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**8.251 Course Project
**

Igor Sylvester

May 13, 2005

Quick Calculations

QC16.1 Solution of Quick Calculation 16.1

Using F = E −TS, (16.39), and (16.40),

E = F + TS

= −

1

ω

0

π

2

6

1

β

2

−Tk

π

2

3

kT

ω

0

E =

π

2

6

kT

ω

0

2

ω

0

.

QC16.2 Solution of Quick Calculation 16.2

Using the asymptotic expansion of p

24

(N), we get

p

24

(N + 1)

p

24

(N)

≈

2

−1/2

(N + 1)

−27/4

exp(4π

√

N + 1)

2

−1/2

N

−27/4

exp(4π

√

N)

≈

N + 1

N

−27/4

exp

¸

4π

√

N + 1 −

√

N

.

For large N, (N + 1)/N ≈ 1, so

p

24

(N + 1)

p

24

(N)

≈ exp

¸

4π

√

N + 1 −

√

N

.

Pulling out a factor of 1/

√

N in the exponent gives us,

p

24

(N + 1)

p

24

(N)

≈ exp

¸

4π

√

N

N(N + 1) −N

¸

.

For large N,

N(N + 1) ≈ N +

1

2

.

1

Thus,

p

24

(N + 1)

p

24

(N)

≈ exp

2π

√

N

.

QC16.3 Solution of Quick Calculation 16.3

For N = 1, there is only one partition, namely {1

b

}, where b runs from 1 to 24. We

have to choose one element out of 24, thus p

24

(1) = 24.

The partitions of N = 2 are

{2

b

1

}, {1

b

1

, 1

b

2

}.

For the ﬁrst partition, we can choose 24 elements. There are two cases for the second

partition. If b

1

= b

2

, we can choose out of 24 elements for the ﬁrst element, and out of

23 for the second element. Since the two elements can be in any order, we must divide

by 2. If b

1

= b

2

, then there are 24 such partitions. Thus,

p

24

(2) = 24 + (24 ×23/2 + 24) = 324.

The partitions of N = 3 are

{3

b

1

}, {2

b

1

, 1

b

2

}, {1

b

1

, 1

b

2

, 1

b

3

}.

The ﬁrst case has 24 partitions. The second case also has 24 × 24 elements because

none of the 2

b

1

’s is equal to any of the 1

b

2

’s. So, we can pick any b

1

and b

2

for both

elements. For the three-element partition, there are four cases. For all b

i

’s diﬀerent,

there are

24

3

=

24!

3!(24 −3)!

= 2024

such partitions. For only two equal indices, there are

2

24

2

= 828

partitions. The factor of 2 takes care of all the ways of choosing two elements with

equal indices. The last case, b

1

= b

2

= b

3

, has 24 partitions. Thus,

p

24

(3) = 24 + 24 ×24 +

¸

24

3

+ 2

24

2

+ 24

¸

= 3200.

2

The partitions of N = 4 are

{4

b

1

}, {3

b

1

, 1

b

2

}, {2

b

1

, 2

b

2

}, {2

b

1

, 1

b

2

, 1

b

3

}, {1

b

1

, 1

b

2

, 1

b

3

, 1

b

4

}.

Using the results obtained previously for the ﬁrst three partitions and generalizing the

counting for the partition with four elements, we get

p

24

(4) = 24 + 24

2

+

¸

24

2

+ 24

¸

+

¸

24

24

2

+ 24

2

¸

+

¸

24

4

+ 3

24

3

+ 3

24

2

+ 24

¸

= 25 650.

QC16.4 Solution of Quick Calculation 16.4

A spherical uniform mass is a black hole if its radius R satisﬁes R < R

S

, where

R

S

= 2GM/c

2

is the Schwarzchild radius. Since the density of the spherical object is

ρ =

M

V

=

3M

3πR

3

,

we have

R

S

> R

2GM

c

2

>

M

V

ρR.

A little rearranging gives us

R >

c

8πGρ/3

.

