gain that the transistor can provide. Here we can think of the input and output as the
magnitudes of alternating signals. The bipolar transistor is a current amplifier. value at . The larger the value of more the transistor can amplify a signal. One parameter is relatively important. Hence the transistor's gain does vary with voltage. We can
represents a small change in collector current. If we change the base current by an amount. Note also that the versus plots look similar to those you'd get from a diode. i. This is because the base-emitter part of a bipolar transistor is a diode!
. change by an amount the collector current will . etc.e. You should find that they are fairly similar. although it should only vary gradually at moderate voltages and currents.Most textbooks bang on at tedious length about “h-parameters”.
Here we will look at an example of using a bipolar transistor in an amplifier. . Transistors switches form the basis of all modern electronic digital computers.
Transistors are used in a great variety of circuits. Figure 6 illustrates a typical single-transistor amplifier circuit. This particular lab doesn't deal with digital electronics. and the output voltage appears between the collector & emitter — i.Experiment 5 — The Transistor Amplifier.
Note. This arrangement is often called the common emitter amplifier because the input voltage to the transistor appears between the base & emitter.e. and are the voltages between each of the transistor base. They aren't the same thing as or which are the voltages from base-to-emitter and collector-to-
. we can divide the ways in which they are used into two fairly simple classes: amplifiers and switches. collector. . the emitter terminal is shared by (or ‘common to’) the input and output. Fortunately. and emitter terminals and the ‘ground’ (zero volts).
although does depend upon .) In particular.emitter! The diagram also shows the input and output signal AC voltages. but for now we’ll worry about everything
Anyone who has been confused by reading an electronics textbook will suspect that choosing the ‘right’ values for the resistors is quite complicated. It is possible to make a working amplifier using a wide range of resistor values. so we can assume that
value means that
If you look at your transistor's characteristic curves you should see that. Experience with bipolar transistors has taught engineers that — 9 times out of 10 — a good start is to make just three assumptions and use them as ‘rules’ unless we know better:— 1.
. These aren't equal to and because the 0·1 F capacitors block any d. For the rest of us it's good news as it means there are a wide range of values which are ‘OK’.) In order to build a working amplifier you have to choose suitable values for resistors. it is possible to select satisfactory values using some simple rules. and .. The base-emitter voltage will always be about 0·6 Volts (or 0·6 for a PNP transistor).. We will want to choose a value for else. too. For now. later. . connection between these potentials. So these approximations are a moderately good place to start in the absence of any better
. .e. over most of the measured range it is around 0·6 Volts or
so. It is worth bearing in mind again that electronics is a practical subject which shares some things with cookery! (Transistors can get hot. it is a piece of wire). (If you're puzzled by all this.
The current gain (the The large
value) will be a few hundred. ask a demonstrator. However. assume that (i. . there are situations (and this is one) where there isn't always a single ‘correct’ solution for the resistor values you need. 3. It also means that some simple approximations aren't likely to lead to serious problems. . For a theorist or mathematician this can be depressing — there isn't one ‘right’ answer.c. The of your transistor will probably be somewhere in the 200 — 600 range.
etc. & .
The Transistor Amplifier
Choosing Component Values. . .
.information. and the transistor. etc. move up and down in response to any input signal variations. ‘room’ to
The circuit is driven by a +15V power line and the collector-emitter voltage is applied via the two series resistors. 5 volts across . This means that — in the absence of any input signal — the transistor should have a ‘moderate’ set of applied bias voltages/currents to give move up and down under the influence of any input. and 5 volts between the collector and emitter. This V. For the circuit to work as an amplifier we need to make the collector voltage. We can therefore work out all the resistor values. We therefore want about 5 volts . There are various ways to decide what values to choose for the bias resistors. . They all give roughly similar results. In the absence of any good reason for making some other choice we might just as well assume that the available voltage should be shared equally between across . and the following simple argument is about as good as any other. These changes in collector voltage are coupled out through the capacitor to provide the output voltage signals. The resistors in the amplifier circuit will determine the steady bias voltages and currents. . . V.
means that the amplifier should have. signals.c. without bothering about them. and V. Start off by ignoring the capacitors as they don't affect the way the actual transistor operates. The capacitors in the circuit are used to control the effects of a.