QC16.5 Solution of Quick Calculation 16.5

Since E = ω and ω = 2πc/λ, λ = 2πc/E. Using E = k

¯

T

H

, the ratio of the

wavelength to the radius of the black hole is

λ

R

=

2πc/k

¯

T

H

2GM/c

2

= 8π

2

≈ 80.

QC16.6 Solution of Quick Calculation 16.6

Recall (16.145)

R

4

α

2

= g

2

Y M

N.

The ’t Hooft coupling is λ = g

2

Y M

N, and the IIB theory expansion parameter is

λ

= α

2

/R

4

. Hence,

λ

λ = 1.

3

QC16.7 Solution of Quick Calculation 16.7

Since λ is ﬁxed, λ

**is ﬁxed (see QC 16.5). Then, (16.145),
**

R

4

α

2

= g

2

Y M

N

tells us that R is ﬁxed (α

**is a constant). Then, the free parameter of the Yang-Mills
**

theory is N and the free parameter of IIB theory is g. Since g = g

2

Y M

,

R

4

α

2

= gN.

Then, g = 1/N. Thus, if we make an expansion in terms of 1/N in Yang-Mills theory,

it corresponds to an expansion in terms of g in IIB theory.

16.1 Review of statistical mechanics

(a) If we make an inﬁnitesimal change dV to the volume of a system quasistatically, then

the energy E(V ) of the system increases by

dE =

∂E

∂V

dV.

Then, the work dW done on the system is the mean value of dE in the thermal

equilibrium distribution:

dW =

¸

i

e

−βE

i

dE

¸

i

e

−βE

i

=

¸

i

e

−βE

i

∂E

∂V

dV

¸

i

e

−βE

i

. (1)

We can write the numerator in terms of the partition function as follows:

¸

i

e

−βE

i

∂E

∂V

= −

1

β

∂

∂V

¸

i

e

−βE

i

= −

1

β

∂Z

∂V

.

Thus, (??) becomes

dW =

1

βZ

∂Z

∂V

dV =

1

β

∂ ln Z

∂V

dV.

The work element dW can be expressed in terms of the pressure p by

dW = p dV

Thus, the pressure in terms of the partition function is

p =

1

β

∂ ln Z

∂V

.

4

(b) The partition function of the system is Z = Z(β, V ). Let us consider the diﬀerential

d ln Z =

∂ ln Z

∂V

dV +

∂ ln Z

∂β

dβ.

Since

E = −

∂ ln Z

∂β

, dW =

1

β

∂ ln Z

∂V

dV,

we have

d ln Z = βdW −Edβ = βdW −d(Eβ) + βdE.

Rearranging terms gives

d(ln Z + Eβ) = βdW + βdE.

The heat of the system is deﬁned by

dQ ≡ dW + dE.

Thus,

d(ln Z + Eβ) = βdQ. (2)

The second law of thermodynamics states that the heat dQ of the system is related to

the entropy by

dQ = TdS.

Thus, (??) becomes

d(ln Z + Eβ) =

1

k

dS

Integrating the diﬀerentials and making use of the deﬁnition of the free energy, F ≡

E −TS, gives us

F = −kT ln S.

16.2 Fermionic violin string and counting unequal partitions

5

(a) We start with the deﬁnition of the partition function Z from (16.27),

Z =

¸

α

exp

−

E

α

kT

=

∞

¸

=1

∞

¸

n

=0

exp

−

ω

0

n

kT

.

Since n

= 0 or 1,

Z =

∞

¸

=1

1 + exp

−

ω

0

n

kT

¸

¸

. (1)

Then, the free energy is

F = −kT ln Z = −

∞

¸

=1

ln

1 + exp

−

ω

0

n

kT

¸

¸

.

In the high temperature limit, kT ω

0

, so each term in the sum diﬀers very little

from the previous one. Then, we approximate the sum by an integral

F ≈ −kT

∞

1

d ln

1 + exp

−

ω

0

kT

¸

¸

.

Using x =

ω

0

kT

, we get

F ≈ −

(kT)

2

ω

0

∞

0

dx ln(1 + e

−x

).

Using the expansion

ln(1 + y) = y −

1

2

y

2

+

1

3

y

3

−

1

4

y

4

+ . . . ,

which is valid for 0 ≤ t ≤ 1, we have

F ≈ −

(kT)

2

ω

0

∞

0

dx

e

−x

−

1

2

e

−2x

+

1

3

e

−3x

−

1

4

e

−4x

+ . . .

≈ −

(kT)

2

ω

0

1 −

1

2

2

+

1

3

2

−

1

4

2

+ . . .

.

In order to evaluate the inﬁnite sum, consider (16.38):

ζ(2) = 1 +

1

2

2

+

1

3

2

+

1

4

2

+ . . . =

π

2

6

.

6

Pulling out a factor of 4 from the right-hand side gives

ζ(2) = 4

1

2

2

+

1

4

2

+

1

6

2

+

1

8

2

+ . . .

.

We now realize that subtracting twice the sum in the right-hand side from the sum

representation for ζ(2) gives

ζ(2) −2

ζ(2)

4

=

1 +

1

2

2

+

1

3

2

+

1

4

2

+ . . .

−2

1

2

2

+

1

4

2

+ . . .

= 1 −

1

2

2

+

1

3

2

−

1

4

2

+ . . . .

This is exactly the sum that we need and its value is ζ(2)/2 = π

2

/12. Thus, the free

energy in the high temperature limit is

F = −

π

2

(kT)

2

12ω

0

.

(b) We have computed the free energy F. Then, we can calculate q(n) by noting that it is

equivalent to the number of states Ω that deﬁnes the entropy through the relations:

S = −

∂F

∂T

= k ln Ω.

The entropy, in the high temperature limit, is

S = k

π

2

6

kT

ω

0

. (2)

The energy is given by

E =

∂ ln Z

∂β

=

∂

∂β

(βF) = −

π

2

12

1

ω

0

∂

∂β

1

β

, (3)

which gives

E =

π

2

12

kT

ω

0

2

ω

0

. (4)

Since E = ω

0

N, combining (??) and (??) yields

S(E) = kπ

1

3

E

ω

0

= k2π

N

12

. (5)

7

Comparing this result with

S(E) = k ln q(N) = k ln

¸

q

E

ω

0

¸

gives the partition of fermionic numbers in the high temperature limit

ln q(n) = 2π

N

12

. (6)

(c) Now, instead of using the non-relativistic formula E = ω

0

N, we use

E =

N

⊥

/α

. (7)

The number of states Ω(E) equals q

24

(N

⊥

). For large energy, N

⊥

is also large, and

using (??)

S(E) = k2π

N

⊥

×24

12

= k2

√

2N

⊥

.

Making use of the number-energy relation (??) gives us

S(E) = k2π

√

2α

E.

We can compute the Hagedorn temperature by using the relation

1

T

=

∂S

∂E

.

Thus,

kT

H

=

1

2π

√

2α

.

The Hagedorn temperature for a fermionic string is 1/

√

2 times the Hagedorn temper-

ature for a bosonic string.

16.3 Generating functions for partitions

We have

∞

¸

n=1

1

1 −x

n

=

∞

¸

n=0

p(n) x

n

.

8

Using the expansion

1

1 −y

=

∞

¸

m=0

y

m

,

about y = 0 gives

∞

¸

n=1

∞

¸

m=0

x

nm

=

∞

¸

n=0

p(n) x

n

=

1 + x + x

2

+ . . .

1 + x

2

+ x

4

+ . . .

1 + x

3

+ x

6

+ . . .

. . . (1)

= 1 + x + 2x

2

+ 3x

3

+ 5x

4

+ . . . (2)

We now evaluate p(n) for four diﬀerent values of n by matching the coeﬃcients of the x’s.

For the case of n = 1, there is only one term in (??) that contributes to x. It comes from

multiplying the x in the ﬁrst factor and all 1’s in the rest the of the factors. Thus, p(1) = 1.