The two base resistors act as a sort of potential divider and we can choose their values to set the voltage we require.From ‘rule 1’ we can now say that we want the base voltage. To do this we need to use Ohms Law and recognise that the current through provides the base current and the current which goes on through .
. what values do you calculate are required for and ? What is the closest ‘E12’ series value available in the lab? Use this value for the emitter and collector resistor in your circuit. In the previous section you measured your transistor's value at a
particular point on its curves ( mA. V).
From ‘rule 3’ we can also say that we require since the currents in these resistors will be almost exactly the same and we want to have 5 volts across each of them (Ohm's Law). . You now know the current in each of these resistors and the voltage across each of them. to be around 5·6 volts. Using Ohm's Law. We therefore want the currents passing through and
to be 2mA. So let's choose to try and set the amplifier up with a collector current of about 2mA.
which passes through both resistors. we
don't want to be too big.
and part will enter the transistor to provide its base current. In theory. This means that any slight
resistors are largely determined by changes in
won't mean we've got the wrong results. Note. so
This gives us two equations but we have three unknowns. However. The best way to proceed is to choose a value for the current.
. To proceed any further we have to choose a sensible value for one of these.Part of the current flowing through
will continue on through . that you could choose almost anything from up to and it would still probably be possible to make the amplifier work despite having chosen very different currents and resistor values!
. . Using Ohm's Law again we can say that
where we know that. in practice it turns out to be a good idea to choose a value since this means that the voltages across the . However. we can choose any value we like. however. we want
volts. for we can say that
to be 5 volts. These would make it difficult to apply an input ac voltage when using the amplifier. The reason for this is that we would get a large current by using very low resistance values. In practice the simplest convenient choice is to pick something like so I suggest you choose that.
What values do you get for your transistor? What are the closest E12 series values available to use in your circuit? You should now have values for . Multiplying this by 25
125 A. . Here I will assume you found that
(‘rule 2’). So if we keep changing our mind and waggling the input voltage up and down quickly we don’t give this a chance to happen.Note. To change the voltage across we have to move charge in or out of the capacitor. This takes time. A current gain of 400 means that at the transistor's base is we get
mA the current entering A. To understand why this is true. In order to change the voltage across we also have to change the voltage across
as they are connected in parallel. . and .
now need to decide what to do with
is actually quite important as it turns out to control the voltage gain of the amplifier. The transistor’s baseemitter voltage remains about 0·6V. have another look at figure 6 and consider what happens when we quickly waggle the input voltage up an down with an ac signal.. You can you
follow the argument I describe below.. Putting this into the above equations we get
k and k . for ‘quick’ variations effectively ‘clamps’ the voltage
at the top of and won’t allow it to change. . but substitute the measured to get the correct results for your transistor. However. Hence the changes in input voltage mostly appear as changes in the voltage across . As a result.
we can leave the other resistor values alone and not worry that we have changed the DC levels very much. What value is this. provided we choose a value for which reasonably small
compared to . So the voltage across the collector resistor will vary by an amount
So it is the ratio of these two resistors that tends to control the voltage amplification factor (gain) of the circuit. therefore tends to produce an ac current
is relatively tiny (hundreds of times smaller than
we now expect the same current fluctuation to appear in .An input ac voltage. variation in of
. What value of around × 20? will give your amplifier a voltage gain of
Choose the nearest E12 resistor value for your circuit. and what value of gain do you it expect it to provide? The Transistor Amplifier
Measuring your amplifier
. Now. A small value will also mean a high gain.
c. blocks’. Make your circuit as similar as you can to the amplifier shown in the photographs. so make sure you also put your name on it. the circuit would be liable to stop working as soon as you connect anything to it! The 22 F.
To see photographs of what your circuit should look like. you will need to hand in this circuit when you are finished to get the experiment marked. click on the image of a camera. and act as ‘d. check you've built the circuit correctly. etc) from affecting the d. is a ‘shunt’ capacitor.
and .c. connect the power supply +15V & 0V lines and turn on the power!) and use the DVM to measure .e. we could omit but if we did the amplifier voltage gain would be low.