For the case of n = 2, there are two terms that contribute to x

2

: ﬁrst, by multiplying

the x

2

term in the ﬁrst factor with the 1’s; second, by multiplying the x

2

term in the second

factor with the 1’s of the rest of the factors. Thus, p(2) = 2.

For the case of n = 3 and n = 4, we use the power series in (??) to read the coeﬃcients

of x

n

and obtain p(3) = 3 and p(4) = 5.

The generating function works in general for n because collecting the factors of x

n

amounts to counting the diﬀerent ways we can build a partition for n. Since exponents

add when multiplying x’s, each possible way of getting a x

n

term is a partition of n.

The generating function for unequal partitions q(n) is given by

∞

¸

n=1

(1 + x

n

) =

∞

¸

n=0

p(n) x

n

= (1 + x)(1 + x

2

)(1 + x

3

)(1 + x

4

) . . . (1 + x

k

) . . .

= 1 + x + x

2

+ 2x

3

+ 2x

4

+ . . .

Thus, q(1) = 1, q(2) = 1, q(3) = 2, and q(4) = 2.

16.4 Counting of generalized partitions

The partition function is deﬁned by

Z =

¸

α

e

−βEα

.

In order to compute the partition function, we must sum over all bosonic and fermionic

numbers:

Z

T

=

¸

n

(1)

r

,...,n

(b)

r

¸

n

(1)

s

,...,n

(f)

s

exp

−

ω

0

kT

∞

¸

=0

b

¸

q=1

n

(q)

¸

¸

,

9

where r, s = 1, 2, . . . , ∞, the n

(q)

r

run over all non-zero integers and n

(q)

s

= 0 or 1. The sums

separate, thus

Z

T

=

¸

¸

∞

¸

r=1

¸

n

(1)

r

exp

−

ω

0

kT

∞

¸

=0

n

(1)

¸

¸

¸

¸

∞

¸

s=1

¸

n

(1)

s

exp

−

ω

0

kT

∞

¸

=0

n

(1)

¸

¸

.

We recognize the left term as Z

b

and the right term as (Z

)

f

. Thus,

Z

T

= (Z)

b

(Z

)

f

.

In general, whenever we take two independent systems and consider them as one, the total

partition function is the product of the partition functions of the constituent systems. We

can compute ln P(N; b, f) by evaluating the free energy

F = −kT ln Z

T

= −kT ln

(Z)

b

(Z

)

f

= −kT

b ln Z + f ln Z

= bF

b

+ fF

f

,

where F

b

and F

f

correspond to the free energy of bosonic and fermionic strings. We can

then compute the entropy

S = −

∂F

∂T

= −b

∂F

b

∂T

−f

∂F

f

∂T

= bS

b

+ fS

f

,

where S

b

and S

f

are the entropies of the bosonic and fermionic strings. Using

S = k ln P(N; b, f), S

b

= k ln p, S

f

= k ln q,

and the approximate expressions for p(n) and q(n) gives us

ln P(N; b, f) ≈ 2π

N

6

b +

f

2

.

16.5 Open superstring Hagedorn temperature

(a) Let us consider the NS sector. The most general state in the NS sector is given by

(13.95)

|Ψ =

9

¸

I=2

∞

¸

n=1

α

I

−n

λn,I

9

¸

J=2

¸

r=

1

2

,

3

2

,...

b

J

−r

ρr,J

|NS ⊗|p

+

, p

T

.

10

For each coordinate, there are 8 bosonic operators α

−n

and 8 fermionic operators b

−r

.

Since we sum over 8 coordinates, the number of states is 8P(N

⊥

; 8, 8).

Since superstrings have supersymmetry, the total number of states is twice that of the

NS sector. Thus, the number of states is 16P(N

⊥

; 8, 8).

(b) The number of states of an open superstring with energy given by α

E

2

= N

⊥

is

Ω(E) = 16P(N

⊥

; 8, 8) = 16P(

√

α

E

2

; 8, 8).

Using the expression for ln P(N; b, f) derived in Problem 16.4, we get

ln Ω(E) ≈ 2π

√

2α

E.

Since S(E) = k ln Ω(E) and

1

T

=

∂S

∂E

,

we get

kT

H

=

1

2π

√

2α

.

Thus, the Hagedorn temperature of the open superstring is a factor of

√

2 larger than

the Hagerdorn temperature of the bosonic string.

16.6 Partition function of the relativistic particle

The partition function of the relativistic particle (16.83) reads:

Z(m

2

) = V m

d

d

d

u

(2π)

d

e

−βm

√

1+u

2

.

We wish to express the integral in terms of modiﬁed Bessel functions

K

ν

(z) =

√

π

1

2

z

ν

Γ

ν +

1

2

∞

0

e

−z cosht

sinh

2ν

(t) dt.

Let u

2

= u

2

. Using spherical coordinates with radial coordinate u, we have

d

d

u = u

d−1

dΩdu,

where dΩ is the inﬁnitesimal element of solid angle in d dimensions (think of the case for

d = 2, 3). The integral then becomes

Z(m

2

) = V

m

2π

d

u

d−1

e

−βm

√

1+u

2

dΩdu.

11

Let u = sinh v, then

√

1 + u

2

= cosh v, and du = cosh v dv. Performing the change of

variables in the integral gives us

Z(m

2

) = V

m

2π

d

cosh(v) sinh

d−1

(v) e

−βmcoshv

dΩdv.

We can factor this integral into a radial integral and an angular integral:

Z(m

2

) = V

m

2π

d

∞

0

cosh(v) sinh

d−1

(v) e

−βmcoshv

dv

dΩ.

We recognize the second integral as the volume of the unit (d −1)-sphere, S

d−1

. Making use

of (3.51),

vol(S

d−1

) =

2π

d/2

Γ

d

2

,

we have

Z(m

2

) = V

m

2π

d

2π

d/2

Γ

d

2

∞

0

cosh(v) sinh

d−1

(v) e

−βmcoshv

dv.

Using

∂

∂z

K

ν

(z)

(z/2)

ν

=

2

z

ν

¸

K

ν

(z) −

ν

z

K

ν

(z)

= −

√

π

Γ

ν +

1

2

∞

0

cosh(t) sinh

2ν

(t) e

−z cosht

dt,

with 2ν = d − 1 and z = βm yields the partition function in terms of modiﬁed Bessel

functions:

Z(m

2

) = V

2βm

π

m

2πβ

d

2

¸

d −1

2βm

Kd−1

2

(βm) −K

d−1

2

(βm)

¸

. (1)

We need the asymptotic expansion of the modiﬁed Bessel functions (and derivatives thereof),

K

ν

(z) ∼ e

−z

π

2z

¸

1 +

4ν

2

−1

8z

+ . . .

¸

, K

ν

(z) ∼ e

−z

π

2z

¸

1 +

4ν

2

+ 3

8z

+ . . .

¸

.

To ﬁrst order in the low temperature limit, βm 1, we can neglect the ﬁrst term in (??).

Then, using only the ﬁrst term in the asymptotic expansion for K

ν

(z) gives us

Z(m

2

) ∼ V e

−βm

m

2πβ

d

2

,

12

which corresponds to the asymptotic expansion given in (16.89). We obtain the ﬁrst nontriv-

ial correction to the partition function by considering the asymptotic expansion for K

z

(z),

to ﬁrst order, and the expansion for K

n

u

**(z), to second order. We then have
**

Z(m

2

) ∼ V e

−βm

m

2πβ

d

2

¸

1 +

d(d −2)

8z

¸

.

16.7 Corrections to the temperature/energy relation in the micro-

canonical ensemble

The more accurate version for the number of partitions is

p

24

(N) ≈

1

√

2

N

−27/4

exp

4π

√

N

. (1)

The entropy is given by

S

k

= ln p

24

(N) = −

27

4

ln N + 4π

√

N −

1

2

ln 2. (2)

Using the number-energy relation α

E

2

= N

⊥

gives

S(E)

k

= −

27

2

ln E + 4π

√

α

E −

27

4

ln α

−

1

2

ln 2.