. levels in the circuit.c. If not sure. The input and output capacitors. Switch the amplifier on (i. ask a demonstrator. . but remember that your resistor values may be different! As with earlier experiments. but stop any external connections (to signal generators. In principle. Can you explain why this would be the case? Build your amplifier using the values you have been given for the capacitors and the values you have worked out for the resistors.The capacitors in the circuit affect how it responds to a. They tend to pass through any voltage fluctuations. signals. If they're more than a volt or so away from these values. You should find that volts and volts. 'scopes. . . Build the circuit using the transistor and board from the previous experiment. Without them.
You should find that the gain is quite frequency dependent. Connect the signal generator to provide an input sinewave signal. Watch out for this on the 'scope trace. Plot a couple of dozen values over the range from 10Hz up to 50 kHz. Use your 'scope to observe the input and output voltages. of the circuit can be defined as the ratio . G. Reduce the input level until the output looks OK.c. so the size of input you can use without distortion will also depend upon signal frequency. The input should look like a good sinewave.Make a note on Diagram 6 of the voltages you measure and indicate the resistance values in your circuit.
You can now measure the a. The voltage gain. The output should also look like a sinewave. why does the gain fall away at low frequencies? What could be done to improve this?
. Note. If the amplifier's operating point is very wrong — or if you use too large an input — the amplifier will visibly distort the signal. The amplifier gain only means something when the amplifier behaves in a fairly linear manner. If the output is visibly ‘flattened’ or ‘clipped’ then the amplifier is distorting the signal. Plot a graph showing how the gain varies with sinewave frequency. properties of your circuit. & . Why is the gain frequency dependent? In particular.
You should also find that the amplifier tends to invert the signal — i. individually packaged) are still used for some special purposes like high-quality ‘Hi-Fi’. most commonly used – and cheapest! – IC Operational Amplifiers is the SN741. most modern signal processing systems use Integrated Circuits (ICs). 741 Op Amps come in a variety of packages. One of the most common is an 8-pin Dual-In-Line (DIL) or Dual In-line Plastic (DIP) package of the kind shown below
. The one of the oldest.)
Experiment 6 — The Op Amp & IC Amplifier
Although transistor amplifiers made with ‘discrete’ components (i. This experiment uses a 741 as a simple audio-frequency amplifier. the output appears 'upside-down'.e.e. Why is this?
(If you don't know the answers to these questions. ask a demonstrator.
. As with earlier circuits. Click on the picture of a camera if you want to see the photos.The 741 has two signal inputs – called ‘inverting’ and ‘non-inverting’. build the circuit shown in figure 7. make your circuit look similar to the one in the photographs. If not sure. For this experiment. You should be able to work out which pin to connect to what by comparing this diagram with those for the 741’s package and the wires shown in the photos. Remember to label your circuit and hand it in with your results. It also must be powered using two voltage lines that provide ± 15V. ask a demonstrator.
This is because the Op Amp has the property that its output depends on the difference in the voltages applied to the pair of pins.
The earth symbol shows where we connect 0V (earth) from the power supply. The live input lead is connected to the inverting input resistor (shown as ‘A’ in figure 7). We also connect the earth leads (outer wires of the co-axial cables) to this point. First. use it as an inverting amplifier by connecting it as shown below. 2 & 3.The circuit shown in diagram 7 can be used as either an ‘inverting’ or a ‘noninverting’ voltage amplifier depending on how you apply an input signal.
if so the gain value should be negative. 300 Hz)? Say why you think the output is limited to the value. 10kHz. of the inverting Op Amp. and 100kHz. Repeat the same gain measurements as before and note your results. Now change the connections to your Op-Amp so that the ‘live’ input and the earth connections have been swapped over. as usual when making gain measurements. . make sure the output isn’t distorted – clipped or bent in any way.Measure the voltage gain. Also. 1kHz. reduce the amplitude of the signal until the output looks like a sinewave. using sinewaves at 10Hz. At what frequency does the gain fall to 70% of its low-frequency value? What is the peak to peak voltage of the largest output the amplifier can produce at low frequency (e. You should find that the gain is fairly uniform at low frequencies. but tends to fall away at high frequencies. Your circuit should now be a non-inverting amplifier as shown below. If it seems distorted.
.g. What value does this gain have at most frequencies? Remember to check and see if the output is inverted.
) Say what change you would make to the circuit you have built if you wanted to increase the voltage gain of the inverting amplifier to . ask a demonstrator. Say why you think this is the case.You should find that both the sign and the value of the gain of the two types of amplifier differ.
. (If unsure.