Thus, the temperature-energy relation is given by

1

kT

=

1

k

∂S

∂E

= 4π

√

α

−

27

2E

T(E) =

2E

k(8π

√

α

E −27)

.

A plot of T(E) is shown below. Note that the temperature approaches the Hagedorn tem-

perature from above.

The speciﬁc heat, at constant volume, of the string is given by

C

V

=

∂E

∂T

V

= −

27k

2(4π

√

αkT −1)

2

.

Thus, in the high energy regime, strings have a negative heat capacity.

We now compute the entropy S(E), in a diﬀerent way, by considering continuous (rather

than discrete) energies. We now have

Ω(E) dE = p

24

(N) dN.

13

Then, the entropy is given by

S(E) = k ln Ω(E) = k ln

p

24

(N)

dN

dE

.

Using the relation number-energy relation α

E

2

= N

⊥

, and the approximate expression for

p

24

(N) we get

S(E)

k

= ln p

24

(N) + 2α

E.

Compare this expression for the entropy with (??). Thus, we obtain the extra term 2α

E

when we consider continuous energies.

The number of states of an open string with energy E on a Dq-brane is

Ω(E) ≈ E

−γ

exp

4π

√

α

E

,

where γ = (25 −q)/2. The entropy is given by

S(E)

k

= ln Ω(E) = −γ ln E + 4π

√

α

E.

. Then, the temperature-energy relation is

1

kT

=

1

k

∂S

∂E

= −

γ

E

+ 4π

√

α

.

The energy as a function of temperature is given by

E(T) = γk

1

kT

H

−

1

kT

−1

,

where T

H

= (4π

√

α

k)

−1

. Using the continuous energy formulation, the heat capacity is

C

V

=

∂E

∂T

V

= −

γk

(4π

√

α

kT −1)

2

= −

γ

kT

2

1

kT

−

1

kT

H

−2

= −

γ

3

k

E

2

T

2

.

16.8 Long string are entropically favored

14

(a) The number of states available to a string with energy E is given by p

b

(αE + 1) ≈

p

b

(αE). Then, the ratio of the number of states of a string with energy E

0

to the

number of states of two distinguishable strings with energy E

0

/2 is

p

b

(N

0

)

p

b

(N

0

/4)

2

=

βN

−γ

0

e

δ

√

N

β

2

(N

0

/4)

−2γ

e

2δ

√

N

0

/4

=

1

β

16

N

0

−γ

.

The change in entropy in this process is

∆S

k

= γ ln

N

0

16

−ln β.

For N

0

1, the ﬁrst term in the right-hand side dominates. Since γ > 0, the entropy

∆S > 0.

(b) Consider now a string with energy E

0

and two string with energy E

1

and E

2

satisfying

E

0

= E

1

+ E

2

. Since E ≈

N/α, the numbers of the string are related by

N

0

=

N

1

+

N

2

. (1)

The ratio of the number of states available to the string with energy E

0

to the number

of states available to the distinguishable strings of energy E

1

and E

2

is given by

p

b

(N

0

)

p

b

(N

1

)p

b

(N

2

)

=

βN

−γ

0

e

δ

√

N

0

βN

−γ

1

e

γ

√

N

1

βN

−γ

2

e

δ

√

N

2

=

1

β

N

0

N

1

N

2

−γ

.

The change in entropy is given by

∆S

k

= γ ln

N

1

N

2

N

0

−ln β. (2)

The expression for the entropy (??) is positive for large N

1

and N

2

if the argument of

the logarithm is larger than 1 (remember that γ > 0). Then, we require that

1 <

N

1

N

2

N

0

N

0

< N

1

N

2

.

Using (??) gives us

N

1

+ N

2

+ 2

N

1

N

2

< N

1

N

2

,

which is true for large N

1

and N

2

because the right-hand side is quadratic and the left

hand side is linear. Thus, the combination of two very energetic open strings into one

string is entropically favored.

15

(c) The number of available states increases if the change in entropy is positive. The

resultant string has N

0

= 9. The two original string each have E

1

= E

0

/2. Since

αE

2

0

= 8, αE

2

1

= 2. So, we have N

0

= 9 and N

1

= 3. Then, using the results from

QC 16.3, the number of times that the number of available states is increases in this

process is

p

24

(9)

p

24

(3)

2

≈ 14.

The change in the entropy is given by

∆S

k

= ln

p

24

(9)

p

24

(3)

2

≈ 2.6.

16.9 Estimating the size of a string state

(a) A random walk of N steps in a d-dimensional space has an average value for the

traveled distance squared of N, for large N. If we consider a string of length L made

out of pieces each of length

s

=

√

α

**, then the number of pieces of the string is L/
**

s

.

Since the root-mean-square of the traveled distance of a random walk is

√

N, the string

“size” is

R

str

(M) ∼

√

N ∼

L/

s

.

In order for R

str

to have units of length, we multiply by

s

, Then, R

str

∼

√

L

s

. Using

(16.127)

M ∼ T

0

L ∼

L

α

,

s

=

√

α

, and α

M = N, we obtain

R

str

∼ M

1/2

3/2

s

∼ N

1/4

s

. (1)

(b) We require that R

Sch

> R

str

, where R

Sch

is the Schwarzchild radius. Using our result

for R

str

from the previous part of this problem, and the deﬁnition of R

Sch

, we get

2GM

c

2

> M

1/2

3/2

s

.

Thus,

¯

M ∼ G

−2

3

s

. Using G ∼ g

2

2

s

, and m

P

= (g

s

)

−1

, we obtain

¯

M ∼

1

g

4

s

∼

m

P

g

3

. (2)

16

The Schwarzchild radius for an object with mass

¯

M is

R

Sch

∼ G

¯

M ∼

g

2

2

s

g

4

s

∼

s

g

2

.

Making use of (16.64),

N ≈

¯

M

2

α

∼

2

s

g

8

2

s

=

1

g

8

.

The planck mass is m

P

≈ 2.2 ×10

−8

Kg. Then, using (??) gives us

¯

M ∼

2.2 ×10

−8

Kg

(0.01)

3

= 2.2 ×10

−2

Kg.

(c) Let us assume that the entropy of the black hole is constant while we dial down the

string coupling constant g. Making use of (16.133), we have

S

0

k

∼ g

2

0

2

s

M

2

0

= g

2

∗

2

s

M

2

∗

, R

∗

∼ g

2

∗

2

s

M

∗

. (3)

We do not expect these results to hold when the black hole becomes smaller than the

string length, so let us ﬁx R

∗

=

s

as the minimum radius for which (??) can be trusted.

The condition R

∗

=

s

tells us that

M

∗

∼

1

g

2

∗

s

.

Using (16.133), g

2

0

2

s

M

2

0

, we get

g

2

2

s

M

2

∼

s

M

2

∗

.

Making use of (??), we can write

N

4

s

∼ M

2

∗

6

s

.

Hence,

N ∼ M

2

∗

2

s

∼ g

4

4

s

M

4

=

M

m

P

4

.

Using (??) again and G ∼ g

2

2

s

, we obtain the following expression for R

str

:

R

str

∼

M

s

m

P

∼ Mg

2

s

∼

GM

g

∼

R

g

.

17

Thus, the length of the string is

L ∼ α

M ∼

α

m

P

s

R

str

.

Recalling that m

P

= 2.2 × 10

−8

Kg and the mass of the sun M

sun

= 1.99 × 10

30

Kg,

the black hole at the center of our galaxy has

N ∼

M

m

P

4

=

2.6 ×10

6

M

sun

m

P

4

= 3 ×10

177

.

18

The final project for MIT's best physics class: 8.251 - String Theory for Undergraduates. The project involved writing solutions to selected problems in Barton Zwiebach's "A First Course in String ...

The final project for MIT's best physics class: 8.251 - String Theory for Undergraduates. The project involved writing solutions to selected problems in Barton Zwiebach's "A First Course in String Theory", ISBN: 0521831431.

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